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~EVIEWE~

GEORG€ S". S"AL\JAN


ARCHITE:Q FUAP

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PhitiJilllni'Copyrilht 2001 br JMC PRESs, INC.
ai'GEORGI: S. SALVAN
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-~Printing 2001

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PRif\TED BY: JMC PRESS, INC.


388 QUEZOf\ AVENUE
QUEZON CITY, PHILIPPINES
TEL. ~OS.: (+632) 410-9534 • 781-9187
TELEF'AX:(+632) 712-4929
E-MAIL ADDRESS: jmcpress@info.com.ph
This sourcebook entitled "THE NEW ARCHITECTURAL REVIEWER" has been
prepared by the author to provide the graduates in the department of Architecture,
Comprehensive review materials in the sixteen (16) learning subjects and divided
into three (3) AREAS as follows:

AREA A:
Part I. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE
Part II. THEORY OF ARCHITECTURE
Part Ill. ARCHITECTURAL AND CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT
Part IV. THEORY AND PRINCIPLES OF PLANNING

AREA B:
Part I. STRUCTURAL DESIGN
Part II. BUILDING MATERIALS AND METHODS 01= CONSTRUCTiON
Part Ill. UT IL IT IES
1. SANITARY AND PLUMBING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT
2. MECHANICAL SYSTEMS, HVAC HEATING. VENTILAl,NG
AIR-CONDITIONING
3. ELECTRICAL AND OTHER POWER SYSTEMS
4. ACOUSTICS AND ILLUMINATION
5. DISASTER PREVENTION AND FIRE PROTECTION
SECURITY SYSTEMS
6. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
7. HIGH- TECH SYSTEMS
AREA C:
Part I. PRE-DESIGN - BUILDING PHOC;H;'>-fvHv1ir·~G

Part II. ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN


Part Ill. SITE PLANNING
The items included in th1s Reviewer are drawn Horll Boo~\ 9 , 1\rctlltcctural ar1c
Construction Data) by the same author. as compret1ens1vely d1scussed w1th full
illustrations comprising 1 ,300 pages. with the end view of equipping the graduate
students of B.S. Architecture before taking the Board Examlflat1ons (Boohs 1 to 8
are individual books on one subject matter).
The comprehensive treatment in each learning area and the adequate exercises
provided by the author will challenge the students as they read and answer each test
item in the three (3) areas of instruction. With the guidance of instructors and parents,
"The New Architectural Reviewer" will prove to be very beneficial to the graduate
students of B.S. Architecture

GEORGES $ALVAN
Architect Fuap
AUTHOR

iii
The LICENSURE EXAMINATION for Architects shall be given twice a year in the City
of Manila and other places where conditions may warrant on the second Mondays,
Tuesdays, and Wednesdays of JANUARY and JULY provided such days do not fall
on a h9liday. In which case the working day following will be the day of examination.
The examination iscontinually evolving. Currently, the Board of Examiners for
Architects, under the PRC or Professional Regulation Commission is developing and
testing a computer-adaptive exam.
The use of computers will speed up reporting of grades, and improve reliability. One
interesting feature of a computer-based exam is that it will allow ability and knowledge
to be demonstrated progressively as the test is taken. The answer to one question
can affect the difficulty of the next so that a more competent candidate will answer
fewer difficult questions and probably finish earlier.
Although there is no substitute for a good, formal education and broad-based
experience provided by. your two (2) year Diversified Experience in various technical
aspects of the practice of architecture with a practicing architect, this view guide will
help direct your study efforts to increase your chances of passing the Board of
Examination for Architects.

1. EXAMINATION FORMAT
The Architecture Licensure Examination is designed to protect the health, safety and
welfare of the public by regulating the practice of Architecture. It does this by testing
to see if someone has the knowledge, skills and abilities to perform the services
required of an entry-level architect. To this end, the examination is divided into three
major areas with their corresponding weights as follows.
I

(a) History and theory of architecture; principles of plannmg;


architectural practice ............................................. . (30%)
(b) Structural design; building materials and
methods of construction, Utilities ........................... . (30%)
(c) Architectural design and site planning ........................................ . (40%)

2. HOW TO TAKE THE TEST


A. Time Management
One of the biggest problems many candidates have in taking the board examinations
is simply completing it in time. This is especially true of the 10 hour/12 hour design
problem because the design problem is particularly unique, guidelines for time
management and tips on completing it are discussed in AREA C part II.
For the portions of the exam that co 1sist of multiple choice questions, you may want
to proceed in one of two ways.

v
With the fh'st approach, proceed from the first question to the last, trying to answer
each one regardless of its difficulty. Divide the time alloted by the number of questions
to give yoursetf an average time per question. Of course, some will take less than the
average, some, more. If you are not able to confidently answer a question in your
alloted time or a little more, make note of it and move on to the next one. If you have
time at the end, you can go back to the most difficult questions
With the second approach, go through the test three (3) times. During the first pass,
read each question and answer the ones you are sure of and that do not take any
lengthy calcuiations or study of the information packet. Since you will be jumping
around, always make sure you are marking the correct answer soace. If a question
does not fit into the first category of "easy to answer", makb a mark by it indicating
whether yo~.; can answer it with a little thinking or easy calculation or whether it seems
impossible and may be a best-guess type or response.
During the second pass, answer the next easiest questions. These should be the
ones that you can confidently respond t0 after some deductive reasoning or with a
calculation with which you are familiar. Once again, make sure you are marking the
correct numbered spaces on the answer sheet.
During the third pass, answer the questions that remain and that require extra effort
or those for which you have to make the best guess between two of the most likely
answers. In some cases, you may be making your best guess from among all four
options.
Using the three-pass method allows you to get a feel1ng for the difficulty of the test
during the first pass and helps you budget the remaining time for the unanswered
questions. One of the tricks to making this method work is not to go back to reread or
reanswer any completed question. In most cases, your first response (or guess) is
the best response. No matter which approach you use, answer every question, even
if it is a wild guess. You are not penalized for guessing.

B. Tips on taking the Examination


Even if you are completely familiar with the subject matter, taking the Licensure Board
Examination can be an arduous process, simply because of its length and the
concentration required to get through it. As with any act1vity requiring endurance, you
should be rested when you start the exam. You should have stopped studying a day
or two before the first test day in order to relax as much as possible. Get plenty of
sleep the night before and every night between test days.
Allow yourself plenty of time to get to the exam site so you do not have to worry about
getting lost. stuck in traffic jams, or other transportation problems. An early arrival at
the exam room also lets you select a seat with good lighting and as far away from
distractions as possible Once in the room, arrange your working materials and other
supplies so you are ready to begin as soon as you are allowed.
The proctor will review the test instructions as well as general rules about breaks,
smoking and other housekeeping matters. You can ask any questions about the rules
at this time
Once the test begins you should quickly review the material given to you in the test
Information packet. For the non-structural divisions of the test, depending on which
Major Area you are taking, this will include such things as contracts, specification

vi
sections, ~rtioAS of zoning ordinances, portions of building codes, contract drawings,
and similar items. You do not need to study this material. Simply make a mental or
written note about what is included. So you know it is available when a question
requires that you use it.
Next cneck the number of questions and set up a schedule for yourself as described
in the pre~$ section. If you plan on tackling the questions one by one in sequence,
you should have completed about half the questions when half of your alloted time is
up.
In your scheduling, leave some time at the end of the period to double-check some of
the answers,you are most unsure of and to see that you have not marked two
responses for any question.

C. Study Guidelines
vour methoet of studying for the board exams should be based both on the content
.1nd form of the exam and your school and work experience. Because the exam
covers such a broad range of subject matter, it cannot possibly include every detail of
practice. Rather, it tends to focus on what is considered entry-level knowledge and
that is important for the protection of the public health, safety and welfare.
Your recent work experience should also help you determine what areas to study the
most. if you have been involved with construction documents for several years, you
will probably require less work in that areathan in others with which you have not had
recent experience.
This REVIEWER was prepared to help you focus on those topics that will most likely
be included in the exam in one form or another. As you go through the manual, you
will probabiy find some subjects that are familiar or that come back to you quickly.
Others may seem like completely foreign subjects, and these are the ones to give
particular attention when using this reviewer. You may even want to study additional
sources on these subjects, take review classes, or get special help from someone
who knows the topic.
The following steps provide a useful structure for organizing your study for the Board
Examination.
step 1: Start early. You .cannot review for a test like this by starting two weeks
before the date. This is especially true if you are taking all port1ons of
the exam for the first time.
step 2. Go through the review manuals quickly to get a feeling for the scope of
the subject matter. Although this manual and the companion manual
on the structural portions of the exam have been prepared based on
the content covered, you may want to review the detailed list of tasks
and considerations given in the PRC study guides.
step 3: Based on this review and a realistic appraisal of your strong and weak
areas, set priorities for your study. Determine what topics you need to
spend more time with than others.
step 4.· Divide the subjects you will review into manageable units and organize
them into a sequence of study. Generally, yo!.. should" start with those
subjects least familiar to you. Based on the date of the examination

vii
and when you are starting to study, assign a time limit to each of the
study units you identify. Again, your knowledge of a subject should
determine the time importance you give it. For example, you mavwant
to devote an entire week to earthquake design if you are unfamiliar
with that and only one day to timber design if you know that well. In
setting up a schedule, be realistic about other commitments in your life
as well as your ability to concentrate on studying for a given amount of
time.
step 5: Begin studying and stick with your schedule. This, of course, is the
most difficult part of the process and the one that requires the most
self-discipline. The job should be easier if you have started early and
set up a realistic schedule, allowing time tor recreation and other
personal commitments.
step 6: Stop studying a day or two before the exam to relax. If you do not know
the material by this time, no amount of cramming will help.

Here are some additional tips:


Know concepts first, then learn the details. For example, it is much better to understand
the basic ideas and theories of waterproofing than it is to attempt to memorize dozens
of waterproofing products and details. Once you fully understand the concept, the
details and application are much easier to learn and to apply during the exam.
Do not overstudy any one portion. You are generally better off to review the concepts
of all the divisions of the test than to become an overnight expert in one area. For
example, the test may ask general questions about plate girders, but it will not ask
that you perform a cor:nplete, detailed design of one.
Try to talk with people who took the test the year before. Although the exam questions
change yearly, it is a good idea to get a general feeling tor the types of questions
asked, the general emphasis, and areas that previous candidates found particularly
troublesome.

VIii
• AREA "A" PAGE
PART I. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE
Building and Structures A, B and C........................................ 2
Architectural Characters D, C and F....................................... 4
Definitions ... G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, 0, P, Q, R, S ................... 9
Architects/Buildings Designed................................................ 28
Famous Dictums/Philosophies/Sayings................................. 29

PART II. THEORY OF ARCHITECTURE


Principles ot Design ' A ......................................................... . 31
Categories of Concern • B ............................................ . 31
Contrast C ..................................................................... . 32
Proportion D ................................................................... . 32
Rhythm E ................................................................................ . 34
Colors F ....................................................................... . 35
Function G .................................................................... . 36
Space H ......................................................................... . 37
Circulation I ............................................................................ .. 38
Massing J ......................... ,....................................................... . 39
Site Control K .... .. .. .. ... .... .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. ... .. . .. .. .. .. . .. ............. . 41
Enclosure and Systems L ...................................................... . 43
Economics M ......................................................................... . 45
Human Factors and Behavior N ........................................... .. 46
Architectural Lingo 0, P .................................................... .. 48

PART Ill. OFFICE AND CONSTRUCTION PRACTICE


Agencies Involved in Shelter A ............................................... 52
National Building Code B, C, D............................................... 53
Fire Code E................................................................................ 57
Office Practice F, G .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 60
Project Classification H ............................... ............................ 66
Spectrum of Architect's Services I ............................... ... .. .. .. .. 69

ix
Contracts J ... .......................... .. .................. .. .. ... ......... .... .. ....... ... 86
Bidding K ........................... ................ ... .. ... .. .. ...... .. .................... 87
Time of Construction Completion L. .. .. ... .. .. ... .. .. ... .. ........ .. ...... 90
Projects M. .. .. .. . .. .. ... .. ................. .. ... ........................................... 92
Contract Documents Questions N ... .. .. ... ....... .. ... .. ... .. .. ... .. ...... 93
Bidding and Construction Documents 0 ... .. .. ... .. ... .. ... .. .. ....... 97
Project Manual and Specifications P ...................................... 101
Miscellaneous Questions Q..................................................... 106

PART. IV. THEORY AND PRINCIPLES OF PLANNING


1. PRE-DESIGN- ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS
A. Influence on Urban Development......................... 110
B-1 Community Influence on Design .......................... 115
B-2 Land Analysis......................................................... 116
C. Transportation and Utility Influences................... 118
D. Climatic, Ecological, Legal and
Economic Influences ............................................. 120
E. Miscellaneous Questions...................................... 125
2. SITE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
1. Topography............................................................... 128
2. Climate....................................................................... 130
3. Drainage.................................................................... 132
4. Utilities ....................................................... ,............... 133
5. Circulation
Automobile, Pedestrian and Service ...................... 134
·6. Parking...................................................................... 137
7. Landscaping............................................................. 141
8. Property Descriptions,............................................ 141
9. Other Design Considerations.................................. 142
10. Site Analysis and Design Questions...................... 143

• AREA "B"
PART I. STRUCTURAL DESIGN
Standard Structural Systems ............................. :................. 154
A. wood B. steel c. concrete
X
II Complex Structural Systems .... ......... ....... .. .. .. .... ......... . 158
Ill Structural System Selection Criteria............................. 161
IV Loads on Buildings ... .... ... ....... .. ... ....... ......... .... ... .. ... .. .. 163
V Structural Fundamentals . .. .. ....... .......... .. ........ .. ..... .. .. ... 165
VI Definitions, Miscellaneous Questions .. .. ...... .. ..... .. ... .. ... 168
VII Selection of Structural System . .... .. ... .. .. ........ . . ... .. ... .. . 171
VIII Loads on Buildings....................................................... 174
IX Structural Fundamentals ... .. ..... ... .. .. ... .. ... .. ..... .. .. ... .. ..... 177
X Beams and Columns ... .... . .. .. ..... .. .. .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .... . 180
XI Trusses ... .. .. ... .. ..... .. ... ....... ..... .. ... .. .. . .. ..... .. ..... ..... .. .. ... ... 182
XII Soil and Foundation ......................... .. 185
XIII Connections ...................................... . 188
XIV Building Code Requirements
on Structural Design ......................... . 190
XV Wood Construction .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. ... .. .. . . .................... . 193
XVI Steel Construction ............................. . 196
XVII Concrete Construction ................. . 198
XVIII Wall Construction ........................................................ . 200
XIX Lateral Forces - Wind ................................................. . 203
XX Lateral Forces - Earthquake ........................................ . 205
XXI Long Span Structure -
One Way Systems ....... ..... ... .. .. ... .. . .. .. ....... ..... .. .. ... ... .... . 208
XXII Long Span Structure
Two Way Systems ... .. ... ................ ...... ... .. .. .. ... ... .. ... .. ... 210

PART II. BUILDING MATERIALS AND


METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION
1. BUILDING MATERIALS
A. Concrete ................................................................... .. 214
B. Wood, Boards .......................................................... .. 217
·c. Metals ...................... .. ... .. .. ... .. ... .. .. ..... ... .. .. ... ... .. .. .. ... ... . 221
D. Glass, Plastics, Sealants .. ..... .. .. .. ... . ..... .. .. ...... .. .... .. .. . 224
E. Insulation........................................... ......................... 227
F. Doors,. Hardwares ... ....... .. ........ ..... .... ....... ... .. .. ........ ... 229
G. Windows, Hardwares ..................................... :........... 231

xi
H. Abilities, Qualities, Properties of Materials.............. 233
I. Materials and Suppliers or Manufacturers ... .. .. ... .. ... 235
J. Painting ....................................................................... 236
K. Miscellaneous Questions .......................................... 239
L. Miscellaneous Questions . .. .. ... ..... .. ......... ... ..... ..... .. .. . 243
M. Miscellaneous Questions .......................................... 246
N. Miscellaneous Questions ..... ........ ............ .. .. .. ...... .. ... 250
2. METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION
A. Miscellaneous Questions .......................................... 253

P~RT Ill. UTILITIES


1. SANITARY PLUMBING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT
A. Water Supply............................................................... 258
B. Water Supply............................................................... 261
C. Fire Protection, Storm Water ... ....... ... .. .. .. ... ..... ......... . 264
D. Sanitary, Drainage Systems....................................... 266
E. Sewage Disposal System, Refuse Handling ............ 269
F. Miscellaneous Questions ........................ .................. 272
2. MECHANICAL SYSTEMS
A. Heat, Moisture, Human Comfort................................ 276
B. Heating, Ventilating, Solar Energy ............ ................ 280
C. Air -Conditioning ............................. .............. ............. 284
D. Conveyors, Vertical Transportation,
Building Mechanical Equipments .......... :.................. 288
E. Miscellaneous Questions ................... ...... ................. 292
3. ELECTRICAL AND OTHER POWER SYSTEMS
A. Principles of Electricity.............................................. 296
B. Electrical Systems: Materials, Wiring...................... 299
C. Service and Utilization .......... .......... ..... ......... .. ... .. .. ... . 302
D. Miscellaneous Questions .......................................... 305
4. ACOUSTICS and ILLUMINATION
A. Sound Sources, Human Response........................... 309
B. Acoustical Properties of Materials............................ 312
C. Solid Structure and Air-Borne
Noise Reduction......................................................... 318

xii
D. Physics of Light and Sources................................... 321
E. Miscellaneous Questions ................. .. ... .. ... .. .. ........ ... 327
5. BUILDING PROTECTION, FIRE, SECURITY
A. Building Protection ... ..... ................... .. .. ..... ... ..... ..... .. . 331
B. Building Protection Materials........... ........................ 334
C. Fire Detection and Alarms ................... ... ............ ... .... 339
D. Fire Alarm Systems, Definitions................................ 343
E. Fire Alarm Systems, Definitions................................ 346
F. Fire Prevention, Protection........................................ 349
G. Security - Burglar Proofing........................... ... . 351
H. Miscellaneous Questions ............................. . 355
6. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
A. Signal Systems ................... ...... ...... .. 358
B. Telelingo ............................................ 364
7. HIGH TECH SYSTEMS
A. Building Automation ......................... 369
B. Robotics ............................................. .... .. .... .. . 372
C. Intelligent Buildings .......................... .... ..... ........ .... ... 376

• AREA "C"
PART I. PRE-DESIGN BUILDING PROGRAMMING
1. Functional Requirements ..... .. ..... .. .... ..... .. .. ·~....... 382
A. Determining Space and Volume Needs ........ .... ........ 382
B. Determining Total Building Area .... .. 383
C. Determining Space Relationships ........ . 385
2. Design Considerations ......................... .. 386
A. Organizational concepts ......................................... .. 387
B. Circular Patterns ........................................................ . 388
C. Service Spaces ......................................................... . 391
D. Flexibility .................................................................... . 392
3. Psychological and Social Influences ............................ .. 392
A. Behavior Settings .................................................... .. 392
B. Territoriality ...................................................... :........ .. 393
C. Personalization .......................................................... . 393
xiii
0. Group Interaction .................................. .. ........ .. .. ..... .. 393
E. Status ... .. .. ... ... ....... .. .. ... .... ... .. ... .. .. ... ........................ .. ... 394
4. Budgeting and Scheduling............................................... 394
A. Cost Influences........................................................... 395
9. Methods of Budgeting................................................ 396
C. Cost Information......................................................... 398
D. Scheduling ............................................................ ...... 399
5. Codes and Regulations ... .. .. ... ..... .. .. ........................... .. .... 402
6. The Programming Process ... .. .. .................................. ..... 403
A. Establishing Goals ...... .. ... .. ... .. .. ... .. ... .. .. ... ..... .. .. ... .. .. .. . 403
B. Collecting Facts.......................................................... 403
C. Uncovering Concepts ........................... .. ............ ....... 403
D. Determining Needs ... .. .. ... .. ... .. .. ... .. ... .. .. ........ .. ........ .. .. 404
E Stating the Problem.................................................... 404
F. Four Major Considerations
During Programming........................................... 404
7. Sample Questions............................................................. 404

PART II. ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN


1. HOW TO SOLVE 10-12 HOUR DESIGN PROBLEMS
A. Strategies for time Management ............. ...... ........ .... 408
B. Read Information Booklet.......................................... 410
C. Develop Graphic Notes ............................ ·'··. .. .. .......... 411
D. Check Areas................................................................ 411

E. Develop Adjacency Areas ... .. .. ... ... ..... ........... ... .. ..... .. . 412
F. Study Structural Systems ........................... ............... 413
G. Study Mechanical and Plumbing Systems............... 413
H. Begin Detailed Design................................................ 414
I. Check Complete Final Drawing ............. .................... 415
J. Graphic Presentation ................................................. 419
PART Ill. SITE PLANNING
A. Design Requirements Related to Topography ... .. .. .. 423
B, Planning for Circulation............................................. 425
C. Parking Requirements............................................... 426

xiv
D. Other Design Considerations .......... ""' ... ,..................... 427
E. Design Procedure and Sc-hedu~...... ...............•.•....... 428

ANSWER KEYS

• AREA "A"

Part I. History of Architecture . 434


Part II. Theory of Architecture . 437
Part ill. Office and Construction Practice 418
Part IV Theory and Principles of Planning 441

• AREA "B''

Part I Structural Oes1gn 442


Part II Building Materials and Methods c•f Construci!On 456
Part 111 Utilities 459
1 Sanitary and Plumbino Systems 459
, Mechanical Systems 460
3 , Electrical and Power Systems 461
4 Acoustics and llluminiation 462
5 D1saster Prevention/Fire/Secunty 46~

6. Communication Systems . 464

• AREA "C''"

Part I Pre-Design Building Programming .. 464

XV
AREA ''A''
PART I HISTORY OF
ARCHITECTURE
AREA "A" PART I

Every country has its own distinctive Architectural Character, and this is
immediately recognizable and shown by the different building or structure found in its
mainland. In the following questions, match the right examples indicated at the right
side and place the right letters in the indicated parenthesis.

A. EXAMPLE OF BUILDINGS/STRUCTURES MATCHING TYPE

1. PRE-HISTORIC PERIOD ...... ( A. Ziggurat of UR, persepolis, hall


of the hundred columns.
ANCIENT NEAR EAST
2. EGYPTIAN ............................. ( B. Pantheon, Forums, Basilicas,
Thermae, Amphitheaters, Col-
osseum Coemeteria, Triumphal
arch, gateways Aqueducts.
ROMAN
3. ANCIENT NEAR EAST
(Mesopotamia) ...................... ( c. Basilican church, Baptisteries.
EARLY CHRISTIAN
4. PRE-COLUMBIAN, ................ ( D. Beehive huts, caves, tents
MAYA, AZTEC, MEXICO stonehenge, England, igloos.
PRE-HISTORIC
5. GREEK .................................. ( E. The great mosques, Damascus,
and Cordoba, Kiosk at Istanbul,
Taj Mahal mausoleum at Agra,
Tomb of Humayun, Delhi.
ISLAMIC
v. ROMAN .............................. ( F. Sphinx, pyramids, obelisks,
mastaba Tombs, Great Temple,
Abu-Simbel. Temple of Khons
EGYPTIAN
7. EARLY CHRISTIAN .............. ( G. St. Sophia, Constantinople St.
Mark, Venice.
BYZANTINE
8. BYZANTINE ........................ ( H. Temple pyramid of the sun, C~a-
del Teotilluacan, Temple of the
giant Jaguar, Great plaza of
Tenochtitlan Machu Picchu,
Peru.
PRE-COLUMBIAN
9 ISLAMIC .......................... ( I. Acropolis, Parthenon-temple,
Agora, ODEION theatre, stoa,
Mausoleum Sarcophagus, open
hillside theatres.
GREEK
2
B. EXAMPLE OF BUILDINGS/STRUCTURES MATCHING TYPE

1. ROMANESQUE .................... ( A. Palazzo ricardi at Florence. St.


Peter's PIAZZA and Cathedral
Vatican, Palais du louvre, Paris
Chateau de Maisons. St. Paul's
Cathedral, London, Guild
Houses at Brussels.
RENAISSANCE
2. GOTHIC ................................. ( B. The white house, Washington
D. C., U. S. Capitol, Trinity
Church, Boston Empire estate
building, English country
houses. Bungalows.
AMERICAS
3. RENA~SANCE ..................... ( C. Eiffel tmler, new louvre, Paris
Opera house, Paris & cologne.
CONTINENTAL EUROPE
4. BRITAIN ................................ ( D. Salginatobel bridge, Einstein ·
tower, Chapel of Notre Dame,
Johnson Wax building, Falling
water, Dulles International Air-
port, Guggenhiem Museum
Sydney Opera house. Geode-
sic Dome
MODERN INTERNATIONAL
5. CONTINENTAL EUROPE .... ( E. Notre Dame Cathedral. Paris
Canterbury Cathedral, King's
College. Canterbury town halls.
skippers house at Ghent.
GOTHIC
6. AMERICAS ................. . .. ( F. Westmmster New Palace
(House of Parliament) London.
Crystal Palace, London, Univer-
sity Museum, Oxford. Red
house, Kent, Cathedral at Guild-
ford.
BRITAIN
7. MODERN/
INTERNATIONAL ................ ( G. St. Zeno. Maggiore monastery,
Leaning Tower, Cathedral &
baptistery of Pisa, Monas!eries,
Castles fortifications, chateaus,
Manor houses.
ROMANESQUE

3
C. EXAMPLE OF BUILDINGS/STRUCTURES

1. INDIA, PAKISTAN .................. ( A. Pagoda, great wall, Imperial


Palace, Temple of the Sleeping
Buddha, courtyard houses.
CHINA
2. SRI LANKA ............................ ( B. SHWE Dagon Pagoda, Bakong
temple, Angkor, Temple of
Angkor vat, Throne Room,
Royal Palace, Bangkok. WAT
phra Kaew Temple, Stupa of
Barabudur, Angkor WAT.
BURMA, CAMBODIA,
3. AFGHANISTAN, NEPAL, THAILAND, INDONESIA
TIBET ..................................... ( C. Nipa house, Bontoc house,
Datu·s house, Yakan house,
Vigan houses, Antillan houses,
Asian Development Bank, cul-
tural Center, Folk Arts theater,
PICC, Heart Center, Lung Cen-
ter.
PHILIPPINES
4. BURMA, CAMBODIA,
THAILAND, INDONESIA ...... ( D. Wa-ta-da-ge (circular relic-
house) Polonnaruwa, Anura-
dhapura house.
SRI LANKA
5. CHINA .................................... ( E. Torii (Shinto gateways) ISE
shrine. pagodas, palaces, Bath
houses, tea houses, Imperial
Villa.
JAPAN
6. JAPAN .................................... ( F. Rock-cut temple, Great Stupa at
Sanchi, Great Temple, Tanjore
Vihara monastery.
INDIA, PAKISTAN
-;- PHILIPPINES .... ( G. Statue of Buddha, Pagoda
roofs, Potala Palace. Temple of
Muktinath.
AFGHANISTAN, NEPAL, TIBET

D. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTERS OF COUNTRY

1 PRE-HISTORIC PERIOD ...... ( A. Columnar and · trabeated,


wooden roofs were untrussed,
ceilings sometimes omitted,
optical illusions were corrected,
in Greek temples. Three orders
of architecture; the Doric, ionic
and Corinthian were introduced.
GREEK
4
2. EGYPTIAN ............................. ( B. Novel development of the dome
to cover polygonal and square
plans for churches. Tombs and
baptisteries, by means of a pen-
dentive. "Fresco" decoration is
used-marble al')d Mosaic were
used broadly.
BYZANTINE
3: ANCIENT NEAR EAST
(Mesopotamia) ....................... ( C. Widely spaced columns carry-
ing semi-circular arches.
Basilican churches have 3 or 5
aisles, covered by a simple tim-
ber roof. Mosaic decoration was
added internally, separate build-
ings used for baptism or Bap-
tisteries are a feature.
EARLY CHRISTIAN
4. PRE-COLUMBIAN.
AMERICA Maya-Aztec-
Mexico-Peru .......................... ( D. The arch and the vault was de-
veloped. Two orders of architec-
ture was added. The Tuscan
and the composite concrete is
now used, a composition of
lime, sand, pozzolana and bro-
ken bricks, or small stones.
ROMAN
5. GREEK ............................. ( E. Abundance of clay provided
bricks. Roofs flat outside. Archi-
tecture was arcuated winged
deity and winged human
headed lion used as decor.
Houses of one room, entered by
a single door and without win-
dows.
ANCIENT NEAR EAST
6. ROMAN .............................. ( F. Bulbous or onion dome, Mina-
rets stalactite moulding.
crestings, painted arch are em-
ployed.
ISLAMIC
7. EARLY ~HRISTIAN ............... ( G. Temporary shelter from perish-
able materials, caves, rocks on
top of each other, hard packed
snow blocks, animals skins.
PRE-HISTORIC

5
8. BYZANTINE ........................... ( H. Temple pyramids are ap-
proached by a single steep flight
of steps. For all buildings of im-
portance, stone was employed,
either finely dressed or carved
or laid as roughly dressed
rubble.
PRE-COLUMBIAN AMERICA
9. ISLAMIC ................................. ( I. Batlered or sloping outside wall,
columns and capitals from veg-
etable origins, papyrus buds, lo-
tus flower walls are of mud-brick
and thick, up to 9 meters. Un-
broken massive walls are adorn
with HIEROGLYPHICS.
EGYPTIAN

E. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTERS OF COUNTRY

1. ROMANES9UE ..................... ( A. Neo-classic and Greek revival


was followed. Baloon frame was
introduced. The skyscraper was
contributed related to metal
frame construction. The non-
load bearing "curtain wall" and
the elevator.
AMERICAS
2. GOTHIC ................................. ( B. Repetition of standard bays,
both plan and elevation, an af-
finity with bay system, program-
matically adopted with the intro-
duction of iron construction.
CONTINENTAL EUROPE
3. RENAISSANCE ..................... ( C. Ribbed & panel, cross vaults;
plaster strips, arcades, rose
windows. Sober and dignified
style, formal massing depends
on the grouping of towers and
the projection of transepts and
choir.
ROMANESQUE
4. BRITAIN ................................. ( D. Free-standing glass sheath sus-
pend on a framework across the
face of the building or curtain
wall. Art Noveau and Bauhaus
was developed. Enormous
spans unobstructed were at
length achieved with concrete.
Steel is used in "space-frame.
MODERN INTERNATIONAL

6
5. CONTINENTAL EUROPE ..... ( E. Picturesque values, reflected in
the predilection for highly tex-
tured, colorful materials, asym-
metry and informaiity. The
palazzo style was a triumph of
national eclecticism. New func-
tions and techniques produced
new forms. Taller buildings were
designed due to reinforced con-
crete and cast-iron frames. New
materials were used due to the
effect of canals. Railroad sys-
tems. central heating and eleva-
tor or lift.
BRITAIN
6. AMERICAS ................... :........ ( F. Pointed arch, buttress, flying
buttress, gargoyles, decorated
vaulting, rose and lancet win-
dows ploughshare twist, variety
of open roofs (trussed, tie-
beam, collar)
GOTHIC
7. MODERN/
INTERNATIONAL .................. ( G. Rusticated masonry, quoins,
Balusters, dome or raised
drums, pediments one within
the other, rococo, Baroque
style, salon, mansard roofs.
RENAISSANCE

F. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER OF COUNTRY

1. INDIA, PAKISTAN .................. ( A. Stepped temple pyramid, ter-


raced on a hill, using stone with-
out mortar fitted perfectly and
numerous colossal towers. Re-
ligious buildings were overlaid
with ornamentation of Chinese
characters surfaces often fin-
ished with porcelain tile. Walls
are white stucco, multi-levelled
overlapping timber roofs.
Gables and bargeboard deco-
rated with Hindu iconography.
Doors and window shutters are
of carved wood, lacquered in
black and gold.
BURMA, CAMBODIA,
THAILAND, INDONESIA

7
2. SRI LANKA ............................ ( B. Use of indigenous materials for
houses like bamboo, palm
leaves, sturdy wooden posts,
carved wooden sidings, cogon
grass roof. Spanish style high
pitch roots, Capiz shell win-
dows, barandillas, balconies,
coconut shell and wood dasign.
Much use of galvanized iron
sheet for roofing.
PHILIPPINES
3. AFGHANISTAN, NEPAL,
TIBET ..................................... ( C. Root ridges are laden with
elaborate ornamental cresting
and the up-tilted angles are
adorned with fantastic dragons
and grotesque ornament. Roofs
one on top of each other using
S-shape enamelled tiles. Roof
framing in rectangle and not tri-
angle. Use of bright colors -
columns brackets are decorated
with birds, flowers and dragons.
CHINA
4. BURMA, CAMBODIA,
THAILAND, INDONESIA ....... ( D. Hindu worship is an individual
act. Buddhist religious buildings
or shrine<> took the form of
stupas, and are designed for
congregational use. Mouldings
have bulbous character. The
Torus moulding is used. Various
Bas reliefs 1depicting scenes of
daily life and story of Buddha.
The female form in its most vo-
luptuous form is often used.
INDIA, PAKISTAN
5. CHINA .................................... ( E. Light and delicate timber con-
struction is refined by minute
carving and decoration. Domi-
nant roofs characterized by their
exquisite curvature, supported
by a succession of brackets.
Upper part of the roof is termi-
nated by a gable placed verti-
cally above the end walls.
Rooms are regulated by a
"KEN" Tatami mats. Love of na-
ture. Using stone.. lantern, bon-
sai.
JAPAN
8
6. JAPAN .................................... ( F. Rock temples, with square or
octagonal pillars. A circular relic
house (wata-dage) built in stone
and brick is an outstanding
arch'l creation. An architecture
of wood. with high pitched roofs,
with wide eaves, slightly curved,
finished with small flat shingles
and terra cotta tifes. Windows
with, lacquered wood bars,
carved timber doorways, orna-
mental metalwork door furni-
ture, painted walls.
SRI LANKA
7. PHILIPPINES ......................... ( G. Cupola roofs, spanning with
arched squinches, the square
chamber angles, lantern roof
and coffered dome, an elabo-
rate systems of hexagon each
containing statue of Buddha, the
"sikhara" and "pagoda" temples
survive. A monumental pillar
generally supporting a metal
super structure adorned with
mystic symbols, groups of di-
vinities and portraits statuary of
royalties. Windows have intri-
cate lattice screens and roof
have red curved tiles, metal gut-
ters and projecting cornice and
fancifully decorated with carv-
ing, embossing and tinkling
bells and hanging lamps. The
monastery is fortress like sited
on hil· tops pillars and beams
are painted yellow or red and
painted silks hang from the roof.
AFGHANISTAN, NEPAL, TIBET

G. DEFINITIONS (put the corresponding letter)

1. SPHINX .................................. ( A. Consists of a complex of sarsen


stones and smaller blue stones
set in a circle and connected by
lintels.
STONEHENGE
2. MASTABA .......... :................... ( B. Pictorial representation ot reli-
gious ritual. historic events and
daily pursuits.
HIEROGLYPHICS

9
3. OBELISK ................................ ( c. Inward inclination or slope of an
outer wall.
BATTER
4. PYRAMID ............................... ( D. Mythical monsters each with the
body of a lion and a head of a
man, hawk, ram or a woman
possessed.
SPHINX
5. BATTER ................................. ( E. An ancient Egyptian rectangu-
lar, flat-topped funerary mound,
with battered (sloping) sides
covering a burial chamber be-
low ground.
MASTABA
6. STONEHENGE ..................... ( F. A massive funerary structure of
stone or brick with a square
base and four sloping triangu-
lar sides meeting at the apex.
PYRAMID
7. ZIGGURAT ............................. ( G. Huge monoliths, square on plan
and tapering to an electrum-
capped pyra-midion at the sum-
mit, which was the sacred part.
The four sides are cut with hi-
eroglyphics.
OBELISK
8. HIEROGLYPHICS ................. ( H. Artificial mountains made up of
tiered, rectangular stages which
rose in number from one to
seven.
ZIGGURAT

H. DEFINITIONS (put the corresponding letter)

1. DOLMEN ............................... ( A. The term applied to the triangu-


lar curved overhanging surface
by means of which a circular
dome is supported over a
square or polygonal compart-
ment.
PENDENTIVE
2. VOUSSOIRS ......................... ( B. A term originally applied to
painting on a wall while the plas-
ter is wet and is not in oil colors.
FRESCO
3. EXEDRA ................................ ( C. An adjective used to describe
an artist who selects forms and
ideas from different periods or
countries and combines them to
produce a harmonious whole.
ECLECTIC
10
'
4. CELLA .................................... ( D. Term in a specialized sense to
describe one of the attitudes of
taste towards architecture and
landscape gqrdening in the late
18th and early 19th century.
PICTURESQUENESS
5 STUPA ····························-······ ( E. A large fortified place; a fort of-
ten including a town; any place
of security.
FORTRESS
6. ECLECTIC ............................. ( F. Pre-Colombian edifice dedi-
cated to the service or worship
of their god which is made of
stones entered by a single door
to a very steep single flight of
steps, above it rises a high
stone roof.
MAYAN TEMPLE PYRAMID
7. SOFFIT .................................. ( G. The sanctuary of a classical
temple, containing the cult
statue of the god.
CELLA
8. FORTRESS ........................... ( H. An ancient structure usually re-
garded as a tomb, consisting of
two or more large, upright
stones set with a space be-
tween and capped by a horizon-
tal stone.
DOLMEN
9. PENDENTIVE ........................ ( I. In ancient (Greece or Rome) a
room or covered area or open
on one side used as a meeting
place.
EXEDRA
10. MAYAN TEMPLE
PYRAMID ............................... ( J. Any of the pieces, in the shape
of a truncated wedge, which
form an arch or vault.
VOUSSOIR
11. PICTURESQUENESS ........... ( K. Domical mounds which grouped
with their rails, gateways, pro-
fessional paths and crowning
"umbrella" came to be known as
symbols of the universe.
STUPA
12. FRESCO ................................ ( L. The exposed undersurface of
any overhead component of a
building such as an arch, bal-
cony, beam, cornice, lintel or
vault.
SOFFIT
11
I. DI!PINITIONS MATCHING TYPE

1. STOA ..................................... ( A. A triangular piece of wall above


the entablature enclosed by rak
ing corr.ices.
PEDIMENT
2. ATLANTES ............................. ( B. The sharp edge formed by the
meeting of two surface usually
in DORIC columns.
ARRIS
3. ABACUS ................................ ( C. The vertical channeling on the
shaft of a column.
FLUTES
4. ENTASIS ................................ ( D. A small flat band between moul-
dings to separate them from
each other.
FILLETS
5. FLUTES ................................. ( E. The lowest square member of
the base of a column.
PLINTH
6. CARYATIDS ........................... ( F. The portion of a pedestal be-
tween its base and cornice. A
term also applied to the lower
portions of walls when deco-
rated separately.
DADO
7. DADO ..................................... ( G. Or town square, was the centre
of social and business life,
around which were stoas, or col-
onnaded porticoes, temples,
markets, public buildings,
monuments, shrines.
AGORA
8. ARRIS .................................... ( H. A swelling or curving outwards
along the outline of a column
shaft, designed to counteract
the optical illusion which gives
a shaft bounded by straight lines
the appearance of curving in-
wards.
ENTASIS
9. FILLETS ................................. ( I. A slab forming the crowning
member of a column.
ABACUS
1U. PEDIMENT .......................... ( J. Carved male figures serving as
pillars also called Telamones.
ATLANTES
11. PLINTH ................................. ( K. Sculptured female figures used
as columns or. supports.
CARYATIDS

12
12. AGORA .................................. ( L. A long colonnaded building,
served many purposes, used
around public places and as
shelter at religious shrines.
STOA

J. DEFINITIONS MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. TRIUMPHAL ARCH ............... ( A. A mass of masonry built against


a wall to resist the pressure of
an arch or vault.
BUTTRESS
2. THERMAE ............................. ( B. Line of intersection of cross
vaults.
GROINS
3. COLOSSEUM ........................ ( c. An arch covering in stone or
brick over any building.
VAULT
4. AQUEDUCTS ........................ ( D. A turret or part of a building el-
evated above the main building.
PINNACLE
5. FORUM .................................. ( E. Sunk panels, caissons or Ia-
cunaria formed in ceilings,
vaults or domes.
COFFER
6. PINNACLE ............................ ( F. Corresponds to the Agora in a
Greek city was a central open
space, used as a meeting place.
market or rendezvous for politi-
cal demonstrations.
FORUM
7. SARCOPHAGUS ................... ( G. Palatial public baths of Imperial
Rome, raised on a high plat-
form.
THERMAE
8. MAUSOLEUM ....................... ( H. Elliptical Amphitheaters are
characteristically Roman build-
ings found in every important
settlement, used to display of
mortal combats (Gladiatorial)
COLOSSEUM
9. GROINS ................................. ( I. A term applied to monumental
tombs. They consisted of large
cylindrical blocks, often on a
quadrangular podium, topped
with a conical crown of earth or
stone.
MAUSOLEUM

13
10. COFFER ............................ ( J. These are arches erected to
emperors and generals com-
memorating victorious cam-
paigns, with one or three open-
ings. Such arches were adorned
with appropriate bas-reliefs and
usually carried grit-bronze '3tatu-
ary on an attic storey and hav-
ing a dedicatory inscription in its
face.
TRIUMPHAL ARCH
11. BUTTRESS ............................ ( K. A roman structure where im-
mense quantities of water were
required for the great thermae
and for public fountains, and for
domestic supply tor the large
population.
AQUEDUCTS
12. VAULT .................................... ( L. Taken from a tomb chamber, or
the ornamental treatment given
to a stone coffin hewn out of one
block of marble and with sculp-
tures, figures and festoons of a
late period, surmounted by lids
like roofs terminating in scrolls.
SARCOPHAGUS

K. DEFINITIONS MATCHING TYPE

1. NARTHEX ................. c............ ( A. A canopy supported by col-


umns generally placed over an
altar or tomb also known as
ciborium.
BALDACHINO
2. BAPTISTERIES ..................... ( B. The circular or rnultangu1ar ter-
mination of Cl church sanctuary.
APSE
3. FONT ..................................... ( C. Decorative surfaces fonned by
a small cubes of stones, glass,
and marble.
MOSAIC
4. DOME .................................... ( D. A range of arches supported on
piers or columns attached to or
detached from the wall.
ARCADE
5. BEMA .................................... ( E. Tile principal or central longitu-
dinal area of a church, extend-
ing from the main entrance or
narthex to the chancel, usually
flanked by aisles of less height.
NAVE
14
6. ARCADE ................................ ( F. A long arcaded entrance porch
to a Christian basilican church.
NARTHEX
7. AMBO .................................... ( G. A longitudinal division of an in-
terior area. as in a church, sepa-
rated from the main area by an
arcades or the like.
AISLE
~- MOSAIC ................................. ( H. A raised stage in a basilican
church reserved for the clergy.
BEMA
9. BALDACHINO ....................... ( I. A raised pulpit on either side of
a basilican church from which
the epistle of a gospel were
read.
AMBO

10. AISLE ..................................... ( J. A building or a part of a church


in which baptism is adminis-
tered.
BAPTISTERIES
11. NAVE ..................................... ( K. A basin usually of stone which
holds the water for baptism.
FONT
12. APSE .................................... ( L. A vault having a circular plan,
and usually in the form of a por-
tion of a sphere, so constructed
as to exert an equal thrust in all
directions.
DOME

L. DEFINITIONS

1. KIOSK .................................... ( A. A public open space in Byzan-


tine architecture. surrounded by
buildings.
PIAZZA
2. MOSQUE ............................... ( B. The central stone of a semi-cir-
cular arch, sometimes sculp-
tured.
KEYSTONE
3. CORBEL ................................ ( C. The triangular space enclosed
by the curve of an arch, a verti-
cal line from its springing, a hori-
zontal line through its apex.
SPANDREL
4. MINARET ............................... ( D. A screen in a Greek orthodox
church on which icons or (sa-
cred images), pictures, are
placed separating the chancel
from the space, open to the la-
ity
VERANDAH
15
5. CHAMFER ............................. ( E. Women's or private quarters of
a house or place in Islamic ar-
chitecture.
HAREM
6. ATRIUM ................................. ( F. An inward-looking building
whose prime purpose is con-
templation and prayer. A space
without object of adoration
(Muslim)
MOSQUE
7. SQUINCH .............................. ( G. A tall tower in, or continuous to,
a mosque arch, stairs leading
up to one or more balconies
from which the faithful are called
to prayer.
MINARET
8. HAREM .................................. ( H. A small pavilion, usually open,
built in gardens and parks
KIOSK
9. CENOTAPH ........................... ( I. An approach or an open
forecourt surrounded by ar-
cades in a Basilican church.
ATRIUM
10. OGEE ..................................... ( J. A block of stone, often elabo-
rately carved or moulded, pro-
jecting from a wall, supporting
the beams of a roof, floor or
vault.
CORBEL
11. KEYSTONE ........................... ( K. A diagonal cutting of an arris
formed by two surfaces at an
angle.
CHAMFER
12. ICONOSTASIS ....................... ( L. Geometrical ornaments due to
absence of human and animal
statues.
ARABESQUE
13. VERANDAH ........................... ( M. A double curve, resembling the
letterS, formed by the union of
a curve and a convex line.
OGEE
14. PIAZZA .................................. ( N. A small arch or bracket built
across each angle of a square
or polygonal structure to form an
octagon or other appropriate
base for a dome or a spire.
SQUINCH
15. ARABESQUE ........................ ( 0. A covered porch or balcony ex-
tending along the outside of a
building, planne.d for summer
leisure.
VERANDAH
16
16. SPANDREL ............................ ( P. An empty tomb a monument
erected in memory of one not
interred in or under it.
CENOTAPH

M. DEFINITIONS

1. TURRET ................................ ( A. The high platform on which


temples were generally placed
(in general, any elevated plat-
form)
PODIUM
2. MULLIONS ............................. ( B. An umbrella shaped cupola
CHATTRIS
3. CHATEAU .............................. ( c. Vaulting in Romanesque in
which a framework of ribs sup-
ported thin stone panels. The
new method consisted in de-
signing the profile of the trans-
verse, longitudinal and diagonal
ribs to which the form of the pan-
els was adopted.
RIB AND PANEL
4. FLECHE ................................. ( D. Is a rectangular feature in the
shape of a pillar, but projecting
only about one sixth of its
breadth from the waiL
PILASTER STRIP
5. NICHE .................................... ( E. The ornamental pattern work in
stone, filling the upper part of a
Gothic window.
TRACERY
6. BOSS ..................................... ( F. The part of a cruciform church,
projecting at right angles to the
main building.
TRANSEPT
7. PILASTER STRIP .................. ( G. A (shell) or a recess in a wall,
hallowed like a shell for a statue
or ornament.
NICHE
8. CHATTRIS ............................. ( H. A slender wooden spire rising
from a roof.
FLECHE
9. TRACERY .............................. ( I. Small towers, often containing
stairs, and forming special fea-
tures in mediab"'' ~t:iidi;Jgs.
TURRET
10. PODIUM ................................. ( J. Vertical tr:1cery .members divid-
ing windows into different num-
bers of light.
MULLIONS
17
11. TRANSEPT ............................ ( K. A castle in a french-speaking
country, or a stately residence.
CHATEAU
12. RIB AND PANEL .................... ( L. (lump or knob) or projecting or-
namert at the intersection of the
ribs of ceilings, whether vaulted
or flat.
BOSS

14. DEFINITIONS.

1. CIMBORIO ............................. ( A. A slight convex curvature built


into a truss or beam to compen-
sate for any anticipated deflec-
tion so that it will have no sag
when under load.
CAMBER
2. LARDER·························'······ ( B. A vault in which the ribs com-
pose a star-shaped pattern.
STELLAR VAULT
3. SPIRE .................................... ( c. A bay window especially canti-
levered or corbelled out from the
face of a wall by means of pro-
jecting stones.
ORIEL WINDOW
4. STEEPLE ............................... ( D. Covered passages round an
open space or garth, connect-
ing the church to the chapter
house.
CLOISTERS
5. WARDROBE .. ..................... ( E. The dining hall of a monastery,
convent, pr college.
REFECTORY
6. CAMBER ................................ ( F. A building complex of a certain
english order or a self -contained
community used by monks.
MONASTERY
7. CLOISTERS .......................... ( G. A serving room between kitchen
and dining room, or a room for
storage of food supplies.
PANTRY
8. PANTRY ................................. ( H. A room where food is stored.
LARDER

9. STELLAR VAULT ................... ( I. A room for storage of garments.


WARDROBE
10. MONASTERY ........................ ( J. Special term for a lantern or
raised structure above a roof
admitting light into the interior.
CIMBORIO

18
11. ORIEL WINDOW ................... ( K. The tapering termination of a
tower in Gothic churches.
SPIRE
12. REFECTORY··········:·············· ( L. The term applied to a tower
crowned by a spire.
STEEPLE

0. DEFINITIONS.

1. SCROLL ................................. ( A. The chief magistrate's buildings,


in the former republic of Venice
and Genoa.
DOGE'S PALACE
2. PALAZZO ............................... ( B. A tower not connected with
"Bell" a term applied to the up-
per room in a tower in which the
bells are hung.
BELFRY
3. BALUSTER ... .. .. ... .. ... . ... ( c. A space entirely or partly under
a building; in churches, gener-
ally beneath the chancel and
used for burial in earlier times.
CRYPT
4. ROCOCO .............................. ( D. The space about the altar of a
church. usually separated by a
screen for the clergy and other
officials, usually referred to as
the "choir"
CHANCEL
5. BAROQUE ........................... ( E. (British) The hall built or used
by a medieval association as of
merchants and tradesmen, or-
ganized to maintain standards
that constituted a governing
body.
DOGE'S HALL
6. BELFRY ................................. ( F. An Italian impressive public
building or private building.
PALAZZO
7. ENTABLATURE ..................... ( G. An eternal solid angle of a wall
or the like. One of the stones
forming it, corner stone (Renais-
sance)
QUOINS
8. DOGE'S HALL ....................... ( H. One of a number of short verti-
cal members often circular in
section used to .s..;tJport a stair
handratl or a coping.
BALUSTER

19
9. PAVILION ............................... ( I. Or rock, a term applied to a type
of Renaissance ornament in
which rock-like forms, fantastic
scrolls, and crimped shells are
worked up together in a profu-
sion and confusioR of detail of-
ten without organic coherence
but presenting a lavish display
of decoration.
ROCOCO
10. CHANCEL .............................. ( J. An ornament consisting of a
spirally wound band, either as
a running ornament or as a ter-
minal. like the volutes of the
ionic capital.
SCROLL
11. QUOINS ................................. ( K. In France, anything extrava-
gantly ornamented, so ornate as
to be in bad taste, a style of art·
and architecture in Italy in the
17th to 18th century.
BAROQUE
12. CONSOLE .........·.................... ( L. The central shaft of a circular
staircase. Also applied to the
post in which the handrail is
framed.
NEWEL
13. CRYPT ................................... ( M. A sphencal roof, placed like an
inverted cup over a circular,
square, or multangular apart-
ment.
CUPOLA
14. NEWEL .................................. ( N. (little hou¢e, for pleasure and
recreation). A prominent struc-
ture, generally distinctive in
character.
PAVILION
15. DOGE'S PALACE .................. ( 0. Or bracket, is a projecting mem-
ber to support a weight gener-
ally formed with scrolls or volute
~hen carrying the upper mem-
ber of a cornice.
CONSOLE
16. CUPOLA ................................ ( P. The entire construction of a
classical temple or the like, be-
tween the columns and the
eaves usually composed of an
architrave, frieze, a cornice.
ENTABLATURE

20
P. DEFINITIONS

1. VESTIBULE ........................... ( A. Also called brackets or ccnsoles


or ancones is a projecting mem-
ber to support a weight gener-
ally formed with scrolls or vo-
lutes which carry the upper
member of a cornice.
MODILLIONS
2. LANTERN .............................. ( B. A support for a column statue
or vase, it usually consists of a
base, die, and cornice or cap
mould.
PEDESTAL
3. WREATH ................................ ( C. A decorative niche often topped
with a canopy and housing a
statue.
TABERNACLE
4. SALON ................................... ( D. A window in a sloping roof usu-
ally that of a sleeping apartment.
DORMER
5. MANSARD ............................. ( E. Vertical members dividing win-
dows into different number of
lights.
MULLION
6. NYMPHAEUM ....................... ( F. The horizontal divisions or
crossbars of windows.
TRANSOM
7. FINIAL .................................... ( G. A roof having a double. Slope
on all four sides; the lower slope
being much steeper and flatter
upper portion also known as
gambrel roof.
MANSARD
8. PEDESTAL ............................ ( H. A room decorated witn plants,
sculpture and fountains (often
decorated with beautiful Maid-
ens living in rivers, trees) and
intended for relaxation.
NYMPHAEUM
9. DORMER ............................... ( I. A twisted band, garland or chap-
let, representing flowers, fruits,
leaves, often used in decora-
tion.
WREATH
10. HERMES ................................ ( J. A construction such as a tower,
at the crossing of a church ris-
ing above the neighboring roofs
and glazed at the sides.
LANTERN

21
11. MULLION ............................... ( K. An ante-room to a larger apart-
ment of a building.
VESTIBULE
12. PATIO ..................................... ( L. In Renaissance, a room used
primarily for exhibition of art
objects, or a drawing room.
SALON
13. MODILLIONS ......................... ( M. A bust on a square pedestal in-
stead of a human body, used in
classic times to mark bound-
aries on highways, and used
decoratively in Renaissance
times.
HERMES
14. TRANSOM ............................. ( N. (to walk) the cloister or covered
passage around the east end of
a church, behind the altar.
AMBULATORY
15. TABERNACLE ....................... ( 0. An ornate iron grille, or screen,
a characteristic feature of Span-
ish church interiors.
FINIAL
16. AMBULATORY ...................... ( P. A Spanish arcaded or colon-
naded courtyard.
PATIO

Q. DEFINITIONS

1. FINIAL .................................... ( A. Phase of the early period of


Spanish architecture c-f thP. later
15th and early 16th century, an
intricate style named after its
likeness to silver work.
PLATERESQUE
2. DAIS ....................................... ( B. An expression of Spanish Ba-
roque architecture and sculp-
ture, a recurrent feature was the
richly garlanded spiral column.
CHURRIGUERESQUE
3. BAY WINDOW ················'······ (. C. A movable candle lamp-stand
with central shaft, and often,
branches or a decorative repre-
sentation thereof.
CANDELABRA
4. HELM ROOF ......................... ( D. Earth baked (unglazed) or burnt
in moulds. For use in construc-
tion and decoration, harder in
quality than brick.
TERRA COTTA

22
5. GALLERY .............................. ( E. One of the winged heavenly
beings that support the throne
of God or act as guardian spir-
its. or Chubby, rosy-faced child
with wings.
CHERUBS
6. STRAPWORK ........................ ( F. A coat of arms.
HERALDIC
7. · INTERCOLUMNIATION ......... ( G. The window of a protruded bay
or the windowed bay itself.
BAY WINDOW
8. CHERUBS ............................. ( H. A raised platform reserved for
the seating ol speakers or dig-
nitaries.
DAIS
9. TERRA-COTIA ...................... ( I. A roofed but open-sided struc-
ture afford inn an extensive view,
usually located at the Rooftop
of a dwelling but sometimes an
independent buildmg or an emi-
nence on a formal garden.
BELVEDERE
10. HERALDIC J. A communicatin11 passage or
wide comdor for ',:ctures and
statues. An upper f · y for seats
in a church.
GALLERY
11. PLATERESQUE .. .( K. A type of relit~ I ·>r 'ldment or
cresting resernbl'i ·J studded
leather straps arranged in geo-
metrical and sometimes inter-
laced patterns much used in the
early renaissance architecture
of England.
STRAPWORK
12. PULPIT .............................. ( L. Bulbous termination to the top
of a tower, found principally in
Central and Eastern Europe.
HELM ROOF
13. BELVEDERE .......................... ( M. The space between the two col-
umns.
INTERCOLUMNIATION
14. CHURRIGUERESQUE .......... ( N. (grating) an ornament in classic
or renaissance architecture con-
sisting of an assembly of
straight lines intersecting at right
angles, and of various patterns.
FRETWORK
15. CANDELABRA ..................... ( 0. Also called "key pattern" the
upper portion of a pinnacle.
FINIAL
23
16. FRETWORK .......................... ( P. An elevated enclosed stand in
a church in which the preacher
stands.
PULPIT

R. DEFINITIONS

1. WATA-DAGE .......................... ( A. Type of timber framing in


America about 1820 wherein it
owes its strength to the walls,
roof acting as diaphragms; and
not on the post. It is an exten-
sion of the roof.
BALLOON FRAME
2. TUDOR-REVIVAL .................. ( B. The arrangement and design of
windows in a building.

l
FENESTRATION
3. TORUS·····························:···· ( c. A structural system consisting of
trusses in two directions rigidly·
connected at their intersections.
A rectangular shape is formed
where the top and bottom
chords of the trusses are directly
above and below one another.
SPACE-FRAME
4. PAGODA ................................ ( D. An art free from any historical
style characterized by forms of
nature for ornamentation in the
facade aptly called for floral de-
sign.
ART NOUVEAU
5. BUNGALOW .......................... ( E. A school founded by Gropius in
1919, developing a form of train-
ing intended to relate art and ar-
chitecture to technology and the
practical needs of modern life.
BAUHAUS
6. FAIENCE ................................ ( F. Related or conforming to tech-
nical architectural principles.
ARCHITECTONIC
7. STAMBAS or LATHS ............. ( G. One storey with low overhang-
ing roof and broad front porch.
Unpretentious style often ram-
bling spreadout floor plan, more
expensive to build.
BUNGALOW
8. GREAT WALL ....................., .. ( H. Picturesque composition built in
America since 1980. Half tim-
bering and massive medieval
TUDOR REVIVAL

24
chimney. Identified by promi-
nent gables and large, expan-
sive windows with small panes.
Roof often slate or tiles. Also
called Elizabethan or Jacobean.
DOME
9. ART NOVEAU ........................ ( I. Rock-cut temples in India.
RATHS
10. BAUHAUS .............................. ( J. A large c•nvex moulding used
principally in the bases of col-
umns .
.
TORUS
11. FENESTRATION ................... ( K. A glazed earthware originally
made in ltaiy.
FAIENCE
1i ARCHITECTONIC ................. ( L. Monumental pillars standing
free without any structural func-
tion, with circular or octagonal
shafts with inscriptions carved
in it. The capital was bell-
shaped and crowned with ani-
mal supported bearing the Bud·
dhist wheel of the Law
STAMBAS or LATHS
13. RATHS .................................. ( M. Outstanding Architectural cre-
ation in Sri Lanka which is a cir-
cular relic house built in stone
and brick.
WATA-DAGE
14. SPACE-FRAME .................... ( N. A Chinese ceremonial gateway
erected in memory of an emi-
nent person.
PAILOU
15. SALOON-FRAME ................. ( 0. Most typical Chinese building ,
usually octagonal in pi<H"~, odd
number of stories usually 9 or
13 storeys and repeated roofs,
highly coloured and with up-
turned eaves, slopes to each
storey.
PAGODA
16. PAILOU .................................. ( P. Most famous of ancient Chinese
building undertakings. It snakes,
loops, and double back on itself.
Meandering across valleys,
plains, scaling mountains,
plunging into deep gorges and
leaping raging rivers for 3,700
miles.
GREAT WALL

25
S. DEFINITIONS

1_ BONSAI ................................. ( A. A Japanese aominant roof char-


acterized by their exquisite cur-
vature, and are supported upon
a succession of simple or com-·
pound brackets. The upper part
of the roof is terminated by a
gable placed vertically above
the end walls, while the lower
part of the main roof is carried
round the ends of the building
in a hipped form.
IRIMOYA GABLE
2. ANTILLAN HUUSF: ................ ( B. lntercolumniation is regulated
by this standard of Japanese
measurement, which is divided
into 20 parts called minutes and
in each minute being again di-
vided into 20 parts or seconds
of spac,e.
KEN
3. BELVEDERE .......................... ( c. Shinto temples are character-
ized by this gateway formed by
upright posts supporting two or
more horizontal beams.
TORII
4. TEJI. HOUSE .......................... ( D. An arcade of roofed gallery built
into or projecting from the side
of a building particularly one
overlooking an open court.
LOGGIA
5. KEN ................. ( E. An open rooted gallery in an
upper storey, built for giving a
view of the scenery.
BELVEDERE
6. IFUGA0 1BONTOC HOUSE ... ( F. A dwarf tree, which is a perfect
reflection of Japanese culture.
BONSAI
7. NIPA HUT . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I\ G. In Japan, a structure where the
appreciation of the arts and
flower arrangement, with drink-
ing ceremony is done.
TEA HOUSE
8. MARANAO HOUSE ............. ( H. Cordillera one room house on
four wooden posts with an ani-
mal or insect barrier and a py-
rarnidal root Cogon grass built
without nails.
IFUGAO-BONTOC HOUSE

26
9. IVATAN HOUSE ..................... ( I. Lowlands area house with
pitched roof, made of bamboo
poles, thatch roof with woven
split canes for walls and split
bamboo slats for flooring.
MARANAO HOUSE
10. LOGGIA ................................. ( J. A house with prowlike majestic
rr)ot, the polychrome, extrava-
gant wooden carvings derived
from the Malay Mythical bird the
"SARI MANOK" The silken Mus-
lim canopies in the interiors. The
protruding ends of floor beams
is decorated with intricate carv-
ings.
NIPA HUT
11. IRIMOYA GABLE ................... ( K. An elegant two storey, rectan-
gular town house with a mas-
sive stone first floor and a light
and airy second floor, mother-
of-pearl o~ 'capiz' windows and
picturesque wide tile roof. En-
trance is of heavy plank door
with wrought iron or brass nails,
sturdy balustrades of wood or
iron grilles below windows to let
in cool air.
ANTILLAN HOUSE
12. TORII ..................................... ( L. Made of 0. 75 m. thick stone of
lime wall with thick thatched roof
made of several layers of cogon
and held together by seasoned
sticks or reeds and rattan to
withstand fiercest typhoons in
the north.
IVATAN HOUSE
13. TROMPE L'OEIL. .................. ( M. These are Garden rooms. (a)
fanciful, pre-fabricated models
attached to houses, filled with
wrought iron or wicker furniture
exotic plants and birds. (b)
These are open spaces with
seating areas beneath wood
rafters or leaf-entwined plants.
(c) a roofed place, shaded from
the sun, to read or to entertain
and enjoy the view.
CONSERVATORIES, ARBORS
and GAZEBOS

27
14. COUNTRY HOUSE ............... ( N. 1930,s modernists style of art in:
spired by mechanical forms and
chiefly distinguished by geo-
metrical shapes, bold colour
schemes and symmetrical de-
signs, suitable for mass produc-
tion. ART DECO
15. ART DECO ............................ ( 0. Or "fool the eye" are paintings
adorning everything from cabi-
nets to cupboards, fire screen
to dishwashers. This creates an
illusion of space. A make-be-
lieve doorway for example ex-
tends a hall. A glass cabinet or
a door is painted with cows and
chicken and make believe or
create an outdoor scene.
TROMPE L'OEIL
16. CONSERVATORIES,
ARBORS and GAZEBOS ...... ( P. A house composed of natural
materials. It is an eclectic and
organic look that grows and
changes with antiques and a
clutter of different collections,
made of rough plaster, old
beams, wood framed windows
and slate or brick floors.
COUNTRY HOUSE

T. ARCHITECTS/BUILDING DESIGNED

1. LEVER HOUSE, N.Y. ............ ( A. FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT


SOLOMON GUGGENHEIM
2. CHRYSLER MUSEUM
BUILDING N. Y. .................... ( B. MANUEL MANOSA
SAN MIGUEL CORP. BLDG.
3. GEODESIC DOME ................ ( C. WALTER GROPIUS
BAUHAUS BLDG., GERMANY
4. SYDNEY
OPERA HOUSE .................... ( D. EERO SAARINEN
TWA KENNEDY AIRPORT,
5. SOLOMON GUGGEN- N.Y.
• HElM MUSEUM ..................... ( E. SKIDMORE) OWINGS &
MERRIL
LEVER HOUSE, N.Y.
6. PARLIAMENT BUILDINGS,
BRAZIL ................................ (
BANK OF CHINA (HONG
KONG)

28
7. BAUHAUS Bldg.
GERMANY ............................. ( G. PHILIP JOHNSON
AT&T BLDG.
8. EINSTEIN TOWER ................ ( H. BUCKMINSTER FULLER
GEODESIC DOME
9. CHAPEL OF
NOTRE DAME ....................... ( I. LUCIO COSTA & OSCAR
NIMEYER
PARLIAMENT BUILDINGS, BRAZIL
10. CULTURAL CENTER
OF THE PHILS ...................... ( J. EIRCH MENDELSOHN
EINSTEIN TOWER
11. TAHANANG FILIPINO or •
COCONUT PALACE .............. ( K. WILLIAN VAN ALEN
CHRYSLER BUILDING, N.Y.
12. ASIAN DEVELOPMENT
BANK OF PHILS ................... ( L. FRANCISCO "BOBBY"
MANOSA
TAHANANG FILIPINO or
13. SAN MIGUEL CORP. COCONUT PALACE
BUILDING ............................. ( M. LE CORBUSIER
CHAPEL OF NOTRE DAME
14. BANK OF CHINA
(HONG KONG) ...................... ( N. C.C. de CASTRO
ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK OF PHILS.
15. TWA KENNEDY
AIRPORT N.Y. USA .............. ( 0. LEANDRO LOCSIN
CULTURAL CENTER OF THE PHILS.
16. AT & T Bldg.
N.Y. USA ............................ ( P. JOAN UTZON
SYDNEY OPERA HOUSE
U. FAMOUS DICTUMS/PHILOSOPHIES/SAYINGS
1. "FORM FOLLOWS FUNCTION" ..... by LOUIS SULLIVAN
2 .. "FORM DOES NOT NECESSARILY FOLLOW FUNCTION"
.......................................................... by ANTONIO GAUD I
3. "ART AND ARCHITECTURE, THE NEW UNITY"
............................................................ by WALTER GROPIUS

4. "A HOUSE IN A~HOUSE" ................... by LOUIS KAHN


5. "CUBE WITHIN A CUBE" ................... by LE CORBUSIEA
6. "A BRIDGE IS LIKE A HOUSE ........... by ROBERT MAILLART
7. "LESS IS MORE" ................................ by LUDWIG MIES VAN DEAOHE

8. "FUNCTION INFLUENCE BUT DOES NOT DICTATE FORM"


............................................................ by ECRO SAARINEN
9. 'MODERN ARCHITECTURE NEED NOT BE WESTERN"
............................................................ by KENZO TANGE

10. "ARCHITECTURE MUST MEET 3 REQUIREMENTS STRENGTH,


BEAUTY, UNITY ................................. by MARCUS VITRUVIUS POCIO

29
AREA ''A''
PART II THEORY OF
ARCHITECTURE
AREA "A" PART II

MATCHING TYPE: Write the corresponding correct letter in the bracket provided for
at the left

A. The seven (7) basic principles of composition to space enclosing elements are

1 . CONTRAST ........................... ( A. Equilibrium, Equality, Adjust-


ment of Tones, Values.
BALANCE
2. PROPORTION ....................... ( B. Harmony, unrelated parts are
brought into proper relationship.
UNITY AND HIERARCHY
3. SCALE ................................... ( c. Variety of shapes and textures.
CONTRAST
4. BALANCE .............................. ( D. Relationships the eye makes
with, between the size, shape,
and tone of various objects or
parts of a composition.
PROPORTION
5. RHYTHM ................................ ( E. is expressiveness. The exterior
of a building expresses the in-
ternal function.
CHARACTER
6. UNITY AND
HIERARCHY .......................... ( F. Size, magl)itude, relationship of
the human body with architec-
tural motifs such as doors, win-
dows, steps.
SCALE
7. CHARACTER ........................ ( G. Repetition, regular recurrence
of lines, shapes, forms, and col-
ors.
RHYTHM

B. There are at least eight (8) categories of concern within the project that the
designer will use as a checklist to problem solving. Indicate the right choice.

1. FUNCTION ............................ ( A. Sanitation, electrical, structural,


lightning, HVAC, Acoustics, wa-
ter.
SYSTEMS

31
2. SPACE ................................... ( B. First costs, Maintenance costs.
ECONOMIC
3. GEOMETRY .......................... ( c. Volume required by activities.
SPACE
4. CONTEXT .............................. ( D. Perception and Behavior.
HUMAN FACTORS
5. ENCLOSURE ........................ ( E. Activity Grouping and Zoning.
FUNCTION
6. SYSTEMS .............................. ( F. Site and climate.
CONTEXT
7. ECONOMIC ........................... ( G. Structure, Enclosing planes,
openings
ENCLOSURE
8. HUMAN FACTORS ................ ( H. Circulation, forms and images.
GEOMETRY

C. MATCHING TYPE. Select and indicate the proper letters.

1. Contrast of
CHARACTER ......................... ( A. Using the same shape but of
different dimensions.
Contrast of SIZE
2. Contrast of FORM .................. ( B. Having light and dark colored
materials.
Contrast of TONE
3. Contrast of SIZE .................... ( c. Thin and thick, horizontal or ver-
tical direction of beams, col-
umns.
Contrast of LINE
4. Contrast-of TREATMENT ..... ( D. An ecclesiastical with Domestic
building
Contrast of CHARACTER
5. Contrast of TONE ................. ( E. Using different materials, glass,
marble, steel.
Contrast of TREATMENT
6. Contrast of LINE .................... ( F. A building of mixed shapes,
angles.
Contrast of FORM

D. MATCHING TYPE

1. RELATIVE
PROPORTION ....................... ( A. All parts must fit together in such
a way that the composition will
be disturbed if one element is
removed.
ORGANIC
2. ABSOLUTE PROPORTION .. ( 8. Has an informal·effect.
UNSYMMETRICAL BALANCE

32
3. ANTHROPORMOPHIC ......... ( c. The measurement of man
implemented to accommodate
him to machines.
ERGONOMICS
4. METHODOLOGY .................. ( D. Has a picturesqueness of sur-
roundings.
GRAVITATIONAL
5. GENERIC SCALE .................. ( E. A monumental effect, has a
central axis, can .be formal or
with a radial effect.
SYMMETRICAL BALANCE
6. HUMAN SCALE ..................... ( F. Deals with the relationship be-
tween an object and the whole
structure The window to the
wall.
ABSOLUTE PROPORTION
7. AXIS ....................................... ( G. A systematic method of problem
solving.
METHODOLOGY
8. ORGANIC .............................. ( H. The size of a building element
relative to other forms in its con-
text whose size is known. ex: a
door, a stair.
GENERIC SCALE
9. SYMMETRICAL
BALANCE ............................. ( I. A system based on the dimen-
sion and proportions of the hu-
man body in relation to forms,
furniture, heights.
ANTHROPOMORPHIC
10. UNSYMMETRICAL
BALANCE .............................. ( J. An elementary means of orga-
nizing forms and spaces in ar-
chitecture. It is a line established
by two points.
AXIS
11. GRAVITATIONAL ................... ( K. The size of a building element
relative to the dimensions and
proportion of the human body.
HUMAN SCALE
12. ERGONOMICS ...................... ( L. This deal between the parts of
an object and the whole object,
ex: window panes and the
whole jamb.
RELATIVE PROPORTION

33
E. MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. UNACCENTED
RHYTHM ................................ ( A. In unity, shapes, sizes of ele-
ments are shown one after the
other.
ALTERNATION
2. ACCENTED
RHYTHM ................................ ( B. Forms and spaces especially
placed to call attention to them-
selves as being the important el-
ements in composition.
STRATEGIC LOCATION
3. REPETITION ......................... ( c. Influence of traditional types
(spires, classical orders, Gothic)
ASSOCIATION
4. ACCENT ............................... ( D. This occurs if equally spaced
windows are introduced on the
unbroken wall, then regular rep- .
etition is present.
UNACCENTED RHYTHM
5. ALTERNATION ...................... ( E. To be unique, forms and spaces
are visually dominant, and dif- j:

l
ferent from that of the other el-
ements in the composition.
UNIQUE IN SHAPE
6. UNIQUE BUILDING ............... ( F. Human quality or emotional ap-
peal (dignified, dynamic, strong,
forbidding, light)
PERSONALITY
7. EXCEPTIONAL SIZE ............. { G. Deals with motifs of more than
one member, or same size and
same energy.
REPETITION
8. UNIQUE IN SHAPE ............... ( H. If the openings or details are
arranged in such a manner that
some are more important than
the others.
ACCENTED RHYTHM
9. STRATEGIC
LOCATION ............................. ( I. To give an emphasis or interest
in unity.
ACCENT
10. FUNCTION ............................ ( J. This reflects the degree of im-
portance, the functional and
symbolic roles they play in the
organized design.
UNIQUE BUILDING
11. ASSOCIATION ....................... ( K. Use of building, like for a shop,
a bank or a church.
FUNCTION
34
12. PERSONALITY .................... ( L. Significantly different in dimen-
sion than all other elements in
the composition. (The biggest,
or the smallest to be noticed)
EXCEPTIONAL SIZE

F. MATCHING TYPE ON COLORS

1. STYLE .................................. ( A. Triangular tips in between red


and yellow. yellow and blue,
blue and red or orange, green
and v1olet.
SECONDARY COLORS
2. ECLECTIC
BUILDINGS ..... ... ..... .. . .. ( B. Triangular tips of red and yel-
low and blue in the color wheel
PRIMARY COLORS
3. WARM COLORS . c. Color opposite each other in the
color wheel.
COMPLIMENTARY COLORS
4. COOL COLORS . D. A character expressive of defi-
nite conceptions, like grandeur,
gaiety or solemnity like a beer
garden using indigenous ar.d
ubiqUitous materials.
STYLE
5. ANALOGOUS
COLORS ..... . E. An adjective used to descr~be
an artist who selects forms and
ideas of different periods and
combmes them to produce a
harmonious whole.
ECLECTIC BUILDINGS
6. COMPLIMENTARY
COLORS.................... ( F. The reds and yellows lead to
advance toward the observer
usually used for wide rooms to
make it smaller (fire, sunlight).
WARM COLORS
7. PRIMARY
COLORS ............................... ( G. Color near each other in the
color wheel
ANALOGOUS COLORS
8. SECONDARY
COLORS .............................. { H. The blues, greens, violets, tend
to recede from the observer. It
suggests distance and is usu-
ally used for small rooms to
make it seem wider. (sky, moun-
tains. seas)
COOL COLORS
3b
G. MATCHING TYPE ON FUNCTION

1. FUNCTIONAL
DESIGN ................................. ( A. Newly married, mixed singles,
elderly, married with kids.
CHARACTERISTICS OF PEOPLE
2. NEED FOR
ADJACENCY ......................... ( B. In a parking garage for ex: toll-
in, park, toll-out.
SEQUENCE IN TIME
3. SIMILARITY IN
GENERAL RULE ................... ( C. (primary) proportion, labor, de-
livery, nursery, (secondary) wait-
ing, clean and sterile utility,
doctor's and nurses lockers,
(tertiary) house keeping,
janitor's closet.
RELATEDNESS TO CORE ACTIVITIES
4. RELATEDNESS TO
DEPARTMENTS,
GOALS, SYSTEMS ............... ( D. Delivery, unloading, storage,
preparation, craft, sales.
EXTENT OF MAN OR MACHINE INVOLVEMENT
5. SEQUENCE IN TIME ·······'···· ( E. Incoming passengers, parking
and services, outgoing passen-
gers loading and unloading,
taxi, runways.
RELATIVE PROXIMITY TO BUILDINGS
6. REQUIRED
ENVIRONMENTS .................. ( F. Single house, duplex, condo-
miniums, apartments.
VOLUME OF PEOPLE INVOLVED
7. TYPES OF EFFECT
PRObUCED .......................... ( G. In sports, tennis, golf, swimming
pods. In malls, fast foods, cloth-
ing, food.
SIMILARITY IN GENERAL RULE
8, RELATIVE PROXIMITY
TO BUILDINGS ..................... ( H. Deals with the development of
a plan arrangement to serve in
a purely mechanical way the
functions of the building (sizes
of rooms, HVAC)
FUNCTIONAL DESIGN
9. RELATEDNESS TO
CORE ACTIVITIES ................ ( I. In hospitals ex: Delivery room
to recovery room to post
partum.
RELATEDNESS TO DEPARTMENTS,
GOALS, SYSTEMS

36
10. CHARACTERISTICS
OF PEOPLE .......................... ( J. Kitchen near to Dining room,
Master's Bedroom to toilet.
NEED FOR ADJACENCY
11. VOLUME OF PEOPLE
INVOLVED ............................. ( K. Radiation, chemicals, smoke,
fumes. heat, noise from gymna-
siums, mechanical rooms, vib-
ration from machinery wet-dry
toilets, labs.
TYPES OF EFFECT PRODUCED
12. EXTENT OF MAN
OR MACHINE
INVOLVEMENT ..................... ( L. Furniture types, need for view,
ceiling height, access to roof,
need for vents exhausts, secu-
rity, acoustics.
REQUIRED ENVIRONMENTS

H. SPACE MATCHING TYPE

1. USE OF SPACE .................... ( A. Beauty, using the principles of


design. architecture as distin-
guished from the mere building
or Engineering structure.
CONTRIBUTIONS OF AESTHETICS
2. COLLABORATION AND
USE OF MATERIALS ............ ( B. Consist of forms and spaces
whose positions in space and
relationship with one another
are regulated by a three dimen-
sional pattern or field, such as
a skeletal structural system of
cofUmns and beams.
GRID FORMS
3. CONTRIBUTIONS OF
AESTHETICS ........................ ( C. uses proximity to relate its
spaces to one another. It often
consists of repetitive cellular
spaces that have similar func-
tions and share a common vi-
sual trait, orientation.
CLUSTERED FORMS
4. CENTRALIZED FORMS ........ ( D. Compositions of linear forms
that extends outward from cen-
tral space or form in a wheel
manner.
RADIAL FORMS

37
5. LINEAR FORMS .................... ( E. Consists of a number of second-
ary forms clustered about domi-
nant central parent forms, Cen-
trality, can embody sacred
places.
CENTRALIZED FORMS
6. RADIAL FORMS .................... ( F. Services to occupants (utility,
function) How high would be the
kitchen storage, reach, How big
the furnishings will be to learn
the size of the enclosed space.
USE OF SPACE
7. CLUSTERED FORMS ........... ( G. Consists of forms arranged seg-
mentally in a row of repetitive
space (wall path)
LINEAR FORMS
8. GRID FORMS ........................ ( H. Strength or permanence and
security.
COLLABORATION & USE OF
MATERIALS

I. CIRCULATION MATCHING TYPE

1. THE BUILDING
APPROACH ........................... ( A. This prolong the sequence of
the approach.
CIRCUITOUS
2. FRONTAL .............................. ( B. Entrances maintain the continu-
ity of a wall's surface.
FLUSH ENTRANCE
3. OBLIQUE ............................... ( c. Enclosed or open on one or two
sides, corridors, balconies must
accomrnodjlte the movement of
people as they promenade,
pause, rest or take a view.
FORM OF CIRCULATION SPACE
4. CIRCUITOUS ......................... ( D. The edges, nodes and termina-
tion of the path. Pass by axially,
terminate in a space, or pass
obliquely or along the edges.
PATH-SPACE RELATIONSHIP
5. THE BUILDING
ENTRANCE ........................... ( E. Entrances also provide shelter
and receive a portion of exterior
space into the realm of the build-
in g.
RECESSED ENTRANCE
6. FLUSH ENTRANCE .............. ( F. Paths of movement are linear in
nature. Pedestrians meeting
each other should have wider

38
volume of space, wheeled ve-
hicles can have a tightly tailored
path.
CONFIGURATION OF THE PATH
7. PROJECTED
ENTRANCES ......................... ( G. Leads directly to the entrance.
FRONTAL
8. RECESSED
ENTRANCE ........................... ( H. This enhances the perspective.
OBLIQUE

9. FORM OF CIRCULATION
SPACE ................................... ( I. This may vary in duration, from
a few paces through a com-
pressed space to a lengthy and
circuitous route.
THE BUILDING APPROACH
10. CONFIGURATION
OF THE PATH ........................ ( J. Passing through an implied
plane, or a change in level,
working the passage from one
place to another for visual and
spatial continuity between two
spaces.
THE BUILDING ENTRANCE
11. PATH-SPACE-
RELATIONSHIP ..................... ( K. Entrances announces their
functions to the approach and
provide shelter overhead.
PROJECTED ENTRANCES

J. MASSING MATCHING TYPE

:1 t;OQU ( ) 0 Beters to site and climate


1. FORM .................................... { ) A. Refers to site and climate.
CONTEXT
2. SURFACE .............................. ( B. Results from the hues of the
spectrum.
COLOR
3. TEXTURE .............................. ( C. Uses a system that requires
expensive and energy consum-
ing equipments to operate elec-
tric water heaters and air con-
ditioners. (Technically designed
Solar Bldgs.) ·
ACTIVE SOLAR DESIGN
4. TONE ..................................... ( D. As in the case of surfaces,
which are painted or decorated
by man.
APPLIED COLOR

39
. 5. C()L.OR ................................... ( E. Deals with shape, and when the
figure is 3-dimensional, it be-
comes mass or volume we
should proceed to design from
the General (massing) to the
Particular (detailing)
FORM
6 ANALOGICAL
DESIGN ................................. ( F. Areas of materials which en-
close a building and are second-
ary importance to the masses
which they create.
SURFACE
7. CONTEXT .............................. ( G. These refers to the quality of
surface treatment, whether the
material is rough or smooth.
TEXTURE
8. INHERENT COLOR ............... ( H. So called because it employs no
sophisticated collector and no
expensive technology to har-
ness the sun's energy.
PASSIVE SOLAR DESIGN
9. APPLIED COLOR .................. ( I. A variety in the use of gradation
from black to gray to white and
from dark to light.
TONE
10. ACTIVE SOLAR
DESIGN ................................. ( J. Natural color of materials like
stone, marble or wood.
INHERENT COLOR
11. PASSIVE SOLAR
DESIGN ................................. ( K. The drawing of similarities (usu-
ally visual) ,into the solution of
one's design problems with
buildings, with forms from na-
ture, from painting and so on (a
laboratory building from a micro-
scope, chapel roof from a
CRAB)
ANALOGICAL DESIGN

40
K. SITE CONTROL MATCHING TYPE

1. SOLAR SHADING
IN SUMMER .......................... ( A. Hot air is effectively vented out
with the use of strategically lo-
cated clerestories, or windows
located on the side of the roof
for ventilation purposes. To ab-
sorb heat, paint the wall black.
Natural daylight is used in the
northside.
NATURAL HEATING AND DAYLIGHTING
2. WHITE ROOFS AND
DESERT COOLING ............... ( B. The overall shape of a building
affects the amount of energy it
will consume. In general, a con-
figuration that resist unwanted
heat transmission for a given
enclosed volume. Aspherical or
round building has less surface
and thus less heat gain or loss.
BUILDING CONFIGURATION
3. PASSIVE SOLAR
PLANNING ............................. ( C. Placed between a building and
the outside elements, Earth
slows the heat transfer from one
to the other, reduces the tem-
perature difference between ex-
terior and interior, protects the
building from cold winds and the
direct rays of the sun.
UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES
4. NATURAL HEATING
AND DAYLIGHTING .............. ( D. Trees reduce window heat gain
not only by blocking direct sun-
light penetration but also by low-
ering the ground surface tem-
perature; using deciduous ivy
vine can also shade a building
facade in summer (hot) and
when it dies in the cold months,
it allows the sun to shine
through.
UTILIZATION OF NATURAL GROWTH
5. WINDOWLESS
BUILDiNG .............................. ( E. Thermal energy can be stored
in a ~ .00 m. hig;, waiar-filled
drums in front.to the south fac-
ing windows. Once the sun sets,
this heat radiate through the

41
house, trapped by the insula-
tion Provision of water pool or
fountain is er.ective. Use a fire-
place made of solid metal and
hollow inside
UTILIZATION OF WATER AND AIR
6. UTILIZATION OF
NATURAL GROWTH ............. ( F. Paved and planted, this option
involves the use of light-colored
ground surfaces to reflect sun-
light onto a building, dark col-
ored surfaces to absorb sunlight
and lower outside temperature.
GROUND SURFACE
7. THERMOSIPHONING ........... ( G. In reflecting heat away instead
of absorbing it, which increases
the temperature of room below,
white roofs are effective. Evapo-
rative cooling uses one electric
motor. As water is evaporated
to vapor heat is drawn from the
air reducing its temperature.
WHITE ROOFS AND DESERT COOLING
8. BUILDING
CONFIGURATION ................. ( H. This employ shading by struc-
tural elements but affects the
facades'of buildings. Powered
louvers are used to diminish
heat gain.
SOLAR SHADING IN SUMMER
9. GROUND SURFACE ............. ( I. This is achieved by orientation
by carefully considering the lo-
cation of theI building. How it will
relate to the sun and breezes.
Use windbreaks consisting of
either a fence or a row of trees
which reduce air infiltration
through windows by diminishing
the wild pressure. Orient solid
walls to the west to offset sun-
set.
PASSIVE SOLAR PLANNING
10. UNDERGROUND
STRUCTURES ...................... ( J. Large sections of buildings are
enclosed by opaque walls. Dur-
ing daylight hours they are
densely occupied and well-
lighted. The space gains of
people-load and lighting load
are usually sufficient to heat the
building by day the cold months.
WINDOWLESS BUILDING
42
11. UTILIZATION OF
WATER AND AIR ................... ( K. In some cases, it is possible to
move the fluids (liquid or air)
without mechanical aid; by natu-
ral convection. As the fluid is
heated, it tends to rise and
cooler fluid flows in to take its
place.
THERMOSIPHONING

L. ENCLOSURE, AND SYSTEMS MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. DEGREE OF
ENCLOSURE ........................ ( A. Follow flow of gravity loads from
roof down columns, through
floors, to foundations and soils.
Follow flow of lateral loads.
Earthquake from ground to
foundations to columns, walls,
floors to roof. Wind from side
walls to roof and floor, through
columns, footings and earth.
STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONS
2. UGHT .................................... ( B. Is the internal focus and out-
ward orientation. Fireplace have
an internal focus. Outward ori-
entation will determine the na-
ture of the view. A small window
opening tends to frame a view
and is seen as a painting. A high
window or skylight shows the
tree tops and the sky.
VIEW
3. VIEW ...................................... ( C. Follow electric supply from off
site to transformer, to breakers
or panels to each outlet or point
of connection. Follow telephone
lines off site to TMB to each
phone location.
ENERGY AND COMMUNICATIONS
4. PEOPLE
FUNCTIONS .......................... ( D. Follow wind patterns through
site to encourage or block natu-
ral ventilation through building
as required. Follow air patterns
from inlets to ou~iets. F-ollow
forced air ventilation pattern
through building to address heat
and odors.
AIR

43
5. STRUCTURAL
FUNCTIONS .......................... ( E. Follow paths of natural light (di·
rect or indirect sun) to and into
the building. Encourage or block
as needed. Follow paths of cir-
culation and at spaces to pro-
vide artificial illumination where
necessary. This include site and
building.
NATURAL LIGHT
6. WATER, MOISTURE
AND DRAINAGE ................... ( F. Follow the flow of occupants
from one space to another from
stairs to elevators service equip-
ment's pathways, flow of occu-
pant to enter and exit the build-
ing as required by CODE, Flow
of trash to leave the building.
Materials to enter building.
PEOPLE FUNCTIONS
7. HEAT ...................................... ( G. The illumination of its surfaces
and forms. Entering a room
through windows in the wall
plane or through skylights in the
roof plane overhead, the sun's
light falls on surfaces within the
room enlivens their colors, and
articulates their textures.
LIGHT
8. AIR ......................................... ( H. The form of its space is deter-
mined by the configuration of its
defining elements and the pat-
tern of its openings (doors, win-
dows) whether at the edges of
an enclosing plane, which visu-
ally weakens the corner bound-
aries of space, but promotes its
visual continuity with adjacent
spaces.
DEGREE OF ENCLOSURE
9. NATURAL LIGHT ................... ( I. Follow sun paths to and into the
building to plan for access ,or
blocking. Follow excessive ex-
ternal or internal heat throl,lgh
building skin and block if nec-
essary. Follow source of inter-
nal heat loads (lights, people,
equipment) to their outfall (natu-
ral ventilation or A. C.)
HEAT

44
10. ENERGY AND
COMMUNICATIONS ............. ( J. Follow rainwater from highest
point on roof to drain, through
the piping system to outfall
(storm-sewer) of site from high-
est points off site, around build-
ing to outtalk>ff site. Follow rains
or moisture at exterior walls and
window down building sides,
follow contaminated water from
farthest point of use to end of
septic tank.
WATER, MOISTURE AND DRAINAGE

M. ECONOMICS MATCHING TYPE

1. ECONOMIC COSTS .............. ( A. Watering of lawns and shrubs,


removing of trash, etc.
LANDSCAPING MAINTENANCE
2. NORMAL COST OF
CONSTRUCTION BY
CONTRACTORS ................... ( B. The renovation, re-painting of
interior and exterior surfaces,
replacing roofs, replacing
plumbing fixtures replacing fur-
nitures.
PERIODIC REFURBISHMENT
3. OTHER COSTS
ADDED TO BUILDING
STRUCTURE ......................... ( C. Inspecting and repairing win-
dows, roofs, walls, heaters,
plumbing and painting.
PERIODIC INSPECTION AND REPAIR
4. DAILY
HOUSEKEEPING .................. ( D. The cost of materials used, the
labor involved in every phase of
the construction process, the
cost of equipment purchased or
rented for the project, cost of
management and overhead,
percentage of profit.
NORMAL COST OF CONSTRUCTION BY
5. PERIODIC INSPECTION CONTRACTORS
AND REPAIR ......................... ( E. Use non-toxic, non-flammable
materials, eliminate sharp
edges, create properly designed
stairs, rai'Jl)S, put .barriers in wall
to ceiHng glass windows, ground
all electrical controls, illuminate

45
dark walkways and stairs, use
non-skid materials on wet sur-
faces. Provide fire-exits, fire-
sprinklers, fence on water heat-
ers, boilers.
SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS IN
6. PERIODIC ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS
REFURBISHMENT ................ ( F. A cleaning of floors, walkways,
windows and walls also ceilings.
DAILY HOUSEKEEPING
7. LANDSCAPING
MAINTENANCE ..................... ( G. It is reasonable to believe that
creativity can be enhanced if
something is known of the rela-
tionship between structural and
constructive design options and
the cost of implementation. This
is actually the cost of the build-
ing structure and its mainte-
nance costs.
ECONOMIC COSTS
8. SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS
IN ARCHITECTURAL
SYSTEMS ..... :............. :·········· ( H. Added costs of building are pro-
fessionals fees, cost of land-
scaping. Permits and licenses,
and Interior Design.
OTHER COSTS ADDED TO BUILDING
STRUCTURE

N. HUMAN FACTORS AND BEHAVIOR MATCHING TYPE

1. PERCEPTION ....................... ( A. A complex blend of sound com-


mon sense,' fine aesthetics and
mystical philosophy. It is a tra-
ditional Chinese technique
which aims to ensure that all
things are in harmony with their
surroundings. Having this sense
is said to enhance happiness
and prosperity.
FENG SHUI
2. VISUAL ACUITY .................... ( B. Human relationship. If you can
speak with people and make
them at ease, they will trust you
more, you will feel better and the
chances will be greater that the
job you do wil.l turn out well for
all concerned. Environment in-
fluences values. Design interi-

46
ors to make people feel at ease
even if they are waiting for their
tum.
VALUES
3. OPTICAL ILLUSIONS ............ ( C. The architecture of a folk is
evolved and modified by ideas
and imitation. Architecture is
building with which people have
identified themselves given its
significance like stairs never
stopping on the 3rc1 count or oro.
plata, mata, no exit door or win-
dow direct to a main door open-
ing.
FOLK BELIEFS IN DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION
4. VALUES ................................. ( D. Is the keenness. sharpness or
acuteness of perception or vi-
sion. (imaginative foresight es-
pecially of the beautiful). The
most important feature of a
shape of an object is its general
outline or contour.
VISUAL ACUITY
5. F:OLK BELIEFS
IN OESlGN AND
CONSTRUCTION .................. ( E. This is a false interpretation by
the mind of a sense perception.
An example is when shown two
lines, you see one as shorter
and one larger, but upon mea-
suring it. they are the same.
Another are two perfect parallel
lines, but when combined with
diagonal lines, it will appear ei-
ther to be wider or thinner at the
middle.
OPTICAL ILLUSIONS
6. FENG SHU I ........................... ( F. Is the process by which we or-
ganize and interpret the pat-
terns of stimuli in our environ-
ment. The immediate intuitive
recognition as of an aesthetic
quality.
PERCEPTION

47
0. ARCHITECTURAL LINGO MATCHING TYPE

1. SMART HOUSES .................. ( A. Refers to the manner in which


the surfaces of form come to-
gether to define its shape and
volume. Their overall configura-
tion is legible and easily per-
ceived. It clearly reveals the
edges of its surfaces and cor-
ners at which they meet.
ARTICULATION
2. INTELLIGENT
BUILDINGS ........................... ( B. To put side by side or close to-
gether, to pose for a picture tak-
ing, to put in position putting of
dark to light areas.
JUXTAPOSITION
3. AMBIENCE ............................ ( c. A characteristic, man:-terism,
habit or the like, that is peculiar
to an individual synonym: pecu-
liarity, quirk.
IDIOSYNCRACIES
4. AMENITIES ........................... ( D. To modify equipment that 1s at-
ready in service using parts de-
veloped or made available af-
ter the time of original manufac-
ture.
RETROFIT
5. ARTICULATION ..................... ( E. Deals with objects which may
have the same shape, color and
direction but may vary in size
and tone, this change is gradu-
ally increasing or decreasing.
GRADATION '
6. AUSPICIOUS ......................... ( F. To renovate, polish up again,
brighten.
REFURBISH

7, AXONOMETRIC .................... ( G. To reduce or increase in mag-


nitude according to a fixed scale
up or down. (upscale subdivi-
sion) a higher priced location.
UPSCALE
8. CONFIGURATION ................. ( H. Originating in and characteriz-
ing a particular region or coun-
try: native.
INDIGENOUS
9. GRADATION .......................... ( I. Surrounding on all sides, an
environment or its distinct atmo-
sphere.
AMBIENCE

48
10. IDIOSYNCRACIES ................ ( J. (site) parking, public transit ac-
cess, walk-in customer, expo-
sure, landscape, illumination,
security and emergency access.
AMENITIES

11. INDIGENOUS ........................ ( K. Are future homes, an electronic


showcase, which electronically
wakes you up, warms your hot
tub and brews your coffee. It will
respond to your orders and no
one else's because security
sensors recognize your voice.
HVAC are regulated.
SMART HOUSES
12. JUXTAPOSITION .................. ( L. Defined as continuing capabili-
ties in buildings, drawing from
information services or systems.
It is a vital urgent tool to enable
occupants to live, work or even
play under the most satisfying,
creative and productive atmo-
sphere. This involves automati-
cally monitoring and taking care
of energy consumption and se-
curity and fire protection.
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS
13. MILIEU ................................... ( M. Promising success, favorable,
favored by fortune, prosperous.
AUSPICIOUS
14. REFURBISH .......................... ( N. To form after an arrangement of
parts or a form, or figures de-
termined by the arrangement of
parts.
CONFIGURATION
15. RETROFIT ............................. ( 0. Designating a method of projec-
tion in which a three-dimen-
sional object as represented by
a drawing having all lines drawn
to exact sca-le resu1ting· in the
optical distortion of diagonals
and curves .
. AXONOMETRIC
16; UPSCALE ..... :........................ ( P. An environment, social or cuf~
tural setting.
MILIEU
P. ARCHITECTURAL LINGO MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. TRANCHE .............................. ( A. To discharge, as from the body;


void.
EGEST
2. LIBOR RATE .......................... ( B. A means or place of entering;
an entry way.
INGRESS
3. MORATORIUM ...................... ( C. Amount of investment given to A
building, wherein the facilities is
never used or needed in the first
place or property that is trouble-
some or expensive to keep.
WHITE ELEPHANT
4. ~ACRO .................................. ( D. We plan people's relationship to
indoors and the site, the adjoin-
ing buildings, the neighbors, na-
ture.
ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING
5. MICRO ................................... ( E. A means of going out or exit.
EGRESS
6. EGEST ................................... ( F. French (slice) Foreign Fund is
divided into different releases to
borrower.
TRANCHE
7. INGEST .................................. ( G. The process of analyzing sys-
tems equipments, materials,
and obtain the desired function
at the lowest overall cost, with-
out sacrificing quality.
VALUE ENGINEERING
8. EGRESS ................................ ( H. Group such as inhabitants of the
same floor 1 of a block or flats,
through various social gatherings.
MICRO
9. INGRESS ............................... ( I. London International Borrowing
Rate, the present rate of interest.
LIBOR RATE
10. ENVIRONMENTAL
PLANNING .............................. ( J. Group of City such as
Barangays. In times of conflict,
territorial instincts are inflated to
include whole group of nations.
MACRO
11. VALUE ENGINEERING ......... ( K. To put in.
INGEST
12. WHITE ELEPHANT ............... ( L. A legal authority to delay pay-
ment of money due; or a tem-
porary cessation of activity con-
sidered as dangerous (con-
struction of tall buildings).
MORATORIUM
50
AREA ''A''
PART Ill ARCHITECTURAL
PRACTICE
""oi _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . .

AREA "A" PART Ill

DIRECTION: Read the items below, match it with the answers on the right side.
Place the correct letters in the indicated parenthesis thereon.

A. AGENCIES INVOLVED IN SHELTER MATCHING TYPE

1. HUDCC Housing and Urban


Development Coordinating
Council ................................... ( A. The agency mandated to ad-
minister take-outs of buyers
originated by banks and devel-
opers, faced with administrative
problems in loan processing. It
also provides construction and
development finance for hous-
ing.
NHMFC
2. SSS Social Security
System ................................... ( B. This is administered by NHMFC
from funds contributed by SSS,
HDMF and GSIS.
UHLP - UNITED HOME LENDING
3. GSIS Government Service PROGRAM
Insurance System .................. { C. The agency ,tasked for the build-
ing of housing units and resi-
dential condominiums. Facili-
tates joint venture projects
among landowners, developers,
financial institutions and local
governments.
NHA
4. PAG-IBIG Fund ...................... { D. The golfernment's principal
regulatoFy body in housing and
land development. It is to en-
force, implement, coordinate the
land use policies and regula-
tions on human settlements, in-
cluding building rental laws.
HLURB

52
5. UHLP United Home
Lending Program ................... ( E. This agency takes care of insur-
ing the subdivisions and is also
a lending entity.·
HIGC - HOME INSURANCE GUARANTY
6. HDMF Home Development CORP.
Mutual Fund ........................... ( F. The insurance system for the
Public sector or the government
employees ..
GSIS
7. NHMFC National Home
Mortgage Finance
Corporation ............................ ( G. The insurance system tor the
private sector, where coverage
is compulsory upon all employ-
ees not over sixty years of age.
SSS
8. NHA National Housing
Authority .....'............................ ( H. An office mandated to coordi-
nate and supervise the
government's housing agen-
cies. It is also tasked in moni-
toring the performance of the
housing sector, and involved in
policy formations.
HUDCC
9. HIGC Home Insurance
G!Jarantee Corporation .......... ( I. A provident savings fund hous-
ing open to most private agen-
cies.
PAG-IBIG FUND
10. HLRB Housing and Land
Use Regulatory Board ........... ( J. This office administers the PAG-
IBIG Fund, it entitles Pag-ibig
members who are public and
private employees as well as
the self-employed to housing
loans.
HDMF - HOME DEV'T MUTUAL FUND

B. NATIONAL BUILDING CODE MATCHING TYPE

1. BUILDING PERMIT ............... ( A. Any new construction which in-


creases the height or area of an
existing building/structure.
ADDITION
2. CONSTRUCTION .................. ( B. A change in the use or occu-
pancy of a building/structure or
any portions thereof which has
different requirements.
CONVERSION
53
-----"'
........
3. ERECTION ............................ ( C. The systematic dismantling or
destruction of a building/struc-
ture, in whole or in part.
DEMOLITION
4. ADDITION .............................. ( D. The National Building Code with
its implementing rules and regu-
lations to ensure safety to oc-
cupants.
PD 1096
5. ALTERATION ......................... ( E. Remedial work done on any
damaged or deteriorated por-
tions of a building/structure to
restore its original condition.
REPAIR
6. RENOVATION ........................ ( F. A secondary building/structure
located within the same pre-
mises, the use of which is inci-
dental to that ot the main build-
ing/structure.
ANCILLARY BLDG./STRUCTURE
7. CONVERSION ....................... ( G. The transfer of a building of por-
tions thereof from its original lo-
cation or position to another, ei-
ther within the same lot or to a
different one.
MOVING
8. REPAIR .................................. ( H. Any physical change made on
a building to increase its value,
utility and to improve its aesthet-
ics quality.
RENOVATION
9.- MOVING ............................... , ( I. Installation in place of compo-
nents of a building/structure.
ERECTION
10. DEMOLITION ........................ ( J. Construction in a building in-
volving changes in the materi-
als used, partitioning, location
and size of windows, doors,
structural parts, existing utilities
but does not increase the over-
all area thereof.
ALTERATION
11. ANCILLARY BUILmNG/
STRUCTURE ......................... ( K. · All on-site work done from site
preparation, excavation, foun-
dation, assembly of all the com-
ponents and installation of utili-
ties of building ..
CONSTRUCTION

54
IIII!J j jl'

12. P. D. 1096 .............................. ( L. A written authorization granted


by the Building Official to an ap-
plicant allowing him to proceed
with the construction of a spe-
cific project after plans, specifi-
cations, pertinent documents
are found in conformity to P. D.
1096.
BUILDING PERMIT

C. DEFINITIONS "BUILDING CODE" MATCHING TYPE

1. CERTIFICATE OF
OCCUPANCY ........................ ( A. Courts, yards, setbacks, light
wells, uncovered driveways,
access roads and parking
spaces.

2. AS-BUILT PLANS .................. ( B. A lot having two frontages or


bounded by two parallel streets
and lots on each side.

3. OCCUPANT LOADS .............. ( c. A court bounded on three sides


by building lines with one side
bounded by another open
space whether private or pub-
lie.

4. PUBLIC OPEN SPACE .......... ( D. A plan prepared after the con-


struction is done showing all
changes, modifications and al-
terations made as compared to
the original plans and needed
for the occupancy permit.

5. PRIVATE OPEN SPACE ........ ( E. A non-corner or a single front-


age lot.

6. INTERIOR LOT ...................... ( F. A court bounded on two oppo-


site sides bounded by other
open spaces.

7. INSIDE LOT ........................... ( G. A court bounded on all sides or


around or its periphery by build-
ing lines.

8. CORNER LOT ....................... ( H. The total number of persons


that may occupy a building or
portion, thereof at any one time.

55
9. THROUGH lOT ...................... ( 1. A lot located in the interior of a
block made accessible from a
public street or alley by means
of a private access road.

10. INNER COURT ...................... ( J. Streets, alleys, easements of


seashore, rivers, esteros, rail-
road tracks, parks, plazas.

11. OPEN COURT ....................... ( K. No building shall be used or


occupied until the building offi-
cial issues this permit, wherein
the certificate of completion, log-
book and building inspection
sheet by contractor signed by
Architect, and as-built plans
signed by engineers in charge
are submitted.

12. THROUGH COURT ............... ( L. A lot facing two streets at an


angle meeting each other.

D. DEFINITIONS "BUILDING CODE"

1. R. A. 545 ................................ ( A. A window in a roof and level with


it or one set into a flat roof as a
dome, etc.

2. PROJECTING SIGN .............. ( B. The line formed by the intersec-


tion of the surface of the enclos-
ing wall of the building ar.d the
surface of t~e ground.
'
3. DISPLAY WINDOW ............... ( C. An employee shall be paid this
of no less than ten (1 0%) per-
cent of his regular wage for each
hour of work performed be-
tween ten o'cloCk in the evening
and six o'clock in the morning.

4. BUILDING LINE ................ :.... ( D. The outer covering of a build~


ingtstructure.
<

5. ARCADE ................................ ( e·. ·An act to enhance the mobility· .


of disabled persons by requir- .
ing certain buildings, irist~- ·.
tions, establishmenis and pub-
lic utilities to install facilities and .
other devices.

56
6. STRUCTURE ......................... ( F. That portion of a building abut-
ting the sidewalk open to public
view protected by grilles,
screens or transparent materi-
als tor the display of goods.

7. CHAMFER ............................. ( G. The mark or floor plan directly


touching the ground, the perim-
eter of which is seen.

8. SKYLIGH'fS ........................... ( H. A sign fastened to, suspended


from or supported on a building
or structure. the display surface
of which is perpendicular from
the wall surface or is at an angle
therefrom.

9. BATAS PAMBANSA
BLG. 344 ................................ ( I. Any portion of a building above
the first floor projecting over the
sidewalk beyond the first storey
wall used as protection for pe-
destrians.

10. NIGHT SHIFT


DIFFERENTIAL ..................... ( J. An act to regulate the practice
of architecture in the Philip-
pines.

11. FOOTPRINT .......................... ( K. That which is built or con-


structed, an edifice or building
of any kind or any piece of work
artificially built up or composed
of parts joined together in some
definite manner.

12. SKIN ....................................... ( L. Surface produced by beveling


square edge or corner equally
on both sides.

E. "FIRE CODE" DEFINITIONS MATCHING TYPE

1. AUTOMATIC FIRE
SUPPRESSION SYSTEM ..... ( A. P. D. 1185 prohibits the obstruc-
tion of fire exits. fi-e h, ·"!~ants
overcrowding beyond autho-
rized capacities, locking fire ex-
its, use of jumpers.

57
2. COMBINATION
STAND-PIPE .......................... ( B. The time duration that a mate-
rial or construction can with-
stand the effects of standard fire
test. (1, 2 or 3 hrs.)

3. DRY STANDPIPE .................. ( c. An integrated system of under-


ground or overhead piping or
both connected to a source of
extinguishing agent or medium,
designed in which when actu-
ated by its automatic device,
stops fire within the area pro-
tected.

D. The time in which flame will


spread over the surface of a
burning material.

5. FIRE RESISTANCE
RATING .................................. ( E. Use sprinkler systems, hose
boxes, stand pipe systems, fire
alarm systems, fire walls, fire re-
sistive enclosures, fire exits to
safe grounds. Stairways sealed
from smoke and heat, exit plan,
fire resistive doors, fire damp-
ers in centralized aircon ducts,
roof vents for fire fighters.

6. FIRE WALL ............................ ( F. A gate with four arms set at right


angles, revolving on a central
post, allowing the passage of
only one person at a time.

7. FLAME SPREAD
RATING .................................. ( G. An air compartment or chamber
to which one or more ducts are
connected and which form part
of an air distribution system.

8. FIRE (FLAME)
RETARDANT ......................... ( H. Pipeline system filled with wa-
ter and connected to a constant
water supply for the use of the
service and the occupants of the
building solely for fire suppres-
sion purposes.

58
9. FUMIGANT ............................ ( I. A fire alarm system activated by
the presence of a fire, where the
signal is transmitted to desig-
nated locations instead of
~6un&rra aaurrur2t KtKrrrr. Ia
')rder to prevent panic.

10. MEANS OF EGRESS ............ ( J. A wall designed to prevent the


spread of .fire, having a fire re-
sistance rating of not less than
four (4) hours with sufficient
structural stability to remain
standing even if construction or
either side collapse.

11. PANIC HARDWARE .............. ( K. A device constructed for burn-


ing refuse, trash.

12. PLENUM ................................ ( L. Any compound, or mixture


which when applied properly im-
proves the fire resistant quality
of fabrics and other materials
like wood.

13. INCINERATOR ...................... ( M. A type of standpipe system in


which the pipes are normally not
filled with water. Water is intro-
duced into the system through
fire service connections when
needed.

14. TURNSTILES ........................ ( N. A mechanical device consisting


of linkages and a horizontal bar
across a door, which cause the
door to open and facilitates exit
from a building, structure.

15. PROHIBITED ACTS SEC. 9


FIRE CODE P. D. 1185 .......... ( 0. A continuous and unobstructed
route or exit from any point in a
building, structure, or facility to
a public way.

16. PROVISION ON'


FIRE SAFETY ........................ ( P. A gas, fume, or vapor used for
the destruction or control of in-
sects, fungi, vemun, germs, ro-
dents or other pests.

59
F. "OFFICE PRACTICE" MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. DIRECT SELECTION
OF AN ARCHITECT ............... ( A. A method frequently used
where there is a continuing re-
lationship on q series of
projects. It establishes a fixed
sum over and above reimburse-
ment for tl1e Architect's techni-
cal time and overhead.

2. COMPARATIVE SELECTION
OF AN ARCHITECT ............... ( B. The Architect renders full-time
supervision ensuring the qual-
ity of control of work, evaluat-
ing the work of the contractor,
keeps tiles and records and
manages the construction.

3. DESIGN
COMPETITIONS ................... ( C. The Architect's regular services,
which include the preliminary
design, schemes, design devel-
opment phase, the contract
documents phase (working
drawing) and supervision.

4. COMPENSATION BY
MEANS OF PERCENTAGE
OF CONSTRUCTION
COST ..................................... ( D. The settling of a dispute by an
impartial member of a party,
whose decision both parties to
a dispute agree to accept.

5. COMPENSATION BY
MEANS OF MULTIPLE
OF DIRECT PERSONNEL
EXPENSES ........................... ( E. This is done for a complex build-
ing projects where the Architect
acts as an agent of the client in
procuring and coordinating all
the necessary services required
by the project, from pre-design
to post-construction services.

60
11. DESIGN SERVICES .............. ( K. This method is applicable only
to non-creative work such as ac-
counting, secretarial, research,
supervision, preparation of re-
ports and the like.

12. SPECIALIZED ALLIED


SERVICES ............................. ( L. This is mostly required in a gov-
ernment contract. This method
is risky, since the Architect's
expenses might exceed the
agreed amount especially if
there are costly changes.

13. CONSTRUCTION
SERVICES ............................. ( M. In this method, the client selects
his Architect on the basis of
Reputation, personal acquain-
tance, recommendation of a
friend, or of a former client, or
of another Architect.

14. POST CONSTRUCTION


SERVICES ............................. ( N. This method is fair to both cli-
ent and Architect as the fee is
pegged to the cost of the project
the client is willing to undertake.

15. COMPREHENSIVE
SERVICES ............................. ( 0. This include Architectural pro-
gramming, feasibility study, site
study, cost effectiveness study
and promotional services.

16. DESIGN BUILD


SERVICES ............................. ( P. A client may request an Archi-
tect to do work which will require
his personal time such as visit
ing a possible site, attend&
board meetings, confer with oth-
ers re: Financing or to joint-ven-
ture.

62
G. ARCHITECTS CODE OF ETHICS/RESPONSIBILITIES

I. IN RELATION TO THE PEOPLE


a. The Architect shall seek opportunities to be of constructive service in
civic and urban affairs and to the best of his ability advance the safety,
health and well-being of the people and the community as well as the
promotion, restoration or preservation of the general amenities and other
examples of historic and architectural heritage of the nation.
b. The Architect shall promote the interest of his professional organization
and do his full part of the work to enhance the objectives and services of
the organization. He should share in the interchange of technical infor-
mation and experience with the other design profession and the building
industry.
c. The Architect as a good citizen shall abide and observe the laws and
regulations of the government and comply with the standards of ethical
conduct and practice of the profession in the Philippines. He shall at no
time act in a manner detrimental to the best interest of the profession.
d. The Architect shall not use paid advertisement nor self-laudatory, exag-
gerated or misleading publicity. However, the presentation of factual
materials, verbal or visual, of the aims, standards and progress of the
profession through literature or by industrious application of his work and
services which tend to dignify the professional or advance public knowl-
edge of the Architect's function in society may be presented through any
public communication media.
e. The Architect shall not solicit not permit to solicit in his name, advertise-
ments or other support towards the cost of any publication presenting his
work. He should refrain from taking part in paid advertisement endorsing
any materials of construction or building equipment.
f. The Architect shall not mislead the public through advertisements, signs
or printed matter citing his professional specializations unless such quali-
fications are well known facts or sanctioned by professional consensus
and years or experience.

2. IN RELATION TO HIS CLIENT


a. The Architect may introduce to a prospective Client the professional ser-
vices he is able to perform provided it is limited to presentation of ex-
amples of his professional experience and does not entail the offering of
free preliminary sketches or other services without the benefit of an agree-
ment with the Client for legitimate compensation.
b. The Architect shall acquaint or ascertain· from the Client at the very in-
ception of their business relationship, the exact nature and scope of his
services and the corresponding professional charges.
c. The Architect shall advise a Client against proceeding with any project
whose practicability may be questionable due to financial, legal or ar-
resting or exigent conditions, even if such advice may mean the loss of a
prospective commission to the Architect. ·

63
d. The Archilect shaU explain the conditional character of estimates other
than estimates submitted in the form of actual proposals by contractors
and in no case shall he guarantee any estimates or cost of the work.
Neither shall he mislead his Client as to probable cost of the work in
order to secure a commission.
e. The Architect shall consider the needs and stipulation of his Client and
the effects of his work upon the life and well-being of the public and the
community as a whole, and to endeavor to meet the aesthetic and func-
tional requirements of the project commensurate with the Client's appro-
priation.
f. The Architect shall charge his Client for services rendered, a profes-
sional fee commensurate with the work involved and with his profes-
sional standing and experience based upon the Basic Minimum Fee pre-
.scribed under the "Standards of Professional Practice" of the "Architect's
National Code".
g. The Architect shall not undertake, under a fixed contract sum agreement,
the construction of any project based on plans prepared by him. He may
in certain cases, undertake the construction of a project even when the
plans prepared by him provided it is undertaken in conformity with the
conditions set forth under sections covering "Construction Services" "Com-
prehensive Services" or "Design-Build Services" of the document on
"STANDAR_DS OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE."
h. The Architect shall be compensated for his services solely through his
professional fee charged directly to the Client. He shall not accept nor
ask for any other returns in whatever form from any interested source
other than the Client.
i. The Architect shall be free in his investments and business relations out-
side of his profession from any financial or personal interests which tend
to weaken and discredit his standing as an unprejudiced and honest
adviser, free to act in his Client's best interests. If the Architect has any
business interest which will relate to, or affect the interest of his Client,
he should inform his Client of such condition or situation.
j. The Architect shall include in his agreement with the Client a clause pro-
viding for arbitration as a method for settlement of disputes.

3. IN RELATION TO THE CONTRACTOR


a. The Architect shall give. the Contractor every reasonable aid to enable
him to fully understand the contents of the Contract Documents by fur-
nishing clear, definite and consistent information in all pertinent contract
documents to avoid unnecessary mistakes that may involve extra costs
to the Contractor.
b. The Architect shall not knowingly call upon the Contractor to correct or
remedy oversights or errors in the Contract Documents to the Contractor's
financial disadvantage.
c. The Architect shall immediately upon his personal knowledge and in-
spection, reject or condemn materials, equipment or workmanship which

64
are not in conformity with the Contract Documents in order not to cause
unnecessary delay and additional expense to the Contractor.
d. The Architect shall not, at any time or circumstance, accept free engi-
neering services, or receive any substantial aid, gifts, commissions, or
favors from any Contractor or sub-contractor which will tend to place him
under any kind of mnral obligation.
e. The Architect shall upon request by the Contractor promptly inspect each
phase of the work completed and if found according.to the terms of the
Contract Documents issue the corresponding Certificates of Payment
and the Final Certificate of Completion, respectively, to the Contractor.

4. IN RELATION TO MANUFACTURERS, DEALERS, AND AGENTS


a. The· Architect shall not avail or make use of engineering or other techni-
cal services offered by manufacturers, or suppliers of building materials
or equipment which may be accompanied by an obligation detrimental to
the best interest of the Client or whici1 may adversely affect the Architect's
professional opinion.
b. The Architect shall not at any time receive commissions, discounts, fees,
gifts or favors from agents or firms handling building materials or equip-
ment which may place him in a reciprocal frame mind. He may however,
accept market discounts which shall be credited to the Client.

5. IN RELATION TO HIS COLLEAGUES AND SUBORDINATES


a. The Architect shall not render professional services, without compensa-
tion except for small civic or charity projects. He shall neither offer nor
provide preliminary services on a conditional basis prior to definite agree-
ment with the Client for the commission of the project.
b. The Architect shall not knowingly compete with other Architects on the
basis of difference of professional charges, nor use donation as a device
for obtaining competitive advantage except for worthy civic or religious
projects. Neither shall he submit solicited or unsolicited sketches or draw-
ings in competition with other Architects unless such competitive arrange-
ments are conducted substantially under the terms of the UAP Architec-
tural Competition Code.
c. The Architect shall not under any circumstances nor throu]h any means
seek commissions already known to him as previously endowed to an-
other Architect, whether such endowment has been definitely agreed upon
or still in the process of negotiation.
d. The Architect shall not, in any case, enter as a competitor in any Archi-
tectural Competition when he has direct relations with the formulation of
the Program thereof or when he has been engaged to act as Profes-
sional Adviser or Juror for such competition. Neither shall the Architect
accept and act as professional adviser or juror in any architectural com-
petition when he has had any information or has reviewed or assisted in
the preparation of any competition design entered. Nor shall an Archi-
tect, retained as professional adviser in a competition, accept employ-
ment as an Architect for that competition project except as Consulting
Architect.

65
e. The Architect shall not undertake a commission for which he knows an-
other Architect has been previously employed until he has notified such
other Architect of the fact in writing and has conclusively determined
{hat the original employment has been terminated and has been duly
compensated for.
f. The Architect shall not undertake a commission for additions, rehabilita-
tion or remodeling of any erected structure undertaken previously by
another Architect without duly notifying him of the contemplated project
even when the Owner is no longer the same. When the greater mass.
area or design of the original structure is substantially maintained the
new Architect should limit his advertisement or claim only to the extent of
the work done to the structure. Architects are enjoined to preserve or
restore as much as possible especially the few and remaining historic
examples of our architectural heritage affecting this phase of practice.
~- The Architect shall not knowingly injure falsely or maliciously, the profes-
sional reputation. prospects or practice of another Architect.
h. The Architect shall retrain from associating himself with or allowing the
use of his name by any enterprise of doubtful character or integrity.
i. The Architect shall affix his signature and seal to any plans or profes-
sional documents prepared by other persons or entities not done under
his direct personal supervision.
j. The Architect shall inspi_re the loyalty of his employees and subordinates
by providing them with suitable working conditions, requiring them to
render competent and efficient services and paying them adequate and
just compensation therefore. He shall tutor and mentor the young aspir-
ants towards the ideals, functions, duties and responsibilities of the pro-
fession.
k. The Architect shall unselfishly give his share in the interchange of techni-
cal information and experience among his colleagues and young aspir-
ants and do his part in fostering unity in the fellowship of the profession.
I. He shall unselfishly give his time and effort to the advancement of the
profession thru his active and personal commitment and involvement
with the accredited profession organization for Architects.

H. PROJECT CLASSIF.CATJON

Architectural work varies in complexities and in the creative skill required to


successfully meet the requirements of the client within the constraint of the
technical, functional, economic, aesthetic and other considerations. The follow-
ing groups of building are attempts to classify design projects in accordance
with the degree of complexity of each project.
The architect's fee includes the normal structural, electrical, plumbing/sanitary,
and mechanical engineering services and is determined by getting the percent-
age indicated in the schedule of Fees and multiplying it with the Project Con-
struction Cost.

66
SCHEDULE OF MINIMUM BASIC FEE

Group -1
Structures of simplest, utilization character which are without complication of
design or detail and require a minimum of finish, structural, mechanical and
electrical design.
Armories Parking structures
Bakeries Printing plants
Farm structures Public Markets
Freight facilities Service garages
Hangars Simple loft-type structures
Industrial building Warehouses
Manufacturing/Industrial plants Other similar utilization types of
Packaging and processing plants buildings

PROJECT CONSTRUCTION COST MINIMUM BASIC FEE


PSO Million and less ............ ... ....... ..... .. .. ... ... ....... 6 Percent

Group- 2
Structures of moderate complexity of design requiring a moderate amount of
structural, mechanical and electrical design and research.
Art galleries Nursing Homes
Banks, Exchange and Park, playground and open-air
other financial institutions recreational facilities
Bowling Alleys Police Stations
Churches and Religious Post Offices
facilities Private Clubs
City Halls Private Publishing Plants
College buildings Race tracks
Convents, Monasteries and Seminaries Restaurants
Correctional and Detention Institutions Retail Stores
Court Houses Schools
Dormitories Shopping centers
Exhibition Halls and Display structures Speciality shops
Fire Stations Supermarkets
Laundries Welfare Buildings
Motels and Apartels
Multi-storey apartments
And other structures of similar nature or use

PROJECT CONSTRUCTION COST MINIMUM BASIC FEE


PSO Million and less ... .. .. ... .. ... .. .. ... .. ... .. .. ... ..... .. .. . 7 Percent

Group-3
Structures of exceptional character and complexity of design or.requiring com-
paratively large amounts of structural, mechanical and electrical design and
research.

67
Aquariums Laboratories
Atomic facilities Marinas
Auditoriums Medical Office facilities & Clinics
Airports Mental Institutions
Breweries Mortuaries
Cold storage facilities Observatories
Communications buildings Public Health Centers
Convention Halls Research facilities
Gymnasiums Stadiums
Hospitals and Medical buildings Theaters and similar facilities
Hotels Veterinary Hospitals
And other structures of similar nature or use

PROJECT CONSTRUCTION COST MINIMUM BASIC FEE


P5() Million and less ..... ....... ... .. ..... .. ... .. ... .. ..... .. .. . 8 percent

Group- 4
Residencies (Single Detached or Duplex), small apartment houses and town
houses.
Minimum Basic Fee ......... .. 10 percent of Project Construction Cost

Group- 5
Monumental buildings and other facilities requiring consummate design skill
and much precise detailing.

Exposition and Fair buildings Specialized decorative buildings


Mausoleums, Memorials Monuments And structures of similar nature or
use
Museums
Minimum Basic Fee .. .. .... .. .. ..... .. .. .. .......... 12 percent of Project Construction
Cost

Group - 6 Repetitive Construction of Buildings


When the design of the Architect is used again for the repetitive construction of
similar structures, without amen<.ling the drawing and the specifications, the
Architect's fee is computed as follows:

First Structure .. .. . ................................ . Minimum Basic Fee


Second Structure ................................ .. 80% of Basic Fee
Third Structure ..................................... . 60% of Basic Fee
Succeeding structure ............................. . 40% of Basic Fee

Group - 7 Housing Projects


When the Architect is engaged to undertake a HOUSING PROJECT involving
the construction of several residential units on a single site with the use of one
basic plan and specifications. the MINIMUM FEE chargeable thereunder shall
confirm with the following:

68
First Unrt .... ..... ... ... .... ...... ......... ......... ...... 10 Percent of the Construction
Cost of one unit as Basic Fee
From two to ten units.......... .. ...... ..... ..... . Fee of :..ne unit plus 60% of aa~.ic
Fee for each additional unit
Eleven units and above .. .. .. .. .... .... . .. .. .... Fee for 10 units plus 30% of Basic
Fee for each adjitional unit

Group-8
Projects involving extensive detail such as furniture design, build-in equipment,
special fittings, screens, counters, interior~ and other detailed parts or appurte-
nances of buildings or ~tructures and landscaping designs.

Minimum Basic Fee ...... ... .. .. ...... .. . 15 Percent of Project Construction Cost

Group-9
For alterations and additions of existing structures belonging to Group 1 tc o
enumerated above, compensdtion for services should be increased by 50 per-
cent or a total of 150 percent of the Basic Fee.

Group- 10 Consultations and Arbitrations


Where the Architect is engaged to render opinion or give advise, clarifications
or explanation on technical matters pertaining to his profession, the Minimum
Fee chargeable thereunder shall not be less than Two Hundred Pesos (P200.00)*
per hour subject to increase depending on the extent and coverage of service
required. When rendering service as an expert witr•..:ss, the Architect's Fee shall
not be less than Five Hundred Pesos (P500.00)* per appearance irrespective
of whether the scheduled hearing took place or not.
*All references to fixed amount shall refer to the value of the Peso as ot Novem-
ber 1979. Adjustment of the price shall be made at the time of the contract.

I. THE S?ECTRUM OF THE ARCHITECT'S SERVICES

The Spectrum of the Architect's services extends over the entire range of activi-
ties that proceed from the time the idea is conceived, perfected, transformed
into sets of space/des;gn requirements, translated into structure through de-
sign, built, used and become a permanent feature of the man-made environ-
ment.
The Architect's services con!3ist of the necessary conferences, deliberations,
discussions, evaluations, invest.gations, consultations, advise on matters af-
fecting the scientific, aesthetic and orderly coordination of all the process of
safeguarding life, health and property which enter into the production of differ-
ent levels and sophistications of man-made structures and environment.
The entire range of the Architect's services arP. divideC: into seven (7) major
services as follows:

69
1. PRE-DESIGN SERVICES.............................................. UAP rJoc. 201
This include Architectural Programming, Feasibility,
study, site study, cost effectiveness study and others.
2. DESIGN SERVICES . .............. ................................. UAP Doc. 202
The Architect's Regular Services
3. SPECIALIZED ALLIED SERVICES ............... .... .... UAP Doc. 203
This include Planning, Interior, landscaping, Acoustics,
communications and Electronics Engineering.
4. CONSTRUCTION SERVICES ..... ................... ..... .. . .. .. ... UAP Doc. 204
Full-time supervision, construction Management.
5. POST CONSTRUCTION SERVICES ................. ... . UAP Doc. 205
Buildings and Grounds Administration
6. COMPREHENSIVE SERVICES .......................... .. . .. .. . UAP Doc. 206
Project Management Service
7. DESIGN-BUILD SERVICES ............. :..................... ..... .. UAP Doc. 207
Administering the Construct~on.

DOC. 201 PRE-DESIGN SERVICES


There are many instances where the Architect is called upon by the client to
perform services other than purely architectural or designing services. For the
Architect to effectively assist. and serve his client in Pre-design services, spe-
cial training will be required leading to a broad background in real estate, fi-
nance, business, taxation, human 1'1ehavior, space programming, and others, to
supplement the architect's skil! as a researcher, space activities organizer, co-
ordinator and manager of the various activities of professionals and tradesmen.
It would not be expected however, that the architect would actually perform
services in all such fields, but rather, he would act as the agent of his client in
producing some of the necessary services that he and his staff cannot provide.
It is his task to coordinate these Services so that acting fpr his client, he can
retain the degree of control and coordination of activities :necessary to assure
the client of a more unified result.

The several activities that fall under the pre-design services are as follows:
1. Economic Feasibility Studies. A study to determine the viability of a project
such as its cost of development versus its potential return to the Owner. A
detailed cost-benefit analysis can guide the client and the architect in se-
lecting a more viable alternative plan.
2. PROJECT FINANCING
Architects assist in the determination of requirements of lending agencies,
income-expense relationship and relative demand for different building types
in actual financing negotiations.
3. ARCHITECTURAL PROGRAMMING
Investigating, identifying and documenting the needs of the. client for use in
the design of the project.

70
4. SITE SELECTION AND ANALYSIS
Assisting the client in locating sites for the proposed project and evaluating
their adequacy with regards to topography, subsurface conditions, utilities,
development costs, climate, population, legal considerations and other fac-
tors.
5. SITE UTILIZATION AND LAND-USE STUDIES
A detailed analysis of the site to develop its potential through the proper
utilization of land.
6. SPACE/MANAGEMENT STUDIES
Analysis of the space requirements of the proJect based on organizational
structure and functional set-up. One method is to use human behavior and
transaction analysis to pinpoint Linkages and interactions of spaces. The
services cover space use and space character analysis, work station and
space module and a space program to serve as basis for architectural de-
sign.
7. PROMOTIONAL SERVICES
In some cases, the project would require promotional activities in order to
generate financial support and acceptance from governing agencies or from
the general public. The Architect with his own staff, can accomplish many of
these activities including preparation of promotional designs, drawings, bro-
chures and the like. As the agent of the Owner, the Architect can produce
and coordinate the additional activities necessary to complete the services.

METHOD OF COMPENSATION
The Architect's services for the Pre-Design Phase were creative designing is
not included are often compensated for on the basis of multiple of direct per-
sonnel expenses. This cost based method of compensation is directly related to
the Architect's and his consultant's effort where they are compensated for every
technical hour expended on the project with a multiplier to cover overhead and
a reasonable profit. This method is suitable for projects in wh!Ch the scope of
work is indefinite, particularly for large complex projects.
Progress Payment for Services shall be made based on the accomplishments
of the work of the Architect.

DOC. 202 ARCHITECT'S DESIGN SERVICES

A. REGULAR SERVICES
The architect, In regular practice normally acts as his client's or the Owner's
adviser. He translates the Owner's needs and requirements to spaces and
forms in the forms in the best manner of professionals services, he can
render.
The Architect's work starts at the very inception of the project when the
Owner outlines his requirements to him. It ranges through his study and
analysis of the various aspects of the project, goes through the preparation
of the necessary instruments of service and through the multitude of con-
struction problems and does not terminate until the project is completed.

71
In effeC:, the Architect renders services whose sequence come in four phases
as follows:
a. Schemetic Design Phase
b. Design Development Phase
c. Contract Documents Phase and
d. Construction Phase

Phase 1 Schematic Design


a. Cons1.1lts with the Owner to ascertain the requirem"lnts of the project and
confirms such requirements with him.
b. Prepares schematic design studies leading to a recommended solution
including a general description of the project for approva: by the Owner.
c. Submits to the Owner a Statement of Prohable Project Construction Cost
based on current parameters.

Phase 2 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT


a. Prepares from approved Schematic Design Studies, the Desig'l Devel-
opment Documents consisting of plans, elevation. and other d, awings,
and outline specifications, to fix and illustrate the size and character of
the entire project in its essential as to kinds of materials, typt::: of struc-
ture, mechanical, electrical and sanitary systems and such other work as
may be required.
b. Suhmits to the Owner a further Statement of Probable Project Construc-
tion Cost

Phase 3 CONTRACT DOCUMENTS


a. Prepares from approved Design Development Documents, thP. complete
Construction Drawings and Specifications setting forth in detail the work
required for the architectural, structural, electrical, plumbing/sanitary,
mechanical and other service-connected equipmenL
b. Prepares spe~ific_ations--descfibtAg-type--and quality of materials, finish,
marfrler-of construction and the general conditions under which the project
is to be constructed.
c. Furnishes the Owner not more than five (5) complete sets of all con-
struction drawings, specifications and general conditions for purposes
for bidding.
d. Keeps the Owner informed of any adjustments to previous Statements
of Probable Project Construction Cost indicated by changes in scope,
requirements or market conditions.
e. Assist the Owner in filling the required documents to secure approval of
government authorities having jurisdiction over the design of the Project.

Phase 4 CONSTRUCTION
a. Prepares forms for contract letting, documents for construction, forms
for invitation and instruction to bidders, and forms for bidders' proposals.

72
b. Assist the Owner in obtaining proposals from Contractors, in preparing
abstract of bids and in awarding and preparing construction contracts.
c. When required in the contract, makes decisions on all claims of the Owner
and Contractor and on all other matters relating to the execution and
progress of work or the interpretation of the Contract Documents. Checks
and approves samples, schedules, shop drawings and other requirements
subject to and in accordance with the descriptive information and provi-
sions of the Contract Documents, prepares change orders, gathers and
turns over to the Owner written guarantees required of the Contractor or
sub-contractors.
d. Makes periodic visits to the project site to familiarize himself with the
general progress and quality of the work and to determine whether the
work is proceeding in accordance with the Contract Documents. He shall
not be required to make exhaustive or continuous 8-hour on-site super-
vision to check on the quality of the work involved and he shall not be
held responsible for the Contractor's failure to carry 0111 the construction
work in accordance with the Contract Documents Dunng such prOJect
site visits and on the basis of his observations he shall report to th~>
Owner defects and deficiencies noted in the work of Contractors, and
shall condemn work found falling to conform to the Contract Documents.
~ Based on \lts qb~ervalions and the Contractors Applications for Pay
tne.n! rte shall ~etermm~ the amount owing and due to the Contractor
¥JU ::.tlall1ssue corresponding Certificates for Payment for such amounts
These Cer11f1cates will constitute a certification to the Owner that the
work t1as progressed to the state indicated and that to his best knowl-
edge the quality of work performed by the Contractor is in accordance
with the Contract Documents He shall conduct the necessary inspection
to determine the date of substantial and final Certificate for Payrner:t to
the Contractor
Should more extensive or full-time (8-hour) construction superv1s1on be
required by the Owner, a separate full-time supervisor shall be hired and
agreed upon by the Owner and the Architect subject to the conditions
provided in the UAP Document on Full- Time Supervision. When the Ar-
chitect is requested by the Owner to do the full time supervision his ser-
vices and fees shall conform to the same UAP Docur.1ent

B. PAYMENT SCHEDULE
1. Payments on account of the Architect"s basic serv1ces shall be as fol-
lows:
a. Upon the signing of the Agreement a minimum payment equivalent to
five percent (5%) of the compensation for basic services.
b. Upon the completion of the Schematic Design Services but not more
than 15 days after submission of the Schematic Design to the Owner.
a sum equal to fifteen percent ( 15%) of the Basic Fee, computed upon
a reasonable estimated construction cost of the structure.
c. Upon the completion of the Design Development Services.but not more
than 15 days after submission of the Design Development to the owner,

73
a sum sufficient to increase the total payments on the fee to thirty-five
percent (35%) of the basic fee computed upon the same estimated
construction cost of the structure as in (b).
d. Upon the completion of the Contract Documents Services but not more
than 15 days after submission of the Contract Documents to the Owner,
a sum sufficient to increase the total payments on the fee to Eighty-
five percent ·(85%) of the Basic Fee ·computed upon a reasonable es-
timated construction cost of the structure as in (b).
e. Within 15 days after the awards of Bids, the payment to the Architect
shall be adjusted so that it will amount to a sum equivalent to eighty-
five percent (85%) of the Basic Fee, computed upon the winning Bid
price.
f. Upon the completion of the construction work, the balance of the
Architect's fee, computed on the Final Project Construction Cost of
the structure shall be paid.
2. The Owner shall make partial payments during each of the various stages
of the Architect's work, up9n request of the Architect, provided that such
payments are within the framework of the manner of payments outlined
above,

C. OWNER'S RESPONSIBILITIES
1. Provide full information .as to his requirements for the project.
2. Designate when necessary, representative authorized to act in his be-
half. Examine documents submitted by the Architect and render deci-
sions pertaining thereto promptly, to avoid unreasonable delay in the
progress of the Architect's work. Observe the procedure of issuing or-
ders to contractors only through the Architect.
3. Furnish or direct the Architect to obtain at the Owner's expense, a certi-
fied survey of the site, giving as may be required, topographical surveys,
grades and lines of streets, alleys, easements, encroachments, zoning,
and deed restrictions, boundaries, with dimensions and complete data
pertaining to existing buildings, and other improvements and full infor-
mation as to available utility service lines both public and private; and
test borings and pits necessary for determining subsoil conditions.
4. Pay for structural, acoustical, chemical, mechanical, soil mechanics or
other tests and reports as may be required for the project.
5. Pay for design and consultancy services on acoustic, communication,
electronic and other specialty systems which may be required for the
project.
6. Arrange and pay for such legal, auditing, and insurance counseling ser-
vices as may be required for the project.
7. Pay for all reimbursible expenses incurred in the project as called for in
Section 6 "Other Conditions on Services" and all taxes (not including
income tax) that the government may impose on the Architect as a result
of the services rendered by the Architect on the proje.ct whether the ser-
vice$ were performed as an individual practitioner, as a partnership or as
a corporation.
74
8. If the Owner observes or otherwise becomes aware of anything that may
impair the successful implementation of the project, he shall give prompt
written notice thereof to the Architect.

D. OTHER CONDITIONS ON SERVICES


1. Conditions for Minimum Basic Fee
The "Minimum Basic Fee" referred to in Section 3.0 applies to construc-
tion work done by a Contractor on the basis of a Lump Sum Contract.
Construction works that are let on cost-plus-fee basis, or on any basis
other than the Lump Sum Contract, where the Architect has to render
additional services shall be subject to additional compensation commen-
surate with the additional services required. Such additional compensa-
tion shall be in addition to the minimum Basic Fee.
2. Other Professional Services
The Architect's fee includes normal structural, electrical, plumbing/sani-
tary and mechanical engineering services. Other services that may be
needed in order to complete the project such as services of acoustic and
illumination engineers, mural painters, sculptors, interior decorators and
landscape architects are to be recommended by the Architect of the
Owner's approval and costs for these services are to be paid for sepa-
rately by the Owner.
3. Miniature Models
The Architect may make and include miniature models of his design stud-
ies as part of his preliminary work if he so deems it to be necessary but
no extra charge for such miniature models shall be made by the Archi-
tect. However, if the Owner desires to have a miniature model of the final
and approved design for exhibition and display purposes, the Owner shall
pay for the cost of said miniature model.
4. Per Diem and Travelling Exp,enses
A per diem of not less than P50o.oo· plus traveling and living expenses
shall be chargeable to the owner on any occasion where the Architect or
his duly authorized representative shall be required to perform services
at a locality beyond the radius of 100 kilometers from his established
office.
*All references to fixed amount shall refer to the value of the Peso as of
November 1979. Adjustment of the price shall be made at the time of the
contract.
5. Extra Sets.of Contract Documents
The Architect shall furnish the Owner five (5) sets of Drawings, Specifi-
cations and other contract documents. Cost of printing or reproduction of
extra sets of Contract Documents when required by the Owner or his
representative is to be charged to and paid for by the Owner.
6. Changes Order~d by Owner
If the Architect is caused additional professional services, extra drafting
or other office expenses due to changes ordered by the Owner after

75
approval of the Design Development Documents, he shall be paid for
such expenses and services involved. The amount of compensation and
the extension of time for the completion of the documents shall be upon
mutual agreement of both parties.
7. Work Suspended or Abandoned
If the work of the Architect is abandoned or suspended, in whole or in
part, the Architect is to be paid by the Owner for the services rendered
corresponding to the fees due at the stage of suspension or abandon-
ment of the work.
The primary service of the Architect is the preparation of plans, specifi-
cations and other building construction documents whic_h are actually
sets of detailed instructions that shall serve as the basis for the Contrac-
tor to build the Project. Once the Architect has prepared all these docu-
ments, he has completed the Contract Documents Phase of his services
which is equivalent t') EIGHTY FIVE PERCENT (85%) of his work. The
remaining FIFTEEN PERCENT (15%) of his work is broken down as
follows:
TEN PERCENT (1 0%) for the Architect's liability under the Civil Code-
and - FIVE PERCENT (5%) for the construction phase serv:ce which
includes preparation of contract documents forms and periodic visits
during the construction.
When the OWNER therefore fails to implement the plans and document
for construction as prepared by the Architect, the Architect is entitled to
receive as compensation the sum corresponding tc. EIGHTY FIVE (85%)
PERCENT of his fee.
8. Different Periods of Construction
If portions of the buildings are erected at different periods of time, thus
increasing the Architect's construction phase period and burden of ser-
vices, the charges pertaining to services rendered during the construc-
tion phase shall be doubled. A suspension of constwction for a period
not exceeding six (6) months shall not be covered by this provi~ion.
9. Services of consultants
It .the Owner desires to engage special consultants, such consultants
shall be with the consent of the Architect and the cost of their services
shall be paid tor separately by the Owner and shall no! be deducted from
the fees due the Architect.
10. Separate Services
Should the Owner require the Architect to design or plar:1 movable or
fixed pieces of furniture, cabinets, covered walks, grottos, pools, land-
scaping and other items of similar nature, the Owner shall pay the Archi-
tect in addition to the Minimum Basic Fee, a compensation in the amount
of Fifteen percent (15%) otthe Construction Cost of the above work.
11. Full-Time Supervision
Upon recommendation of the Architect and with the approval of the uwner,
full-time construction inspectors as will be deemed necessary shall be

76
engaged and paid for by the Owner. The full-time construction inspec-
tors shall be under the technical control and supervision of the Architect
and shall make periodic reports to the Owner and to the Architect as to
the progress and quality of the work done.
12. Estimates
Any Statements of Probable Construction Cost, or any Semi-Detailed or
Detailed Cost Estimates submitted by the Architect is accurate only up to
a certain degree. This is so because the Architect has no control over the
cost of labor and materials, or the many factors that go into competitive
bidding.
13. Government Taxes on Services
The Architect's Fees as stipulated in Section 3 "Minimum Basic Fee" is
net to the Architect. Any tax that the government may impose on the
Architect as a consequence of the services performed for the Project
(exclusive of income tax) shall be paid by the Owner.
14. Ownership of Documents
All designs, drawings, models specifications and copies thereof, prepared
and furnished by the Architect in connection with any project are instru-
ments of professional service. As instruments of service they are the
property of the Architect whether work for which they were made may be
executed or not, and are not to be reproduced or used on the other work
except with a written agreement with the Architect.
This is in pursuance with the pertinent provisions of Republic Act 545
promulgated on June 17, 1950 and of Presidential Decree No. 49 on the
"Protection of Intellectual Property" issued on November 14, 1972.
15. Cost Records
During the progress of work the Owner shall furnish the Architect two (2)
copies of records of expenses being incurred on the construction, upon
completion of the project, the Owner shall furnish the Architect two (2)
copies of the summary of all cost of labor, services, materials, equip-
ment, fixtures and all items used at and for the completion of the con-
struction.
16. Design and Placement of Signs
All signboards of contractors, sub-contractors, jobbers and dealers that
shall be placed at the project site during the progress of construction
shall be approved by the Architect as to size, design and contents. After
the completion of the project, the Owner or his building lessee shall con-
sult the Architect for the design and size of all signboards, letterings,
directories and display boards that will be placed on the exterior or public
areas attached to the building, in order to safeguard the Owner's interest
that nothing will be installed inside or outside of the building that would
man tne safety and aesthetics of the structure.
17. Project Construction Cost
Project Construction Cost as herein referred to, means the cost of the
completed structure to the owner including plumbing and electrical fix-

77
tures. mechanical equipment, elevators, escalatC;rs, air-conditioning sys-
tem, automatic fire sprinkler system, alarm and rtock S~'stem, communi-
cations and electronic system, elements attacheJ to the building and all
items indicated in the drawings designed by or specified by the Architect
and his consultant. Other items if designed and planned by tr"le Architect,
such as movable or fixed pieces of furniture, cabinets, covered walks,
grottos, pools, landscaping and other items of similar nature are to be
paid for separately by the Owner to the Architect as stipulated in Section
6.1 0 (Separate Services).
The Project Construction Cost does not include any Architect's fee or
Engineer's fee or the salaries of the construction inspectors. When labor
or materials are furnished by the Owner below its market cost, the cost
of the work shall be computed upon such current market-cost.

DOC 203 SPECIALIZED ALLIED SERVICES


Architecture - the blending of aesthetics, functions, space and materials-re-
sults from the application of the skills of many people. Time and Technology
have moved to a level where other applied professions are needed to complete,
complement or supplement the necessary services for a building project. To-
day, the environmental design professions, of which architecture has a lead
part, are involved with a total commitment to improving the way we live.
The Architect's main responsibility to his client is to produce a structure that will
house the activity it was intended for that is well-planned, soundly constructed,
aesthetically satisfying design and within the financial limitation of the project
The Architect's responsibility to society is to make sure that not the structure
alone but also its physical environmental can enhance the Iivas of all the people.
He relates not only to purely design and build professions but to allied profes-
sions as well, to achieve totality in design.
The design of the structure proper falls under the Architect's Regular Services
(UAP Doc. 202)
Design services needed within and outside the building which require special-
izations fall under "specialized Allied Services" namely:
a. Interior Design.
b. Acoustic, Communication and Electronic Engineering.
c. Landscape Design
C:. Physical Planning
e. Comprehensive Planning

A. INTERIOR DESIGN SERVICES


Depending on the complexity of the project, the Architect may get assis-
tance from Consultants whose expert advice may be needed in the detail-
ing of Interior elements.

SCOPE OF SERVICES
1. The Architect, upon designing a structure, houses specific activities by

78
controlling the spaces where these activities are to take place. The vari-
ous spaces are designed to make the space fit the specific mood and the
required activity.
Due to the discovery of new products and equipment. interior design has
become a field of specialization. As such it offers the following services.
a. Prescribes furniture and interior design finishes appropriate for differ-
ent activities and spaces and prepares furniture and furnishing layout.
b. Prepares the design and schedule of furniture giving their dimensions,
specifications and locations.
c. Assists the client in. conducting bids or negotiations with furniture fab-
ricators and other suppliers.
d. Checks and approves ·samples of materials and shop drawings of fur-
niture, furnishings, fixtures and decor items.
e. Conducts final inspection and approval of furniture and other items.
PAYMENT
1. For projects including extensive detailing such as furniture design built-
in equipment and special fittings, the Architect is paid 15% of the cost of
the work. The fee may however vary from 12% to 20% depending on the
complexity of the work to be undertaken.
2. The fee of the Architect as stipulated above includes the fee of the Con-
sultant working with the Architect.
3. Should the Client hire separately the services of the Consultant, the fee
of said Consultant shall be on the account of the Client and paid directly
by the Client. In such a case, the fee for the Architect for coordinating the
work and relating the work of the Consultant to the design concept of the
Architect will be 5% of the cost of the work.
4. "Cost of the Work" means the total cost of the items which were either
designed specified or procured by the Architect and his Consultant for
the Client, that were used or installed in the interiors of the building.
5. The Architect shall be paid on the following schedule:
a. Upon submission of the preliminary design-- 30% of the tee.
b. Upon submission of the final design- 50% of the fee.
c. Upon completion of the project- 20% of the fee.

B. ACOUSTIC, COMMUNICATION AND ELECTRONIC


ENGINEERING SERVICES
Due to the continuing evolution of products and techniques in sound control,
communications and electronics. there is a wider flexibility in the design of
the interior environment.
The Architect is the prime professional commissioned by the Client to design
the structure and all its utilities and to coordinate the works of all allied de-
sign professionals involved in the project.

79
As acoustic, communication and electronic engineering are fields of special-
ization, the allied professionals who wiH perform these services will serve as
consultants to the Architect and the Client.
The Architect shall coordinate their works and make certain that their inputs
will comply to the requirements of the project and shall Je compatible with
the architectural design concept of the Architect.

SCOPE OF SERVICES
The Architect and the Consultant offer the following services:
a. Prepare the drawings and specifications foF acoustic designs, acoustic treat-
ment, sound control, sound reinforcement, sound insulation and communi-
cation system.
b. Prepare specifications of electronic equipment.
c. Assist the client.in the bidding or negotiation of the work.
d. Check and approve samples of materials and equipment.
e. Conduct final inspection of work and equ1pment.
f. Assist the Client to evaluate the amount due the Contractor.

PAYMENTS
1. The fee for acoustic, communication and electronic engineering services
shall be from 10% to 15% of the cost of the work depending on the magni-
tude and complexity of the work required by the project.
2. The fee of the Architect as stipulated above includes the fee of the consult-
ants working with the Architect.
3. Should the Client hire separately the services of the consultants, the fee of
said consul.tants shall be on the account of the Client paid directly by the
Client. In such a case, the fee of the Architect for coordinating the works of
Consultants and relating their works with the design concept of the Architect
will the 5% of the "Cost of the Work".
4. "Cost of the Work" means the total cost of all equipment, utilities and other
items which were either designed, specified or produced by the Architect
and his Consultants for the Owner, that were used or installed in the project.
5. The Architect shall be paid on the following Schedule:
a. Upon submission of the preliminary design - 30% of the fee
b. Upon submission of the final design - 50% of the fee
c. Upon completion of the project- 20% of the fee.

C. LANDSCAPE DESIGN SERVICES


Arising from his concept of the total environment, the Architect is not merely
concerned with the structure he created but the surrounding space as well.
He studies the structure in relation with the existing environment and then
consequently designs the surrounding areas of the structure so that the en-
vironment act as one

80
Normally, landscaping of small projects can be done by the Architect and his
staff.
If the project, however, is big in scale, the Architect may hire other profes-
sionals Consultants.

SCOPE OF SERVICES
In order to come up with a well-balanced design of the enwonment, the Archi-
tect offers the following services:
a. Prepares the general ground modelling plan and planting layout.
b. Prepares drawings and specifications of needed utility lines.
c. Prepares schedule of shrubs, trees and other plants.
d. Prepare details of landscaping elements.
e. Assists the Client to evaluate the amount due the Contrar.tor.

PAYMENTS
1. The fee for landscape design services shall be from 10% to 15% of the cost
of the work depending on the magnitude and complexity of the work re-
quired by the project.
2. The fee of the Architect as stipulated above includes the fee of the Consult-
ants working with the Architect.
3. Should the Client hire separately the services of the consultant, the fee of
said Consultant shall be on the account of the Client and paid directly by the
Client. In such a case, the fee of the Architect for coordinating the works of
the Consultant and relating his work with the design concept of the Architect
will be 5% of the "Cost of the Work".
4. "Cost of the Work" means the total cost of all landscape work including the
cost of utilities, landscaping materials and development of the site.
5. The Architect shall be paid in the following schedule:
a. Upon submission of the preliminary design - 30% of the fee
b. Upon submission of the final design - 50% of the fee
c. Upon completion of the project - 20% of the fee

D. PHYSICAL PLANNING SERVICES


The Architect is not merely concerned with a structure. He is concerned with
its relation with the immediate surroundings as well. In planning for building
sites (industrial estates, shopping centers, etc.) he studies the possible struc-
tures that will be sited there and their relation to other structures, the sur-
rounding environment, and their effect and impact on the neighboring areas.
If the Architect is commissioned to do physical plans for a specified site, he
has to study human behavior and activities, look into the city's economic
systems, its laws and regulations, tax structure, the city's infrastructure, utili-
ties and on the whole, everything that will have a bearing on the project.
When the Architect is exposed to all these aspects in sufficient detail he is
engaged in the practice of a specialized service - that of Physical Planning.

81
DEFINITION OF PHYSICAL PLANNING
Physical Planning is the art and science of ordering the use of land siting of
btlilding and communication routes to secure the maximum practicable degree
of economy, social amenities, convenience and aesthetics.
It is approached through a mechanism which integrates in time and space the
following components:
a. Physical, pertaining to the world of material things, the tangible and aes-
thetics.
b. Social, concerned with the condition of people.
c. Economic and administrative - including the science of management
and resources.
These components are used in reference to a smaller sca~e the siting of build-
ings and its influence c,n the neighboring areas to be affected.

ROL.E OF THE ARCHITECT-PLANNER


1. All ideas, concepts, needs and data eventually have to be translated into
physical plans before they can be implemented. It is the Architect who pro-
vides a 3-dimensional perspective to 2-dimensional plan. By virtue of the
Architect's training and experience in coordinating the works of a multi-dis-
ciplinary team, the Architect becomes the logical prime professional respon-
sible for the direction of th~ team efforts to deal with the planning work.
2. The physical planning services of the Architect is separate and distinct from
the Architect's regular services. The latter being concerned with the produc-
tion of a structure of building with all its attendant sophistications and com-
plexities while the former is concerned with the general quality of the setting
for people, activities, buildings and other natural and man-made pheno-
menon.
3. Depending on the complexity of the project the Architect may hire additional
Consultant whose expert advise may be needed to validate certain feature
of the physical plan. The fee of any additional Consultant needed in the
project must be paid for separately by the Client.

PHYSICAL PLANNING SERVICES


When the Architect is commissioned to do physical planning for building sites
such as Industrial Estates, Commercial Institutional and Government Centers,
Sports Complexes, Tourist Centers, Resorts, Amusement Parks, Educational
Campuses, Housing Subdivisions and the like, the services are as follows:
a. Confers with the Client on project requirements and secures and/or gene-
rates sufficient data base from which reliable projections and/or analyses
can be made for translation to physical design.
b. Examines laws ordinances, rules and regulations affecting the project.
c. Prepares concept development plans and report from relevant information
gathered by other disciplines.
d. Prepares scaled preliminary plans showing physical allocatiQn of areas, roads
and pedestrian arteries, basic utility layouts and building envelopes.

82
e. Prepares budgetary estimate of cost of physical deveiopment.
f. Undertake modifications, revisions and changes as may be required.
g. Prepares Final Plans, Report and Specifications neeoed tor approval by the
proper government agencies concerned.

PHYSICAL PLANNING
SCHEDULE OF FEES

Type 1
Physical Planning for building sites such as Industrial Estates, Commercial
Centers, Sports complexes, Resorts, Tourist Centers, Amusement Parks, Edu-
cational Campuses, Institutional and Government Centers and Site Planning of
any complex consisting of several structures within a contiguous site.
• Basic rate for P 5,000 per hectare
the first 50
hectares or less
• Over 50 - P 250,000 plus
hectares up to P 4,500 per
100 hectares · per hectare in excess
of 50 hectares
Over 100 P 475,000 plus
hectares up to P 4,000 per
200 hectares hectare in excess
• Over 200 hectares P 875,000 plus
P 3,000 per
per hectare in excess
of 200 hectares
• All References to fixed amoun~ are based on the 1979 purchasing value
of the Peso. Adjustment of the fee shall be made at the time of the
contract due to inflation and other factors.

Type2
Subdivision Planning for housjng on properties within Metro-Manila, cities re-
gional centers and provincial capitals.
• Basic rate for - P 3,000 per
the first 100 hectares hectare
or less
• Over 100 hectare up - P 300,000 plus
to 200 hectares P 2,300 per
hectare in excess of
100 hectares
• Over 200 hectares - P 550,000 plus
P 2,000 per
hectare in excess of
200 hectares

83
Type3
Subdivision Planning for housing on properties located on other localities be-
side those under Type 2.
• Basic Rate for the - P 2,000 per
first 100 hectares or hectare
less
• Over 100 hectares up - P 200,000 plus
to 200 hectares P 1,500 per
hectare in excess
of 1 00 hectares
• Over 200 hectares - P 350,000 plus
P 1,000 per
hectare in excess
of 200 hectares
The rate stipulated under Article 5 above is based on the assumption that the
land to be developed is moderately flat. If the land is rugged with steep terrain
the fee shall increase by thirty percent (30%).

OTHER CONDITIONS ON PHYSICAL PLANNING


1. The Architect may undertake the site planning of a project requiring a com-
posite arrangement of several building envelop on a contiguous site of a
moderate size of three (3) hectares or less. Any commission on physical
planning of a larger magnitude or a complex nature, s110uld be done by the
Architect with several years of experience in planning or has had additional
academic training in planning. He should most importantly possess admin-
istrative, technical and managerial ability aside from an equitable social com·
mitment.
2. Should other services be required by the project, such as environmental
studies, feasibility study, market analysis, movement systems, impact analysis
and others. said services should be performed by an Architect acting as the
prime professional of the team.
3. The cost for environmental studies surveys, site investigation and titling of
the parcels of land shall be on the account of the Owner.
4. The detailed design of the building and landscaping elements is not part of
physical planning services and shall be treated separately under the "Archi-
tects Regular Services" or "Specialized Allied Services."
5. For the preparation of detailed engineering drawings and specifications on
roads drainage, sewerage, power and communication system an additional
fee of four percent (4%) of the cost of the development is to be charged.

E. COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING SERVICES

.
EXPERTISE
Planning calls for the detailed study of physical, social, economic and adminis-
trative components and as such requires the expertise and knowledge of other
specialists.

84
Comprehensive Planning Services is the range of all services offered by the
environrnental-pJanner from data base gathering to environmental impact state-
ments up to the formulation of the Master Development Plan.
In the formulation of the Master Development Plan, the following components
are to be consk.fered:
a. Physical COmponent
Concerned with land use and the changes which occur within the physical
environment (within the space where these activities take place).
b. Economic Component
Concerned with the nation's assets and 1ts management.
c. Socio-Cultural Component
Concerned with the people, their living conditions and the seeking of ways
to ameliorate it.
d. Transport Component
Concerned with the movement of people and goods from one place to
another.
e. Legal and Administrative Component
Concerned with the relationship of policies to the ex•sting laws

THE ARCHITECT AS ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNER


The Architect's ability to synthesize and organize into a whole, various informa-
tion relating to the user's needs, user's perception and expectations, site and
climatic factors, construction technology, materials, cost and other information
has qualified him to take the lead role in any undertaking that cut across various
disciplines.
The Environmental Planner is concerned with tne management and use of land
as well as conservation and upgrading of the human environment. Since the
Architect, with experience in planning has the social commitment and technical
experience as coordinator of several disciplines, he is qualified as the Environ-
mental Planner and leader of the multi-disciplinary team to offer Comprehen-
sive Planning Services.

COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING SERVICES


When the Environmental Planner is commissioned to do town and regional plan-
ning or urban renewal projects, he performs the following:
a. Identifies existing land use, resources, social behavior and interaction.
b. Undertakes environmental analysis feasibility studies, demographic
analysts.
c. Examines existing laws, ordinances, political/Social constraints.
d. Prepares concept development plans, policies, implementing strategies to
arrive at the Master Development Plan.

85
COMPENSATION FEES
As a specialized service, the Architect shall be compensatec' fer by the follow-
ing methods:
a. Professional Fee plus Expenses
The fee of the Architect- Planner for the Physical planning cor:1po ne nt is based
on the schedule prescribed under UAP Doc. 203-d "Physical Flanning Ser-
vices" while the fee for consuhants, researches and other out of pocket ex-
penses are·reimbursable to the Architect.
b. Multiple of Direct Personnel Expense
Refer to UAP Doc. 208-b "Methods of Compensation" for details.

J. CO,NTRACTS. . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . MATCHING TYPE

1. LUMP SUM
CONiRACTS ........................ ( A. The person/s managing the
construction in behalf of the
owner. In here, the contract may
have been awarded to a Gen-
eral Contractor and the contrac-
tor is directly managed by the
management group.

2. UNIT PRICE
CONTRACT ........................... ( B. A pledge, a promise or assur-
ance with confidence that the
amount to be used in a con-
c;truction will not exceed the
specified cost whatever savings
made will be shared by the con-
tractor and' the owner.

3. COST PLUS FIXED


FEE CONTRACT ................... ( C. A fixed quantity, amount, dis-
tance, measure, used as stan-
dard or basis in awarding work
credits. An example is cost per
cu. m., per sq. m., per lineal m.,
per piece, per bag, per hour, per
bd. ft., etc.

4. COST PLUS PERCENTAGE


FEE OF COST OF
PROJECT .............................. ( D. The contractor here manages or
directs the affair of the construc-
tion project like 9rdering mate-
rials and 11iring of personnel, but

86
the owner is responsible for
paying the bills, payroll, rent of
equipments.

5. ADMINISTRATION
CONTRACT ........................... ( E. With the price for goods or ser-
vices set at the cost of materi-
als, labor, etc. plus a specified
amount of profit.

6. MANAGEMENT
CONTRACT ........................... ( F. When the contractor is capable
and willing to finance the whole
project without any financial
help from the owner. The con-
tractor takes care of the design,
the construction including
changes, revisions, and just
turnover the finished building to
be paid.

7. GUARANTEED MAXIMUM
PLUS PARTICIPATION
ON SAVINGS ......................... ( G. After knowing the cost from add-
ing all receipts, payrolls, labor,
materials, etc., a specified per-
centage (%) is added.

8. TURNKEY PROJECT ............ ( H. A gross or total sum paid at one


time. Advantageous for a stan-
dardized type of construction
and where a variety of opera-
tions is required making it im-
practicable to break down the
work into units.

K. BIDDING (work under detailed Engineering). MATCHING TYPE

1. DESIGN STANDARDS .......... ( A. Speciftcations shall be prepared


for specific items of work or
methods of construction, mea-
surement and payment under
each contract, which are not
covered by standard construc-
tion and material specifications
adopted by the corporation con-
cerned.

2. FIELD SURVEY ..................... ( B. This is a propQsal bond in the


amount of 2 -t% of the total bid

87
price in the form of cash, certi-
fied check. manager's check, or
bank guarantee confirmed by a
local oanK. payable to the owner
as guarantee that the success-
ful bidd·Jr shall within 30 calen-
dar days from receipt of the
NOA or notice of award, enter
into contract with the owner and
furnish the performance bond.

3. CONTRACT PLANS .............. ( C. In the event that the contractor


refuses or fails to satisfactorily
complete the work within the
aforesaid period of time, the
owner is entitled and shall have
the right to deduct from any sum
to become due the contractor
the sum of ten percent of one
percent of the contract price for
every day of delay.

4. QUANTITIES ......................... ( D. This construction cost shall be


prepared by official duly desig-
nated by the Head of office con-
cerned (This is the cost ap-
proved by the Head) and shall
be held confidential and signed,
sealed, and ready for presenta-
tion on the day of the opening
of the opening of bids/tenders,
and shall be announced publicly
before the various bids are read.

5. SPECIAL
PROVISIONS ........................ ( E. This is a written notice to the
contractor if there is a decrease
in work due to deletion of work
items in the project, or where
there is a reclassification of any
existing item like earth excava-
tion to solid rock excavation, not
known at the time o; bidding, or
damage to structure due to
force majeure.

6. UNIT PRICE .......................... ( F. This is furnished by the contrac-


tor to the owner five days after
signing the contr~ct, in the form
of a surety bond given by a

88
reputable Insurance Agency
equivalent to 10% of the con-
tract price, conditioned for the
Faithful compliance of the con-
tract and the satisfaction of ob-
ligations for materials used and
labor employed on the work,
and effective within a period of
one year.

~ APPROVEDAGENCY
ESTIMATE (AAE) .................. ( G. This include site development
plans, plans and profile sheet,
typical sections and details,
drainage details. structural
plans.

8. BID/TENDER
DOCUMENTS ....'.................... ( H. To determine the optimum
safety of structure and to mini-
mize possible earthquakes
dJmage.

9. PROGRAM OF WORK .......... ( I. All of these construction items


shall be computed to a reason-
able accuracy of plus or minus
fifteen (15%} percent to avoid
variation orders.

10. PBAC PREOUALIFICATION


BID AND AWARD
COMMITTEE ......................... ( J. These shall be prepared for
each contract using costs,
based on reasonable approved
current prices, divided into local
and foreign exchange costs.

11. OBLIGATIONS ....................... ( K. This include: Instruction to bid-


ders, General conditions,
Agenda, Itemized bill of Quan-
tities, Daywork schedule, Form
of Bid/Tender Bond, perfor-
mance Bond, Specifications.

12. CHANGE ORDER ................. ( L. Necessary surveys which may


include aerial, hydrographic,
topographic, subsu~ace,
monumenting, etc.

89
13. BIDDER'S BOND ................... ( M. Each Office/Agency/Corp. shall
have in each head office or its
implementing offices a Prequa-
lification, bidding, evaluation of
bids and recommending award
of contracts. Each committee
shall be composed of chairman
and members.

14. PERFORMANCE
BOND .................................... ( N. When prices of materials,
wages, as per agreement or
contract goes up abnormally
(too high or great difference in
cost) or decreases. This is
based on fluctuation in the cost
of living, production, costs, etc.

15. LIQUIDATED
DAMAGES ............................. ( 0. A binding leg .... l agreement or a
moral responsibility, something
which a person is bound to do
or not to do as a result of such
an agreement or responsibility.

16. ESCALATION
CLAUSE ................................. ( P. This is made before prosecut-
ing any project, it shall be pre-
pared and submitted for ap-
proval. In no case shall con-
struction funds be ·emitted to
field office. or a project be
started before this is approved.
It includes e'Stimate of the work
items, quantities and costs and
PERT/CPM network of the
project activities.

L. TIME OF CONSTRUCTION COMPLETION MATCHING TYPE

1. SCHEDULING ....................... ( A. A technique that separates


planing and scheduling. It also
clarifies the interrelationship be-
tween time and cost. This
method evaluates all the pos-
sible alternative plans for a
project and associates each
plan with a schedule. It is a tech-
nique for finding the ordered
sequence of all the activities.

90
2. PLANNING ............................. ( B. Planning the size of buildings in
regard to the ratio of net area to
gross area.

3. PROGRAMMING ................... ( c. An arrow Diagram defining the


activities in the project. An ac-
tivity cannot start if other activi-
ties before it has not been com-
pleted.

4. EFFICIENCY RATIOS ........... ( D. The placing of the plan on a


calendar timetable and showing
the allocation of the equipment
and manpower that will put the
plan into effect.

5. BAR CHART METHOD ......... ( E. It is sometimes necessary to


use a "convector" type of activ-
ity that doesn't really represent
work, but merely helps to ob-
serve the rule of network . This
special activity is drawn as dot-
ted line and indicates that no
work is involved in that activity.
This involves no duration and no
cost. It serves only as a depen-
dency connector or sequence
indicator.

6. CRITICAL PATH
METHOD ............................... ( F. The function of coordinating in
a logical order all the activities,
persons, machines and materi-
als necessary to complete the
project.

7. NETWORK ............................. ( G. A chart prepared by a contrac-


tor, brought to date monthly (or
weekly); the principal trades of
the project are tabulated verti-
cally and the scheduled con-
struction shown horizontally
from left to right;

8. DUMMY ................................. ( H. A process leading to the state-


ment of an architectural pro-
gram and the requirements to
be met in offering a solution,
such as a complete listing of the
rooms required, their sizes, spe-
cial facilities, etc. It ls the search

91
for sufficient information to
clarify, to understand, to state
the problem solving. This is
problem seeking.

M. PROJECTS MATCHING TYPE

1. PROJECT FEASIBILITY

STUDY ................................... ( A. Pertaining to a whole or to most


of its parts, not limited to one
class, field or product, dealing
with all or the overall universal
aspects of the subject under
consideration, a circumstance
indispensable to some result,
that on which something else is
contingent to put into the re-
quired state.

2. EXECUTIVE
SUMMARY ............................. ( B. Something involving a risk,
which is owned or done in com-
mon agreement with one or
more persons, groups, or gov-
ernment.

3. CASH FLOW ......................... ( C. A body or society entitled to act


as a single person, an artificial
person created by charter,
made up of many persons and
registered with the SEC or Se-
curities and 'Exchange Commis-
sion.

4. GENERAL
CONDITIONS ........................ ( D. Only, unshared or exclusive, a
person who has legal rights of
possession of land an object, or
a process of manufacture or dis-
tribution.

5. SPECIFICATIONS ................ ( E. This is a tabulation to show how


money is distributed or used in
a continuous movement
smoothly particularly the work-
ing capital.

92
6. JOINT-VENTURE .................. ( F. Concerned with or relating to,
the feasibility or project study in
a digested form, or a compre-
hensive brief abstract (concise,
direct and prompt) usually con-
taining only 30 pages.

7. SOLE
PROPRIETORSHIP ............... { G. A list of materials supplied and
work done by a builder, engi-
neer or required for a project to
be carried out (a detailed de-
scription of an architect's list of
materials) and the procedure of
execution.

8. CORPORATION .................... ( H. A word defined as capable of


being done or carried out; prac-
ticable possible and within rea-
son, a project which when car-
ried out or built is capable of
being used or dealt with suc-
cessfully. In this case, a reason-
able return of investment or ROI
to the financiers or developers.

DIRECTION: Read the passages and answer the questions that follow. Shade the
circle ~(•) of the correct answer to each question.

N. CONTRACTOR DOCUMENTS

1. Which of the following may the owner not do?


A 8 C D
0000
A. Stop work if the contractor's performance is not sat-
isfactory or in variance with the contract documents.

B. Carry on the work and deduct costs normally due to


the contractor for these corrections.

C. Stop the work if the Architect reports safety prob-


lems on the site.

D. Refuse, with good cause, to give the contractor proof


that the owner can meet the financial obligations of
the project .

93
2. If, during bidding, your client asked you to provide a A B C D
full-time staff member on the job site during construc-
tion you would be entitled to extra compensation
0000
under what provision would this be?

A. CONTRACT SUM

B. CONTINGENT ADDITIONAL SERVICES

C. PROJECT REPRESENTATION BEYOND


BASIC SERVICES

D. OPTIONAL ADDITIONAL CHARGES

3. The standard owner-architect agreement separates A B C D


the architect from the contractor with what? 0 0 0 ()
A. DUTIES TO THE C. ARCHITECT'S
CONTRACTOR SERVICES

B. PRIVITY D. THIRD PARTY


RELATIONSHIP

4. What is used to encourage the contractor to finish A B C D


the job or to satisfy mechanics lien claims by sub-
contractors?
0000
A. RETAINAGE C. SURETY BOND

B. FIXED LIMIT D. LIQUIDATED


DAMAGES

5. What Fee method would you prefer if your Client was A B C D


doing their first architectural project and did not yet 0000
have a program?

A. FIXED SUM C. PERCENTAGE OF


CONSTRUCTION
COST

B. MULTIPLE OF D. UNITCOST
DIRECT BASED ON
PERSONNEL SQUARE
EXPENSE METER

6. A project is about 60 percent complete when the A B C D


owner begins receiving field reports from the archi-
tect stating that the contractor is failing to properly
0000
supervise the job, resulting in incorrect work. After
several weeks of this the owner becomes worried

94
and asks the Architecf what to do. What should be
done if the work is being performed under the terms
and conditions of the BUILDING CONTRACT?

A. After receiving the architect"s field reports, the


owner should stop the work and arrange for a
meeting between the owner, architect and con-
tractor to determine the cause of the problems
and what the contractor intends to do. If the con-
tractor does not correct the work, the owner
should carry out the work with other contractors
and deduct the cost by change order from the
original contractor's construction cost.

B. The architect should recommend that the owner


give the contractor written notice of non-conform-
ance with the contract documents and if, after
seven days the contractor has not begun correc-
tive measures, terminate the contract.

C. The architect and owner should discuss the prob-


lem to see if the owner would be willing to accept
it in exchange for a reduction in +he contract sum.
If not, the owner should give seven days written
notice to terminate the contract and find another
contractor to finish the job.

D. The Architect should, with the owner's knowledge,


reject non-coniorming work and notify the con-
tractor that it must be corrected promptly. The
Architect should then remind the owner that the
owner can have the work corrected after giving
the contractor two {2) seJen day written notices
to correct the work.

7. Which of the following describes agency? A B C D


A. The architect acts on behalf of the owner, mak- 0000
ing decisions and expediting the work and taking
on responsibilities the owner would normally
have.

B. The architect mediates hetween the owner and


the contractor and vendors fur the benefit of the
owner.

C. The architect is the principal of the relationship


who balances the needs of the contractor and
the owner.

95
D. The architect works for the owner in certain des-
ignated area with the authority to act on the
owner's behalf.

8. You have a client who owns a large m<1nufact1:~i'"'q fl P r ~

plant and needs to expand to new facilities without


interruption in production. The owner has alreacy ar-
0000
ranged for a flexible line of credit to tinanco·u:.>ll;:, uc
tion but wants to minimize project costs. It th€' r~w
facility will be very similar to the previous one. onlv
sized for greater production capacity, which type cf
construction would you recommend?

A. DESIGN-BUILD C. MULTIPLE PRIME


CONTRACT

B. FAST-TRACK D. DESIGN-AWARD-
BUILD

9. Which of the following are part of the contract docu- A B C D


ments? · 000(.)
I. an addendum IV the contractor's bid

II. a change oraer V. a written amendmen;

II I. special supplementary
conditions

A. I, Ill, and V C. II, Ill, IV, and V

B. I, II, Ill, andV D. all of the above

10. Which one of the following is not an accurate state- A B C D


ment? 0000
A. The architect is responsible for a defect in the
work if she or he sees it but fails to report it to the
contractor.

B. The owner has the sole right to make changes in


the work but must do it through the architect.

C. The architect does not have to verify soil test re-


ports given by the o•vner.

D. By the time construction documents are almost


completed, the architect still does not have to give
a reasonably accurate construction price.

96
11. Which of the following would be used to formally in- A B C D
corporate a substitution into the work prior to the 0000
award of the contract?

A. CHANGE ORDER C. ALTERNATE LISTING

B. ADDENDUM D. CONSTRUCTION
CHANGE DIRECTIVE

12. Which of the following are part of the bidding docu- A B C D


ments? 0000
I. SPECIFICATIONS Ill. LIST OF SUBCON-

II. INVITATION TO IV. OWNER-CONTRAC-


BID TOR AGREEMEN.l

V. PERFORMANCE
BOND

A. I, II, tV, and V C. II, Ill, IV, and V

B. II, Ill, and IV D. all of the above

0. BIDDING AND CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS

1 . At the time scheduled for a bid opening, a contractor A b c lj

comes rushing into the room three minutes late with his 00 (.) 0
bid. You have not begun to open the bids What should
you do?

A. Refuse to accept the bid, stating that the deadline


has passed.

B. Ask if there one are no objections from the other


bidders to accepting the bid since none have been
opened yet.

C. Accept the bid with prejudtce.

D. Accept the bid since none have been opened but


make a mental note to look on it with disfavor when
you are evaluating it.

2. Which of the following is generally not true about bid- A B c D


ding?
C'
- 0
'-j

A. Bidding procedures must be clearly and extensively


outlined in the instructions to bidders because there
are so many variations of the procedures.

97
B. Bidding is nearly always necessary for public works
or government project.

C. Open bidding usually presents more problems than


other types.

D. Competitive bidding takes more time than negotia-


tion but can result in a lower construction cost.

3. A performance bond is designed to: A c D


B

A. ensure that the subcontractors complete their work. 0 0 0 0


B. guarantee that the contractor will finish on time.

C. cover any possible liens that may be filed on the


building.

D. protect the owner by having a third party respon-


sible for completing the work if the contractor does
not.

4. If the lowest bid come in 20 percent over your· client's A B C D


construction. budget, what would be the best advise you
could give your client?
0000
A. that you revise the design at no cost to the client to
reduce the construction cost.

B. that the project be rebid using another list of con-


tractors.

C. that you and the client work to revise the scope of


the project to reduce cost.

D. that all the deduct-alternates be accepted to reduce


the bid, and that the client authorize a slight increase
in construction cost to bring the two closer together.

5. What variable affects a bid the most? A B C D

A. the contractor's profit margin 0000


B. the influences of the construction marketplace

C. labor and materials

D. subcontractor bids

98
6. In what order should the following activities take place A B C D
during project closeout? 0000
1. preparation of the final certificate for payment

11. punch list

Ill. issuance of the certificate of substantial comple-


tion

IV. notification by the contractor that the proJect is


ready for final inspection

V. receipt of consent of surety

A. II, Ill, V, IV, then I C. IV, II, V, I, then Ill

B. II, IV, Ill, V, then I D IV, V. 11. Ill. then I

7. Substantial completion indicates that A B C [)


()C)Q(_)
A. the owner can make use of the work for its intended
ptJrpose and the requirements of the contract docu-
ments have been fulfilled

B. the contractor has completed correcting punct1 list


items

C. the final certificate for payment is issued by the Ar-


chitect and all documentation has been delivered to
the owner

D. all of the above

8. During a periodic visit to the site the architect notices A B C D


what appears to be an undersized variable air volume
box being installed. What should the Architect do?
0000
A. Notify the mechanical engineer to look at the situa-
tion during the next site visit by the engineer. Note
. the observation on a field report.

B. Find the contractor and stop work on the installation


until the size of the unit can be verified by the me-
chanical engineer and compared against the con-
tract documents.

C. Nottty the owner in writing that the work is not pro-


ceeding according to the contract documents. Ar-
range a meeting with the mechanical engineer to
resolve the situation.

99
D. Notify the contractor that the equipment may be un-
dersized and have the contractor check on it. Ask
the mechanical engineer to verify the size of the unit
against the specifications and report to the architect.

9. An architect would use which one of the following instru- A B C D


ments of the building department required additional exit
signs beyond those shown on the approved plans when
0000
the project was 90 percent complete?

A. order for minor C. change order


change

B addendum D. construction change


directive

10. The contractor is solely responsible for: A B C D

I. field reports to the owner 0000


II. field tests

Ill. scaffolding

IV reviewing claims of subcontractor

V r·eviewing shop drawings

A. I. II. and 1!1 C. II, Ill, and IV

B II. and Ill D. Ill. and V

11 Wh1ch of tt1e following is not true about submittals? A c D


B

A. H1e architect must review them prior to checking by 0 0 0 0


the contractor

f3 rh8 contractor is ultimately responsible for the ac-


curacy of dimensions and quantities.

C They are not considered part of the contract docu-


ments

D The contractor can reject them and request


resubmit! a I

100
12. If a contractor makes a claim for additional money due A B C D
to extra work cause by unforseen circumstances, the 0000
architect must respond within:

A. 5 days C. 10 days

B. 7 days D. not until supporting


data are submitted

P. THE PROJECT MANUAL AND SPECIFICATIONS

1. The PROJECT MANUAL is a bound book containing all the contract and
non-contract documents for a construction project except the drawings The
project manual contains the technical SPECIFICATIONS, but it also includes
several other types of documents.
A. Organization of the Project Manual
The project manual is divided into four (4) major parts.
1. BIDDING REQUIREMENTS;

2. PARTS OF THE CONTRACT ITSELF, which will contain the agree


ment between owner and contractor, bond forms. and the l1ke
3. The GENERAL and SUPPLEMENTARY CONDITIONS of the cfH1
tract:
4. The TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

A more detailed list of contents of the project might include some o; Z1ll c_,!
the following:

• Bidaing requirements
• invitation to bid
• prequalification forms
• instruction to bidders
• information available to bidders
• bid forms

• Supplements to bid forms


• bid security forms
• subcontractor list
• substitution list
• Contract forms
• agreement (contract between owner/contractor)
• performance bond
• labor and materials payment bond
• certificates of insurance
101
• General and supplementary conditions
• general conditions of the conti act
• supplementary conditions

• Technical Specifications

B. Coordination with the Drawings


The technical specifications and the drawings are "COMPLIMENTARY".
The "DRAWINGS" show the general coniiguration and layout of the
building; the size, shape, and dimensions of the construction, and general
notes to explain the graphic representation.
The "TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS" describe the quality of materials
and workmanship, along with general requirements for the execution of
the work, standards, aild other items that are more appropriately described
in written, rather than graphic form.
The drawings, technical specifications and other parts of the project
manual must be cooroinated to avoid conflicting requirements,
duplications, omissions, and errors. These are several areas of particular
concern,

1. The specifications should contain requirements for a!l the materials


and construction indicated on the drawings. A common checklist
used by both the specifications writer and the project manager or
job captain is one way to accomplish this.

2. The Terminology used in both documents should be the same. If \he


term "gypsum board" is used in the specifications, the term "drywall"
should not be shown on the drawings.

3. Dimensions and thicknesses should only be indicated on one docu-


ment. If the thickness of flashing is included in the technical specifi-
cations, there is no need to note it on the drawings.

4. Notes on the drawings should not describe methods of installation


or materials qualities; these belong in the specifications.
When there is a "CONFLICT" between the drawings and specifi-
cations, the specifications are more binding and take precedence
over the drawings.

2. SPECIFICATIONS

These must be complete, accurate, unambiguous, and exact. Some standard


methods ot preparing specitications are in general use.
In addition, "MASTER SPECIFICATIONS" are available that can be used
as starting documents. This is prewritten text that includes the majority of
requirements foi a particular specification section. Master specifications
are edited by deleting unnecessary portions, adding particular require-
ments tor a specific job, and coordinating them with other specification

102
sections and other parts of the project manual. They are available in
written form and on computer disk.
A. Types of Specifications
There are two (2) broad categories of specifications.
1. Prescriptive - sometimes called closed
2. Performance- known as open

Prescriptive specifications tell exactly what product or material you want


the contractor to use by using brand names.

Performances specifications tell what results you want the final construc-
tion assembly to achieve, but they give the contractor some choice in how
they will be achieved.

The type you will select will depend on several factors Public projects al-
most require open specifications in order to encourage competitive bidding
In other cases, you may want to use a closed specification to ensure that
only one particular product is used. Whether the job 1s bid or a negotiated
contract may also affect your choice with bidding, you want to allow the
contractor as much choice as possible so he or she can find the lowest
price within the context of the specification requirements,

Types of Prescriptive Specifications

a. "PROPRIETARY SPECIFICATIONS" are the most restrictive in that they


call out a specific manufacturer's product. These give the architect com-
plete control over what is installed. They are easier than other types to
write and are generally shorter. However, they do not allow for competi-
tive bidding and by limiting products you may force the contractor to get
materials that may be difficult or expensive to procure in a certa1n geo-
graphical area or that require excessive delivery time.

b. A base bid with alternates is a type of specification that cc.!ls out a


proprietary product but allows the substitution of other products that the
contractor thinks are equal to the one stated. This is a "DANGEROUS"
method of specifying because the contractor may substitute a less ex-
pensive item that he or she thinks is an equal, but which usually is not.

There are two (2) variations of the base bid specification.

1. The first lists several approved manufacturers of a product. The con-


tractor is free to bid on any one listed. This type satisfies the require-
ments for public work where at least three different manufacturers must
be listed, but it puts the burden on the architect to make sure that every
one of the approved products or manufacturers listed is equal.

2. The second variation is a bid with "APPROVED EQUAL" language this


specification states one product or an approved equal must be used.

103
This means that th~ntractor may submit a proposed substitution but
it is subject to review and approval by the architect before it can be
incorporated into the bid. Although this gives the contractor some free-
dom in looking for lower priced alternates, it also puts the burden for
finding them on the contractor. However, the responsibility for fairly and
accurately evaluating the proposed alternates is placed on the archi-
tect or owner.

Types of Perfonnance (open) specifications


a. A "DESCRIPTIVE" specification gives detailed written requirements for
the materials or product and the workmanship required for its fabrica-
tion and installation. It does not mention trade names. In its purest form,
a descriptive specification is difficult to write because you must include
all the pertinent requirements for the construction and installation of the
product.

A variation of the descriptive type is a:

b. "REFERENCE" standard specification. This describes a material, prod-


uct, or process based on requirements (reference standards) set by an
accepted authority or test method. For example, a product type can be
required to meet the testing standards produced by such organizations
as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), the Ameri-
can National Standards Institute (ANSI), or Underwriter's Laboratories
(UL). Reference can also be made to specific trade associations, such
as the Architectural wood Institute, the American Iron and Steel Insti-
tute, and the Gypsum Association.

For example, in specifying gypsum wallboard you can state that all gypsum
wallboard products must meet the requirements of ASTM C36. This par-
ticular document describes in great detail the requirements for gypsum wall-
board so you do not have to repeat it and can inste;:~d refer to generally
recognized industry standard.

Reference standard specifications are fairly easy to write and are generally
short. Chances for errors are redL.lced and your liability minimized because
you are using industry standards ahd generally recognized methods of build-
Ings

A pure performance specification i$ a statement setting criteria and results


required of the item being specifi~,d. which can be verified by measure-
ment, test evaluation, or other types of assurance that the final result meets
the criteria. The means of achieving the re-111uired results are not specified,
leaving that up to the person trying to meet the specification.

A true performance specification is often used for construction components


when the specifier wants to encourage new ways of achieving a particular
end result. For example, a movable partition system could be specified by
stating its required fire rating, acoustical properties, finish, maximum thick-

104
ness, tolerances, size required and all the other required properties. It would
then be up to the contractor and manufacturer to design and develop a
system to meet the criteria.
Performance specifications are difficult to write because the specifier must
know all the criteria, state the methods for testing compliance, and be
prepared for the cost consequences.

B. Specification Writing Guidelines


• The language must be precise
• must be complete, accurate and unambiguous
• know what the standards and test methods referred to include and
what parts of them are applicable to your project. They must also be
the most current editions.
• Do not specify together the results and the methods proposed to
achieve those results, as the result may be a conflict. For instance, if
you specify that a brick must have certain absorption characteristics
according to an ASTM test method and then specify a particular brick
that does not meet the stated requirements, the specification will be
IMPOSSIBLE to comply with.
• Do not include standards that cannot be measured. For example, say-
ing that the work should be done in "a first class manner" is subject to
wide interpretation.
• Avoid "EXCULPATORY CLAUSES". These are phrases that try to shift
responsibility to the contractor or someone else in a very broad, gen-
eral way. An example is something like "contractor shall be totally re-
sponsible for all ... Unless the clause is generally accepted wording or
makes sense in the context of the specification", Current legal opinion
disapproves of such clauses, especially when they favor the person
who wrote1hem.
• Avoid words or phrases that are ambiguous. The combination and/or,
for example, is [Jnclear and should be replaced with one word or the
other. The abbreviation "etc." is also vague and implies that a list can
go on forever and may include something you do not want it to include.
The word "any" implies the contractor has a choice. This is acceptable
if you want to allow a choice, but most often you do not.
• Ke~p the specifications as short as possible. Specification writing can
be terse, even sometimes omitting unnecessary words like "all", '1he",
"an", and "a".
• Describe only one major idea in each paragraph. This makes reading
easier and improves comprehension and it also makes changing the
specification easier.

105
Q. MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS

1. Which of the following would not be found in a project A B C D


manual?
0000
A. bid log C. sitework specifications
B. subsurface soil D. bid bond
conditions report

2. A performance specification: A B C 0

A. allows innovation by the contractor 0000


B. required more work by the architect
C. is not appropriate for normal building products
D. all of the above

3. What is likely to occur if the drawings and specifications A B C 0


are not thoroughly coordinated?
0000
I. a decrease of the actual cost from the estimated
cost because the contractor bid on a less expen-
sive material shown on the drawings while the
same material was called out as a more expen-
sive type in the specifications
II. a lawsuit
Ill. the need for a change order during construction
to account for modifications required to correct
discrepancies in the two documents
IV. a delay in construction
V. an increase in cost because the contractor bia
the least expensive choice between two conflict-
ing requirements when the client wanted the more
expensive option

A. I, Ill, and IV C. II, IV, and V

B. I and Ill D. Ill, IV, and V

Question 4 refers to the following excerpt from a speci-


fication.
Part 2 - Products
2.01 Metal Support Material
General: To the extent not otherwise indicated, comply
with ASTM C754 for metal system supporting gypsum
wallboard.

106
Ceiling suspension main runners: 112 inches steel
channels, cold rolled.

Hanger wire: ASTM A641, soft, Class 1 galvanized,


prestretched; sized in accordance with ASTM C754.

Hanger anchorage devices: size for 3 x calculated loads,


except size direct-pull concrete inserts for 5 x calculated
loads.

Studs: ASTM C645; 25 gage, 212 inches deep, except


as otherwise indicaterl
ASTM C645; 25 gage, 3% inches deep.
ASTM C645; 20 gage, 6 inches deep.

Runners: Match studs; type recommended by stud manu-


facturer for floor and ceiling support of studs, and for
vertical abutment or drywall work at other work.

Furring members: ASTM C65; 25 gage, hat-shaped

Fasteners: Type and size recommended by furring manu-


facturer for the substrate and application indicated.

4. Which item is described as a performance specification? A B C (J

A. fasteners C. hanger anchorage 0 \J ',J ()


devices

B. hanger wire D. ceiling suspension


main runners

5. In specifying asphalt roofing shingles, which of the fol- A B C D


lowing types of specifications would you probably not
use?
0000
A. descriptive C. reference standard

B. base bid or equal D. base bid with


alternate approved
manufacturers

6. Which of the following are generally true of specifica-


tions?

I. Both narrowscope and broadscope sections can


be used in the same project manual.

107
II. For the contractor, drawings are more binding than
the specifications if there is a conflict.

Ill. Specifications show quality; drawings show quan-


tity.

IV. Proprietary specifications are the same as prescrip-


tive specifications.

V. They should not be open to interpretation if they are


the base bid type.

A. I, Ill, IV, and V C. II, Ill, and IV

B. I, Ill, and V D. all of the above

7 Where would you find requirements for testing a plumb- A B C D


ing system?
0000
A. in a section of Division 1 of the specifications

B. in Part 1 of Section 15400, Plumbing

C. in Part 2 of Section 15400, Plumbing

D. in Part 3 of Section 15400, Plumbing

108
. AREA ''A''
PARTIV THEORYAND
PRINCIPLES OF
PLANNING
AREA "A" PART IV

DIRECTION: Read the passages below and answer the questions that follow. Shade
the circle (e) of the correct answer to each question.

I. PRE-DESIGN - ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

A. INFLUENCES ON URBAN DEVELOPMENT

With the proliferation of the automobile, cities have


expanded i'n a number of typical pattern. Such of tnese
patterns affects the planning of the smaller-scale
communities and neighbor hoods and ultimately can have
an affect on the design of individual building proJects

1. In this pattern a city is formed at the junction of two A f~ 1;


roads and laid out in the prevalent pattern Growtt1
simply follows this pattern until some natural features
limiting population, or econorTJics stop it This pattern
is characteristics of smaller cities.

A CROSS LINE C LINE PATTERN


PATTERN

8 GRID J->AT TERN U ALTERNATE


PATTERN

? rt1is pattern revolves around the urban core and A B C D


development follows. radiating spokes of main 0000
highways or mass transit routes. Higher densrty tends
to form around the spokes with lower density
development in betwePn

WHfF:L PATTERN

8 H p [) j ,., i ~ 'j\ I Tf- H N ! iHC IJLAR PATl ERN

110
3. This pattern has no central focus or apparent overall A B C D
organization scheme. Development takes place in 0000
an amorphous network of highways and natural
features.

A. AREA PAITERN C. SPREAD PAITERN

B. COMMON D. FILLED PAITERN


COVERAGE
PAITERN

4. With this pattern, there is a central urban core with A B C 0


other major cores surrounding it. The central core is 0000
linked to the others with major highways, and often
the outer cores are connected with a road system
called a beltway. It is then possible to travel from
center to center or around the city without having to
go through the core. The outer cores often begin as
major shopping areas, peripheral business centers,
or transportation centers.

A. ARTERY PATTERN C. SATELLITE PATTERN

B. CONNECTION D. CIRCUMFERENTIAL
PATTERN PAITERN

5. The ultimate in urban development is the A B C 0


Here, two or more major urban 0000
centers near each other grow together as the space
between is developed.

A. PERSEPOLIS C., METROPOLIS

B. MEGALOPOLIS D. PHILOPOLIS

6. Although large-scale urban development can affect A B C 0


the way people view the city and how individual 0000
parcels of land are developed, it is within the smaller
community and neighborhood scale that architects
must plan sites and design buildings. One idea that
is useful in linking the urban scale with the community
scale is the concept of _ _ _ __

A. OREAMABILITY C. IMAGEABILITY

B. PERMEABILITY D. LINKABILITY

111
lmageability is the quality of a physical enviiOnment that
gives it a high probability of evoking a strong image in
the mind of a given observer. For example, the hills of
Baguio City are part of the image of that city that in the
minds of most people who visit it or live there. Five basic
elements of the urban image are the following: these
are created by components of the city.

7 A is a way of circulation along which A B C D


people customarily, occasionally, or potentially move. 0000
This may be a street, pedestrian walkway, railroad,
transit line, or river. Since circulation is such an
important part of any physical environment. These
are usually at the center of a person's image.

A. ROAD C. LINE

B. STRAIT D. PATH

8. are linear elements other than tre A B C D


above, that form boundaries between two districts
or that break continuity. This mat be a shoreline, a
0000
line of b!Jildings against a park, a wall or a similar
feature. This may either be solid or penetrable.

A. EDGES B. FENCES

B. RIMS C. WALLS

9. are two-dimensional area that people A B C D


are having some common. Identifying character and 0000
that they can enter. This can be perceived from the
inside if you are in it or can be identified as an element
of the city if you are outside.

A. BARANGAYS C. PARKS

B. DIVISIONS D. DISTRICTS

10. are strategic centers of interest that A B C D


people can enter. They may be the intersection of 0000
paths;J>Iaces where modes of transportation change,
plazas, public squares, or centers of districts.

A. CLUSTERS C. NODES

B. CAMPS D. CENTROIDS

112
11. are similar to nodes in that they are A B C D
point references, but people cannot enter them they
are viewed from the exterior. A tower, monument,
0000
building, or natural feature can be this.

A. SPECIAL C. BENCHMARK
STRUCTURES

B. LANDMARK D. FOCAL POINT

Many of the large-scale elements of imageability are


intervene with the smaller community neighborhood.
However, there are additional patterns of development
that are intimately related to an individual site.

12. One of this approaches is the , which A 8 C D


is an outgrowth of the new town concP.pt. Here, the
attempt was made to plan a large piece of land that
0000
limited the intension of the automobile. It is
surrounded ,by a continuous street, and vehicular
access was provided with cui-de-sacs.

A. SUPER BLOCKS C. MASS


DEVELOPMENT

B. SUPER HIGHWAYS D. CORNER AREAS

13. Another variation and extension of the Mone's A B C D


concept is the concept. With this
approach, each large parcel of land can have a mix
0000
of uses: residential, commercial, recreational and
open spaces designed with variable lot sizes and
densities. Industrial developments can also be
planned in this variation.

A. CONCEPTUALIZED C. PLANNED UNIT


DEVELOPMENT
(PUD)

B. ADVANCED D. DREAM LAND


DESIGN

The physical environment affects human behavior. This


is true at any scale, from the plan of a city to the
arrangement of furniture in a room. The following
principles are:

113
14. . This refers to the number of people A B C D
per unit of area. For example, a city might be referred
to as having a group of 500 people per hectare. This
0000
refers only to a ratio, not the total number of people
or how they are distributed. The 5,000 people could
be evenly distributed over the hectare or they could
all be housed in a few high:rise buildings in one part
of the land parcel.

A. CAPACITY C. MASSING

B. VOLUME D. DENSITY

15. Interaction is social contact. In addition to interaction, A B C D


people also need a place they can call their own,
whether it is their house, a seat at a conference table,
0000
or one end of a park bench. This is the concept of

A. TERRITORIALITY C. STAKING

B. OWNERSHIP D. TITLING

Personal, when someone places family pictures, plants,


individual coffee mugs. Permanent living environment,
such as a house, or apartment, boundaries are provided
by walls, fences, property lines. Group if a street, a row
of trees, or a change in level

16. Closely related to the concept above is the concept A B C D


of that surrounds each individual.
There are four basic distances that can be used to
0000
study human behavior and serve as a guide for
designing environments the intimate distance,
physical contact from 0.15 to 0.45 m., a crowded
bus, personal distance from 0.45 m. to 0.75 m. The
social distance, fro;n 1.20m. to 3.60 m. for strangers,
business, and the public distance from 3.60 m.
upwards.

A. SHARED SPACES C. OPEN SPACES

B. PERSONAL D. GENERAL SPACES


SPACES

114
8.1. COMMUNITY INFLUENCES ON DESIGN

1. Nearly all land development is dependent on or A B C D


affected by some surrounding base of population
within a geographical, region. The term used to
0000
describe this is the area. For excmple,
the developer of a grocery store bases the decision
to build on the number of people within a certain
distance from the proposed store location. The
population within this area is the primary market for
the services of the store. (A mall, a school etc.) Other
factors are the income brackets, ages, men and
women ratios, etc.

A. COMMON AREAS C. PUBLIC AREAS

B. CATCHMENTS D. DISTRIBUTION
AREAS AREAS

2. AccessibiliW to of all types is crittcal A B C 0


to the selection and development of a building site. 0000
This is true at all scales, from accessibility by major
freeways to the individual road system and
pedestrian paths around a small site.

A. MOBILIZATION C. TRANSPORTATION

B. TRAVELING D. EGRESS

3. Any development project is an intimate part of the A B C D


area ill! which it is located. Architects must be
sensitive to the existing fabric of a that
0000
may influence how a project is designed as well as
the impact the project may have all the surroundings.
This is defined as a relatively small area in which a
number of people live who share similar needs and
desires in housing, social activities and other aspects
of day-to-day living.

A. NEIGHBORHOOD C. COMMUNE

B. BARANGAY
\
D. ORGANIZATION

115
4. include such places as schools, shops, A B C D
fire stations, churches, post offices, and recreational
centers. Their availability, locatior and relative
0000
importance in a neighborhood can affect how a site
is developed.

A. GOVERNMENT C. GENERAL USE


BUILDINGS

B. OPEN FOR D. PUBLIC FACILITIES


PUBLIC

For example, if a church is the center of social activity in


a neighborhood, the designer should maintain easy
access to it, surrounding development should be
sUbordinate
I
or compatible with it, and the designer should
give consideration to maintaining views or enhancing its
prominence in the corr.munity.

8.2. LAND ANALYSIS

5. A study of a site's is an important land A B C D


conditions affect how development can take place,
what modifications need to be made, and what costs
0000
might be involved. This map describes the surface
features of land commonly used in land, planning
and architectural site development this map shows
the slope and contour of the land as well as other
natural and man-made features. Included in this
survey are data such as property boundaries, existing
buildings, utility poles, roads and other man-made
features, trees and natural features like rock
outcropping and heavy vegetation.

A. ENVIRONMENT C. TOPOGRAPHY

B. CONTOUR D. SLOPES

6. The on a map are a graphic way to A B C D


show the elevations of the land in a plan view and
are used to make a slope analysis to determine the
0000
suitability of the land for various uses. Each line
represents a continuous line of equal elevation above
some reference benchmark. The interval is the
vertical distance between adjacent lines.

A. CONTOUR LINES C. FORMATION LINES

B. CONTROL LINES D. CONNECTING LINES

116
7. The slope of the land at a certain point is represented A B C D
in percent. Each percent being (1'-0") 0.30 M. of
vertical rise for every 33M. (100 feet) of horizontal
0000
distance. The slope is found by using the formula

G= ~(10o) G=slope; d =vertical distance between


L
two points. Find the slope between points A and B if
the horizontal distance between them is 24M. and
contour interval is 1.50 M. (A and B is three contours
afar).

A. 15.20% C. 14.00%

B. 20.25% D. 18.75%

8. Every site has that may be either A B C D


desirable or undesirable. A complete site analysis
will include a study of these features significant
0000
·features ~uch as rock outcropping cliffs, caves, and
bags should be identified to determine whether they
must be avoided or can be used as positive design
features in the site design.

A. EXISTING C. GEOLOGICAL
FEATURES FEATURES

B. NATURAL D. MAN-MADE
FEATURES FEATURES

9. Every site has some type of pattern A B C 0


that must be taken into account during design. Some
minor patterns can be diverted around roads, parking
0000
lots and buildings with curbs, culverts and minor
changes in the contours of the land. Major path~ such
as gullies, dry gulches, or rivers may traverse the
site. These will have a significant influence on
potential site development since they must be
maintained. Buildings need to be built away from
them or bridge them so water flow is not restricted
and potential damage is avoided.

A. NATURAL C. SIPHONAGE
DRAINAGE

B. NATURAL FLOW D. CONDUCTORS


PATH

117
C. TRANSPORTATION AND UTILITY INFLUENCES

Another influence is that of transportation and utilny roads


provide a primary means of access to a site. Their
availability and capacity may be prime d~term;,,ants in
whether and how a parcel of land can be devt:!oped.

1. streets have the lowest cap 1city and A B C D


provide direct access to building site. Thev may be 0000
in the form of a continuous grid of curvilin~ar systems
or be cui-de-sacs or loops.

A. LOCAL STREETS C. INTERIOR STREETS

B. ALLEYS D. PUBLIC STREEYS

2. streets connect local streets and A B C D


arterial streets. They have a higher capacit·, than 0000
local streets but are usually not intended for through
traffic. Intersections of this kind of street rr.ay be
controlled by stop signs, while intersections with
arterial streets will be controlled with stop lights.

A. AGGREGATE C. ORGANIZER

B. TWO-WAY D. COLLECTOR

3. streets are intended as major A B C D


continuous circulation routes that carry large 0000
arnounts of traffic on two or three lanes. They usually
connect expressways. Parking on the street is
typically not allowed and direct access from this kind
of street to building sites should be avoided.

A. WEB C. CIRCUMFERENTIAL

B. ARTERIAL D. BATTERY

4 are limited access roads designed to A B C D


move large volumes of traffic between, through and 0000
around population centers. Intersections are made
by various types of ramp systems, and pedestrian
access is not allowed. This category of road have a
major influence on the land due to the space they
require and their noise and visual impact.

A. HIGHWAY C. EXPRESSWAY

B. M EGASTR EET D. DIVERSION

118
5. The availability and location of lines A B C D
can influence site design of site analysis should 0000
include a determination of the types of public access
available, whether bus, subway, rail line, or taxi stop,
and the location relative to the site. Building
entrances and major site features should be located
conveniently to these lines.

A. TRAIN C. JEEPNEY

B. PUBLIC TRANSIT D. TAXI

6. to a site includes provisions tor truck A B C D


loading, moving vans, and daily delivery services. 0000
Ideally, this should be sep<!rated from automobile and
pedestrian access to a site and a building space for
large truck turning and loading dock berths needs to
be provided. They should be 3.00 M to 3.60 M wide,
at least 12.0 M long and have a 4.20 M vertical
clearance. A minimum turning radius of 20m. should
be provided

A. WAITING C. SERVICE ACCESS


PLATFORM

B. PARKING SPACE D. PULL OFF-LANE

7. Site analysis must determine the availability, locat1on, A B C D


and capacity of existing _.·The development 0000
potential of a site is dependent on the availability of
the necessary water. Sanitary sewers, storm sewers,
telephone service, gas service and electric service.
If these are to be extended from a considerable
distance. The cost of development is added greatly.

A. UTILITIES C. SERVICES

B. FACILITIES D. COMPANIES

8. Depending on the location of the site, ______ ---~ A B C D


may include police protection, fire protection, trash 0000
removal, and street cleaning. The development site
plan must provide access for these services, many
of which require large land areas.

A. CITY C. MUNICIPAL
ADMINISTRATION FACILITIES

B. MUNICIPAL AID D. MUNICIPAL or


CITY SERVICES

119
D. CLIMATIC, ECOLOGICAL, LEGAL AND ECONOMIC
INFLUENCES

1. This aspect of climatic analysis is called a A B C D


_ _ _ _ _ . This refers to the overall climate of
the region and is reflected in the weather data
0000
available from the National Weather Bureau. From
this information a region can be classified as cool.
temperate, hot-arid or hot-humid.

A. MAXIMUM C. WIDE ANGLE


CONDITION CLIMATE

B. WEATHER D. MACROCLIMATE
FORECAST

2. The refers to the site-specific A · C D


modification of the microclimate by such features as
lands lope, trees and other vegetation bodies of water,
o on
and bujldings. This aspect of climate analysis of a
site can have a significant influence on its
development, undesirable climatic effects can be
minimized by careful planning and desirable effects
can be used to enhance the comfort of thP
inhabitants.

A. MINICLIMATIC C. MICROCLIMATIC

B. LOCAL CLIMATE D. NARROW CLIMATE


AREA

3. During site analysis, and microclimate A B C D


effects must be studied during site analysis. Buildings 0000
can then be located to take advantage 01 cool
breezes or to avoid cold winds especially in hills.
Near large bodies of water, warm air rises over the
warmer land during the day and causes a breeze
from the water. At night the pattern may be reversed.
These patterns can be modified by buildings and
trees.

A. AIR PATTERNS C. WEATHER PATTERNS

B. WIND PATTERNS D. CLOUD PATTERNS

120
buildings. The effect of a building on blocking sunlight
from adjacent buildings should be studied. Similarly,
the development should avoid any possible annoying
reflection or glare on neighboring buildings.

A. BIOLOGY C. ECOLOGY

B. ZOOLOGY D. GEOGRAPHY

8. The most common form of legal constraint nn land A B C D


development is . This is originally an
attempt to improve the problems of the rapidly
0000
expanding cities: crowding, factories being built too
close to housing, and tall buildings blocking light and
air to control the use and location of buildings or
regulating land use into one means of implementing
planning policy. Its legal basis is largely founded on
the right of the state to protect health, safety and
welfare of the public. Included in this legal constraint
are uses of land as to residential, commercial or
industria~. Other requirements are floor area ratio,
set backs, parking spaces.

A. ZONING C. TITLING

B. PARTITIONING D. SEPARATING

9. An is the right of one party to use a A B C D


portion of the land of another party in a particular 0000
way. It is a legal instrument and is normally recorded
in the city registrar's office. Common types are for
utility companies, for access if one parcel of land is
not served by a public road and one parcel of land
separates it from the street. Another is support of
common party walls, joint use such as to share a
common driveway, scenic, that protect views and
development in scenic areas such as Tagaytay
volcano lake, Manila Bay. Also conservation, that limit
land use in large areas.

A. EMBANKMENT C. EASEMENT
B. LEVEE D. ESTADLISHMENT

122
10. A is the legal right of one party or the A B C D
public to traverse land belonging to another. In its
most common form, this refers to the public land used
0000
for streets and sidewalks. The boundary of this legal
right usually corresponds to the property line of
adjacent property owners.

A. RIGHTOF C. RIGHT OF FIRST


OWNERSHIP USAGE

B. RIGHT-OF-WAY D. PUBLIC RIGHT

11. to property can contain provisions that A B C D


limits the use of the property by the buyer. These 0000
covenant are legal and enforceable if they are
reasonable and in the public interest. Subdivision
and condominium owners do this and may include
such limitations as setbacks, minimum square meters
of houses, the types of materials especially roofing,
that can and cannot be used on the exterior, and
similar provisions, to maintain a desired uniformity
of appearance. (The prospective buyer can decide
not to purchase if the covenants are not acceptable.)

A. DEED C. UNLAWFUL
RESTRICTIONS CONSTRUCTION

B. TITLE LIMITATIONS D. PROHIBITED ACTS

12. As part of the overall economic analysis of a site for A B C D


potential development (or adaptive reuse of air
existing building). the cost of the property is vital in
0000
making a decision concerning site selection. This is
called the . These are generally based
on location, potential profit-making use, and local
market conditions, which includes demand for the
land. Location includes such things as a potential
surrounding market area, population d.ensity in the
region, special features of the site such as being
waterfront property, and proximity to transportation
and utilities. This means that the property is of
"highest and best use to yield the highest return on
investment.

A. COSTOF C. PRICE INCREASE


PROPERTY

B. PREVAILING D. LAND VALUES


COSTS

123
.,..1·---- 90.0 M - - - - r • j
I :----------_______ - - - - - -
I
1
- t - 9.00 M rear setback

~
g J._
I

3.00 M. l - r - 6.00 M side setback


_]_ L- ~ ~------- -_----_-_-_•~-12.00 M front setback

A. 2STORIES C. 4STORIES

B. 3STORIES D. 5 STORIES

3. Which of the following would probably not be A c D B


considered an element of a city's image?
0000
A. AGROUPOF C. A NEIGP.BOR
HOUSES HANGOUT BAR

B. AFREEWAY D. AN AREA WITH A


HIGH CONCENTRA-
TION OF HOSPITALS

4. Social contract and interaction in a picnic pavilion A c D B


could be promoted most by which of the following 0000
design decisions?

A. Making the dimensions of the pavilion small


enough so the anticipated number of users would
cross into each other's "personal distance"

B. designing benches-around the support columns


so people would have a place to sit and talk.

C. organizing the cooking and serving area distinct


from the dining area and entrance

D. providing an informal variety of spaces of differ-


ent sizes, locations, and uses.

5. If the contour interval on the map shown is 0.60 m. A c D B


what is the slope between points A and B? 0000

~~----~_.~~~~----~ I I I
126 0 1.50 3.00
A. 27 PERCENT C. 67 PERCENT

B. 53 PERCENT D. NOT ENOUGH


INFORMATION IS
GIVEN TO ANSWER

6. A speculative office building probably would not be A B C D


buih if the developer discovered that:
0000
A. all of the catchment area was not served by arte-
rial streets.

B. the site consisted of mostly sandy soil with a 1 .80


m top layer of expansive clay

C. the vacancy rate of office space in the city was


three times the national average

D. the neighborhood community objected to the site


of parking lots

7. Which of the following cause the most foundation A B C D


problems? ·
0000
A. extensive underground rock formations just be-
low the surface

B. a 1.50 m water table

C. expansive clay and organic soil


D. all of the above

8. In planning a new building, an architect would have A B C D


to look at regulations other than the zoning ordinance
to find a requirement for the following:
0000
I. the width of loading berths
II. the required size of utility easements
ill. minimum lot size
IV. the size of the parking area
V. what roof coverings are permissible

A. I and IV C. II, Ill, and V

B. I, II and IV D. Ill, IV, and V

127
A-A convex slope B-B valley

C-C uniform slope D-0 concave slope E-E ridge

COMMON CONTOUR CONDITIONS

129
~'
--,----,~~'-
l rproperty line

f--------
I

1
--- -----
--~--
-- ?:-!,
------
----

-----

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 94
existing contour _j -- - - --- - ---- _,
1.
------------~~:·
----------- _/=tour 1 9?
I

98

NEW AND EXISTING


CONTOUR LINES

-+-------
fill to avoid the expense and problems with removing or hauling in soil.
Generally, it is better to orient the length of a building parallel to the direction
of the contours rather than perpendicular to them in order to minimize
excavation costs.
Both existing contour lines and new contour lines are shown on the same
plan: The existing lines are shown dashed and the new ones solid. At the
property lines, the contour lines must match up with the existing contours at
adjacent properties or retaining walls must be built.

2. CLIMATE

Solar orientation influences three (3) aspects of site planning:


• Orientation of the building to control solar heat gain or heat loss
• The location of outdoor spaces and activities
• The location of building entries
Prior to design, the path of the sun should be located so you know its angle
at various times of the day during the seasons
During the coldest months, the sun rises and sets south of an east-west line
through the site, and depending upon the site location, during the summer
it rises and sets north of the same line.
The ORIENTATION of a building- that is, the direction its length faces has
a profound effect on energy gains and losses and 0n the comfort of the
users. For example for a 40-degree latitude, a Southern exposure in the

130
cold months receives about three times the solar energy as the east and
west sides, while in the summerthe east and west facades of a building
receive about twice the energy as the north and south combined.
For most northern hemisphere locations, the best orientation for a building
is to have its principal facade facing sot:h or slightly east or west of !'outh.
An orientation about 25 degrees east cf t.outh is considered ideal to balance
the desired heat gains in the cold months and to minimize the excessive
heat gains on the east and west facades during the summer .

I
' /
- ·~- !ummer sun
/'-',
I

SUMMER MONTHS
wtnter sun

=:t:," ' " '" '' ,


/Ydf/2Wd1:80~%',/,.0;::}/?7ffM//?/.-!/:W&#/i'Wff,.0Z)!;/.. ;w»;

COLD MONTHS
SOUTH WALL SUN CONTORL

Overhangs can be used to control the sun in the summer but let it strike the
building and glass areas in the cold months for passive solar heating.
Deciduous trees can also be used to shield low buildings from the sun in
the summer while allowing sunlight through in the cold months.
On east and west facades, however, vertical sun baffles are more effective
than overhangs because the sun is at a lower angle during the morning and
afternoon hours in the summer. Louvers can also be used to shield a builai'ng
and its interior from the sun. Either exterior or interior louvers and shades
are effective, but exterior louvers are more efficient since they block the
sunlight before it enters the space.
In addition to building position, solar orientation can also influence outdoor
activities. In hot humid climates, it is better to locate such activities as patios
outdoor restaurants, and the like where they receive shade from the bltilding
or trees. In cold climates building entries are best placed on the south where
direct sun hit the pathway. (in winter, to melt ice and snow).
The orientation of a building, and locations of windows, plazas and other
elements can either take advantage of cooling breezes in hot, hu;nid climates
during summer or shield the building and occupants fr')m cold winds in the
cold months.
Shielding a building as much as possible from cold month's winds can reduce
the heat loss through the walls, while providing for natural ventilation can
help cool the building during the summer. Wind breaks can be formed with
vegetation, buildings, or other man-made site elements suc.h as screens
and fences.

131
3. DRAINAGE
Any development of site interrupts the existing drainage pattern and creates
additional water flow by replacing naturally porous ground with root area
and paving. The architect must provide for any existing drainage pattern
through the site and account tor additional storm water that does not seep
into the ground, which is called "RUNOFF". The site design must also create
positive drainage away from the building, parking areas, and walks to avoid
flooding, erosion, and standing water.
The two (2) basic types of drainage are "ABOVEGROUND" and
"UNDERGROUND".
ABOVEGROUND drainage involves sheet flow gutters built into roadways
and parking areas, ground swales as part of the landscaping, and channels.
UNDERGROUND drainage utilizes perforated drains and enclosed storm
-'sewers that carry the runoff from the site to a municipal storm sewer system
or to a natural drainage outlet, such as a river.
"SHEET FLOW" is simply the drainage of water across a sloping surface,
whether it is paved, grass, or landscaped. In most case, sheet flow is directed
to gutters or channels, which are them emptied into a natural water course
or storm sewer.
Gutters are often. used because they can be built along ~tith the roadway or
parking area and naturally follow the same slope as the paved surface.
They can easily be drained into sewers which also typically follow the path
of roads.
Areas for surface drainage require minimum slopes to provide for positive
drainage.

Recommended Grade Slopes for Various Uses

Stoges in Percent
min. preferred max.
ground areas for drainage 2.0 4.0
grass areas for recreation 2.0 3.0
paved parking areas 1.5 2.5 5.0
roads 0.5 8.0
sanitary sewers (depends on size) 0.5-1.5
approach walks to buildings 1.0 4.0
Landscaped slopes 2.0 50.0

Underground systems use piping with a minimum slope of 0.3 percent. The
storm drains collect water from roof downspouts, drains inlets, catch basins,
and drain tiles surrounding the building foundation. A drain inlet simply allows
storm water to run directly into the storm sewer.

132
A catch basin has a sump built into it so that debris will settle instead of
flowing down the sewer. Periodically, the sump must be cleaned out. Large
storm sewer systems require manholes for service access and are located
wherever the sewer changes direction, or a maximum of 166 meters apart.
Storm sewers are comp•etely separate from sanitary sewers.
The capacity of a drainage system is based on the size of the area to be
drained, the runoff coefficient (that fraction of water not absorbed), and the
amount of water to be drained during the most severe storm being used in
the design. Frequently, the system is planned for 25-yeci.r storms; other
times a 10-year storm is used. These periods are simply the average
frequency at which storms of a particular magnitude are likely to occur.
If the site development creates a runoff in excess of the capacity of the existing
municipal storm sewer or natural drainage course. a holding pond may be
needed on the site. This collects the site runoff and releases it into the sewer
system at a controlled rate without letting the excess water flood other areas.

4. UTILITIES
Determine the location of existing utilities prior to beginning design. These
may include, but are not limited to, sanitary sewer lines, storm sewers, water
lines, gas, electricity, steam, telephone, and cable television. It possible,
the building should be located to minimize the length of utility lines between
the structure and the main line.
Sanitary sewers and storm sewers usually take precedence in planning
because they depend on gravity flow. The "INVERT" or lowest, elevations
of the existing public sewer line should be established, since the effluent
must flow from the lowest point where the sewer line leaves the building to
the main sewer. This portion of the horizontal piping of the sanitary sewer
system outside the building is known as the "BUILDING SEWER". The actual
connection of the building sewer to the main line must occur above the
invert of the main line at any given point in order not to interfere with the
free flow.
The minimum slope of the building sewer is 0.5 to 2.0 percent depending
on the size of the pipe; a greater slope is required for smaller pipes. In
some cases, the run of the building sewer will have to be longer than the
shortest distance between the building and the main line simply to intercept
the main line at a point low enough to allow for proper slope.

133
-:-----

~
G.
#'~
~

PJ<:f'"/;/
j
/
I
:
'-

t
"""-- nouse sewer
invert 92.0'
I
I
~-- -~ // __ ;.0099per~:~~_j
"' ,/// ~~ main line slope lY.!%
~----- /__ -- -- -- --- -o
30.00M '\
Invert theoretical shortest
Actual rpquired house 27.45 M distance from building
sewer;needs to intercept to sewer I i ne
main sewer down line
where it has dropped
sufficiently to allow house
sewer to drain into it. Shortest line dropping at

..!
8 "/ It . for 80' length ( 10")
At ..! "/ ft. for .0099/m for 24.04 length
8
(0.24 m) would intercept
approximately 130 feet,
main line at 27.40 m -
(.0099/m). the house
too low to drain into line.
sewer invert where it
intersects the main line is
about 27.20 m (90.7 ft.)

Sewer Layout Based On Slope Required

5. CIRCULATION
There are three major types of "SITE CIRCULATION"·

a. AUTOMOBILE

b. PEDESTRIAN

c. SERVICE

A. Automobile Circulation
Planning for automobile circulation includes locating the entry drives to
the site and providing on-site roads to reach the parking areas and the
building drop-off point. The entire automobile circulation system should
provide direct, easy access to the parking areas and building without
excessive drives, turnarounds, dead ends, or con11icts with service ar-
eas and pedestrian circulation.
The size of the site, its relationship to existing public roads, and the
expected traffic will help determine whether vou should use a one-way
loop system with two entry drives or a two-way system with one entry

134
drive. In either case, you should lay out the roads so a driver can go
directly to the parking area, drop-off point, or loading area. Forcing traf-
fic through the parking area to get to the loading or the drop-off area
should be avoided.
Entry drives to the site should be as far away as possible.trom street
intersections and other intersecting roads. This is to avoid conflicts with
vehicles waiting to turn and to avoid confusion about where to turn. Roads
should be of sufficient width to make driving easy and to allow two ve-
hicles to pass. Curves should be gradual, following the natural topogra-
phy and there shou!d be no blind curves.

'
~

I II
t

l n I
' ' I

one- rwo-way
way

12'
3.60-4.00 7 20-8.00 min. SO M
from public
•ntersectJon
Dnveway entries cul-de-sac :urnarcunc

Unless the slope is very gentle, roads shouid not ce laid out perpendicu-
larto ~he slope but across it slightly to minimize the grade. Limit roads to
a maximum slope of 15 percent for short distances, although 10 percent
or less is preferable. If a road does slope more than 10 percent there
should be transition slopes of one-half of the maximum slope between
the road and level areas. Ramps crossing sidewalks must have a level
area between the ramp and the sidewalk.

Roads should have a gradual slope, a minimum of f ~nch per foot (.0198
per meter), for drainage from the center of 'he roadway. called the
"CROWN" to the sides. If the road has a gutter. it should be 15 em. high.

) \\
level area before )
cross•ng Sidewalk

\
< 10%
preferred
15% max. ~
-::-+-- j_ t--'"""
~ \/~
L,\ crown
down \ \
\ I ,
96 94 92 90 88

(a) automobile ramps (bl representation of road wit~ gutters on contour map

Design Guidelines for Road Grades

135
B. Pedestrian Circulation
Like roadways, pedestrian circulation should provide convenient, direct
access from the various points on the site to the building entrances. If
connections with adjacent buildings, public sidewalks, public transpor-
tations, stops, and other off-site points are required, the circulation sys-
tem must take these into account as well.
SIDEWALKS should provide for the most direct paths from one point to
another since people will generally take the shortest route possible.
Pedestrian circulation paths should not cross roads, parking lots, or other
areas of potential conflict. There should be collector walks next to park-
ing areas so people can travel from their cars directly to a separate
walk.
When these walks are next to parking where cars can overhang the
walk, it should be a minimum of 6 feet (1.80 M) wide. Required ameni-
ties such as seating, trash containers, and lighting should be provided.

Walks should slope a minimum of ~ inch (.00635m or 6.352 mm) per-


pendicular to the direction of the paving for drainage.

/ slope 6.352 mm
per 0.31 M
19.056 mm tor
rainage across walk
< >--.
~40M main walk

minimum slopes·

4% ( ..1" per foot)(38.11 mm perm)


4

6% preferred elsewhere
8% absolute maximum (1 :12)

Design Guidelines for Exterior Walks

136
Changes in elevation are accomplished with ramps and stairs. There
must be provisions for making the site accessible to the physically dis-
abled. When a ramp and adjacent stairway serve the same areas, the
bottom and top of the ramp and stairway should be adjacent to each
other if possible. As with walks, stairways and ramps should be illumi-
nated.

C. Service Circulation
Service and automobile circulation should be kept separate. Service
access is typically related to some space in the building program. Ser-
vice trucks may use the same entry and drives as automobiles (unless
specifically stated), but the loading area should be separate.

/handrail required both sides


minimum width of
ramp: 36"
12
/_ ' "re ''~'~ '":;.~to 36"

1 c:
max. slope

5' between landmgs


-----~----~~------~----

(a) ramps

ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE PHYSICALLY DISABLED

6. PARKING
Plan parking so it is efficient, convenient to the building, and separate from
pedestrian circulation. The size of the site, topography, location of entry
drives to the property, and relationship to the service drive and building
drop-off area will determine the location of the parking area. The number of
cars to be parked is determined by requirements of the zoning ordinance or
by the building program.
The basic planning unit for parking is the size of a car. The standard size is
2.70 m wide and 5.70 m long for standard-size cars and 2.25 m wide and
4.50 m long for compact cars.
Layouts for two types of parking are shown below. Ninety degree parking is
the most efficient in terms of land use, but angled parking is easier to use,
forces a one-way circulation pattern, and requires less tot;;;: .vidttl, tor either
a single-or-double-loaded layout. Dead-end parking areas require a back-
up space and are only appropriate for parking a few cars. The most efficient
layouts are those that use double-loaded configurations or that utilize a
drive as the back-up space.

137
provide handrail
over 4 riws
30" to 34"
or where icy
conditions exist

for 6" rise

rise &" ma>c., 4" min.

minimum 3 risers
-lg·j-
~J
meximum 10 risers between landings

DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR EXTERIOR STAIRS


4~·' .
1

1111111 [TI 62'
' - i'.douole
minimu.,
-: 1-10' tO 12' I i 24 ' two-way

-:---n
' - loaded
I loading doc

~ IIIIQ
1

I
35' tO SO'!
I
I
lal go• parking
'
45' radius for I
straight bodY :ruck 35' to 50' I 19.81
·I 32.8' -
52.6'
13' ._.. one-y doUble
toedllf.
I
I

-'- ---~
-,-
12':o 14'
one-.Ney

(bl 45• parking

DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR SERVICE DRIVES


PARKING LAYOUTS

138
Unless otherwise required by the program, you must include at least one
parking space for the physically disabled. This space should be located
close to the building entrance and be identified with the international symbol
for accessibility.

__ j _______ 3_________________ _
36" min. accessible route
curb·

~ ~
tv
ramp
1:12

marking
(or sign I

a· s·
---'----,--- j

PARKING FOR THE PHYSICALLY DISABLED

Establish drainage in parking areas as part of the site design. The minimum
slope should be 1X percent with a maximum slope of 5 percent. but for
convenience in calculating, use 2 or 3 percent when figuring parking slopes.
Water should drain toward the edges of the parking area where it can run
off into the landscaping be collected and diverted to storm sewers or other
natural water courses.

One useful rule of thumb is that the change in elevation from one side of a
double-loaded parking area to the other ( 19.00 m) for a minimum 1X percent
slope is one foot (0.31). With an absolute maximum of a 5 percent slope,
the maximum change in elevation for (19.00m) is about (0.91) or 3 feet.
This is a useful way to quickly check you new contour lines when designing
a parking area.

139
92----------------------------
91
-------------------

:~~~~~~~~}~=~~~-~~~~F
break in curb _ /
required for
drainage
(a) drainage perpendicular to length of lot

92 91 90 89 88 87
I I
I I
I I

I
I I
I /I
I I
I __.I
I I
I
----... I

(T
I

crown in
center

(b) drainage parallel to length

92 91 90 89 sa
I I
I
'I
I I I I
I I I
I
I
I I I
I

I
/] I
I
slope I
I
I
/( I

I I I
) )
I I
I
~ I I
I

J/
I I I

I
I
I
I
I

I' I
'
I

I
'}
I
I
I
I

I
I

(c) drainage across lot

DRAINAGE PATTERNS IN PARKING LOTS

140
7. LANDSCAPING
Landscaping is a vital part of site development. In addition to its purely
aesthetic qualities, landscaping can improve energy conservation, moderate
noise, frame desirable views, block undesirable views, create privacy, fashion
outdoor spaces, provide shade, retard erosion. and visually connect a
building to its site. It is also required in some communities.
Deciduous trees block sunlight in summer while allowing it to enter a building
in the cold months, when leaves fall. Trees can also moderate the wind and
thereby reduce heat loss from wall surfaces. If trees are employed as a
windbreak, evergreens should be used so they are still effective in the cold
months.
Grass, shrubs and ground cover lower the ALBEDO of the site. Albedo is
that portion of the radiant energy that is reflected as it falls on a surface.
Combined with the low conductivity of plant materials, a well-landscaped
site can reduce the daytime temperature around the building significantly
and in some cases raises the night time temperature slightly.
Plants are like any other design material in that they have form, size, color.
texture, and other qualities that can serve the purposes of the designer and
create the k·ind of image desired. Unlike other materials, however, plant
grow.
The mature size and height of the tree or shrub must be known so adequate
spacing between plants and buildings can be provided. Generally, planting
strips with trees in parking areas and between other paved areas should be
at least 2.10 m wide while landscaping strips for grass or ground covers
between paved areas should be at least 1.20 M wide.
Because most trees and shrubs take so long to grow, save existing healthy
landscaping whenever possible, especially large trees. The contours of the
land cannot be changed around existing trees. so careful planning is
necessar}-. Trees and other •landscaping also need protection during
construction.

8. PROPERTY DESCRIPTIONS
A method of describing the boundaries of a site is called the METES and
BOUNDS description. The title of the land describes the boundaries and
the corresponding length of line, as well as the direction of line bearings
referred to by the number of degrees, minutes, and seconds the line is
located either east or west of a north-south line. This also gives the area of
the lot in square meters.
Another system starts with a set of east-west lines called the "PARALLELS"
that follow the lines of latitude of the earth and with a set of north-south
lines called "MERIDIANS".
Example, a parcel of land Lot 18 containing an area of 912.60 sq. meters
located in BAGUIO bounded on the NW by Lot 19, on the NE by Lot 25, on
the SE by Lot 17 and on the SW by a street beginning at a point 1 . from B.L.

141
S-25°, 32' 03"E .1.700 from lrisan Line Quarry; N-65° 08' 42" w35.00 m to
pt.21 thence S 54° 35' 04" W 25.80 m tc pt.4; thence S 35°-29' 01"E 27.00
m to pt. 4 thence N 54°-48' 08"E 41.80 m to pt. of beginning 1.

~N
N

I
---r-=7 w,] L~17
w--+--- --+--·-=." E

s
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

N I

r
I
I
I
I
I

e:~.80M

'
'

LOT18
912.60 SQ.M.
•EL39.50M.
' '
' '
'

ELEVATIONS - BM or Bench marks

9. OTHER DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS


In addition to the factors already discussed, many other design
considerations can influence the location and configuration of a building, as
well as other features of the site design. One of the most important is the
context of the surrounding development. The design of a building should be
sensitive to the "SCALE", "MASSING", and "FENESTRATION" patterns or
nearby buildings. The design should also consider any fl,mctional adjacency
requirements with other structures or outdoor activities.

142
"VIEws· are also an important consideration. Pleasant, desirable views
can be used to ·advantage, either as seen from important spaces within the
building or from outdoor spaces. Undesirable views can be avoided by
planning the building so service spaces or less important spaces face them.
Off-site sources of noise can be similarly avoided by minimizing fenestration
near the noise source.
Quite frequently, buildings are located in order to fall on an important axis
with surrounding structures or to complete the enclosure of a major outdoor
space. The site-planning process should not overlook these· kinds of symbolic
criteria.

SITE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN QUESTIONS

1. What is especially important in designing roads for A B C D


drainage?
0000
A. CROWN C. DRAIN INLETS

B. BASE LINE D. INVERTS

2. What is a land measure 9 km. on a side known as? A B C D

A. SHEET FLOW C. TOWNSHIP 0000


B. PRINCIPAL D. METES AND BOUNDS
MERIDIAN

3. Waste water flows because of differences between what? A B C D

A. BUILDING SEWER C. DRAIN OUTLETS 0000


B. INVERTS D. CATCH BASINS

4. Assuming the building site shown was surrounded on A B C D


four sides by city streets, which building and road layout 0000
would be most appropriate for the site topography?

''·' North

10
t
8

6
4
4
2 0 2

143
A. C.

B. D.

5. Which of the following statements is incorrect? A B C D


0000
A. A 1.1%
2
slope is suitable
.
for rough paving

B. Landscaped areas near buildings should have at leas;t


a 2% slope away from the structure.

C. A safe sidewalk would slope 2.1%


2

D. Roads in northern climates can safely have up to a


12% grade

6. Which of the following would result in the best site A B C D


circulation? 0000
I. planning the service entry drive separate from the
automobile entry and drive

II. making parking areas oversize to accommodate pe-


destrian circulation

Ill. designing all two-way roads at least 7.20 M wide

144
IV. limiting parking area traffic to a single entrance away
from pedestrian walks

v. laying out walks parallel to parking areas

A. I, Ill, and IV C. II, IV, and V

B. I, Ill, and V D. I, Ill, IV, and V

7. Property can best be described with: A B C D

A. METES and BOUNDS C. LOCATION WITHIN 0000


A SUBDIVISION

B. REFERENCE TO A D. ALL OF THE ABOVE


SECTION AND
TOWNSHIP

8. Potential overheating of a medical clinic in a temperature A B C D


climate could be minimized by:
0000
A. designing an overhang for the west and east side of
the building.

B. planning a building shape to minimize the surface


area of south-facing walls.

C. having a landscape architect specify deciduous trees


near the south elevation

D. · all of the above


North

9.
t A
0000
B C D

The contour lines in the sketch shown above indicate:


A. a sidewalk sloping down from east to west with a berm
on the south side
B. a road with drainage in the middle and a sidewalk
and berm on the south
C. a swale adjacent to a walking path sloping from north-
east to southwest
D. a curved street sloping up to west to east next to a
drainage ditch

145
10. If land is limited, which of the following is the best way to A B C D
plan parking lots?
0000
A. two-way circulation with 90-degree parking on both
sides of a drive

B. 30-degree parking on both sides of a one-way loop


system

C. combining service circulation with parking at a 45-


degree angle

D. 90 degree parking on one side of a one-way circula-


tion drive

11. l'his drainage involves sheet flow gutters built into A B C D


roadways and parking areas, ground SWALES as part
of the landscaping and channels
0000
A. DRAIN INLETS C. ABOVEGROUND

B. UNDERGROUND D. BUILDING SEWER

12. Sanitary sewers and storm sewers usually take A B C D


precedence in planning because they depend on gravity
flow. The or lowest, elevations of the
0000
existing public sewer line should be established, since
the effluent must flow from the lowest point where the
sewer line leaves the building to the main sewer.

A. SITE CIRCULATION C. CATCH BASIN

B. INVERT D. CROWN

Ill. PROCESSING AND APPROVAL OF SUBDIVISION PLANS

A. DEFINITIONS

1. PO 957 - Presidential Decree No. 957 an act regulating the sale of


subdivision lots and condominiums, providing penalties for violating
thereof.

2. SUBDIVISION PROJECT - shall mean a tract or a parcel of land


registered under Act no. 496 which is partitioned primarily for residential
purposes into individual lot with or without improvements thereon, and
offered to the public for sale, in cash or in installment terms. It shall
include all residential, commercial, industrial and recreational areas, af:i
well as open spaces and other community and public areas in the project.

146
3. CONDOMINIUM PROJECT - shall mean the entire parcel of real
property divided or to be divided primarily for residential purposes into
condominium units, including all structures thereon.

4. DEVELOPER - shall mean the person who develops or improves the


subdivision project or condominium project for and in behalf of the owner
thereof.

5. DEALER- shall mean any person directly engaged as principal in the


business of buying, selling or exchanging real estate whether on a
full-time or part-time basis.

6. BROKER - shall mean any person who for commission or other


compensation, undertakes to sell or negotiate the sale of a real estate
belonging to another.

7. SALESMAN- shall refer to the person regularly employed by a broker


to perform, for and in his behalf, any or all the functions of a real estate
broker.

8. NATIONAl,. HOUSING AUTHORITY- shall have exclusive jurisdiction


to regulate the real estate trade and business 1n accordance with the
provisions of this decree.

9. REGISTRATION OF PROJECTS- the registered owner of a parcel of


land who wishes to convert the same into a subdivision project shall
submit his subdivision plan to the authority which shall act upon and
approve the same, upon a finding that the plan complies with the
subdivision standards and regulations enforceable at the time the plan
is submitted.

9. LICENSE TO SELL- such owner or dealer to whom has been issued a


registration certificate shall not, however, be authorized to sell any
subdivision lot or condominium unit in the registered project unless he
shall have first obtained in license to sell the project within two weeks
from the registration of such project.

10. PERFORMANCE BOND - no license to sell subdivision lots or


condominium units shall be issued by the authority under Section 5 of
this decree unless the owner or dealer shall have filed an adequate
performance bond approved by said Authority to guarantee the
construction and maintenance of the roads, gutters, drainage, sewerage,
water system, lighting systems and full development of the subdivision
project or the condominium project and the compliance by the owner
and dealer with the applicable laws and rules and negotiations.
The performance bond shall be executed in favor of the Republic of the
Philippines and shall authorize the authority to use the proceeds thereof
for the purposes of its undertaking in case of forfeiture as provided in
this decree.

147
11. REGISTRATION - all contracts to sell, deeds of sale and other similar
instruments relative to the sale or conveyance of the subdivision lots
and condominium units, whether or not the purchase price is paid in
full, shall be registered by the seller in the office of the REGISTER OF
DEEDS of the province or city where the property is situated.

12. ALTERATION OF PLANS- no owner or developer shall change or


alter the roads, open spaces, infrastructures, facilities for public use
and/or other form of subdivision development as contained in the
approved subdivision plan and/or represented in its advertisements,
without the permission of the authority and the written conformity or
consent of the duly organized homeowners association; or lot buyers.

13. HLRB (Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board)- has the power
to approve subdivision plans.

14. RIGHT OF WAY- the owner or developer of a subdivision without access


to any existing public road or street must secure a right of way to a
public road or street and such right of way must be developed and
maintained according to the requirement of the government authorities
concerned.

B. PLANNING AND DESIGN STANDARDS FOR A


RESIDENTIAL SUBDIVISION PROJECT

PARAMETERS PD957
OPEN MARKET HOUSING
1. PROJECT LOCATION WITHIN SUITABLE SITES FOR HOUSING
AND OUTSIDE POTENTIAL HAZARD
PRONE AND PROTECTION AREAS
2. LAND ALLOCATION
(Percentage of Gross Area,
One hectare and Above)
a. Saleable area a. 70% (maximum)
b. Non-saleable area b. 30% (minimum)
Mandatory allocation for parks and play
grounds per tabulation below:
b.1 Area allocated for Density % of Gross Area
parks and playgrounds (No. of Lots/ Allocated for Parks
(one hectare and above) Dwelling Units and Playgrounds
per Hectare)
20 & below 3.5%
21-25 4.0%
26-35 5.0%
26-50 6.0%

148
51-65 7.0 o/o
Above 65 9.0 %
Note: In no case shall the area be less
than 100 sqm.
b.2 Area Allocated for
Community Facilities VARIABLE
b.3 Circulation System Observe hierarchy of roads
3. MINIMUM AREAS
a. Single Detached 100 square meters
b. Duplex/Single Attached/
Semi-Detached 75 sq.m./unit
c. Rowhouse 50 sqm.
4. MINIMUM LOT FRONTAGE
a. Single-Detached
a.1 corner lot 12m.
a.2 regular lot 10m.
a.3 irregular lot 6m.

PARAMETERS PD957
OPEN MARKET HOUSING
b. Duplex/Single Attached/ 7.5m.
Semi-Detached
c. Rowhouse 3.5m.
5. LENGTH OF BLOCK a. maximum length is 400 m. (for subdivi-
sion projects with lot component only)
b. blocks exceeding 250 m. shall be pro-
vided with alley
NOTE: FOR ROWHOUSES, THERE SHALL BE A MAXIMUM OF 20 UNITS
BUT IN NO CASE BE MORE THAN 100 METERS IN LENGTH.
6. ROADS RIGHT-OF-WAY (ROW)* ROW CARRIAGEWAY
a. Major 12.0 m. 8.0
b. Minor 10.0m. 6.0m.
c. Motorcourt (Cul-de-sac, 6.0m.
branch, loop, "Tee")
d. Alley 4.0m.
e. ROW of access to interior lot 3.0m.

149
*Right-<>f-Way (ROW) of major roads shall be increased as project size increases.
ROW shall not be lower than ROW of public road.
NOTE: 1. INTERIOR SUBDIVISION PROJECT MUST SECURE RIGHT-OF-
WAY TO THE NEAREST PUBLIC ROAD.
2. SUBDIVISION PROJECTS WITH DIRECT ACCESS TO A MAIN
PUBLIC ROAD MUST PROVIDE SUFFICIENT SETBACK TO
ACCOMMODATE LOADING AND UNLOADING OF
PASSENGERS.
3. SUBDIVISION PROJECT s:;ALL PROVIDE PROVISION FOR
FUTURE EXPANSION (SEE TEXT)
7. MAXIMUM SIZES OF PROJECT
PER HIERARCHY OF ROADS
Project Size Range:
2.5 has. & below major road, minor road, MOTOR
COURT, alley
Above 2.5 - 5 has. major road, minor road, MOTOR
COURT, alley
Above 5 - 10 has. major road, minor r::>ad, MOl OR
COURT, alley
Above 15 - 30 has. major road, minor road, MOTOR
COURT, alley
Above 30 has. major road, minor road, MOTOR
COURT, alley

PARAMETERS PO 957
OPEN MARKET HOUSING
8. ROAD SPECIFICATIONS:
a. Planting Strip/Sidewalks Planting Strip Sidewalk
a.1 Major Road (each side) 1.0 m. 1.0 m.
a.2 Minor Road (each side) 1.0 m. 1.0 1.1.
NOTE: REFER TO SUPPLEMENTARY RULES AND REGULATIONS TO
IMPLEMENT PD 953[HLRBA.O. NO. 02, SERIES OF 1994 (12APRIL)]
b. Road Payment
b.1 Major concrete/asphalt
b.2 Minor concrete/asphalt
b.3 Motor Court concrete/asphalt
b.4 Sidewalks concrete/asphalt
b.5 Alley concrete/asphalt

150
9. WATER SUPPLY Mandatory connbction to appropriate pub-
lic water supply system, or community sys-
tem if available; or Centralized water sup-
ply systdm.
NOTE: Each subdivision must have.at least
one operational deepwell which shall pro-
vide sufficient capacity equal to the Maxi-
mum Daily Demand
a. Minimum Water 150 liters per capita per day for household
Supply Requirement connection
b. Fire Protection Demand Provision for fire protection shall comply
with the requirements of the National Fire
Protection Code.
10. Drainage System underground
• The drainage system must conform with
the natural drainage pattern of the
subdivision site, and shall drain into
appropriate water bodies, public
drainage system or natural outfalls.
11. Sewage Disposal System
a. Septic Tank Individual septic tank conforming to
standard design of the Sanitation Code.
b. Connection to Community Whenever applicable, connections shall be
Sewer System made to an approved public or community
sewer system subject to the requirements
and provisions of the Sanitation Code and
other applicable rules and regulations with
regards to materials and installation
practices.

PARAMETERS PD 957
OPEN MARKET HOUSING
12. POWER SUPPLY Mandatory individual household connection
to primary and alternate sources of power
if service is available in the locality.
Installation practices, materials and fixtures
used shall be in accordance with the pro-
vision of the electrical code and the local
utility company.
13. GARBAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM Provide sanitary and efficient refuse col-
lection and disposal system whether inde-
pendently or in conjunction with the local
government garbage collection and dis-
posal services.

151
14. SHELTER COMPONENT
a. Minimum Floor Area
a.1 Single/Detached Shall conform with the National Building
Code a'ld Local Zoning Ordinance
a.2 Duplex!.
Semi-Detached/
Single Attached
a.3 Rowhouse
b. Minimum Level
of Completion
b.1 Single Detached Complete house
t).2 Duplex/ Complete house
Semi-Detached/
Single Attached
b.3 Rowhouse Complete house
15. SETBACKS/EASEMENTS
a. Front 3m.
b. Side 2m.
c. Rear 2m.
d. Abutments May be allowed per requirements of
National Building Code

152
AREA ''B''
PART I STRUCTURAL
DESIGN
~~~-------

AREA "B" PART I

DIRECTION: Read the items below and place the letter of the correct matched letter
in the parenthesis indicated herein.

I. STANDARD STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS

A. WOOD, STEEL, CONCRETE MATCHING TYPE

1 . WOOD JOIST
SYSTEM ........................... ( A. Another manufactured product
is a wood member manufac-
tured with individual layers of
thin veneer glued together. It
is used primarily for headers
over large opening, and singly
or built-up for beams.

2. PLANK AND BEAM


SYSTEM ........................... ( B. This is generally limited to
bearing walls, it has a high
compressive strength, but in
unitized nature makes it inher-
ently weak in tension and
bending .. Three types of this
system is the single way, the
double way and the cavity con-
struction.

3. MANUFACTURED
JOISTS ............................. ( C. When the span of the flat slab
is large, or the live loads are
heavier, flat plates require drop
panels (increased slab thick-
ness around the columns) to
~rovide Qreater resistance
against punching shear fail-
ures. Column capitals (trun-
cated pyramids or cones) are
sometimes also used to
handle punching shear as well
as large bending moments in

154
the slab in the vicinity of the
columns_

4. MANUFACTURED
FRAMING MEMBER ······-· ( D. This is the most common use
of solid wood beams, in which
members of 100 mm. (4") or
150 mm (6") nominal width
span between girders or bear-
ing walls at s·pacings of 1.20,
1.80 and 2.40 M. wood deck-
ing, either solid or laminated is
used to span between the
beams with the underside of
the decking being the finished
ceiling_ The normal maximum
span for the beams is 3.00 to
6.00 M

5. TRUSSED.
WOOD JOISTS ................ ( E. The space between joists is
usually spanned with plywood
subflooring on which
underlayment is placed in
preparation for finish flooring
because joists are slender,
they must be laterally sup-
ported to avoid twisting. Maxi-
mum intervals of no more than
2.4 meters are recommended.

6. PLYWOOD
BOXED BEAM .................. ( F. This functions in a manner
similar to a steel system in
which the slab is supported by
intermediate beams which are
carried by large girders. Typi-
cal spans are in the range of
4.5 M. to 9 M. This allows pen-
etrations and openings to be
made in the slab.

7. STRESSED
SKIN PANEL. .................... ( G. Here, the slab is designed and
reinforced to span in both di-
rections directly into the col-
umns. Because loaJs increase
near the columns and there is
no provision to· increase the
thickness of the concrete or

155
the reinforcing at the columns,
this system is limited to light
loads and short spans up to
7.5 M with slabs ranging from
150 to 300 mm.

8. STEEL BEAM
AND GIRDER
SYSTEM ........................... ( H. Any structural system consist-
ing of two or more materials
designed to act together to re-
sist loads. This system of con-
struction is employed to utilize
the best characteristics of the
individual materials. Rein-
forced concrete construction is
the most typical of this system
of construction, but others in-
clude steel deck and concrete,
concrete slab and steel beam
systems, and open-web steel
joists with wood chord.

9. OPEN-WEB STEEL
JOIST SYSTEM ............... ( I. This system is composed or
formed of pre-fabricated, reus-
able metal or fiberglass forms
which allow construction to
proceed faster than with cus-
tom wood forms. This pre-fab
slabs are often left unexposed
with lighting integrated into the
cotters. This system can pro-
vide support for heavier loads
at slightly longer spans up to
12M.

10. CONCRETE BEAM


AND GIRDER ................... ( J. This is fabricated with plywood
panels glued and nailed to
solid wood members usually
50x100 framing.

11. CONCRETE ONE-WAY


SPAN JOIST ..................... ( K. Another manufactured product
is a truss made up of standard
size wood members con-
nected with metal plates. Typi-
cal spans range from about 7.2
M. to 12M. and typical depths

156
are from 0.3 M. to 0.90 M. a
common spacing is 0.60 M.

12. CONCRETE
FLAT PLATE ..................... ( L. This k1nd of steel joist span be-
tween beams or bearing wall.
Standard joists can span up to
18 M. with long span joists
spanning up to 28 M., and
deep long span joists capable
of spanning up to 43 M.
Depths range from 200 mm. to
750 mm. in 50 mm. incre-
ments. Mechanical and elec-
trical service pipes and ducts
can easily be run between the
members.

13. CONCRETE
FLAT SLAB ....................... ( M. In this system, large members
span between vertical sup-
ports and smaller beams are
framed into them. The girders
span the shorter distance
while the beams span the
longer distances. Typical
spans for this system are from
7.5 M. to 12M. with the beams
being spaced about 2.4 M. to
3.0 M. on center. The steel
framing is usually covered with
steel decking and concrete is
poured.

14. CONCRETE
WAFFLE SLAB ................. ( N. Sometimes this is called glue-
laminated construction. These
structural members are made
up of individual pieces of lum-
ber 18 mm. or 38 mm. thick
glued together in the factory.
It can be manufactured in ta-
pered beams, curved beams
and other styles wood joists
can be manufactured like a
steel wide flange by gluing a
top and bottom chord sepa-
rated by a plywood web.

157
15. MASONRY ....................... ( 0. This is composed of concrete
members usually spaced 650
mm. or900 mm. apart running
in one direction, which frame
into larger bearns. Most spans
range from 6 to 9 M. with joist
depths ranging from 300 to
600 mm.

16. COMPOS~TE
CONSTRUCTION ............ ( P. Another type of built-up wood
product but they are con-
structed of plywood glued and
nailed to solid 50 mm. nomi-
nal thickness lumber and are
used for floor or roof structure.

DIRECTION: Read the passages and answer the questions that follow. Shade the
circle ce)
of the correct answer to each question.

II. COMPLEX STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS

1. These are structures comprising of straight members A 8 C D


forming a number of triangles with the connections
arranged so that the stresses in the members are either
0000
in tension or compression. These can be used
horizontally, vertically, or diagonally to support various
types of toads when it would be impossible to fabricate a
single structural member to span a large distance.

A THIN SHELL C. TRUSSES


STRUCTURES

B. ARCHES D. STRESSED SKIN


STRUCTURES

2. This is a structural shape. found by suspending the A 8 C D


anticipated loads from a flexible cable and then turning
the shape upside down, loads in this shape of structure
0000
is subjected to a combination of compression and some
bending stresses. This system maybe hinged or fix
supports.

A. SPACE FRAMES C. FOLDED PLATES


B. HALF-ROUND ARCH, D. RIGID FRAMES
POINTED ARCH OR
PARABOLIC-SHAPED
ARCHES

158
3. This system is constructed so that the vertical and A B C D
horizontal members work as a single structural unit, in
contrast to a simple post-and-beam system. This makes
0000
for a more efficient structure because aH three members
resist vertical and lateral loads together rather than singly.
The beam portion is partially restrained by the columns
and becomes more rigid to vertical bending forces, and
both the columns can resist lateral forces because they
are tied together by the beam.

A. RIGID FRAMES C. INFLATABLE


STRUCTURE

B. SUSPENSION D. ARCHES
STRUCTURES

4. A structural system consisting of trusses in two directions A B C D


rigidly connected at their intersection. It is possible to
have a rectangular system where the top and bottom
0000
chords of the trusses are directly above and below one
another. Triangular shapes are popular. A stiff structure
may span up to 105 meters.

A. TRUSSES C. STRESSED SKIN

B. FOLDED PLATES D. SPACE FRAMES

5. A structure in which the loads are carried in two A B C D


directions, first in the transverse direction through each
plate supported by adjacent plates and secondly in the
0000
longitudinal direction with each plate acting as a girder
spanning between v-ertical supports, since the plates act
as beams between supports. there are compressive
stresses above the neutral axis and tensile stresses
below. These are usually constructed of reinforced
concrete from 75 mm. to 150 mm. thick.

A. SUSPENSION C. INFLATABLE
STRUCTURE STRUCTURE

B. FOLDED PLATES D. RIGID FRAMES

6. A structure which has a curved surface that resists loads A B C D


through tension compression, and shear in the plane of
the structure only. Theoretically, there are no bending or
0000
moment stresses in this structure. The material is
practically always reinforced concrete from about 75 mm.
to 150 rrim. The forms can be domes, parabolas, barrel
vaults that span from 12 M. to over 60 meters and the

159
cornplexed shape of the saddle-shaped hyperbolic
paiaboloid that spans from 9 M. to 48 meters.

A. STRESSED SKIN C. THIN SHELL


STRUCTURES

B. SPACE FRAMES D. TRUSSE~

7. These structures comprise panels up of a sheathing A B C D


material attached on one or both sides of immediate web
members in such a way that the panel acts as series of
0000
1-beams with the sheathing being the flange and the
intermediate members being the webs, since the panel
is constructed of two or more pieces, the connectiOn
between the outer and interior web members must
t.ransfer all the horizontal stress developed. The
structures are typically made of wood.

A. SPACE FRAMES C. SUSPENSION


STRUCTURES

B. THIN SHELL D. STRESSED SKIN


STRUCTURES STRUCTURES

8. These are structures most commonly seen in suspensiOn A B C D


bridges but their use is increasing in buildings, most
notably in large stadiums with suspended roofs. These
0000
structures are similar to arches in that the loads they
support must be resisted by both vertical reactions and
horizontal thrust reactions. The difference is that the
vertical reaction is outward since the sag tends to pull
the ends together. It can only resist loads with tension.

A. SUSPENSION C. RIGID FRAMES


STRUCTURES

B. INFLATABLE D. SPACE FRAMES


STRUCTURES

9. These are structures that can only resist loads in tension. A B C D


They are held in place with constant air pressure. Which
is greater than the outside air pressure. The simplest
0000
structure is the single membrane anchored continuously
at ground level and filled with air. These structures are
inherently unstable in the wind and cannot support
concentrated loads. They are often stabilized with a
network of cables over the top of the membrane These
structures are used for temporary enclosures and for
large single space buildings such as Sports Arenas.

160
A. FOLDED PLATES C. ARCHES

B. INFLATABLE D. TRUSSES
STRUCTURES

Ill. STRUCTURAL SYSTEM SELECTION CRITERIA

1. When analyzing possible system to use, the primary A B C D


consideration is the ability of the structural system to resist 0000
the anticipated and unanticipated loads that will be placed
on it. Anticipated loads can be calculated directly from
known weights of materials and equipment and from
requirements of buildings codes such as people
(occupancy loads). Unanticipated load include such things
as changes in the use of the building, overloading caused
by extra people or equipment, ponding of water on a roof.

A. RESISTANCE C. RESISTANCE TO
TO LOADS BOND

B. RESISTANCE D. RESISTANCE TO
TO STRESS BEND

2. This criteria is one of the primary determinants of a A B C D


structural system. A parking garage need spans long
enough to allow the easy movement and storage of
0000
automobiles. An office building works well with spans in
the 9 M. to 12 M. foot range. Sport Arenas need quite
large open areas. Some buildings have a fixed use over
their life spans and may work with fixed bearing walls
while others must remain flexible and require small
columns widely spaced.

A. BUILDING C .. BUILDING CODE


SPECIFICATIONS

B. BUILDING D. BUILDING USER


AND FUNCTIONS MATERIALS

3. Although a building's structure is an important element, A B C D


it does not exist alone, Exterior Cladding must be
attached to it, ductwork and pipes run around and through
0000
it, Electrical wires among it, and interior finishes must
cover it. Some materials and strl -;tural systems make it
easy for other c~rvices to bP. c~,.,bi .... P.d into one unit. For
instance a steel column-and-beam :.'ystem with open-
web steel joists and concrete floors over metal decking
yields a fairly penetrable structure for pipes, ducts, and

161
working while still allowing solid attachment of ceilings,
walls, and exterior cladding.

A. COMBINATION C. MODULAR
SYSTEMS SYSTEMS

B. INTEGRATION D. INTEGRAL
WITH OTHER ·sYSTEMS
BUILDING SYSTEMS

4. There are two primary elements of selecting a structural A B C D


system based on the criteria. The first is selecting
materials and,systems that are most appropiiate for the
0000
anticipated loads, spans required, style desired,
integration needed, fire resistance called for. This
generally leads to major decisions such as using a
concrete flat slab construction instead of steel, or using
a steel arch system instead of glue-laminated beams.
The second part is refining the selected system so that
the most economical arrangement and use of materials
is selected regardless of the system used (altering the
spacing of beams, changing the direction of beams may
result in savings in the weight of steel).

A. MATERIALS AND C. COST INFLUENCES


LABOR

B. MARKET VALUE D. INFLATION

5. This criteria is-dictated by the building code. Structural A B C D


members require this criteria and is generally greater
than other components in the same occupancy type and
0000
building type. Two considerations are noted. One is tHe
combustibility of the framing itself and other is the loss
of strength a member may experien.;e when subjected
to intense heat. (Steel bends and collapse while wood
may slightly burn but will maintain its strength.

A. FIRE RESISTANCE C. MATERIAL WEIGHT

B. BURNING TIME D. RESILIENCY

6. The realities of construction often are a decisive factor A B C D


in choosing a structural system. Some of these include 0000
schedules, due to material costs, financing, climate and
weather. Related to the cost of labor are the skills of the
work force which may require technically skilled work
force. Finally equipment needed to assemble a structural
system maybe unavailable or prohibitively expensive.

162
A. CONSTRUCTION C. CONSTRUCTION
PROHIBITION LIMITATIONS

B. CONSTRUCTION 0. CONSTRUCTION
SCHEDULE CODE

7. Some stl\lctural systems are more appropriate as an A B C D


· expression of a particular character than others. The.
"International Trend" which can only be achieved with a
0000
steel post-and-beam· system. The Architect and client
determine what character the building will be and then
require the structural solution adapt to the need.

A. FAD C. FORM

B. CHARACTER D. STYLE

8. Related to the style of a building are those on the A B C D


architecture of a geographical location and particular time
period. The architect must be sensitive to these
0000
influences. For example, in a historic area like lntramuros,
where most buildings are constructed of Adobe Stones
and bricks, a masonry bearing wall structural system
certainly should be considered. In a newly developing
industrial park, more contemporary and daring structural
systems might be appropriate.

A. GEOLOGICAL C. HISTORICAL

B. SOCIAL AND D. CLIMATE


CULTURAL

DIRECTION: Choose what form of loads is referred to by the statements below and
shade the circle (e) of the correct answer to each question.

IV. LOADS ON BUILDINGS

The succeeding numbers refer to :

A. GRAVITY LOADS C. MISCELLANEOUS LOADS

B. LATERAL LOADS D. NONEOFTHEABOVE

1. When a load is applied suddenly or changes rapidly, It is A B C D


called a DYNAMIC I,.OAD. When a force is only applied
suddenly, it is often called an IMPACT LOAD examples
0000
of dynamic loads are automobiles moving in a parking
garage, elevators traveling in a shaft, or a helicopter

163
landing on the roof a building. A unique type of dynamic
load is a resonant load. This is a rhythmic application of
a force to a structure with the same fundamental period
as the structure itseH. The fundamental period is the time
it takes the structure to complete one full oscillation, such
as a complete swing from side to side in a tall bu1lding in
the wind or one up-and-down bounce of a floor.

2. Loads from WATER can occur in many situations. In A c D


8
water tanks, swimming pools and against retaining walls
holding back groundwater. The load developed from
0000
water and other fluids is equal to the unit weight of the
fluid in kilonewton per cubic meter multiplied by its depth.
~or water, the weight is about 9.8 kilonewton per cubic
meter and the water force exerted on structures is called
HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE.

3. DEAD LOADS are the vertical loads due to the weight A c D


8
of the building and any permanent structural and non- 0000
structural components of a building. These include such
things as beams, exterior and interior walls, floors and
fixed service. equipment. Most dead loads are easily
calculated from published lists of weights of building
materials found in brochures.

4. SOIL LOADS. Retaining walls are required to resist the A c D


B
lateral pressure of the retained material in accordance
with accepted engineering practice. Building Codes
0000
allows retaining drained earth to be designed for pressure
equal to that exerted by a fluid weighing 4. 7 krn/cm. meter
and having a depth equal to that of the retained earth.

5. WIND LOADING on buildings is a dynamic process. That A c D


8
is, the pressures, directions and timing are constantly 0000
changing. For purposes of calculation, however, wind is
considered a static force. There are several variables,
that affect wind loading. The first is the wind velocity itself.
The second variable is the height of the wind above the
ground which is usually 10 meters.

6. LIVE LOADS are those on the building by its particular A c D


8
use and occupancy, and are generally considered
movable or temporary such as people, furniture, movable
0000
equipment and snow. It does not include wind loading or
earthquake loading.

164
7. "fEMPERATURE-INDUCED LOADS. All materials A 8 C D
expand when they are heated and contract when they
are cooled. The amount of the· change is dependent on
0000
the material and is expressed as the coefficient of
expansion measured in mm per degree centigrade. Some
materials, like wood, have a low coefficient of expansion
while others, like plastic have a high value. If a material
is restrained so it cannot move and then subjected to a
temperature change, a load is introduced on the material
in addition to any other applied loads.

8. LIKE WIND, an EARTHQUAKE produces dynamic loads A 8 C D


on a building. During an earthquake, the ground moves 0000
both vertically and laterally, but the lateral movement is
usually most significant and the vertical movements is
ignored. For some tall buildings or structures with
complex shapes or unusual conditions, a dynamic
structural analysis is required.

DIRECTION: Read the definitions below and answer the questions that follow. Shade
the circle (e) of the correct answer to each question.

~ STRUCTURALFUNDAMENTALS

1. In all solid bodies, There is a point at which the mass of A 8 C D


the body can be considered concentrated. This is the
center of gravity. The point on a plane surface that
0000
corresponds to the center of gravity is called--~-

A. CENTER POINT C. CENTRAL AXIS

B. CENTROID D. CENTERING

2. There are times when it is desirable to combine two or A 8 C D


more concurrent forces into one forces such that the one 0000
force produces the same effect on a body as the
concurrent forces. This single force is called the
---~· If the forces are colinear, the resultant is
sii'Jl)ly the sum of the forces, with forces acting upward
or to the right considered positive and forces acting
downward or to the left considered negative.

A. COLLECTIVE C. RESULTANT
FORCE FO~E
B. CENTRAU7r!) D. AXIAL FORCE
FORCE

165
3. is the branch of mechanics that deals with A B C D
bodies in a state of equilibrium. Equilibrium is said to
exist when the resultant of any number of forces acting
0000
on a body is zero.

A. STATICS C. LIMITATIONS

B. STABILITIES D. MECHANICS

4. The of a plane area with respect to an Axis A B C D


is the product of the area times the perpendicular distance 0000
from the centroid of the area to the axis.

A. STATISTICAL C. MOMENT OF WEIGHTS


MINUTE

B. STABILIZING D. STATICAL MOMENT


MOMENT

5. Just as a resultant can be found for two or more forces, A B C D


so can a. single force be resolved into two _ __
This is often required when analyzing loads on a sloped
0000
surface (a roof) and it is necessary to find the horizontal
and vertical reactions.
A. PIECES C. COMPONENTS
B. PARTS D. SEGMENTS

6. A is any action applied to an object. In A B C D


architecture, external action are called loads and result
from such actions as the weight of people, wind, or the
0000
weight of building materials.
A. FORCE C. PRESSURE

B. ACTION D. VELOCITY

7. The structural design of buildings is primarily concerned A B C D


with selecting the size, configuration and material of 0000
component to resist, with a reasonable margin of safety,
external forces acting on them. A force has both direction
and magnitude and as such is called a _ _ _ __
A. TOTAL QUANTITY C. APPLIED ENERGY
B. VECTOR QUANTITY D. COMPRESSIVE
STRENGTH

166
8. is the internal resistance to an external force. A B C D
There are three basic types of this resistance. Tension. 0000
compression and shear.
A. FATIGUE C. CRACKING
B. LOSS OF WEIGHT D. STRESS

9. A type of shear in which a member is twisted is called a A B C D


0000
A. TORSION C. TORQUE
B. CONVULSION D. COLLISION

10. is stress in which the particles of the member A B C D


tend to pull apart under load. For example a rod 0000
elongates.
A. MOVING AWAY C. TENSION
B. BENDING· D. STRETCHING

11. is stress in which the particles of the member A B C D


are pushed together and the member tends to shorten
or widen. 0000
A. TIGHTENING C. FOLDING-UP
B. COMPRESSION D. SQUEEZED ACTION

12. is when a material is subjected to a change A B C D


in temperature. It expands if heated or contracts if cooled. 0000
A. MODULUS OF C. WEATHER CONDITION
ELASTICITY
B. ALTERNATE HEAT D. THERMAL STRESS
AND COLD

13. is the deformation if a material is caused by A B C D


external forces. It is the ratio of the total change in length
of a material to its original length.
0000
A. WARPING C. SIEVE
B. STRAIN D. SETTLING

14. is a measure of the bending stiffness of a A B C D


structural member's cross-sectional shape.
0000
A. MOMENT OF C. MOMENT OF RIGIDITY
STABILITY

167
B. MOMENTOF D. MOMENTOF
ENERGY INERTIA

15. is a measure of the stiffness of the material A B C D


of a structural menber.
0000
A. COLLECTIVE C. MODULUS OF
MEASUREMENT ELASTICITY
B. COEFFICIENT OF D. TOTALITY OF
WEIGHT STRENGTH

16. is a special condition of a force applied to a A B C D


structure. This is the tendency of a force to cause rotation
about a point. As such, it is the product of the force times
0000
tpe distance to the point about which it is acting. The
units are in newton-millimeter, kilonewton-meter or kip-
feet.
A. MOMENT C. SECOND
B. MINUT~ D. SCHEDULE

VI. DEFINITIONS

1. A is a structural system without a complete A B C D


vertical load-carrying space frame in which the lateral
loads are resisted by shear walls or braced frames. This
0000
walls or bracing systems provide support for all or most
gravity loads.

A. SHEAR WALL C. BEARING WALL

B. SUPPORTING 0. FREE FORM WALL


WALL

2. A is a vertical element that resists lateral A B C D


forces in the plane of the wall through shear and bending. 0000
Such a wall acts as a beam cantilevered out of the ground
or foundations, and part of its strength derives from its
depths. Examples are interior wall of a multistorey
building, enclosing stairways, elevator shafts and
mechanical chases which are mostly solid and run the
entire height of the building.

A. TENSION WALL C. STANDING WALL

B. SHEAR WALL D. SCREEN WALL

168
3. is to bend, warp, bulge or collapse, or to A B C D
give way suddenly, as with heat or pressure.
0000
A. STRAPPING C. ROLLING

B. TWISTING D. BUCKLING

4. the ability of a structure to absorb some of the energy is A B C D


known as which occurs when the building_
deflects in the inelastic range without falling or collapsing,
0000
an example of this material is steel which has the ability
to deform under a load above the elastic limit without
collapsing.

A. DUCTILITY C. MALLEABILITY

lJ. ELA8TICITY D. fDLDA[))J:JTY

5. Pertaining to, of the nature of, or caused by an A B C D


earthquake.
0000
A. TREMBLOR C. SEISMIC

B. SCALE D. WAVE LENGTH

6. This is a kind of wall that are relatively small members, A B C D


closely spaced and tied together with exterior and interior 0000
sheating. The sheathing is necessary to brace the small
members against buckling and to resist lateral loads.

A. WINDOW WALL C. THIN WALL

B. EXTERNAL WALL D. SifUD WALL

7. A wall that consists of a single unit of unreinforced A B C D


masonry that can act as either a bearing or non-loading
bearing wall.
0000
A. SINGLE WYTHE C. ONE WAY WALL

B. SINGLE LINE D. SOLID WALL

8. This is a wall that consist of two wythes of masonry, A B C D


separated by an air space normally 50 mm wide. These
walls provide extra protection against water penetration
0000
and additional insulation value because of the air.

A. NON-BEARING C. CHB WALL


WALL

B. CAVITY WALL D. RETAINING WALL

169
9. A slab that has its reinforcement running in one direction A B C D
perpendicular to the beams supporting the slab.
0000
A. SINGLE LINE SLAB C. STRAIGHT SLAB

B. ONE WAY SLAB D. SOLE SUPPORT


SLAB

10. A slab that have rebars in both directions and are more A B C D
efficient because the applied loads are distributed in all
directions, usually column bays supporting them are
0000
almost square.

A. DUAL SLAB C. TWO-WAY SLAB


SUPPORT

S. DOUBLE SLAB D. EACH WAY SLAB


SYSTEM

11. measures the consistency of the concrete, A B C D


usually at the jobsite. In this test, concrete is placed in a
300 mm high truncated cone, 20 mm at the base and
0000
100 mm at the top. It is compacted by hand with a rod
and then the ·mold is removed from the concrete and
placed next to it. The distance the concrete goes down
from the original 300 mm is then measured. Too great
the settlements indicates excessive water, and a very
small settlement indicates the mixture will be too difficult
to place properly.

A. DRYNESS TEST C. MIXED AGGREGATE


TEST

B. WETNESS TEST D. SLUMP TEST

12. is a test that measures compressive A B C D


strength. As the concrete is being placed, samples are 0000
put in cylinder molds, 150 mm in diameter and 300 mm
high, and are moist-cured for 28 days at which time they
are laboratory-tested according to standardized
procedures. (usually tested in 7 days)

A. CYLINDER TEST C. ROUND STRENGTH


TEST

B. CUBE TEST D. CIRCULAR MOTION


TEST

170
13. a test used when a portion of the structure is A B C D
in place and cured, but needs to be tested. (Usually used
when regular cylinder test do hot come up to the specified
0000
design strength) A cylinder is drilled on the concrete and
then tested in the laboratory to determine its compressive
strength.

A. CENTER CYLINDER C. CENTRALIZED


TEST ROUNDED TEST

B. MIDDLE CYLINDER D. CORE CYLINDER TEST


TEST

14. A slight arch usually making the reinforcement higher in A B C D


the middle so that when the beam or slab is cured or
settles it goes to a horizontal position rather than sagging.
0000
A. CHAMBER C. OGEE

B. CAMBER D. SLOPE

15. This foundation is used when soil bearing is low or where A B C D


loads are heavy in relation to soil pressures. With this
type of foundation, one large footing is designed as a
0000
two-way slab and supports the columns above it.
Sometimes beams are placed above the foundation to
give added stiffness.

A. CRIB FOOTING C. MAT or RAFT


FOUNDATION

B. DOUBLE FOOTING D. WIDE FOUNDATION

16. A common footing which is placed under a continuous A B C D


foundation wall which in turn supports bearing wall
0000
A. WALL FOOTING C. COMBINED FOOTING

B. LINE FOOTING D. LINEAR FOOTING

MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS:

VII. SELECTION OF STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS

1. Rigid frames have which of the following characteristics? A B C D


I. Rigid frames should be hinged at the column 0000
bases.

171
II. Moment connections must be designed at the inter-
section of beam and column.
Ill. Loads are transferred vertically to the foundations.
IV. Rigid frames are more efficient than simple post-and-
beam systems.
V. Sloping the horizontal members can reduce the
amount.of steel required.

A. I, II, and IV C. II, Ill, IV, and V

B. II, IV, and V D. all of the above

2. Which of the following would be most important in A B C D


s-electing a structural system for a proposed restaurant
and warming house at the mid-slope of a mountain
0000
resort?

A. cost, resistance to loads, and construction limitations

B. style, integration with building, systems, and fire re-


sistance

C. building occupancy, co~struction limitations, and style

D. fire resistance, resistance to loads, and cost

3. Select the incorrect statement concerning exterior wall A c D


8
facings and the building structures.
0000
A. Heavy materials with low coefficient of expansion re-
quire expansion joints as much as materials such as
steel, aluminum, and wood.

B. Transfer of wind loads from curtain wall systems is


accomplished with clip angles connecting the facing
and the structural frame.

c. Long-term deflections of both wood and concrete can


cause problems with cracking of exterior facings.

D. Simple, lightweight exterior materials such as thin


paneling or stucco can be attached directly to the ex-
terior studs.

4. What type of structure resists loads through shear A c D


8
tension, and compression in-the plane of the structure?
0000
A. THIN SHELL C. ARCH

B. RIGID FRAME D. WAFFLE SLAB

172
5. Select the system that allows extra reinforcement at the A B C D
columns.
0000
A. FLAT PLATE C. FLAT SLAB

B. LIFT SLAB D. FOLDED PLATE

6. A bearing wall with a high slenderness ratio would A B C D


probably require what kind of construction?
0000
A. CATENARY C. CREEP

B. CAVITY D. CAMBER

7: What economical two-way system of steel or concrete A B C D


would be a appropriate for a span over 45 M?
0000
A. FURNICULAR C. SINGLE WYTHE

B. COMPOSITE D. SPACE FRAME


CONSTRUCTION

8. Which of the following is not true about arches? A B C D

A. Horizontal thrust must be resisted by foundations or 0000


tie rods.

B. The thrust on an arch can be decreased by doubling


its height.

C. Supporting an arch with two hinges will make it stati-


cally determinate

D. The furnicular shape of an arch can be easily deter-


mined without calculations.

9. Which of the following statements are correct? A B C D


I. The amount of camber in a prestressed concrete 0000
beam can be varied to suit the requirements of load-
ing.
II. Flat plate and flat slab construction should be- de-
signed for square bays while waffle slabs should be
more rectangular.
Ill. A one-way concrete joint system is easy to form and
can span 8 to 12M.
IV. When a long prestressed member cannot be deliv-
ered to a site, post-tensioned construction may be
warranted.

173
V. Topping is often omitted on single tee construcf10n if
floor-to-floor heights are limited.

A. I and IV C. II and IV
B. I, Ill, and IV D. IV and V

10. Select the incorrect statement about steel framing. A B C D


A. A beam-and-girder system is efficient for spans in 0000
the range of 8 to 12M.

B. Open-web steel joists are best supported on steel


beams.

C: The ductile properties of steel make it advantageous


/ for intermittent lateral loading.

D. Steel is used for high-risP, buildings because of its


ductility and strength.

VIII. LOADS ON BUILDINGS

1. Cars parked on a driveway at the top of a retaining wall A B C D


are considered what type of load? 0000
A. SEISMIC LOAD C. SURCHARGE

B. DEAD LOAD D. IMPACT LOAD

2. Cross-bracing can lessen the effects of what?

A. DRIFT C. LIVE LOAD

B. LATERAL LOAD D. TEMPERATURELOAD

3. What might be induced by an elevator? A B C D

A. IMPACT LOAD C. CONCENTRATED 0000


LOAD

B. STATIC ANALYSIS D. DYNAMIC LOAD

4. An aerobics class could produce what type of load? A B C D

A. RESONANT LOAD C. IMPACT LOAD 0000


B. HYDROSTATIC
PRESSURE D. LIVE LOAD

174
5. What is necessary to design for at a basement wall with A 8 C D
undrained soil under an automobile drive-through? 0000
A. LATERAL LOAD C. DEADLOAD

B. COMBINATION LOAD D. CONCENTRATED


LOAD

6. A tuned dynamic damper would be used in which of the A B C D


following situations? 0000
A. a mid-rise concrete structure in an earthquake zone
B. near a mechanical room that contained several vi-
brating machines

C. in a high-rise building subject to earthquake reso-


nance

D. at the top of a tall building

7. A small commercial office building has 2" x 10" (50 x 250 A B C D


mm) wood joists spaced 16 inches (400 mm) on center
supporting a hardwood floor over 1/2-inch (12 mm)
0000
gypsum wallboard. Ignoring the beam weight, what is
the design live and dead load per linear meter on a beam
supporting a central structural bay 4.27 M long before
allowance is made for live load reduction? (See diagram.)

(4.27 M)
I· ·I

(4.88 M)

-.-
(4.88 M) : -beam
I

A. 14.0 KN pounds per linear meter

B. 16.41 KN pounds per linear meter

C. 18.75 KN pounds per linear meter

D. 19.1 KN/Iinear meter

175
8. Which of the following is not correct concerning live load A B c 0
calculations?
0000
A. Live loads can be reduced when a structural mem-
ber supports more than 15 square meter the occu-
pancy is not public assembly and if the live load is
less than 80 pst.

B. Live loads include snow, people, and furniture.

c. Any live load reduction cannot exceed 40 percent for


structural members supporting load from one story.

D. Snow load reduction is calculated according to the


R~ = S/40 - 0.5 if the roof pitch is more than 20 de-
grees.

9. Select the correct statements about lateral loads. A B c D


I. Wind load varies with the· height above the ground. 0000
II. Full wind load and snow load should be calculated
together to check the worst case situation.
Ill. Wmd load varies with the square of wind velocity.
IV. Total horizontal shear at ground level is used in the
dynamic analysis method of seismic design.
V. Drift should not exceed the height of the building di-
vided by 500.

A. II, Ill, and V C. I, Ill, and v


B. I, Ill, IV, and V D. Ill, IV, and V

10. What is the total earth pressure acting on the left side of A B c D
the retaining wall shown fn the following diagram?
Assume an equivalent fluid pressure of 30 pounds per
0000
square foot per foot of height.

4.50M

1.50 M

A. 6.35 KN/M C. 47.69 KN/M

B. 8.48 KN/M D. 84.78 KN/M

176
IX. STRUCTURAL FUNDAMENTALS

1. What are the horizontal and vertical components of the A B C D


force shown? 0 0 0 0

F = 120 KN

A. Fx= 60 KN; F = 103.48 KN


1
B. Fx= 69.28; F = 97.98 KN
1

C. Fx= 138.56 KN; F


1
= 240 KN
D. Fx= 103.92 KN; F = 60 KN
1

2. The elastic limit of a material is: A B C D

A. the point at which a material continues to deform with- 0000


out any increase in load.

B. the maximum unit stress that determines the engi-


neering working stress to design a member.

C. the point beyonc4 which unit stress increases faster


that unit strain.

D. the unit stress below which deformation is directly


proportional to stress

3. The stiffness due to a structural member's shape is A B C D


described by what term? 0000
A. MODULUS OF ELASTICITY

B. MOMENT OF INERTIA

C. STATICAL MOMENT

D. CONCURRENTFORCE

177
4. What are compression and bending examples of? A 8 C D
A. FORCE C. STRESS 0000
B. STRAIN D. EQUILIBRIUM

5. A force can be considered acting anywhere along the A B C D


line of action of the force if its direction and magnitude
do not change because of what principle?
0000
A. EQUILIBRIUM C. COLINEAR FORCE

B. ULTIMATE STRENGTH D. TRANSMISSIBILITY

6. What causes the tendency of a body to rotate? A B C D

A. MOMENT C. NONCONCURRENT 0000


FORCE

B. RESULTANT FORCE D. COUPLE

7. A load of 13.34 KN is applied to the support struts A B C D


shown. What is the compressive force in each strut? 0000
F = 13.34 KN

A. A= 4.45 KN; 8 = 7.46 KN

B. A= 4.21 KN; 8 = 8.81 KN

C. A= 4.51 KN; 8 = 8.70 KN

D. A= 5.0 KN; 8 = 12.87 KN

178
8. The bridge railing shown must support a maximum load A B C 0
of 600 Newtons laterally. What is the compression force
in the diagonal member?
ooco

(1.05 M)

A. 2184 Newtons C. 624 Newtons

B. 21 00 Newtons D. 577 Newtons

9. What are the magnitudes of the reactions at the beam A B C D


supports shown? Assume that the weight of the uniform
load acts at its center as a concentrated load.
0000
8.89 KN

~
13.34 KN

~ 2.92KNIM

2.40M

3.66M 1.22 M

A. R1 = 10.75 KN; R2 = 16.49 KN

B. R1 =1.04KN;R2 =24.75KN

C. R1 = 9.36 KN; R2 = 17.68 KN

D. R1 = 1.56 KN; R2 =21.68 KN

10. Thermal stress in a restrained member is dependent on: A B C D


I. the change in temperature 0000
II. the area of the member
Ill. the coefficient of linear expansion

179
IV. the unit strain
V. the modulus of elasticity

A. I, II, Ill, and IV C. I, Ill, and V

B. I, Ill, IV, and V D. all of the above

X. BEAMS AND COLUMNS

1. What is the most important factor in determining the load- A l::$ C D


carrying of a column?
0000
A. BENDING MOMENT C. SLENDERNESS RATIO

B. END CONDITIONS D. SECTION MODULUS

2. Identify the following formula: r = .,)1 1A A B C D


A. NEGATIVE MOMENT C. DEFLECTION 0000
B. FLEXURE FORMULA D. RADIUS OF GYRATION

3. What stress is more important to check in wood beams A B C D


than in steel beams? 0 0 0 0
A. HORIZONTAL SHEAR C. EFFECTIVE LENGTH

B. VERTICAL SHEAR D. POINT OF INFLECTION

4. What theoretically determines the stress on a column A B C D


just prior to failure?
0000
A. MOMENT DIAGRAM C. NEUTRAL AXIS

B. EULERrS EQUATION D. DEFLECTION

5. The reaction for which of t.he following types of beams A B C D


cannot be found using the principles of equilibrium?
0000
A. continuous beams C. simply supported beams

B. cantilevered beams D. overhanging beams

6. Select the correct statements about a simply supported A B C D


beam with a uniform load.
0000
I. The maximum bending stresses occur at the extreme
fibers.

180
II. Moment is maximum where vertical shear is zero.
Ill. The shear stress remains. constant for one-haH the
beam's length.
IV. The higher the value of the beam's modulus of elas-
ticity, the more it will deflect.
V. Horizontal shear is at its greatest at the neutral sur-
face.

A. I, II, ancllll C. I, II, and V

B. II, Ill, and VI D. I, II, Ill, and V

7. What is the maximum moment in the beam shown? A B C D


Ignore the weight of the beam.
0000
2.3KNIM

t t
14M 4M

A. 68.88 KN-Meter C. 50.12 KN-Meter

B. 84.2 KN-Meter D. 137.76 KN-Meter

8. The maximum bending stress a wood beam must resist A B C D


is 3000 ft-pounds. If the maximum allowable bending 0000
stress is 1500 psi, what is the minimum section modulus
the beam, must have to resist bending?

A. 10011.13 mrnl C. 33370.4 mm3

B. 20022.25 mm3 D. 4004451 mm3

9. Which of the following statements are true about A B C D


designing beams? 0000
I. If the vertical shear on a simply supported beam is
different at each reaction, both values are critical to
know.
II. The point where the shear diagram crosses zero is
important.
Ill. If negative moment occurs, it is not critical to know
its value.

181
IV. Most beams are designed for maximum moment.
V. Moment at any point on a beam can be found by cal-
rulating the area under the shear diagram up to the
same point.

A. II, IV, and V C. Ill, IV, and V

B. I, II, IV, and V D. II, Ill, and V

10. A nominal6" x 8" wood column supports a load of 2500 A B C D


pounds. If the column is 8 feet 0 inches long and has a
moment of inertia of 104 in4 about the axis parallel to the
0000
8 inch dimension, what is the slenderness ratio?

A. 5.0 C. 17.5

B. 16.0 D. 60.4

XI. TRUSSES

1. Select the incorrect statement. A B C D

A. Trusses are usually required to have lower chord 0000


bridging.

B. Spacing of trusses depends entirely on the spanning


capabilities of purlins and the type of truss used.

C. Parallel chord trusses usually have greater stresses


toward the center of the span.

D. The method of joints is often used to find a the forces


in a truss

2. What is wrong with the wood truss detail shown? A B C D


0000

182
A. There is eccentric loading.

B. There are not enough bolts.


C. The ends of the web members are not cut properly.
D. A gusset plate should be used instead of direct con-
nections.

3. Which truss usually requires a larger depth?

A. BOWSTRING TRUSS C. PITCHED TRUSS

B. FLAT TRUSS D. SCISSORS TRUSS

4. What is used in place of the centroidal axis in detailing


some steel trusses?

A. CENTER LII"1E C. GRAPHIC ANALYSIS

'3. CENTROIDAL AXIS D. GAGE LINE

5. What design procedure is best for finding the force in


the first horizontal member next to a support?
A. METHOD OF SECTIONS
B. SUMMATION OF MOMENTS
C. METHOD OF JOINTS
D. SUMMATION OF HORIZONTAL COMPONENTS

6. What are loads on a truss genera:'y placed on?

A. PANEL POINT C. CHORD MEMBERS

B. TRUSSED RAFTER D; GUSSET PLATES

7. What is the force in diagonal member A in the truss


shown?

15KN 1SKN 15KN 15KN 15KN

1 1 1 1 1.-----.--
~11.80M
AJ...~.B
I~-~~~ I
' ~. 6 Pli'NELS 0 3M= 18M
"

183
A. 17.38 KN coi'J1)ression C. 14.56 KN coi'J1)ression

B. 17.38 KN tension D. 14.56 KN tension

8. The most common depth-to-span ratio for a steel truss A B C D


is: 0000
A. 1:5to 1:15 C. dependent on its type

B. no more than 1:12 D. 1:10 to 1:20

9. The following truss would best be analyzed with: A B C D


A method of joints C. method of sections 0000
B. graphic method D. any of the above

18KN
~

1o. What is the force in member AB as illustrated? A B C D

A. 21 :2 KN compression C. 28.3 KN compression 0000


B. 21.2 KN tension D. 28.3 KN tension

5KN 10KN 10KN 10KN 5KN

! ! ! ! !
~+I·.=2.5::..::M::.. .+I...,___......:5::....::M::....__---J.,I-··-~5-=M--·11 2.5 M I

184
XII. SOIL AND FOUNDATIONS

1. Soil tests made prior to construction have indicated that A B C D


excessive groundwater is present. If the project has a 0000
basement, what suggestions would you make to your
client to alleviate the potential problem and in what order
to priority?
1. Specify that drainage matting be placed against all
basement foundation walls.
11. Add extra drain pipes from the roof and drain away
from the building.
Ill. Detail and specify drain tile around the footings and
connect to atmosphere or a dry well.
IV. Use 25 mm to 50 mm gravel under the basement
slab.
V. Draw the site plan so the ground has a positive slope
away from the building on all sides.

A. V, IV, Ill, I. II C. V,I,IV,III, II


B. Ill, IV, I, V, II D. Ill, I, IV, II, V

2. Which of the following techniques would be most A B C D


appropriate to prepare the soil for a building site that
tests have shown to be primarily composed of silt and
0000
organic silt?

A. compaction C. densification
I

B. surcharging D. fill

3. The retaining wall shown holds back compacted soil with A 8 C D


a coefficient of earth pressure of 1 .0 and an equivalent
fluid weight of 4. 71 KN/m 3 . What is the total earth
0000
pressure against the retaining wall per too t and at what
point is it considered to be acting for design purposes?

A. 0.6025 KN at the top of the footing

B. 2.1195 KN at the level of the lower grade

C. 2.1195 KN above the lower grade level

D. 1.0482 KN at the level of the lower grade

185
1.80M

0.90M

4. The footing and foundation wall shown support a live A B C D


lo'ad of 7 Kilonewton per meter and a dead load of 3.5
KN/M. Assuming concrete weighs 23.56 KN/M 3 and the
0000
soil weighs about 15.71 Kilo newton per cubic meter, J'low
wide should the footing be if· the allowable soil bearing
pressure is 71.79 KPa?

1.00 M
0.30M
..._...
. ..
~

b .• : v.
.~ ~:· ~ ~ :··. ·:.=-~ '.
" " . '<) • • • ., 6 & .'

A. 0.30 M C. 0.505 M

B. 0.75 M Q. 0.90 M

5. Soil tests are: A B C D

A. ordered by the architect and included in the sitework 0000


portion of thP specifications.

B. ordered by the stn.:ctural engineer and made part of


the structural drawings.

186
C. not part of the contract documents, but test locations
and boring logs are often shown for information only.

D. paid for by the client and included on the site plan as


part of the architectural drawings.

6. Bearing capacities are determined by: A B C D

I. building codes
0000
II. the amount of water present in the soil
Ill. unified soil classificatio(l system
IV. field tests
V. extent and amount of compaction

A. I, II, and IV C. II, Ill, and IV

B. I, II, and V D. all of the above

7. What is used to specify the required compaction of fill A B C D


material? 0 0 0 0
A. STRAP FOOTING C. STANDARD
PENETRATION TEST

B. HYDROSTATIC D. PROCTOR TEST


PRESSURE

8. Which soil type would be best for heavily loaded spread A B C D


footings? 0000
A. GRAVELS C. SILTS

B. SANDS D. ORGANICS

9. Information on what item is necessary if retaining walls A B C D


are not to be used? 0000
A. BORING LOG C. TEST PIP REPORT

B. REPOSE D. STANDARD
PENETRATION TEST

10. If a soil test confirmed the presence of bentonite, what A B C D


type of foundation would probably be best for a one-story 0 0 <:) 0
building?

A. BELLED PIER C. GRADE BEAM

B. COMBINED FOOTING D. RAFT FOUNDATION

187
XIII. CONNECTIONS

1. Which of the following are the most important variables in A B C 0


designing a bolted wood connection?
0000
I. the angle of the load to the grain
II. the thickness of the merTi>ers through which the bolt
is placed
Ill. the species of wood
IV. the type of washers used under the head and nut
V. the area of the net section at the bolt holes

A. I, Ill, and v C. I, II, IV and V

B. I, II, Ill, and V D. I, Ill, IV, and V

2. What connector would be best for a wood truss covering A B c D


a temporary building with a rong span?
0000
A. SHEAR PLATE c. WELD PLATE

B. SPLIT RING D. LAG SCREW


CONNECTOR

3. What is used to account for wood members that are A B c D


loaded at an angle to each other? 0000
A. OVERSIZE HOLE C. HIGH STRENGTH BOLT

B. HANKINSON D. LAG SCREEN


FORMULA

4. What type of weld would most likely be used to connect A B c D


two overlapping steel plates in compression?
0000
A. BEVEL C, PLUG

B. VEE D. FILLET

5. In designing a composite section, what device would A B C D


most Ukely be used?
0000
A. COMMON BOLT C. HEADED ANCHOR
STUD

B. DOWEL D. HIGH STRENGTH BOLT

188
6. Two 6 mm x 150 mmA36 steel bars are welded, as shown A B C D
in the figure, with E70 electrodes. What is the maximum 0000
allowable tensile load that this joint can resist?

7( til!!_ 7-
A. 185,000 KN c. 125,200 KN

B. 137,800 KN D. 133,920 KN

7. Which of the welding symbols would indicate that the A 8 C D


weld shown be made at the job site? 0000

~·~ c.-r\
.B·v\ D.~

8. A 50 x 150 mm PINETREE member is suspended from A B C D


a 100 x 200 mm member as shown in the illustration 0000
with four 16 mm bolts. Assuming the edge, end, and
spacing distances are adequate, what is the allowable
load on this joint?

189
100 X 200 mm

0
0

p
A. 4.50 kilos C. 1073 kilos

~ 1015 kilos D. 1800 kilos

9. Which of the following types of bohs should be used in a A B C D


joint with long slotted holes where the load perpendicular
to the length of the hole is repeatedly reversed?
0000
A. A325 friction-type C. A307 bearing-type

B. A490 bea~ing-type D. none of the above

10. Which of the following should be avoided when designing A B C D


wood joints?
0000
I. bohed joints with load perpendicular to grain
II. screws attached to the end grain
Ill. nails with penetration more than 12 times the nail di-
ameter
IV. nails attached in withdrawal from side grain
v. steel plates bohed to wood members

A. I, II, and IV C. IV and V

B. I, Ill, and IV D. II and IV

XIV. BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS ON STRUCTURAL DESIGN

1. Select the correct statement about lateral loads. A B C D

A. For both winds and earthquake loads, forces must 0000


be calculated as though loads can come from any
direction and act on the building.

190
B. In zones of high earthquake probability, the forces
produced by seismic lo~s always take precedence
over wind loads.

C. Wmd stagnation pressure is assumed to act at a point


50 feet above ground.

D. Buildings can only be designed to resist seismic


forces according to specified procedures in the UBC
or with approved wind tunnel tests.

2. The maximum possible allowable stress tor steel A B C D


members is: 0 0 0 0
A. F,= 0.60Fr (on net effective area)

B. F,= 0.66Fr (on net effective area)

C. Fb= 0.66FY(tor laterally supported compact sections)

D. Fb= 0.75Fr(for laterally supported compact sections)

3. Select the incorrect statements about wood construction. A B C D


I. Foundation sills may be any type wood if located more 0 0 0 0
than 6 inches above the earth.
II. Fire stops are not required in vertical openings of two-
story residential construction.
Ill. Untreated wood joists over crawl spaces must have
their bottom edges at least 0.45 M above ground,
while beams only need 0.30 M clearance.
IV. Concrete beam po~kets ml!lst be sized to allow for
25 mm air space at the sides and tops, and 50 mm at
the ends, unless the wood is treated or of a species
with a natural resistance to decay.
V. Each 150 square meter of crawl space area requires
a one square rnet6r net vent opening.

A. I, II, and Ill C. II, IV, and V

B. I, II, and IV D. Ill, IV, and V

4. What is important to protect the structural integrity of A B C D


reinforcing bars? 0000
A. FIRE RETARDANT FACTOR

B. CLEARANCE FROM EMBEDDED CONCRETE

191
C. REBAR BENDING REQUIREMENTS

D. CONCRETE COVER

5. What building code provision attempts to minimize the A B C D


Hkelihood of roof failure through ponding? 0000
A. DURATION OF LOAD FACTOR

e: SLENDERNESS FACTOR

C. DEFLECTION CRITERIA

D. COMBINATION LOADING

6. What is one of the bases for defining allowable stresses A B C D


00~~ 0000
A. CAMBER

C. ULTIMATE STRENGTH

B. MINIMUM TENSILE STRESS

D. WORKING STRESS

7. A 150 mm x 325 mm wood beam supporting solid wood A B C D


decking would have its allowable stress modified by
what?
0000
A. SIZE FACTOR C. SHORING REMOVAL

B. YIELD STRESS D. TEN PERCENT

8. If the allowable stress on a wood beam is 10 MPa what A B C D


is the required section modulus if the beam must resist a
moment of 623 N~M caused by snow loading?
0000
A. 487325 mm3 C. 52829 mm3
B. 49825 mm3 D. 54174 mm3

9. Which of the following loading conditions does not have A B C D


to be investigated?
0000
A. dead plus floor live plus snow plus one-half seismic

B. dead plus floor live plus snow

C. dead plus floor live plus wind plus one-haH snow

D. dead plus floor live plus one-h::1lf wind plus snow

192
10. Which of the following are true statements? A B C D
I. 249 Kilos per square meter of dead load must be 0000
factored into normal dead loading when designing
speculative office buildings.
II. Live loads can be reduced on structural components
supporting more than 15 square meter in all occu-
pancies except educational.
Ill. Structural continuity affects load calculations.

IV. Pitched roofs over 5 in 12 allow for a reduction in


snow loads over 90 kilos per square meter.
V. Required live loads are clearly stated in the UBC.

A. II, Ill, and V C. I, Ill, and V

B. II, Ill, and IV D. I, Ill, IV, and V

XV. WOOD CONSTRUCTION

1 . Which of the following statements is correct? A B C D

A. Glue-laminated beams may shrink excessively once


0000
on the job site.

B. Selecting a premium appearance grade glue-lam al-


lows an increase in allowable bending stress.

C. 3/4-inch laminations are used in glue-lam beams pri-


marily when a tight curve must be formed.

D. A nominal8-inch wide glue-lam is actually 7 .x; inches


wide.

2. An outdoor deck in a mountain region is supported on A B C D


#2 western red cedar joists with an Fb of 7.23 MPa for 0000
repetitive members and an Fv of 0.516 MPa. The joists
are cantilevered 0.60 M as shown in the figures. If the
snow load creates a uniform load on each joist of 2516.25
N per square meter, what size joist is required (neglecting
the weight of the joist and considering both bending and
horizontal shear)?

193
2516.25 N/M

beam loading

----------3.-0-M---------IO.SOMI
3692

shear di&gram

2693.08 N.M. -4003.38

-473.18 N-M

A. 2x6(50x150mm) C. 2x10(50x250mm)

B. 2 X 8 (50 X 200 mm) D. 2 X 12 (50 X 300 mm)

3. Which of the following is usually not checked when A B C D


designing floor joists for heavy loads? 0000
A. vertical shear C. moment effects

B. horizontal shear D. deflection

4. What must be used in designing bearing plates for A B C D


girders?
0000
A. DEFLECTION CRACKING

B. COMPRESSION PERPENDICULAR TO GRAIN

C. VISUAL GRADING

D. COMPRESSION PARALLEL TO GRAIN

5. What would be used to design a column with its lower A B C D


end encased in concrete?
0000
A. SLENDERNESS RATIO C. LATERAL SUPPORT

B. VERTICAL SHEAR D. BUCKLING LENGTH


FACTOR

194
6. What is as important as wood species in selecting A B C D
allowable stresses? 0000
A. MOISTURE CONTENT C. EXTREME FIBER IN
BENDING

B. APPEARANCE GRADE D. SIZE CATEGORIES

7. Which of the following affect the selection of a value for A B C D


allowable tension parallel to the grain, before modification 0000
due to duration of loading?
I. wood species
II. size of member
Ill. single or multiple member use
IV. grade of lumber
V. duration of loading

A. I, II, and IV C. II, IV, and V

B. I, Ill, and IV D. all of the above

8. What is the maximum axial load a 100 x 150 mm top A B C D


chord truss member can resist if it spans 0.90 M between 0000
panel points, its Fe is 6.545 MPa and its modulus of
elasticity is 11024 MPa?

A. 78345.22 N C. 87473.45 N

B. 79482.48 N D. 88425.22 N
I

9. The maximum bending moment on a 6.0 M long beam is A B C D


11085.97 N-M. If the beam is Douglas fir-larch dense 0000
no. 1, and lateral support is provided, what is the most
economical size that should be used? (Neglect effects
of deflection.)

A. 100 x 250 mm C. 150 x 200 mm

B. 100 x 300 mm D. 150 x 300 mm

10. Select the incorrect statement below. A B C D

A. Design values can be increased 33 ~ percent for


0000
wind loading on wood structures.

B. Structural lumber should be specified at an absolute


maximum moisture content of 19 percent.

195
C. Horizontal shear is almost always more critical than
deflection or bending in short, heavily loaded beams.

D. Beams can be notched a maximum of one-sixth of


their depth at end supports.

XVI. STEEL CONSTRUCTION

1. What is most often used for columns in steP.I A B C D


construction?
0000
A. CARBON STEEL C. A36 STEEL

B. WIDE FLANGES D. COMPACT SECTIONS

2. What is the most important consideration in column A B C D


design?
0000
A. SLENDERNESS C. RADIUS OF GYRATION
RATIO

B. BUCKLING D. LATERAL SUPPORT

3. What property of steel makes it good for earthquaKe- A B C D


resistant structures? 0 0 0 0
A. HIGH MODULUS OF C. UNIFORM LOAD
ELASTICITY CONSTANTS

B. DUCTILITY D. FLEXURE

4. A steel girder supports a concentrated load of 53.38 KN A B C D


at its center. If the girder is A36 steel, spans 4.87 M and
is laterally supported, what is the most economical
0000
section that can support the load?

A. W 8 X 24 C. W12x16

B. w 8 X 28 D. w 12 X 22

5. Open-web steel joists are to span 27 feet and are placed A B C D


21/2 feet on center. A maximum depth of20 inches is
allowed for the joist. The live load is 80 psf, the dead
0000
load is 40 psf, and the maximum deflection is limited to
1/360 of the span. What is the best joist to use?

A. 18K4 C. 20K4

B. 18K5 D. 20K6

196
6. A W12 x 79 beam of A36 steel spans 22 feet. What A B C D
maximum load per foot can the beam support and what
is the maximum allowable unsupported length?
0000
A. 3.53 kips per foot; 12.8 feet
B. 3.53 kips per foot; 10.1 feet

C. 6.48 kips per foot; 12.8 feet


D. 77.7kipsperfoot; 10.1 feet

7. A W 14 x 120 column of steel with Fr= 50 ksi has an A B C D


unbraced length of 14 feet. It is rigidly fixed at the base,
fixed in translation at the top but free to rotate at the top.
0000
What is the allowable concentric load?

A. 690 kips C. 935 kips


B. 887 kips D. 949 kips

8. Which of the following is not true about open-web steel A B C D


joists?
0000
A. Proper bridging is important for joists.
B. All components of open-web joist construction con-
form to standards of the Steel Joist Institute.

C. Open web joists can span up to 144 feet.


D. The K-series is for spanning the shortest distances
up to 60 !eet.

9. A uniformly loaded W 10 x 60 beam spans 16 feet. If it is · A B C D


A36 steel, laterally supported, and carries a total load of
60,000 pounds, how much will it deflect?
0000
A. 0.560 inches C. 0.656 inches

B. 0.614 inches D. 0.674 inches

10. Which of the following statements about shear in steel A B C D


beams are true?
0000
I. Shear is evenly distributed throughout the web and
flanges of the beam.
II. Unit shearing stress is partly a function of the maxi-
mum vertical sh~ar.
Ill. Shear stresses can be significant for beams with con-
centrated loads at mid-span.

197
IV. Shear is not usually a problem in steel beam design.
V. It is necessary to know the actual depth of a beam
rather than the nominal depth when calculating the
unit shearing stress.

A. I, II, and V C. II, Ill, and IV

B. I, II, IV, and V D. II, IV, and V

XVII. CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION

1 . Which of the following admixtures would you recommend A B C D


to use in a construction project in a northern climate that
)Nas built during the summer months if the concrete will 0000
be exposed to the weather?

A. accelerator C. air-entraining agent

B. plasticizer D. accelerator and air-en


training agent

2. Which of the ·following would be the correct placement A B C D


for primary reinforcing steel for the beam shown below if
the spans supported a uniformly distributed load?
0000

A. 1
B. .... 1 D. .... 1
3. The concrete beam shown is proposed to have rebars A B C D
placed schematically as shown. The strength of the
concrete is 27.5 MPa, or 4000 psi. and the steel is grade
0000
60. The percentage of steel to achieve a balanced design
has been calculated to be 0.0285. What are the minimum
and maximum steel areas allowed?
- ,. ' ~

2 2
A. minimum= 1.06 in ; maximum= 9.19 in
564mm c- •
B. minimum= 1.19 in2 ; maximum= 9.19 in2

..... .
' .• p , ..
~ .
• .' ' 0
2 2
C. minimum= 1.06 in ; maximum= 6.90 in .• I> 0 •
-
641.. • • • '.
D. minimum= 1.19 in 2 ; maximum= 7.70 in 2
·I 300mm 1

198
4. Which of the following are not true about the water- A B C D
cement ratio: 0000
I. For typical concrete mixes, the minimum water-ce-
ment is about 0.50 to 0.65.
II. The water-cement ratio is critical to the concrete
strength.
Ill. Water is only needed for workability and to start ttw
drying process.
IV. Excess water form small bubbles in the cement paste.
V. The water-cement ratio is sometimes referred to by
gallons of water per sack of cement.

A. II and Ill C. I and Ill

B. Ill and IV D. I and IV

5. A number 10 rebar has the following diameter: A 8 c D

A. I~ inches
0000
B. 1 Ys inches
c. Ys inches
D. The exact diameter depends on the producing mill.

6. Select the correct statements from the following list. A 8 c D

I. The development length of rebars depends primarily 0000


on the s1rength of the steel and the perimeter length
of the bar.
II. Diagonal tension stress can be counteracted by us-
ing either stirrups or some of the tension steel bent
up at a 45 degree angle.
Ill. Reducing the percentage of steel to close to mini-
mum can improve the stiffness of the beam.
IV. Compression steel is seldom used unless negative
moment is present.
v. Long-term deflection can be two or more times initial
deflection.

A. I, II, and Ill C. II, IV, and V

B. I, Ill, and V D. II, Ill, and V

199
7. What should be carefully controlled during placement of A B C D
co~~ 0000
A. FACTORED LOAD C. MOISTURE

B. COMPACTION D. TEMPERATURE

8. What safety provision accounts for some of the many A B C D


variables in concrete construction?
0000
A. LOAD FACTORS C. NEGATIVE MOMENT

B. TWO-WAY D. STRENGTH REDUC-


SLAB ACTION TION FACTOR

9. What usual property of concrete construction improve A B C D


its structural efficiency?
0000
A. CONTINUITY C. T-BEAM ACTION

B. HYDRATION D. CURING

10. What should you see to judge the quality of concrete A B C D


being placed ·at a job site.? 0000
A. SLUMP TEST C. COMPRESSIVE
STRENGTH

B. CORE CYLINDER TEST D. CYLINDER TEST

XVIII. WALL CONSTRUCTION

1 . What should be used to allow for the wetting of an exterior A B C D


wood panel system?
0000
A. EXPANSION JOINT C. SLIP JOINT

B. SLOTTED HOLES D. THROUGH WALL


JOINT

2. What is a metal stud wall system with decorative concrete A B C D


block on the exterior known as? 0 0 0 0
A. CURTAIN WALL C. SHEAR WALL

B. VENEERED WALL D. CAVITY WALL

200
3. The lintels of masonry walls with small openings do not A B C D
carry as much load as might be expected due to what? 0000
A. ECCENTRICITY C. FLEXIBLE BUSHINGS

B. HIGH-LIFT GROUTING D. ARCH ACTION

4. In earthquake-resistant structures, metal wrtain wails A B C D


should be attached vertically at the column lines and 0000
horizontally at the floor lines because:

A. these points are the strongest possible places for


anchoring.
B. building movement during an earthquake is at a mini-
mum at these locations.

C. forces are concentrated at these points and should


not be bridged across with panels.

D. it is more likely that the workmanship of connectiOns


will be better at these points.

5. Select the correct statements about concrete bearing A B C 0


walls when empirical design methods are used. 0000
I. Reinforcing bars should be placed no more than 1 '6"
apart.
II. The unsupported height cannot exceed 20 times the
thickness.
Ill. Eccentricity is not critical when the wall is more than
10 inches thick and reinforced with #5 bars or larger.
IV. Openings are reinforced all around with #5 bars or
larger extending at least 2'0" beyond the corners.
V. Minimum reinforcing percentages change when bar
sizes exceed #6 size.

A. I and IV C. II, Ill, and IV

B. I, II, and Ill D. IV and V

6. If a client requested you to design a building true to the A B C 0


principles of masonry construction, what type of lintel 0000
over openings would you most likely design?

A. concealed steel

B. reinforced masonry units

201
C. precast concrete sized to fit the masonry module

D. arches of the same material as the walls

7. The exterior finish of a small, two-story building is to be A B C D


stucco. Which of the following wall systems would be a
good choice it cost must be minimized and the labor force
0000
is relatively unskilled?

A. masonry cavity

B. steel studs

C. balloon frame wood studs

D. platform frame wood studs

8. Which of the following is not true about masonry A B C D


reinforcing?
0000
A The spacing of required reinforcement is grouted ma-
sonry walls cannot exceed 3 feet.

B. Joint reinfqrcement is normally placed 16 inches on


center.

C. Ties between wythes of a cavity wall are provided for


every 4 lj2 square feet of wall surface regardless of
their size or type.

D. In low-lift grouting, the size of the horizontal reinforc-


ing must not be included in the determination of mini-
mum cavity width.

9. A concrete block cavity wall must extend 14 feet from A B C D


the foundation to a row of joists which will be supported 0000
by the wall. What wythe combination must be used for
the most economical wall?

A. two 4-inch blocks separated by a 2-inch space

B. one 4-inch block and one 6-inch block with a 1-inch


space

C. two 6-inch blocks separated by a 2-inch space

D. one 4-inch block and one 8-inch block separated with


a 1-inch space

202
10. Which of the following affect the bearing capacity of a A B C D
masonry wall? 0000
I. workmanship
11. thickness
Ill. number of wythes
1y. mortar type
V. unsupported height
VI. joint reinforcement

A. I, II, Ill, and V C. II, IV, V, and VI

B. I, II, IV, and V D. all of the above

XIX. LATERAL FORCES -WIND

1. The John Hancock Building in Chicago is an example of A B C D


what type of framing system? 0000
A. PORTAL FRAME C. X-BRACING

B. TRUSSED TUBE D. FRAMED TUBE

2. What must be used for designing gabled rigid frames? A B C D

C. SHEAR WALL
0000
A. RESONANT LOAD

B. MOMENT RESISTING D. NORMAL FORCE


FRAME METHOD

3. A line of columns used to resist wind forces is called A B C D


what? 0 0 0 0
A. KNEE BRACING C. ANEMOMETER

B. BENT D. DRIFT

4. Select the incorrect statement. A B C D

A. Drift of adjacent floors must be limited to 0.0025 times


0000
the floor height.

B. Overturning is resisted by the dead load moment,


which must be 1 1/2 times the overturning moment.

C. K-bracing provides for a more rigid high-rise struc-


ture than X-bracing.

203
D. Wind tunnel testing or special calculations are fre-
quently required for buildings over 400 feet high.

5. Using Method 2, what is the design wind pressure on A B C D


the upper part of a wall of a 45-foot high hospital in
downtown Salt Lake City, Utah?
0000
A. 18.2 psf C. 20.9 psf

B. 19.4 psf D. 31.4 psf

6. In designing a sheathing and roofing system for a roof A B C D


with a 5:12 slope, what pressure coefficient should be
used?
0000
A. 0.4 outward C. 1.1 outward

B. 0.7 outward D. 1.6 inward

7. A wood ledger is being used to support and connect a A B C D


plywood diaphragm floor to a 38-foot long stud wall that
is acting as a shear wall. 8d nails, which can hold 82
0000
pounds laterally, are to be used. If the total force on one
of the shear walls is calculated as 4600 pounds, what is
the minimum nail spacing required to attach the floor to
the ledger?

A. 4 inches C. 8 inches

B. 6inches D. 10 inches

8. Select the correct statements from the following list. A B C D


I. Shear walls are more efficient if they are relatively 0000
deep compared with their height.
II. Trussed-tube construction is often used for both steel
and concrete construction.
Ill. Wood frame buildings must often be anchored to the
foundation to resist uplift as well as shear
IV. Welded connections offer an economical way to fab-
ricate moment resisting frames while simplifying erec-
tion.
V. Dividing the total shear on a shear wall by its length
gives the value for diaphragm shear.

A. I, Ill, IV, and V C. II, IV, and V

B. II, Ill, and V D. all of the above

204
9. The effect of intermittent wind gusts is taken into account A B C D
in the UBCwith the: 0000
A. C., factor C. q8 factor

B. Cq factor D. I factor

10 .. Which of the following are not true about wind forces on A B C D


buildings? 0000
I. Wind stagnation pressure is greater in open areas
than in urban areas.
II. Corners of buildings require special consideration
during the design phase.
Ill. The negative pressure on the leeward side of a build-
ing is taken into consideration in both Method 1 and
Method 2 of the UBC design procedure.
IV. Wind velocity increases when the area it moves
through is decreased in area.
V. The direction of the prevailing winds at a particular
site is used to calculate wind stagnation pressure.

A. I, Ill, and V C. I and Ill

B. I and V D. Ill, IV, and V

XX. LATERAL FORCES - EARTHQUAKE

1. A building is constructed of an ordinary moment-resisting A B C D


space frame and is raised on columns above an open 0000
plaza below. What is this an example of?

A. BUILDING FRAME C. SOFT STORY


SYSTEM

B. BEARING WALL D. SH~AR WALL


SYSTEM DISCONTINUITY

2. What provides information most useful for seismic A B C D


design? 0000
A. RICHTER SCALE C. REENTRANT CORNER

B. ACCELEROGRAPH D. MODIFIED MERCALLI


SCALE

205
3. What describes a building whose lateral force-resisting A B C D
system consists stressed in flexure?
0000
A. MOMENT-RESISTING C. FRAMED TUBE
SPACE FRAME

B. BRACED FRAME D. NATURAL PERIOD

4. A store in Seattle, Washington will have a steel, ordinary A B C D


moment-resisting space frame. It will be 36 Meters wide,
60 Meters long, 17 Meters, with two stories. Soil reports
0000
show stiff soil with the soil depth exceeding 60 Meters.
The structure has a dead load of 28,913 KN, and its
period of vibration is 0.19 second in the longitudinal
direction. What is the total base shear in the longitudinal
/direction?

A. 1,989.15 KN C. 3,975.54 KN

B. 2,652.20 KN D. 6,563.75 KN
A B C D
5. A dynamic analysis method would be required if which
of the following conditions existed?
0000
A. a five-story, square hotel building with a skylight-
topped atrium in the middle which comprises 55 per-
cent of the building's area

B. a 40-story, rectangular office building in seismic zone


3 with an ordinary moment-resisting space frame

C. a three-story, L-shaped department store

D. all of the above


A B C D
6. Select the incorrect statement from the following.
0000
A. Ductility is important above the elastic limit.

B. Flexible buildings are good at resisting earthquake


and wind loads.

C. A penthouse swimming pool would not be a good


idea in seismic zone 2B.

D. All of other things being equal, reinforced concrete is


a poorer choice than steel for a structural system in
seismic zone 3.

206
7. Which of the following are true?
A B c D
I. The epicenter is the location of fault slippage.
0000
II. Vertical ground movement is usually critical when cal-
culating its effect on a building.

Ill. A building's fundamental period of vibration is depen-


dent on its mass and stiffness.

IV. Building seismic zones 1 require some earthquake-


resistant design considerations.

V. Useful information in seismic zones 3 and 4 can be


gathered from existing buildings.

A. I, II, and Ill c. II, IV, and V

B. II, Ill, and IV D. Ill, IV, and V

8. What value of CP would be used on the first floor in A c D


B
seismic zone 3 to check the stability of a 6-foot-high 0000
bookcase?

A. 0.75 c. 2.0

B. 1.5 D. 4.0

9. The distribution of base shear in a multistory building A B C D


does not depend on which of the following? 0000
A. the height of the C. the distribution of mass
building

B. the rigidity of the D. the height of the floors


diaphragms

10. Select the correct statements about shear walls. A B C D

I. The width-to-height ratio should be made as large as 0000


possible.
II. The force normal to the shear wall is not critical com-
pared to the shear force in the plane of the wall.
Ill. Shear walls are best located at the perimeter of the
building.
IV. Shear walls should not be offset.
V. Shear walls can be used in a bearing wall system.

A. I, Ill, and IV C. I, Ill, IV, and V

B. I, II, and IV D. all of the above

207
XXI. LONG SPAN STRUCTURES
-ONE WAY SYSTEMS

1. Partitions should not be rigidly attached to the underside A B C D


of a long span structural member because:
0000
A. This would decrease the flexibility of future room lay-
outs.

B. Lateral loads transferred to the partitions would cause


them to tip slightly.

C. Temperature changes would crack the finish mate-


rial.

D. Long-term deflection would buckle the partition struc-


ture.

2. What is common to both deep, long span steel joists A B C D


and prestressed double tees?
0000
A. PONDING C. CAMBER

B. TENDONS D. PLATE GIRDER

3. What is the ideal shape for an arch?

A. FURNICULAR C. PARABOLIC

B. CIRCULAR D. RIGID FRAME

4. Name the truss that does not have intermediate vertical A B C D


members.
0000
A. PRATT C. HOWE

B. WARREN D. GOTHIC

5. Which of the following is not true about open-web steel A B C D


joists? 0000
A. The LH-series and DLH-series are used where open
space is needed for floor and roof spans up to 144
teet.
B. A top chord, single pitched joist can be purchased
for either top or bottom chord bearing.

C. The architect need not specify the required camber.

D. A 24LH06 joist must always be braced with bridging;


regardless of its span.

208
6. A sports complex is being planned for a large university. A B C D
One portion will include a 50-meter pool with competition
diving boards and areas for sJ)ectators. The size of the
0000
pool area has been tentatively set at 110 feet wide by
220 feet long by 50 feet high with the spectator area on
one side of the long dimension. Glazing is planned along
both short dimensions, and the primary exterior finish
material is brick.

What structural roof system would probably be best for


this situation?

A. deep, long span joists


B. glued laminated rigid frames

C. prestressed, single-T concrete sections

D. pitched steel trusses

7. Slotted holes are used to: A B c D


r, r·,
() "',j \
-· I
I. provide for erection tolerances '~

II. make shop fabrication easier

Ill. allow for temperature changes

IV. let the exterior envelope move to prevent stress build-


up

v. make precise alignment possible

A. I, IV, and V C. I, Ill, and V

B. II, Ill, and IV D. all of the above

8. Select the incorrect statement. A G c D

A. Camber is used to prevent pondong. 0 0 0 0


B. Thrust action must be considered when using long
span arches.

'"'
v. Glued laminated beams can span farther than sawn
timber because the allowable extreme fiber in bend-
ing stress is greater.

D. Special moment connection are required for


Vierendeel trusses.

209
9. Careful construction observation of long span structures A B C D
is critical for which of the following reasons?
0000
I. to look for overstressing caused by temporary con-
struction loads placed on the structure

II. to check for proper construction sequence

Ill. to make sure that connections are made according


to the shop drawings

IV. to compare on-site materials and components against


the drawings and specification

V. to determine that secondary members are aitached


to primary members properlv.

A. I, II, and IV C. II, Ilk IV, and V

B. II, Ill, and IV D. all OT me above

10. What one-way system normally can span the farthest? A 8 C D

A. deep, long span joists C. wood arch 0000


B. flat steetl truss D. prestressed single-T

XXII. LONG SPAN STRUCTURE


-TWO WAY SYSTEM

1. Select the incorrect statement about spaces frames. A 8 C D

A. Space frames are different from many long spa'n 0000


structures because of their redundancy.

B. Top and bottom grids of a space frame can run in


different directions, but they usually are oriented the
same way.

C. Regularly spaced supports with overhands are more


efficient than supports'located at the perimeter of a
space frame structure.

D. Space frames are economical structures because


their many connections can be prefabricated.

2. Match the related systems and spans. A B C D

folded plates 0000


II. hyperbolic parabolids

210
Ill. geodesic domes

IV. suspended cable structure

V. space frames
1. 30 to 160 feet
2. 50 to 100 feet
3. 80 to 220 feet
4. 50 to 400 feet
5. 50 to 450 feet

A. 1-1, 11-2, 111-5, IV-3, V-4 C. 1-2, 11-1, 111-4, IV-5, V-3

B. 1-2, 11-3, 111-4, IV-5, V-1 D. 1-3, 11-1, 111-4, IV-4, V-2

3. A thin shell dome gets its strength and efficiency from A B C 0


which of the following?
0000
A meridiana! action and hoop tension

B. compression, shear, and tension in the place of the


dome

C. distribution of hoop compression in the upper part of


the dome and hoop tension in the lower part

D. arch action in three dimensions

4. What describes a structure with diagonal bracing and


A B C D
individual arches?
0000
A SCHWEDLER C. CATENARY

B. THIN SHELL D. HYPERBOLIC PARABOLOID

5. Three of the structures listed above share an important


property. What is this property?

A HOOPS C. NODE
B. MERIDIAN D. REDUNDANCY

6. What describes most pretensioned membrane


A B C D
structures?
0000
A SYNCLASTIC C. INDETERMINANT
B. ANTICLASTIC D. LAWELLA

211
7. Which of the structures listed above is the least stable A B ·c 0
under wind loads?
0000
A. Geodesic dome C. Preu matic
B. Space frame D. Barrel vault

8. A dome is a very stiff structure for whichof the following A 8 C 0


reasons?
0000
A. Strain is small due to all stresses being in compres-
sion or tension.

B. The boundary of a dome is prevented from moving


because of its circular shape.

C. Lateral loads are evenly distributed throughout the


dome.

D. Tension and compression are balanced.

9. Select the correct statements. A 8 C 0


I. labor is often the primary reason many long span 0000
structures are not economical.

II. A high-rise dome in the winter experiences tension


above the meridian angle of 45 degrees and com-
pression below this point.

II: Both flat plates and barrel vaults need to have a length
greater than transverse span width to be efficient.

IV. The thrust on a cable-suspended structure is directly


proportional to its sag.

v A structure like a suspension bridge makes the cable


assume the shape of a parabola.

A. 1. 111. and B C II, Ill, and IV

B. ! II, IV, and V D. Ill and V

10 Membranes are good structures to use because: A B C 0

A. They are easy to erect. 0000


B. There is always direct, positive drainage

C. They make very efficient use of material

D. Their form is one of the most dramatic types of lqng


span structures.

212
AREA ''B''
PART II BUILDING
MATERIALS AND
METHODS OF
CONSTRUCTION
AREA "B" PART II

DIRECTION: Read the passages and answer the questions that follow. Shade the
circle (e) of the correct answer to each question.

I. BUILDING MATERIALS

A. CONCRETE

1. To avoid making concrete surfaces slippery. what A B C D


material is used? 0 0 0 0
A. CONCRETE TILE C. ROUGH WOOD
ON EDGES

B. ABRA~IVE: D. PLASTIC
MATERIAL IN
THE TOPPING

2. An admixture which is usec.J to speed up the initial A B C D


set of concrete (early removal of forms). 0000
A. DECELARATORS C. HARD AGENTS

B. HI-TECH LIQUID D. ACCELERATORS

3. Plain concrete surfaces which are subjected to live A B C D


loads, the impact action of foot traffic, and other types 0000
of wear begin to dust and crumble at the surface,
finally resulting in the destruction of the surface to
prevent this. Use _ _ __

A. STONE C. DAMP-PROOFER

B. CHEMICAL D SAHARA POWDER


HARDENER

4. The function of the admixture is to delay or extend A B C D


the setting time of the cement paste in concrete. 0000
Usually used in very hot weather where hydration is
accelerated by the heat, and leads the concrete to
crack. This is also used for transit mix concrete that

214
has to be hauled in long distance to ensure that it
reaches its destination in a plastic and placeable
condition.
A. STOPPER C. RETARDER
B. CONTROLLER D. DELAYER

5. Common quality-control test of concrete, based on A B C D


7 and 28 day curing periods. Specimens are usually· 0000
cylindrical with a length equal to twice the diameter
or 0.15 M. diameter and 0.30 M. height.
A. COMPRESSIVE C. STIFFNESS TEST
STRENGTH TEST
B. TENSILE D. BONDING TEST
STRENGTH TEST

6. When freshly mixed concrete is checked to ensure A B C 0


that the specified deflection is being attained 0000
consistently. A standard cone is 30 em. high and 20
em. diameter at the bottom and 10 em. diameter on
top and open on both ends. The cone is filled in three
equal layers and tamped 25 times. When cone is
filled it is lifted and measure the deflection.
A. OVERFLOWING C. SLUMP TEST
TEST
B. WATER TEST D. BREAKUP TEST

7. Concrete can be considered to be an artificial stone A B C 0


made by binding together particles of some inert
material with a paste made of cement and water.
0000
These inert material of sand, crushed stone, burnt
clay are called _ _
A. UNION OF C. MIXTURE OF
MATERIALS MATERIALS
B. SUMMARIES D. AGGREGATES

8. In addition to the basic ingredients of concrete, other A B C 0


materials are often added to the mix or applied to 0000
the surface efc freshly placed concrete to produce
some special result and is known as _ _ __
A. CONCRETE C. CONCRETE
ADDITIVES COM E-ONS
B. ADD-ON D. PLUS FACTOR
MATERIALS CONCRETE

215
9. Made from materials which must contain the proper A B C D
proportions of lime, silica, alumina and iron
components. Four parts of limestone to one part clay
0000
are the basic ingredients. These are mixed, burned
then pulverized.

A. POZZOLAN C. PORTLAND CEMENT


CEMENT

B. HI-GRADE D. CEMENTITIOUS
CEMENT MATERIALS

Stones used for building purposes are classified


according to form in which it is available commercially.

10. includes rough fieldstone which may A 8 C D


merely have been broken into suitable sizes, or it
may include irregular pieces of stone that had been
0000
roughly cut to size usually as escombro or filling
material, when used as a facing to a wall, it is laid at
random meaning when no attempt is made to
produce either horizontal or vertical course line.

A. CRUSHED ROCK C. RIP-RAP STONE

B. SAND STONE D. RUBBLE

11 . These are stones that consists of using slabs ot stone A B C D


cut to dimension and thickness to cover backup walls 0000
and provide a finished exterior, like marble and
granite.

A. LIMESTONE C. FLAGSTONE

B. PANELING D. DIMENSION STONE

12. This kind of stone, when used as the facing is so A B C D


called when the work requires the use of cut stone 0000
and includes broken irregular coursed, and regular
coursed _ __ •
A. RUBBLE C. ASHLAR

B. RANDOM D. TRIM

13. The basic ingredient of is clay which A B C D


has some specific properties such as plasticity when
mixed with water, so that it can be molded or shaped;
0000
it must have sufficient tensile strength to keep its

216
shape after foaming; and ctay particles must fuse
together wheri subjected to sufficiently high
temperature. This material is molded solid.

A. CHB C. SLATE
B. ADOBE b. BRICK

14. These are hollow units as opposed to brick which is A B C D


solid. They are made from the same materials as
brick, but all are formed by extrusion in the stiff-mud
0000
process.

A. STRUCTURAL C. FURRING TILE


CLAY TILE

B. BACK-UP TILE D. VIGAN TILES

15. Meaning ·'fired earth" is a clay product which has A 8 C D


been used for architectural decorative purposes.
since ancient Greece and Rome. Modern
0000
____ _ is machine-extruded and molded or
proposed. The machine-made product is usually
referred to as CERAMIC VENEER, and is a unit with
flat face and flat or ribbed back.

A. CERAMIC TILE C. BRICKS

B. TERRA COTTA D DECORATIVE TILE

16. The method of laying bricks in a wall in order to form A 8 C 0


some' distinctive design is referred to as the
0000
A. DESIGNED BOND C. FLEMISH BOND

B. HORIZONTAL and D. DECORATIVE TILE


VERTICAL BOND

B. WOOD, BOARDS

1. "DEC IDUO US" tress are trees that have broad leaves A 8 C D
which are normally shed in the winter time. These 0000
are classed as _ _ __

A. FOREST WOODS C. SOLID WOODS

B. STURDY WOODS D. HARDWOODS

217
2. "CONIFERS" are trees that have needles. rather than A B C D
leaves and that bear their seeds in cones. These
are called _ _ __
0000
A. SOFT WOODS C. LIGHT WOODS

B. TENDER WOODS D. BALSA WOODS

As clay is burned. steel is tempered, so lumber must be


dried.

3. Lumber is strip-piled at a slope on a solid foundation. A B C D


This allows air to circulate around every piece while
the sloping allows water to run off quickly. This may
0000
take months to dry.

A. SUN-DRIED C. WIND-DRIED
METHOD METHOD

B. AIR-DRYING D. BLOW-DRIED
METHOD

4. Expensive !.umber such as those used for furniture A B C D


must be dried using this method, so that wood will 0000
not move. It must be dried artificially to a moisture
content of not more than 5 to 10 percent done using
an oven in a large air fight structure and may take
weeks only to dry.

A. ELECTRIC RAY C. KILN-DRYING

B. HUNG-DRYING D. FIRE-DRYING
METHOD

a
5. A term used to describe wooden member built-up A B C D
of several layers of wood whose grain directions are 0000
all substantially parallel, and held together with glue
as fastening, commonly used for beams. gardens,
posts, columns. arches. bowstring truss chords
usually softwoods are used.

A. STRESSED-SKIN C. COMBINED
MATERIAL

B. BOX-TYPE D. GLU-LAMINATED
TIMBER

218
6. When lumber is subjected to pressure and injected A B C D
with chemicals or salts to insure it from rots. This is 0000
termed as _ _ __

A. TREATED LUMBER C. PAINTED LUMBER

B. INJECTED D. PRESSURIZED
LUMBER LUMBER

7. Plywood is made by bonding together thin layers of A B C 0


wood in a way that the grain of each layer is at right 0000
angles to the grain of each adjacent layer. Each layer
of plywood is called a _ _ __

A. FRAMING C. VENEER

B. SHOW-IN D. FACING

8. A group of sheets of building materials often faced A B C D


. with paper or vinyl, suitable for use as a finished 0000
surface on walls. ceilings. etc. These are flat,
relatively thin in section and have been made to
standard sizes. usually 1.20 x 2.40M.

A. FINISHING BOARD C. CONSTRUCTION


BOARDS

B. BUILDING D. ARCHITECTURAL
BOARDS BOARDS

9. A building board made from processed wood chips. A B C D


Chips of controlled size are subjected to high- 0000
pressure steam in pressure vessels. When the
pressure is released. the chips "explode" and the
cellulose and liquid are separated from the unwanted
elements and then mixed into a homogenous mass
and formed into a continuous board. These are
pressed into a uniform. hard grainless sheets in
heated process.

A. STONE BOARD C PLY-BOARD

B. HARD BOARD D. STRONG BOARD

10. A building board made by impregnated standard A B C D


board with a compound of oils and resins and baking 0000
it to polymerize the material. This board is brittle and
stiff. has improved machining qualities and much
greater resistance to water penetration. making it
suitable for exterior use.

219
A. RIGID BOARD C. WATERPROOF
BOARD
B. FLEXI-BOARD D. TEMPERED
HARDBOARD

11. Made from three types of fiber; wood, sugar cane, A B C D


and asbestos, and binder formed into a board. They 0000
are softened with live steam, sheared to break chips
down into fibers.
A. INSULATING C. NOISE REDUCING
FIBERBOARD BOARD
· B. TEMPERATE D. 'vVEATHERPROOF
BOARD BOARD

12. Large class of building board made from wood and A B C D


particles and a binder often faced with veneer. Panels 0000
are made into two types, plain and patterned. Plain
panels may be unsanded, sanded on one side or
both. Patterned panels have one grooved surface,
either evenly spaced or random.
A. PIECE WORK C. CHIPBOARD
BOARD
B. SLICED BOARD D. SIZED-BOARD

13. A hard board made from relatively small materials A B c D


The materials are graduated from coarse at the 0 0 0 0
center of the board to fine at the surface to help
produce a product with a smooth dense surface. Both
surfaces are sanded. Uses are floor underlay and
shelvings common as a base for wood veneers,
plastic laminates.
A ARTICLE BOARD C. GROUNDED BOARD
B UNIT BOARD D. ATOMIZED BOARD

14 From the outer bark of· an oaktree. Granules is mixed A B C D


with synthetic resin, compressed and formed into 0000
sheets from 25 mm. to 150 mm. thick and baked
under pressure into rigid boards. The standard board
length is only 0.91 m. (36 inches) and widths are 30,
45. 60 and 75 em. this board is exclusively for thermal
insulating material and yibration control.
A. PAPERBOARD C. SOFTBOARD
B CORKBOARD D. LIGHTWEIGHT
BOARD

220
15. Roofing paper which are used in maktngabuilt~up A B C D
roof and are usuaHy "produced in 91 em. wide rolls,
in various weight from 1.3 kilos to 9.08 kilos per
0000
square.

A. ROOFING ROLLS C. ROOFING FELTS

B. ROOFING FOILS D. ROOFING SHEETS

16. Two thicknesses of paper laminated together with a A B C D


film of asphalt. Two kinds of paper is used- one is a 0000
kraft paper. The other, a mixture of ground wood
pulps, treated by the sulfate and the kraft methods

A. WATER PROOFED C. TEMPERATE PAPER


PAPER

B. ASPHALT PAPER D. VAPOR-BARRIER


PAPER

C. METALS

1 Metal in which iron is the principal element. Steel A B •_, L·


wrought iron and stainless steel
c ,~,
(

<...! ',_
-.,

A MINEDMETALS (' HEAVY WEIGHT


METALS

B FERROUS METALS D. ANTI-RUST METALS

2 Metal 1n which it contains NO or very little iron A B C D


Aluminum, copper, orass, tin, lead, zinc.
0000
A NON-MAGNETIC C. NON-FERROUS
METALS METALS

B TEMPERED D. MIXED METALS


METALS

3. High tensile strands used lor pre-stressing or post A B C D


tensioning concrete.
0000
A. TENDONS C. TEMPERATE BARS

B. WIRE MESH D. ROLED BARS

221
4. This metal is produced when pig iron is melted in A B C D
such a way as to remove nearly all of the carbon
and other impurities. It is easily worked and is tough
0000
and ductile. It's main use are for roofing sheets, wire
and metal ornamentals.
A. HAMMERED C TWISTED IRON
METALS
B. STRUCTURAL D. WROUGHT-IRON
STEEL

5. Made from new steel or from discarded railway car A B C D


axles or nails. This comes in plain or deformed bars. 0000
That is, bars which have lugs or deformations rolled
on the surface to provide anchorage in concrete.
A. CHANNEL BARS C. ANGLE BARS
B. STRUCTURAL D. REINFORCING BARS
STEEL

6. Another type of reinforcing material. It consists of A B C D


parallel, longitudinal wi(es welded to transverse wires
at regular intervals (cold drawing process).
0000
A. EXPANDED METAL C. WELDED WIRE
FABRIC
B. CYCLONE WIDE D. GALVANIZED IRON
WIRE

7. This metal is lustrous, silver-white non-magnetic, A B C D


lightweight metal which is very malleable; has good
thermal and electrical conductivity; a good reflector
0000
of both heat and light often anodized for better
corrosion resistance, surface hardness and/or
architectural color requirement.
A. NICKEL SILVER C. STAINLESS STEEL

B. ALUMINUM D. MUNTZ METAL

8. A lustrous reddish metal, highly ductile and A B C D


malleable; has high tensile strength, is an excellent 0000
electrical and thermal conductor is available in a wide
variety of shapes; widely used for downspouts,
electrical conductors, flashings, gutters.
A. COPPER C. BRASS
B. ZINC D. MONEL

222
9. Whenaluminumisanodizedtoabrownorblackcolor A B C D
this is called 0 0 0 0
A. DECORATIVE C. ANALOK
SHADE

B. ALCAN-PLANAR D. METALLIC-DYE

10. To impart strength or toughness to steel or cast iron A B C D


by heating it to some temperature below the 0000
transformation point, maintaining it there for
sometime then cooling it under controlled conditions.
it is called _ _ __

A. HAMMERED STEELC. MOLDED STEEL

B. TEMPERED STEEL D. PULLED STEEL

11. A process of coating a metal object by using powder A B C D


in place of traditional solution paints for the surface 0000
treatment of steel and other metals. The process
involves applying electrically charged coating
materials to a grounded metal object and come in a
wide range of colors form.

A. LIQUID PROCESS C. POWDER-COATING

B. CHEMICAL D. PAINTING METHOD


PROCESS

12. The most familiar process in coating finishes for A B C D


Aluminum is the __ . which is an electro- 0000
chemical process that deposits an integral coating
on the metal. It can include the familiar silvery coating
of aluminum or a number of colors in the black or
brown ranges called ANAL OK.

A. ANODIZING C. MOULDING
FROCESS PROCESS

B. COLD-ROLLED D. CHEMICAL PROCESS


PROCESS

223
D. GLASS, PLASTICS, SEALANTS

1. A hard brittle inorganic substance ordinarily A B C D


transparent or translucent; provided by melting a
mixture of silica, a flux and a stabilizer; while molten,
0000
may be blown, drawn, rolled pressed or cast to a
variety of shapes.

A. GLASS C. CELLULOID

B. PLASTIC D. VINYL

2. A type of glass that is used to control glare and A B C D


reduce solar heat. It is the product of a glass-coating 0000
process which is carried out in a large, rectangular
vacuum chamber. The glass is coated with micro-
thin layers of metallic films which provide the
performance characteristtcs of the glass. This results
in savings in operating costs of air-conditioning and
diminishes interior glare and brightness.

A. IMAGE-GLASS C. ARCHITECTURAL
GLASS

B. REFLECTIVE D. DIFFUSING GLASS


GLASS

3. A glass that contains a pattern or texture impressed A B C D


usually on one surface by a patterned roller.
0000
A. CATHEDRAL & C. WIRED GLASS
FIGURED GLASS

B. ROUGH CAST D. VITREOUS COLORED


GLASS PLATE

4. Three to five times as strong as regular plate of the A B C D


same thickness and area in resisting compressive
forces and fracture due to strain or thermal shock
0000
used for swinging doors, sliding patio doors, windows
in sports areas, skating rink. Thickness from 6.35
mrn., 12.70 mm., 15.88 mm., 19.06 mm. and 25.41
mm. (1/4, 3/8, 1/2, 5/8, 3/4 and 1 inch).

A. WATERPROOFED C. TEMPERED PLATE


GLASS GLASS

B. INSULATED D. HEAT-ABSORBING
GLASS GLASS

224
5. Widely used in the automotive industry and A B C D
transportation, but now finding some uses in the 0000
building industry, like glass that can withstand firearm
attack and explosions. This is made of two
thicknesses of plate or sheet glass bonded by a thin,
tough layer of polyvinyl butyral resin, a transparent
plastic.

A. TEMPERED GLASS C. FLOAT GLASS

B. LAMINATED D. PLATE GLASS


SAFETY GLASS

6. This consists of two sheets of plate or sheet glass, A B C D


separated by an air space and joined around the 0000
edges to produce a hermetically sealed unit. This
restricts sound and condensation and reduce
external noise. but still permit the entry of natural light

A. INSULATING C. TEMPERATE GLASS


GLASS

B. FIGURED GLASS D. WIRED GLASS

7. Comparable in many ways to uhit masonry but have A B C D


the added feature of transmitting light. They are made 0000
into two separate halves, which are heat-sealed
together to form a hollow unit with reasonably high
thermal efficiency and sound insulation.

A. SOLID BLOCKS C. RECTANGULAR


GLASS

B. GLASS BLOCKS D. REINFORCED GLASS

8. A large group of synthetic materials which are made A B C D


from a number of common substances such as coal, 0000
salt, natural gas, cotton, wood and water. From these
relatively simple chemical known as monomers,
which are capable or reacting with one another
chainlike molecules of high molecular weight called
polymers, which can be molded, extruded, cut or
worked into a great variety of objects.

A. PLASTICS C. RUBBERS

B. VINYLS D. MAGNESITES

225
9. These materials are so called because they consists A B C D
of three or more layers of material bonded together
with plastic adhesive under high pressure. The base
0000
is made up of multiple layers of strong kraft paper,
impregnated with phenolic, amino or epoxy liquid
resin. This is covered with a printed patterns sheet
saturated with melamine resin. A picture top sheet is
also saturated with melamine resin, and in some
cases a sheet of aluminum foils is inserted between
the base and decorative center layer to dissipate heat
and prevent marring the surface with burns.

A. POLYSTERENE C. PLASTIC LAMINATES

B. VINYLS D. POLYURETHANE

10. A hard, impure, protein gelatin, obtained by boiling A B C D


skins, hoofs and other animal substances in water,
that when melted or diluted is a strong adhesive.
0000
A. PLATE C. GLUE

B. JOINT D. TAPES

11. These compounds are products which are used to A B C D


close the surface of various materials against the 0000
penetration of water or other liquids or in some cases
to prevent the escape of water through the surface.
To do this, they must have some adhesive qualities
and the ability to fill the surfaces pores and form a
continuous skin on the surface to which they are
applied sanding for wood and silicone
_ _ _ _ for masonry.

A. PASTE C. FUSES

B. SEALERS D. CLOSERS

12. To fill or close seams or crevices of a tank or window A B C D


in order to make wate~light, airlight. If used for sealing 0000
glass it is known as glazing.

A. LAMINATING C. CAULKING

B. WATER STOPPING D. MOLDING

226
E. INSULATION

1. To prevent hot air outside during hot summer season A B C D


to enter inside and prevent cold winds to enter the 0000
house during cold months. All of these are done by
the judicious use of materials to prevent the transfer
of heat we call _ _ __
A. TEMPERATE C. HEAT INSULATION
INSULATION
B. THERMAL D. CLIMATIC
INSULATION INSULATION

2. A kind of insulating mate~ial that is either a fibrous A B C D


type made from mineral wool or glass wool fiber and 0000
granular type made from expanded minerals such
as perlite and vermiculite or granulated cork.

A. LOOSE FILL . C. PIECED INSULATION


INSULATION
B. BREAKWAY D. SEGMENTAL
INSULATION INSULATION

3. Made from some fibrous materials such as mineral A B C D


wood. wood fiber, cotton fiber or animal hair. 0000
manufactured in the form of a mat 40, 50 or 60 em.
in width, in 2.41 m. long controlled thicknesses of
2.54, 3.81, 50.82, 76.23, 10.16 em. some have a
paper back on one side. This is used where large
areas are to be insulated. If it comes only or restricted
to 2.41 m. long it is called a "BATT' for installation
between stud spacings.
A. SHEET C. COATED
INSULATION INSULATION

B. ROLLED-UP D. BLANKET
INSULATION INSULATION

4. Made from organic fiber-wood, cane, straw or cork. A B C D


The wood and cane raw material is first pulped, after 0000
which it is treated with waterproofing chemicals. The
fibers are then formed into sheets of various
thicknesses and cut into standard lengths. These are
called strawboards and corkboards in to market.
A. RIGID INSULATION C. STRUCTURAL
BOARD INSULATION BOARD
B. HARD INSULATION D. ARCHITECTURAL
BOARD INSULATION BOARD

227
5. Made from such materials as aluminum or copper A B C D
foil or sheet metal with bright surfaces that does not 0000
absorb heat.
A. IMAGING C. ANTI-GLARE
INSULATION IN.SULATION
B. DIFFUSER 0. REFLECTIVE
INSULATION INSULATION

6. This is a polyurethane product made by combining A B C D


a poly isocyanate and a polyester resin. This type of
insulation can be applied either by pouring wherein
0000
a carefully measured amount of the mixture is
deposited in an existing cavity or by spraying wherein
a number of thin coats of this material applied, one
over the other with sufficient time being left between
each application for this material to set up.
A. FOAMED IN PLACE-C. SITE POURED
B. CAST IN PLACE D. SITE SPRAYED

7 This type of insulation is so called because the units A B C D


are relatively stiff and inelastic. In most cases, 0000
inorganic materials are used in their manufacture.
This include'mineral wool with binder, framed plastic,
. cellular, glass, foamed concrete, cellular hard rubber,
shredded wood and cement. Suitable for use in roof-
deck insulation. Foamed plastic insulation made from
expanded polystyrene and polyurethane formed into
slabs like styropor is in this type.
A. SOLID INSULATION C. BLOCK OR RIGID
SLAB INSULATION
B. STIFFENED D. HARDPRESSED
INSULATION INSULATION

8 Materials used as polyurethane foam asbestos fibers A B C D


mixed with inorganic fibers, vermiculite aggregate
with a binder such as portland cement or gypsum
0000
and perlite aggregate using gypsum as a binder.
Machines are used for blowing these insulations into
place. As a result, the shape or irregularity of the
surface being insulated is of little consequence. This
type of insulation also seals cracks and crevices to
prevent dust from shifting through.
A. SI?LASHED-ON C. BLOWN-UP
INSULATION INSULATION
B. SPRAYED-ON D. SPATTERED
INSULATION INSULATION

228
DIRECTION: Matching type. Match the material shown at the le\t side to those that
are shown on the right side. Write the correct letter at the parenthesis
provided.

F. DOORS, HARDWARES

1 . FLUSH DOOR ....................... ( A. A door mounted on track which


slides in a horizontal direction
usually parallel to one wall.

2. PANEL DOOR ........................ ( B. A protective plate surrounding


the keyhole of a door or a light
switch (also a flange on a
pipe)

3. FRENCH DOOR ................... ( c. A door that swings in both di-


rections When mounted on
pivot hardware or special
double acting hinges.

4. DUTCH DOOR ..................... ( D. The door can be opened


whether you are inside or out-
side the garage, or inside your
car. Just click the gadget in
your hand and the transmitter
code automatically opens the
garage door.

5. SLIDING DOOR ..... E. A smooth- surfaced door hav-


ing laces which are plain and
conceal its rods and stiles or
other structure. When used in-
side. it is of hollow core, when
used for exterior, it is of solid
core.

6. SLIDING POCKET
DOOR ................................... ( F. A door having glass panels
from the top and to the bottom
nail.

7. DOUBLE ACTING
DOOR .................................... ( G. A rigid overhead door which
opens as an entire unit by us-
ing a special spring attached
to the sides, with an overhead
horizontal track.

229
8. ACCORDION DOOR ............. ( H. These are devices that auto-
matically return a door to its
closed position after it is
opened. They also control the
distance a door can be
opened. These can be sur1ace
mounted on the door and/or
the frame

9. REVOLVING DOOR .............. ( I. An electronic gadget that


projects an invisible light beam
across the approach of the
door. If a person approaches
the door, he interrupts the in-
visible beam. The opener is
activated and the door auto-
matically slides open.

10. OVERHEAD SWING-UP


GARAGE DOOR .................... ( J. A door made up of small hori-
zontal interlocking metal slats
which are guided in a track.
The configuration coils an
overhead drum which is
housed at the head of the
opening, either manual or mo-
tor-driven

11. REMOTE CONTROL ............. ( K. A door which slides inside a


hollow of the wall.

12. ROLL-UP DOOR ................... ( L. A hinged door which is divided


into two parts. The upper part
can be opened while the lower
portion is closed.

13. HINGE .................................. ( M. A hinged door consisting of a


system of panels which are
hung from an overhead track
when the door is open, the
faces.of the panels close.

14. AUTOMATIC DOOR


CLOSETS ........ :..................... ( N. A door having tiles, nails and
sometimes muntins, which
form one or more frames
around recessed thinner pan-
els.

230
15. ESCUTHCHEON .................. ( 0. A movable joint used to attach
support and turn a door about
a pivot. consists of two plates
joined together by a pin which
support the door and connect
it to its frame, enabling it to
swing open or close.

16. ELECTRIC EYE ..................... ( P. An exterior door consisting of


four leaves (at 90 9 to each
other) which pivot about a
common vertical axis within a
cylindrically shaped vestibule,
thereby eliminating drafts from
outside.

G. WINDOWS, HARDWARES

1. MULLION ............................... ( A. A window sash opening on


hinges that are generally at-
tached to the upright side of its
frame

2 STILE .................................... ( B. This window system elimi-


nates requirements for glass
suspension from above. It is
unique, thoroughly tested floor
load system and requires no
special structural steel mem-
bers tor hanging glass walls
(It has no aluminum frame to
obstruct the view.) It can be 9
M. high and 19 mm. thick.

3. AWNING .............................. ( C. A clasp for a door, lid, etc. one


passing over a staple and fas-
tened by a pin or a padlock in
this case, the staple is the
movable lock, turned to close
or opened by a key.

4. CASEMENT ........................... ( D. An electronic lockset wherein


the room is automatically
closed when the door is pulled
and the deadbolt is in place.
The door can be opened not
by a key, but by a plastic key
card 1 3/4" x 1/2" (44.46 mm.
x 12.70 mm.) (1/32") thickness

231
which has a magnetic black
stripe underneath it. Used like
an ATM card, when inserted,
a green light flushes then pull
it at once and turn the knob to
open the door.

5. FRENCH WINDOW ............... ( E. A hardware or handle attached


to a drawer or a closet door to
draw or tug them open.

6. ORIELor
BAY WINDOW ....................... ( F. This is used in a cabinet to
take hold of door when closed.
It is either a friction magnetic
or bullet type.

7. MULLIONLESS ALL GLASS


WINDOWWALL .................... ( G. A hinge hanging lipped or
overlapping cabinet doors
available in overlay, twin and
inset. These hinges does not
necessitate to use catches. It
is best used when the edge of
the cabinet door touches a wall
and the hinge is to be placed
there.

8. NIGHT LATCH ....................... ( H. A hinge used for closet doors


than is 1" x 1" (0.25 x 0.25) and
can be continuous up to
1.80 M.

9. FOOT BOLT ........................... ( I. A vertical member, as of stone


or wood. between the lights of
a window.

10 HAS PLOCK ........................... ( J. A rootlike shelter of a canvas


or other material extending
over a doorway from the top
of a window in order to provide
protection, as from the sun.
Also a window when opened
from its lower part and extends
or opens with an angle at the
top part.

11. PIANO HINGE ....................... ( K. An alcove of a room project-


ing from an outside wall and
having its own windows. One

232
cantilevered or corbeled out
from a wall.

12. CONCEALED OR
HIDDEN HINGES .................. ( L. Any of various upright mem-
bers framing panels or the like,
as in a system of paneling, a
paneled door, window sash,
chest of drawers.

13. ELECTRONIC DOOR


LOCK SYSTEM .................... ( M. A window extending to the
floor, closed by french doors
and usually usable as an en-
trance or exit usually made of
small panels

14. CATCHES ............... . N. A door lock operated from the


inside by a knob and from the
outside by a key

15. KNOBS ...... . 0. A movable rod or bar which


when slid into a socket fastens
a door In this case it is fas-
tened to a door to bolt to the
floor and is closed using the
toot

16. PULLERS ............. . P. A proJectmg part. usually


rounded. forming the handle of
a door. drawer or t.,e like.

H. ABILITIES> QUALITIES, CAPACITIES, PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

1. RESILIENCE ........................ ( A. Rigid or firm. difficult or impos-


sible to bend or flex like an I
beam

2. MALLEABILITY ...................... ( B. To force or press out, to form


(metal or plastic) with a desired
cross section by forcing it
through a die.

3. BRITTLENESS ...................... ( C. When cement and water are


mixed and ttF c:;m8nt par-
ticles tend to g<:ar;c;r ;n clumps.

4. PLASTICITY .......................... ( D. The caoacity of a material to


recover its original shape at-

233
ter deformation as in plastic vi-
nyl tiles.

5. ELASTICITY .......................... ( E. To combine, unite or blend to-


gether by melting together two
materials such as welded iron
structures. Reinforced con-
crete, or plastic laminated ply-
woods.

6. PERMEABILITY ..................... ( F. This will make a material break


suddenly like ceramic tile or an
asbestos vinyl tile.

7. DUCTILITY ............................ ( G. Something that binds, fastens,


confines or holds together. Ad-
hesion between two objects as
concrete and reinforcing bars.

8. ADHESIVENESS ................... ( H. Capable of being extended or


shaped by hammering or by
pressure from rollers like cast
iron.

9. COHESIVENESS .................. ( I. Capable of being hammered


out thin, as certain metals like
tin. Capable of being drawn
out into wire or treads, as gold.
Able to undergo change of
form without breaking.

10. STIFFNESS ........................... ( J. Capability of molded or


shaped or being made to as-
sume a desired form.

11. CONDUCTIVITY .................... ( K. Ability to resist or overcome


depression. The property of a
substance that enables it to
change its length, volume or
shape in direct response to a
force (a wire will stretch, a
beam will bend).

12. FLOCULATE .......................... ( L. To pass through the substance


or mass, to penetrate through
I
the pores, interstices, to be dif- II
fused to, saturate. The prop- l
•I

erty or state of being perme-


able.

234
13. BONDING .............................. ( M. To form an object by pouring
metal, plaster, etc. is a fluid
state into a mold and letting it
harden.

14. FUSION, FUSING......... . ( N. The ability of a material to fix


itself and cling or sticking to-
gether tightly to one another.
Same material.

0. The ability of a material to fix


15. EXTRUSION ...
1tself and cling to an entirety
different material to stick to ad-
here. To glue.

) P. The property or power oflrans-


16. CASTING
rnittmg heat, electricity or
sound

I. MATERIALS A~D SUPPLIERS OR MANUFACTURERS

1. PLASTIC LAMINATE ............. ( ) A. Vasquez Commodities

Z. VINYL 11LES .. / ......... , . ( B. Phelps Dodge, Phils


PHILFLEX

3. CORK SHt:ETS
C. Hi Eles Industrial Corp.

4. MARBLE SLABS 0. Republic Asahi Corp.

S. PAINTS ..................... ( E. Formica

6 TH~RMAL & ACOUSTIC


INSUlATION F. Atlanta Industries, Inc.,
Moldex Products, Inc.

G. AVO Nlarketing
1. PLYWOOD

8. STEEL BARS. H. Jardine- Davies

9. GLASS ......... !. Campos Rueda

10. PVC PIPES ............. ( J. Boysen, Dutch Boy

11. LONG SPAN ROOFING ........ ( } K, Oelta Faucet Co , W.M.H.


Rennolds Co. 1nc.

12. TEGULA ROOFING TlLES .... ( ) L. "ERO" Corporation

235
13. FLOOR & WALL
CERAMIC TILES ................... ( M. Asia Pacific Insulation
Gondek, Int.

14. "ARMSTRONG"
ACOUSTICAL
CEILING ................................. ( N. Apo Quartz

15. ELECTRICAL WIRES ............ ( 0. Teresa

16. BATHROOM FIXTURES ....... ( P. Philmetal Coating Corp.

17. PLUMBING & SANITARY


PRODUCTS, FAUCETS ........ ( Q. Sta Clara

18. SOLIGNUM WOOD


PRESERVATIVES ................. ( R. Saniwares

19. THOMPSON WOOD


PROTECTOR &
FIRESTOPPER
FIRE-RETARDANT ............... ( S. Mariwasa, First Lepanto

20. ESCALATORS,
ELEVATORS ......................... ( T. Pag-asa Steel Works, Inc.

J. PAINTING

1. PAINT ........................ ( A. Used for superior resistance to


abrasion, grease, alcohol, wa-
ter, and fuels. They are often
used for wood floors especially
for gymnasiums and for
antigraffiti coatings

2. VARNISH .. . .. ····· ( B. Materials used to apply color


to wood surfaces. They are in-
tended to impart color without
concealing or obscuring the
grain and not to provide a pro-
tective covering.

3. QUICK-DRY ENAMELS ........ ( C. A high quality rust inhibitive


primer formulated to prepare
iron and steel surfaces for sub-
sequent coats.

236
4. SHELLAC ............................... ( D. The purpose of this material is
to close the surface of the
wood and prevent the absorp-
tion of succeeding finish coats.
It may be applied to bare wood
that has been sanded smooth
or applied over the stain or
filler.

5. LACQUERS ........................... ( E. A mixtuie consisting of ve-


hicles or binders with or with-
out coloring pigments, ad-
justed and diluted with correct
amounts and types of addi-
tives and thinners which when
applied on a surface, forms an
adherent continuous film
which provides protection,
decoration, sanitation, identi-
fication and other functional
properties.

6. OIL-WOOD STAINS .( F. To be used on all non-painted


concrete, synthetic finishes,
rubble, brick and wash-out fin-
ishes as a protection from ab-
sorption of water and prevent
moss, alkali, fungi to destroy
the surface used for bricks,
limestones, etc.

7. FILLERS ........................... ( G. A solution of resin in drying oil


or in a volatile solvent such as
alcohol in turpentine. It con-
tains no pigments and consti-
tutes a transparent liquid to
provide protective surface
coating at the same time they
allow the original surface to
show but add a lustrous and
glossy finish to it.

8. SEALERS .............................. ( H. A two-component water-based


acrylic recommended for use
on concrete floorings for ga-
rage. It offers outstanding du-
rability, chemical and abrasion
resistance that can withstand
automotive tire.imprints. Used
also for traffic markings.

237
9. NEUTRALIZER ...................... ( I. This is the only liquid protec-
tive coating containing a resin
of animal origin. The resin is
crushed and dissolved in de-
natured alcohol to produce or-
ange color. By bleaching the
resin pure white liquid is pro-
duced. Used as a seal coat
over stains and fillers. or as a
finish in itself.

10. SILICONE WATER


REPELLANT .......................... ( J. This allows for a "seamless
wall paper alternative". It pro-
vides decorator with polychro-
matic patterns that can be
used to contrast or accent
plain paint finishes. May be ap-
plied as a single color spray
pattern or intermixed with
other colors, to provide poly-
chromatic patterns. Only one
spray coat is needed.

11. ACRYLIC LATEX PAINT .. K. A new product from synthetic


materials to take the place of
varnish for clear finishes
Combination of synthetic res-
ins and plasticizers are dis-
solved in a mixture of volatile
solvent which evaporate the
protective covering.

12. URETHANE. L. These are tmlshing materials


which are used on wood sur-
faces. particularly those with
open grain, to fill pores and
prov1de a perfectly smooth.
uniform surface for varnish or
lacquer

13. RED LEAD PRIMEFi M. A water based, full bodied


paint with a well-balanced for-
mula that lends elegance and
provides excellent protection
indoors. It works well on con-
crete and wood ceili11gs and
wa.lings, creating a beautiful
textured finis!l comes only in
white. To color, just paint over

'238
it with latex for concrete or
enamel for wood.

N. When pigment is added to a


14. MULTI-COLOR PAINT ........... (
varnish, this is the result.

15. TEXTURED FINISH


TOPCOAT ............................. ( 0. For masonry, with excellent
hiding durability and dirt pick-
up resistance. It finishes a
painting job in less coats to be
applied to new masonry after
14 days to 28 days.

16. CONCRETE FLOOR


EPOXY COATING ................. ( P. A liquid solution applied to new
masonry or plastered wall
painting to neutralize the alkali
and acid Solution to ensure
adhesion.

K. MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS

1. Which of the following is not a copper alloy?

A. MONEL METAL C. NICKEL SILVER

B. MUNTZ METAL D. ALL ARE COPPER


ALLOYS

2. Which of these water-related soil problems would be the A B C 0


most important to solve for a large building being planned 0000
with a two-level basement used for meeting rooms?

A. uplift pressure on the lowest slab

B. moisture penetration caused by hydrostatic pressure

C. deterioration of foundation insulation

D. reduced load-carrying capacity of the soil

239
3. In the sketch shown, where should the v::\P()r barrier be A B C D
located? 0000

.:luestions 4 and 5 refer to the following sketch:

4. What is the purpose of the block shown at 3? A B C D

A. to counteract the thrust of the stair


0000
B. to provide a nailing base for the riser board

C. to give lateral stability to the vertical supports

D. to help locate and lay out the stair

240
5. The parts identified as 1 and 2 respectively are: A B c D

I. tread IV. ledger


0000
II. nosing v. stringer

Ill. carriage
A. Ill and I c. Ill and II

B. V and I D. IV and V

6. Tempered glass is required in: A B C D

A. entry doors
0000
B. sidelights with sills below 18 inches

C. glazing within 1 foot of doors

D. all of the above

7. If a soil is analyzed as being primarily silty, what A B C D


characteristics could you expect? 0000
A. very fine material of organic matter

B. rigid particles with moderately high bearing. capacity

C. particles with some cohesion and plasticity in their


behavior

D. smaller particles with occasional plastic behavior

8. What type of glass would probably not be appropriate A B C D


for a ten-story building? 0000
A. tempered C. heat-strengthened

B. annealed D. laminated

9. A fire-rated gypsum board partition must always consist A B C D


of:
0000
A. type X gypsum board

B. full height construction

C. attachment according to testing laboratory standards

D. all of the at;K>ve

241
10. Which mortar type has the highest compressive strength? A B C D

A.M c. 0 0000
B. N D. S

11. What type of brick would most likely be specified for an A 8 C D


eastern exposure in New Hampshire? 0000
A. NW C. MW

B. FBX D. SW

12. In order to achieve the most uniform, straight-grain A B C D


appearance in wood paneling, you should specify: 0000
A. plain slicing C. quarter slicing

B. rotary slicing D. half-round slicing

13. Asphalt-impregnated building paper is used under siding A 8 C D


to:
0000
A. improve thermal resistance

B. increase the water resistance of the wall

C. act as a vapor barrier

D. all of the above

14. Which area in the masonry wall assembly shown would


be most susceptible to water penetration?

242
15. Concrete expansion joints should be located at a A B C D
maximum spacing of: 0000
A. 1.50 M C. 6.00 M

B. 3.00 M D. 7.50 M

A B C D
16. Which of the following are characteristics of stainless?
0000
I. It cannot be welded.

II. It should not be in contact with copper.

Ill. It is an alloy of steel and chromium.

IV. It is only available with mechanical and coated fin


ishes.

V. It is just as strong as bronze.

A. ·1, II, and Ill C. II, IV, and V

B. II, Ill, and IV D. Ill, IV, and V

L. MISCELANNEOUS QUESTIONS

1 . The horizontal member that holds individual pieces of A B C D


shoring in place is called a: 0000
A. wale C. raker

B. breast board D. none of the above

2. When the architect is on the job observing concrete


A B c D
placement, what is most likely to be of least concern? 0000
A. the height of a bottom-dump bucket above the forms
as the concrete is being placed

B. the type of vibrator being used


c. the location of the rebar in relation to the forms

D. the method of support of the forms

3. A nominal3" x 6" (25 mm x 150 mm) piece of lumber is A B c D


classified as: 0000
A. timber C. dimension

B. board D. yard

243
4. Select the incorrect statementfrom among the following: A B C D

A. The larger the pennyweight, the longer the nail. 0 0 0 0


B. Design values for bolts are dependent on the thick
ness of the wood in which they are located.

C. Split ring connectors are often used for heavily loaded


wood structures that must be disassembled.

D. In general, lag bolts have more holding power than


large screws.

5. What cement would be used in slip form construction? A B C D

A. Type I C. Type Ill 0000


B. Type II D. Type IV

6. Which of the following most affects lumber strength? A B C D


A. split C. check 0000
B. wane D. shake

7. What is used to measure the rate of transfer in a thickness A B C D


of material?
0000
A. k C. R

B. r D. C

8. Which of the folowing would be at least appropriate fot A B C D


insulating a steel stud wall? 0000
A polystyrene boards C. fiberglass batts

B. rock wooi D. perlite board

9. Three courses of a bull str~tcherusing a standard brick A B C D


and standard mortar joints equals what dimension? 0000
A. 8 inches C. 15 inches

B. 12 inches D. 24 inches

244
10. Which of the sketches depicts a half-surface hinge? A B C D
0000

A. B.

c. D.

11. Select the incorrect ~tatement concerning fire-rated door A B C D


assemblies. 0000
A. Hi11ges must always be the ball-bearing type.

B .. Under some circumstances a closer is not needed.

C. Labeling is required for both the door and frame

D. The ma).Cimum width is 1.20 M.

12. Which of the following would be most appropriate for A B C D


damproofing an above-grade concrete wall with a 0000
moderately rough surface?

A. cernentitious coating C. synthetic rubber

B. bituminous coating D. silicone coating

13. The depth of elevator lobbies serving four or more cars A B C D


should generally not be less than: 0000
A. -6 feet(1.81 M)

B. 11/2 times the depth of the car

C. 10 feet (3.00 M)

D. 3 times the depth of the car

245
·14. Which of the following would probably not be reasons A B C D
for using a copper roof?
0000
I. worKability

II. resistance to denting

Ill. cost

IV. corrosion resistance

A. land ll C. ll and lll

B. land Ill D. Ill and IV

15. If cracking occurred along the joints of a brick wall in a A c D


B
generally diagonal direction from a window corner up to
the top of the wall, which of the following would most
0000
likely be the cause?

A. lack of the vertical control joints


B. horizontal reinforcement placed too far apart

C. poor grouting of the activity

D. inadequate mortar

16. What is used to keep water from penetrating an A B c D


expansion joint at the intersection of a roof and wall?
0000
A. base flashing C. sealant

B. counter flashing D. coping

M. MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS

1. The portion of paint that evaporates or dries is called A B C D


the: 0 0 0 0
A. binder C. solvent

B. pigment D. vehicle

246
2. 'In the partial plan of a concrete basement shown, what A B C D
would be the best way to improve the economy of the 0000
concrete form work?

.·.
0

I
.' I

B ----
:'..,.. ----------- . ---
...
·a~~-
I
I

A. ma.ke the column square

B. separate the pilaster at A2 from the wall

C. form the pilaster at A1 with a diagonal

D. make the wall along grid line 1 a uniform thickness

3. Structural steel typically contains what percentage of A B C D


carbon? 0000
A. above 2.0 percent C. from 0.20 to 0.50 percent

B. from 0.5~ to 0.80 D. from 0.06 to 0.3 percent


percent

4. What is used to minimize corner chipping of concrete? A B C D

A. CHAMBER STRIP C. ISOLATION JOINT


0000
B. BACKSET D. RUSTICATION STRIPS

5. What part of a panel door is the lockset mounted in? A B C D

A. TERNE PLATE C. STRETCHER 0000


B. STILE D. COORDINATOR

247
6. What is the building code requirement for pairs of exit A 8 C D
doors with astragals?
0000
A. BOOKMATCHING C. STRONG BACK

C. SEQUENCE MATCH D. COORDINATOR

7. What is the most important fire-resistant property of a A 8 C D


CMU partition?
0000
A. EQUIVALENT C. EFFlORESCENCE
THICKNESS

B. DENSIFICATION D. HEAT OF HYDRATION

8. What is a requirement for an opening for a door in a A 8 C D


masonry partition?
0000
A. CYLINDER TEST C. SURCHARGING

B. ANNEALING D. BOND BEAM

9. Galvanic action can be avoided by: A 8 C D

A. using neoprene spacers 0000


B. increasing the thickness of the materials

C. reducing contact with dripping water

D. all of the above

10. A geared traction elevator would be most appropriat~ A 8 C D


for which of the following applications?
0000
A. a five -storv medical office building

B. a sixteen-story office building

C. a four-story department store

D. an eight-story apartment .building

11. In determining the width and gage of gypsum board A 8 C D


framing, what are some of the important considerations? 0000
I. thickness of the gypsum board

II. spacing of studs

Ill. height of the wall

248
IV. size of piping and other built-in items

V. number of layers to be supported

A. I, Ill, IV and V C. II, Ill, IV and V

B. II, Ill, and IV D. all of the above

12. What is the purpose of the gravel in the drawing shown?. A B C D


0000

A. to reduce hydrostatic pressure

B. to keep the soil from direct contact with the concrete

C. to provide a firm base for concrete bearing

b. to hold the membrane in place and protect it

13. Joining two metals with heat and a filler metal with a A B C D
melting point above 800 2 F (409QC) is called wl1at? 0000
A. annealing C. brazing

B. soldering D. welding

14. Which of the following is not true about veneer stone? A B C D

A. It can be fabricated 3/8 inches thick (9.53 mm)


0000
B. Copper or steel clamps are used to anchor the stone
to the substrate.

C. Only special types of portland cement mortar or seal


ants should be used in the joints.

249
D. It can be supported on masonry, concrete, steel, or
wood framing.

15. Which of the following is the most important consideration A B C D


in detailing a wood strip floor?
0000
A. flame spread rating C. nailing method

B. expansion space at D. moisture protection


the perimer from below

16. In the window elevation shown, what is represented at A B C D


point 1?
0000

1-...,.

t/// ''
'' l// ''
'
'
/
/
/
/
''
'
'

A. mullion C. stile

B. muntin D. rail

N. MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS

1. Which of the following are of most importance in wood A B C D


frame construction? 0 0 0 0
I. sheathing type

II. differential shrinkage

Ill. location of defects

IV. firestops

V. headers

A. I, II, and Ill C. II, Ill, and IV

B. I, II, and IV D. Ill, IV, and V

250
2. Which type of lock would be most appropriate for an entry A B C D
door into an office suite?
0000
A. cylindrical lock C. mortise lock

B. unit lock D. rim lock

3. Which of the following an~ true about built-up roofing? A B C D

I. It may be applied on slopes from 0 to 1 inch per foot. 0000


(.075 M or 75mm per Meter)

II. They are best applied only over nailable decks.

Ill. The top layer should be protected from ultraviolet


degradation.

IV. Proper installations is more important than the num


ber of plies.

V. Roof insulation can either be placed above or below


the roofing.

A. I, Ill and V only C. II, Ill and IV only

B. I, II, IV, and V only D. Ill, IV and V only

4. Ceramic mosaic tile in a public shower room is best A B C D


installed over:
0000
A. water-resistant gypsum board

B. a bed qf portland cement mortar

C. concrete block walls coated with a waterproofing


membrane

D. rigid cement composition board made for this pur


pose

5. What are two important considerations in designing a A B C D


fire-rated ceiling? 0000
I. hold-down clips

II. the structural slab

Ill. thermal insulation

IV. composition of the floor/ceiling assembly

V. style of grid

251
A. I and IV C. II and IV

B. I and Ill D. Ill and V

6. What is the primary purpose of the voids in a cored slab? A 8 C D

A. to allow electrical services to be concealed in the slab 0000


B. to make a more efficient load-carrying member

C. to make erection easier

D. to minimize weight

7. Which of the vertical joints shown would be appropriate A B C D


jor a concrete basement wall? 0000

II
II
II
II
II
//

~
/
/

,,
' ,, I I
I I
I I
I I I
I I
1·1
I I
I I I I
I I 1__1
I I

A. B. c. D.

8. A reasonable elevator capacity tor a medium-size office A B C D


building is: 0000
A. 905 kilos C. 1,810 kilos

B. 1,357.5 kilos D. 2,715 kilos

9. Select the incorrect statements about steel doors. A B C D

I. Fire ratings up to 11/2 hours are possible.


0000
II. The frames are normally 12, 14, or 16 gage depend
ing on use.

Ill. Steel doors must be used with steel frames.

IV. Hinges or offset pivots can be used with steel doors.

252
v. The standard thickness is 13/8 inches.

A. I and V C. II and IV

B. I, Ill, and V D. II, Ill, and V

10. The allowable stress ratings for lumber in the building A B C D


codes are based primarily on: 0000
A size groups C. types of defects

B. species D. all of the above

11. Millwork for installation in the southwestern part of the A B C D


.United States should have a maximum moisture content 0000
of:

A. less than 5 percent C. 5 to 10 percent

B. 4 to 9 percent D. 8 to 13 percent

12. On floors subject to deflection, both terrazzo and granite A B C D


installations should include: 0000
A. a membrane C. thin-set mortar

B. a latex additive D. a sand cushion


in the mortar

II. METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION

1. When a concrete is poured at the jobsite whose beams, A B C D


slabs and columns are set in forms or scaffoldings and 0000
later on removed after the concrete hardens or is cured.
This system is classified into two general types. The one-
way slab system and the two-way slab system. This
method of construction is called the _ __

A. PRECAST C. SLIP FORM METHOD


CONCRETE

B. CAST-IN PLACE D. TILT-UP


CONSTRUCTION

2. This is a method of construction which is performed right


on the construction site. The system enables the wall or
floor panels to be precast in engineered steel forms under
strict procedures of quality and precision. Conduits for

253
electrical wires and water pipes are non-exposed by
systematic embedment during casting. Crawler and
mobile cranes utilize special lifting devices. This enables
the quick and efficient erection and assembly of a housing
unit.

A. COMPOSITE C. TILT-UP
CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION

B. FLOOR DECKING D. SLIP FORM METHOD

3. This method has been utilized extensively in agricultural A c D


B
and industrial complexes like silos, elevator cores, etc.
It utilizes very much less framework, no scaffolding at all
0000
and some braces. The whole form system is distributed
over several hydraulic jacks.

A. FLOOR DECKING C. CAST-IN PLACE

B. PRE-TENSIONED D. SUP-FORM METHOD

4. Prefabricated normally reinforcea concrete which have A c D


B
been poured and cured in a factory rather than in place
on the site, then· delivered to the jobsite by trucks and
0000
installed by welding together all the components.
A. PRE-CAST C. COMPOSITE
CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION
B. POST-TENSIONED D. SPANTRESS
TECHNIQUE FOR
PRESTRESSED
CONCRETE

5. Made of high strength zinc-coated steel decking which A c D


B
acts as both permanent formwork and positive tensile 0000
reinforcing steel in one-way reinforced concrete slab
construction for second level to high floor decking. It
mechanically and chemically bond on concrete slab to
form a solid flooring panel and as a ceiling below.

A. SPANSTRESS C. FLOOR DECKING

B. TILT-UP D. PRE-CAST WAFFLE


CONSTRUCTION SLABS SYSTEM

6. Any structural system consisting of two or more materials A B c D


designed to act together to resist loads. This system of
construction is employed to utilize the best characteristics
0000
of the individual materials. Reinforced concrete is the
most typical of this system of construction, but others

254
include steel deck and concrete, concrete slab and steel
beam systems, and open-web steel joists with wood
chords.

A. PRE-STRESSED C. LIFT-SLAB

B. COMPOSITE D. POST-TENSIONED
CONSTRUCTION
SYSTEM

7. This is a system designed to fit your requirements instead A B C D


of trying to make you fit its requirements. Floor and roof
slabs are cast one on top of the other. After a short curing
0000
time, they are raised to their final positions by hydraulic
jacks and secured to vertical supports.

A. LIFT-SLAB C. PRE-CAST WAFFLE


BUILDING SYSTEM SLAB SYSTEM

B. PRE-STRESSED D. POST-TENSIONED
CONCRETE TECHNIQUE

8. A method wherein the reinforcement, in the form of high- A B C D


tensile steel strands called tendons, is first stretched
through the form or casting bed between two end
0000
abutments on anchorages. Concrete is then poured into
the form, encasing the strands. As the concrete sets, it
bonds to the tensioned steel; when it has reached a
specific strength, the ends of the tension strands are
released. These pre-stresses the concrete, putting it
under compression and creating built-in tensile strength
having been pre-stressed.

A. CAST-IN PLACE C. LIFT-SLAB METHOD

B. SPANSTRESS D. PRE-TENSIONED
TECHNIQUE FOR
PRE-STRESSED
CONCRETE

9. This system involves placing and curing a pre-cast A B C D


member which contains normal reinforcing and in
addition, a number of channels through which post-
0000
stressing cables or rods called tendons may be passed,
one side is anchored securely at the end and one side is
held by a cone. After concrete has hardened to the
desired strength, the cone is fitted to a hydraulic jack
and is pulled to the allowable strength, then a small steel
plate is wedged in between the cone and concrete so as
the stretche9 tendons will not go back to its normal
position.
255
A. PRE-CAST WAFFLE C. PRE-CAST CONCRETE
SLAB SYSTEM SYSTEM

B. POST-TENSIONED D. COMPOSITE
TECHNIQUE FOR CONSTRUCTION
PRESTRESSED SYSTEM
CONSTRUCTION

10. A basic principle of design in which stresses are built A B C D


into a structural element, such as a beam, in order to 0000
offset load carrying stresses. The stresses directly
oppose the stresses created when a load is applied to
the beam, and in effect, tend to "cancel out" the load
stresses. In this case, high tensile strength strand or
tendons is used.

A. POST-TENSION C. LIFT SLAB METHOD


TECHNIQUE

B. PRE-CAST D. PRE-STRESSED
CONCRETE CONCRETE or (Inte-
grated Bldg. System)

11. This modular pre-cast post-tensioned slab system is the A B C D


first application of two-way post-tensioning in a pre-cast
concrete floor system. It consists of singular square pre-
0000
cast concrete modular elements laid out in checkerboard
pattern and integrated together into the structural flooring
system of a building by means of post-tensioning in two
perpendicular directions.

A. PRE-CAST WAFFLE C. SLIP FORM METHOD


SLAB SYSTEM

B. PRE-STRESSED D. LIFT SLAB BUILDING


CONCRETE SYSTEM

12. This method speeds up construction, and saves on A B C D


expensive equipment since it takes cranes out of the
way. Pre-stressed concrete t-joist floor and roof system
0000
is more compact and light-weight, easier to transport and
handle. This can be used with filler blocks or plywood
forms, eliminates scaffoldings to the minimum. Length
goes from 3.00 M. to 9.00 M. and can be carried easily
by two men.

A. PRE-TENSIONING C~ SPANSTRESS
TECHNIQUE

B. TILT-UP D. SLIP FORM


CONSTRUCTION
256
AREA ''B''
PART Ill UT I L IT I ES
1. SANITARY AND
PLUMBING
SYSTEMS AND
EQUIPMENT
AREA "B" UTILITIES PART Ill

DIRECTION: Read the passages below and answer the questions that follow. Shad&
the circle (•) below the letter of the correct answer to each question.

1. SANITARY AND PLUMBING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT

A. WATER SUPPLY

1. A method of purifying water wherein particles of A B C D


matters that are suspended in the water are allowed 0000
to stay in a container so that they will settle in the
bottom, then drawing the water out, leaving these
matters in the container.

A. SEDIMENTATATION C. SEPARATION

B. SETTLEMENT D. COLLECTION

2. Water is treated by giving to kill the A B C D


harmful bacteria present and to cure the turbid taste 0000
or mudtaste, remove clay, salts, iron, etc. commonly
used treating liquids is chlorine.

A. AIR PRESSURE C. LIQUID PURIFIER

B. CHEMICAL D. MEDICINAL TABLETS


TREATMENTS

3. Water is purified by . In various process, A B C D


so as to remove the particles of vegetable matter, 0000
mud and other particles of matter present in the
water, most commonly used materials are sand and
gravel.

A. SILTATION C. ABSORPTION

B. SIEVING D. FILTRATION

258
4. Raw water is made to pass on pipes of tiny sieves A B C D
and exposed to air of fine mist to purify it. This is
called the method.
0000
A. SPRAYING C. AERATION

B. DRYING D. SPLASHING

5. A is a water equipment used whenever A B C D


the water supply at its natural pressure cannot be 0000
directly piped to a building, tank or reservoir.

A. GENERATOR C. PRESSURE TANK

.B. PUMP D. BOOSTER

6. . consist of a piston traveling up and A B C D


down within a cylinder which is connected with a pipe 0000
extending down into the source. The piston and the
bottom of the cylinder are each provided with a valve
opening upward. Upon the piston's upstroke, valve
·a· closes and valve 'b' opens. Upon the piston's
downstroke valve 'a' opens and 'b' closes.

A. SUCTIONPUMP C. UFTPUMP

B. AIR PUMP D. JUMP PUMP

7. pump is used to deliver water at a point A B C D


higherJhan the position of the pump itself. When the 0000
plunger descends, the valve 'a' is closed and the
water in the cylinder is forced out through the valve
'b' and up to the storage. When the plunger is raised.
valve 'b' is closed and 'a' open to admits water to the
cylinder.

A. FORCE PUMP C. ELEVATED PUMP

B. STRUCTURAL D. PLUNGER PUMP


PUMP

8. This is a kind of pump attached to the end of deep A B C D


well pipe enclosed in a casing where the pump is 0000
capable of functioning while submerged.

A. UNDERGROUND C. SUBMARINE PUMP


PUMP

B. REVERSIBLE D. SUBMERSIBLE PUMP


PUMP

259
9. A reservoir, tank or vessel for storing or holding water A B C 0
or other liquids.
0000
A. CESSPOOL C. CISTERN
B. SWIMMING POOL D. SEPTIC TANK

10. may be used either for the collection of A B C 0


water without consideration of pressure, or for storing
water under air pressure or under a static head for
0000
future distribution by pneumatic or gravity means
materials used are PVC, G. 1., reinforced concrete,
stainless steel or plain steel.
A. CISTERN C. STORAGE TANK
B. UNPRESSURIZED D. WATER TANK
TANK

11. A is a tank constructed of riveted or A B C D


welded steel plate; the larger tanks often being 0000
divided into two compartments. They should be large
enough to contain at least one day's supply for the
entire building in case. the city main is temporaril~
shut off. The pipe from the pump to the tank should
be across connected to the city main so that the water
may be pumped directly from the main in case of
fire. These tanks are used so that the pneumatic tank
or other pumps sucks the water from this tank and
not from the public main, so that it will not deprive
the neighbors of water due to pressure.
1\. SIPPING TANK C. AIRTANK
B. SUCTION TANK D. PLUNGER TANK

12. A tank using air pressure from a suction tank to A B C D


distribute water for tall buildings which cannot be
reached by normal pressure.
0000
A. PNEUMATIC TANK C. FORCE PUMP
B. AIR-PRESSURE D. POWER PUMP

13. Water is distributed from the normal water pressure A B C D


coming from the public water main, for low rise 0000
buildings.
A. VERTICAL FEED C. POSITIVE SYSTEM
B. ANTIGRAVITY D. UPFEED SYSTEM
SYSTEM

260
14. By gravity, water is distributed from overhead water A B C D
tanks and are supported either by structural frames 0000
or on the roof decks. Fixtures are below the gravity
tank. These elevated tanks are installed when normal
water supply from main public service pipes is not
frequent and when normal pressure from city main
is npt enough to force the water to the highest
fixtures.

A. DOWNFEED C. LOWDOWN SYSTEM


SYSTEM
B. GRAVITY SYSTEM- D. NEGATIVE SYSTEM

15. The pipe from the public water main or source of A B C D


water supply to the building served is called 0000
A. ADDITIONAL PIPE C. SERVICE PIPE

B. SUPPLEMENTAL D. AIDING PIPE


PIPE

16. The vertical supply pipe which extends upward from A B C D


one floor to the next is called a and the 0000
horizontal pipes that serves the faucets are called
branches.

A. FEEDER C. SUPPLIER

B. RISER D. FLIER

B. WATER SUPPLY

1. refers to the public water system laid A B C D


underground along the streets where house service 0000
is connected.

A. WATER LEADER C. WATER SOURCE

B. WATER MAIN D. WATER SUPPLIER

2. One end is 0.30 M. and the other end is 0.90 M. A B C D


long. This prevent the pipe from snap,>ing when the 0000
soil settles.

A. S-CURVE C. EXTENSION

B. BALANCER. D. GOOSENECK

261
3. A stop valve placed in a service pipe close to its A B C D
connection with a water main. 0 0 0 0
A. CORPORATtON C. COMPANY LOCK
COCK

B. COCK VALVE D. UNION COCK

4. A kind of G. I. fitting used as reducer from a bigger A B C D


diameter to a lesser diameter. 0 0 0 0
A. REDUCTION C. BUSHING

B. COUPLING D. BUILD-UP

5. A G. I. fitting which is used when a pipe has already A B C D


been installed but dismatling is difficuH. 0000
A. EXPANDER .C. COMBINATION

B. UNION. D. DOUBLE

6. Excessive pressure produces a rumbling sound A c D


B
called the . This occurs when a valve is 0000
suddenly turned off and causes the water to stop,
forcing the pipes to shake and to reduce this, an
additional 0.30 M. to 0.90 M.length of pipe is added
to the riser to give air pressure which absorb it.

A. WATER QUIVER C. WATER HAMMER

B. WATER RAMBLER D. WATER BARRIER

7. A kind of G. I. fitting that has one end external treads; A c D


B
while the other end has internal treads. 0000
A. INTERCHANGE- C. TWO-WAY FITTING
ABLE TEE

B. CLOSE OPEN D. STREET ELBOW


ELBOW or TEE

8. To insure no leakage, a G. I. pipe when threaded A c D


B
has to use while lead liquid or tape
around the thread before tightening the fittings.
0000
A. TEFLON C. PVC

B. PLASTIC D. SEALER

262
9. What does uPVC mean? A B C D

A. UNPROTECTED C. UNPLASTICIZED 0000


POLYVINYL POLYVINYL
CHLORIDE PIPE CHLORIDE PIPE

B. UNPREPARED D. UNPRESSED
POLYETHYLENE POLYURETHANE
COATED PIPE CHLORINE PIPE

10. This consists of a wedge-shaped plug which is A B C D


sdewed down to seat between two brass rings 0000
surrounding the inlet pipe so that a double seal is
obtained. The inlet and outlet are in a straight line.
This valve is used when a normal fully open or closed
position is desired. Either end may be used as inlet

A. FENCE VAi_VES C. ENTRY VALVES

B. DOOR VALVES D. GATE VALVES

11. These valves are used when it is desired that the A B C 0


flow through a pipe be always in one direction and
there is a possibility of a flow taking place in the
0000
opposite direction. One type has a pivoted flap which
is readily pushed open by the pressure ot water from
one side but is tightly closed by the force of a reverse
flow.

A. ONE-WAY VALVES C. SWING-IN VALVES


B. CHECK VALVES D. CORRECT VALVES
A B C D
12. A material used as a covering, such as a pipe bigger
than the main pipe of a deep well so that the main
0000
pipe can be pulled out for repair.
A. CASING C. COATING

B. ENCLOSING D. PROTECTIVE
A B C D
13. This is the vertical distance from the higher source 0000
of water or overhead tank to the outlet (faucets,
shower head) and is distributed by gravity.

A. STATIC HEAD C. VERTICAL HEIGHT

B. OVERHEAD D. PRESSURE LENGTH


HEIGHT

263
14. Subsurface conditions of ground wat-. and rook must A B C 0
be known. Siles with high (about 1.80 M. to 2.40 M
below grade) ca.n cause problems with excavations,
0000
foundations, utility placement and landscaping. This
is described as the level underground in which the
soil is situated with water.

A. WATER LEVEL C. WATER LINE

B. WATER TABLE D. WATER CONTAINER

15. An opening or space to accommodate a group of A B C D


pioes.
0000
A. PIPE C. PIPE CHASE
CONNECTORS

B. PIPE GROUPINGS D. PIPE HOLE

16. When the water supply of very tall building is A B C D


designed as a unit, the required capacities or tanks,
pumps and pipings become unduly large and
0000
excessive pressures are developed in lower portions
of the dowrifeed risers, The buildings therefore is
divided into horizontal sections or , and
to design the hot and cold water supply systems
separately for each.

A. AREA METHOD C. GROUPING

B. STORY DIVIDER D. ZONING

C. FIRE PROTECTION, STORM WATER

1. Fire companies with their apparatus find difficulty A B C 0


_ _ _ _ with separate water reserve or upfeed
pumping are extremely valuable in any buHdings but
0000
become highly essential in tall buildings. This system,
intended for use by building personnel until the fire
engines arrive and thereafter by the trained staff of
the fire department.

A STANDPIPES C. VERTICAL PIPES


& HOSES

B. FIRE USE PIPES D. STEADY PIPES

264
2. Automatic systems consist of a horizontal A B C 0
pattern of pipes placed near the ceilings of industrial
buildings, warehouses, stores, theaters and other
0000
structures where the fire hazard requires their use.
These pipes are provided with outlets and heads so
constructed that temperatures of (55° to 70"C)
Celsius will cause them to open automatically and
will cause them to open automatically and emit a
series of time water sprays.
A. SPLASHERS C. DROPLETS
B. RAIN WATER D. SPRINKLERS

3. ·A system of sprinklers with its pipes constantly filling A 8 C D


both mains and distribution pipes. 0000
A. WATER FILLED C. WET PIPE SYSTEM
SYSTEM
B. LIQUID ENHANCED D. SOAKING SYSTEM
SYSTEM

4. Generally confined to unheated buildings, There is A 8 C D


no water in the distribution pipes except during a 0000
fire. Remote valves may be actuated by sensitive
elements to admit water to sprinkler's heads.
A. UNLIQUIFIED C. EMPTY PIPE SYSTEM
SYSTEM
B. DRY PIPE SYSTEM D. CLEAN PIPE SYSTEM

5. An inlet placed outside a building close to ground A B C D


level, having two openings so that fire engines can
pump water to the dry stand pipes and sprinkler
0000
system of the building.
A. DOUBLE HEADER C. SIAMESE TWIN
B. DUAL ENTRANCE D. TWO WYE SYSTEM

6. Sprinkler heads are of the quartzoid bulb type. The A 8 C D


bulb is transparent and contains a colored liquid. At 0000
360°F the bulb breaks and releases a water stream.
one is called "upright" when used above piping when
piping is exposed but when it is hidden inside ceilings
that shows only the bulb it is called a _ _ __

A. HIDDEN HEAD C. EXPOSED BULB


B. PENDENT D. BALANCER

265
7. That portion of the plumbing system which conveys A B C D
rain water to a suitable terminal. This is usually
discharged into a street gutter conveyed by a public
0000
_ _ _ _ system and carried to some drainage
terminal such as lakes or rivers.

A. RAIN WATER C. STORM SEEPAGE


PIPE

B. STORM MAIN D. STORM DRAIN

8. When the soil is not permeable, and it touches a A B C D


concrete or hollow block wall of a basement, rain
water will seep on it and may flood. The gravel is
0000
placed all around this wall 0.30 M. wide and about
0.30 M. below the basement floor rain water from
the gravel towards the drainage terminal.

A. PERFORATED PIPE C. OPENED SIDE PIPE

B. HAMMERED PIPE D. GUTTER PIPE

D. SANITARY DRAINAGE SYSTEMS

1. Water plus human waste, solid and liquid, urine·that A B C D


is flushed out of toilets and urinals. 0 0 0 0
A. GRAY WATER C. BLACK WATER

B. CONTAMINATED D. DIRTY WATER


WATER

2. A vertical soil pipe conveying fecal matter and liquid A B C D


waste.
0000
A. SOIL STEADY C. SOIL CONDUCTOR
PIPE PIPE

B. SOIL LEADER D. SOIL STACK PIPE

3. A pipe which conveys only liquid wastes free of fecal A B C D


matter. 0 0 0 0
A. CONVEYOR PIPE C. TRASH PIPE

B. WASTE PIPES D. LIQUID CONTAINING


PIPE

266
4. A pipe or opening used for ensuring the circulation A B C D
of air in a plumbing system and for reducing the
pressure exerted on trap seals.
0000
A. VENT C. FLUE

B. AIR D. DUCT

5. A metallic sleeve, calked or otherwise, joined to an A c D B


opening in a pipe, into which a plug is screwed that
can be removed for the purpose of cleaning or
0000
examining the interior of the pipe.

A. CLEANOUT PLUG C. CLEANOUT FERRULE

B. TESTING FERRULE D. TESTING PLUG

6. A fitting or device so constructed as to prevent the A c D B


passage of air, gas and materially affecting the flow
of sewage or waste water through it.
0000
A. TRAP C. WATER PLUG

B. CLOSER D. CLOGGER

7. The part of the lowest horizontal piping of. a plumbing A c D B


system which receives the discharge from soil, waste 0000
and other drainage pipes inside of a building and
conveys it to the house sewer. It should have a slope
of at least 1/4" to a foot or 6 mm. for every 300 mm.

A. HOUSE STRAINER C .. HOUSE SIEVE

B. HOUSE DRAIN D. HOUSE TRAP

8. A pit or receptacle at a low point to which the liquid A c D B


wastes are drained. 0000
A. BASEMENT PIT C. LOW POST PIT

B. SUMP PIT D. UNDERGROUND PIT

9. A vertical opening through a building for elevators, A c D B


dumbwaiters, light, ventilation and others. 0000
A. VERTICAL HOLE C. CHUTE

B. VOID D. SHAFT

267
10. A sheet metal placed when concrete is pOUred to A B C D
accommodate~ pluning pipes (through the hole
made).
0000
A. SLEEVE C. GUIDE
B. OPENING D. HOLE

11. Plugging an o~ning around pipe joints with oakum A B C D


(hemp soaked With oil) lead or other materials like 0000
epoxy adhesive on vinyl that are pounded place.
A. WATERPROOFING C. CAULKING
B. CLOGGING D. STUFFING

1,2'. All horizontally piping shall run in practical alignment A B C D


and at a uniform grade of not less than two (2%) 0000
percent, 20 mm. rise per meter length, and shall be
supported or anchored at intervals not exceeding
3.00 M. length (10 feet). All stacks shall be properly
supported at their bases and all pipes be rigidly
hundred (100 inches) length.
A. SLOPES. OF C. ALIGNMENT OF
HORIZONTAL PIPING PIPING
B. GRADES OF D. DEFLECTION
HORIZONTAL PIPING OF PIPING

13. This kind of trap must be installed wherever oily, lard A B C D


contained wastes from hotels, restaurants, club 0000
houses or similar public eating places are discharged
into the sewer or septic vault. Sand traps shall be
placed as near as possible to the fixture from which
it receives the discharge and shall have an air-tight
cover, easily removable to permit its cleaning.
A. DREASES TRAPS C. OIL & LARD BINS
B. LEFTOVER D. GREASE DRAIN
CONTAINERS

14. This is the vertical distance between the dip and the A B C D
crown weir (an embankment or levee) built to hold 0000
water in its course or to divert it to a new course of a
p-trap. Also it is the water in the trap between the dip
and the crown weir to prevent unpleasant and
odorous gases to enter the room through the fixtures.
A. ANTI-ODOR TRAP C. WATER PLUG
B. TRAP SEAL D. P-TRAP

268

,,

J
15. The resun of a minus pressure in the drainage A B C D
system. (Pressure is a force required to move gas
or liquid) When .a large amount of water of the trap
0000
(seal) is absolutely discharged. When the seal is lost,
back flow of gases from the sewer line will pass into
the trap, finds its way to the fixture drain outlet and
spread into the room.

A. DRIPPING C. SEEPAGE

B. BACKFLOW D. SIPHONAGE

I 16. Upon the completion of the entire water distribution A B C D


system including connections to apprentices,
0000

I devices, tanks, or fixtures, it shall be tested and


inspected by means of _ _ __

A. GAS AND AIR TEST C. WATER AND AIR TEST

B. WATER AND GAS D. PRESSURE TEST


TEST

E. SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM, REFUSE HANDLING

1. A receptacle or water tight vault used to collect A B C D


organic waste discharge from the house sewer and
designed and constructed so as to separate solids
0000
from the liquid, digest the organic matter through a
period of detention, and allow the effluent to
discharge a storm drain.
A. SEPTIC TANK C. SLUDGE POOL
B. CESSPOOL D. SOLIDS CHAMBER

2. A receptacle in which liquids are retained for a A B C D


sufficient period of time to deposit setteleable 0000
materials.
A. COLLECTION TUB C. WATER CHAMBER
B. WATER TRAP D. CATCH BASIN

3. A public sanitary waste disposal system consisting A B C D


of a treatment unit which conveys the raw waste to 0000
the disposal system.
A. COMMUNITY MAIN C. PUBLIC SANITATION
B. PUBLIC SEWER D. PRIVY
LINE

269
4. A common way of disposing of solids is by _ __ A B C D
This is a controled burning of combustible waste.
This can be an effective waste reduction method for
0000
70 percent of all solid municipal wastes. If this is
operated property, it can reduce bulk by 90 to 95
percent. Ash left over is generally disposed off in a
landfill.-

A. FIREPLACE C. INCINERATION

B. BURNER D. HEATING

5. Another method of disposing municipal solid wastes A c D


B
is by dumping of refuse at a pre-planned site, 0000
compacted and covered with a layer of earth. This
method is called a

A. WASTE C. SANITARY LANDFILL


COLLECTION

B. CLEAN-AIR D. SANITARY GARBAGE


EARTH FILL PILE

6. When garbage from different floors of a high-rise A c D


B
building is disposed off from an opening and is 0000
directly led to the basement garbage bin. This is
called the

A. TRASH PIPES C. GARBAGE


CONDUCTOR

B. RUBBISH CHUTES D. WASTE GUIDES

7. This is a contraption inverted to dispose leftovers A c D


B
straight from the kitchen sink. Simply tum on the 0000
faucet, flick the power switch and place the leftovers
such as bones, fruit pits, rotten vegetables, spoiled
bones and washed down the drain pipes.

A. GARBAGE -C. WASTE GRINDER


COLLECTOR

B. LEFT-OVER D. GARBAGE DISPOSER


CHOPPER

270
8. After the ground preparation a should A B C D
be laid out on the area enclosed for sanitary landfill. 0000
The main purpose is to prevent the seepage of
leachate (dirty water, to cause liquid to percolate)
deep down to the ground water strata. This consist
of soil or composite material such as synthetic plastic
or asphaH sheets.
A. LINER C. BLANKET
B. WATERPROOFER D. COATING

9. A method of landfill wherein a tractor digs a trench A B C D


with a bulldozer blade, and trucks dump the refuse
to it. Then the tractor compacts the refuse thoroughly
0000
and covers it with earth that was dug up earlier. This
method is primarily used on level ground.
A. LINING METHOD C. CANAL METHOD
B. TRENCH METHOD D. DUGOUT METHOD

10. This method of landfill is generally used on rolling A B C D


terrain where the existing slope of the land can be
used as a basin. In this method, trucks deposit refuse
0000
over a selected area. Huge, heavy tractors with
special compacting wheels press down the refuse.
Then refuse is covered with earth hauled in from
elsewhere.
A. COLLECTION C. SCATTER METHOD
METHOD
B. SPREAD METHOD D. AREA METHOD

11. Collection of human wastes is done by elaborate A B C D


systems to carry most liquid sewage to _ _ __
where the sewage undergoes a series of treatment
0000
steps to remove polluting materials, biological and
chemical contaminants that can harm human health
or ecological systems. The first stage is the trapping
or screening of coarse suspended matter into a grit
chamber. Then the use of aerobic microorganisrl)s to
break down the organic matter left in the sewage called
the biological oxidation. Then the 3rd phase, chemical
treatments used to remove undesirable constituents
that remain. What resuHs is a drinking quality water.
A. WASTE TREATMENTC. WASTE ANTI-
PLANTS POLLUTANT PLANTS
B. SEPTIC VAULT D. WASTE COLLECTION
DEPOT

271
12. A fixture that aPP&ars •• a water closet, since a A B C D
person sits down on it. But it is designed as a 0000
combination lavatory which can plug the drain and
collect hot and cold water, with an inverted water
sprayer to clear the most delicate and well-guarded
parts of the body.
A. LAVATORY C. BIDET
CLOSET

B. CESSPOOL D. SANITARY CLOST

F. MISCELLANEOUS QUESnONS

1. What determines the size of a leading field? A B C D

A. POTABLE WATER C. WATER TABLE 0000


B. PERCOLATION TEST D. GREY WATER

2. What is an important concern in private water supply? A B C D

A. HARDNESS C. FRICTION LOSS 0000


B. BUILDING SEWER D. POTABLE WATER

3. What part of water suppty design is affected by A B C D


building height?
0000
A. FIXTURE UNITS C. FIXTURE LOSS

B. CASING D. STATIC HEAD

4. Select the incorrect statements: A B C D


I. Dry pipe sprinkler systems are more efficient than 0000
wet pipe systems.
II. Siamese connections serve both sprinklers and
standpipes.
Ill. The hazard classification does not necessarily
affect sprinkler layout.
IV. Standpipes must be located within,stairways or
vestibules of srnokeproof enclosures.
V. Standpipes are required in buildings four or more
stories high or those exceeding 150 feet.

A. I, II, and IV C. II, IV, and V

B. II, Ill, and V D. Ill, IV, and V

272
5. The pressure in a city water main is (0.39273 MPa). A B C D
Hthe pressure lOss through piping, fittings, and the 0000
water meter has been calculated as 23 psi (0.15847
MPa) and the highest fixture requires 12 psi (0.08268
MPa) to operate, what is the maximum height the
fixture can be above the water main?

A. 9 feet (2.70 M) C. 50 feet (15M)

V. 24 feet (7.20 M) D. 78 feet (26 M)

6. You have been retained by a client to design a house A c D


8
in a suburban location. The nearest water main is
one block away (about 1000 M.) and the city has no
0000
plans to extend the line in the near future. City and
county regulations do permit the drilling of wells.
What should you recommend to your client regarding
water supply?
A. Estimate the cost of extending the municipal line.
since the. water quality is known and it would
ensure a long-term supply. Consult with nearby
property owners who plan to build in the area to
see if they would be willing to share the cost of
extending the line.
B. Drill a test bore to determine the dept, potential
yield, and water quality of a well and compare
this information with the cost of extending the
municipal line.
C. Assist the owner in petitioning the city to extend
the water line to serve new development sooner
than they had planned to.
D. Consult with nearby property owners who use
wells and with well drillers to estimate the depth
and yield of wells in the area. Compare the esti-
mated cost and feasibility of drilling with the fea-
sibility of extending the municipal line at the
owner's cost.

7. Which statements about drainage are correct? A c D


B

I. Drains should always slope at a minimum of 1/8 0000


inch per foot. (.0099 per meter) or 9.9 mm

II. The vent stack extends through the roof.

1!1. Vents help prevent the drainage of water from


traps.

273
IV. The house drain cannot also be called the build-
ing sewer.
V. Clea•.outs are always a necessary part of a drain-
age system.

A. I, II, and V C. II, Ill, and v


B. I, Ill, and IV D. Ill, IV, and V

8. Water hammer most often occurs when: A B c D

A. the incorrect type of valve is used 0000


B. water suddenly stops when flow is turned oft
C. expansion joints are not installed in water lines

D. water flows backward against a check valve

9. One component of a plumbing system that every A c D


B
building has is a:
0000
A. stack vent C. backflow preventer

B. vent stack D. house trap

10. Select the incorrect statement: A B C D

A. Several types of plastic can be used for cold water oooc


piping, but only PVDC is used for hot water sup-
ply where allowed by local codes.

B. Steep pipe is more labor intensive and requires


more space than copper pipes in plumbing
chases.

C. Type M pipe is normally specified for most inte-


rior plumbing.

D. ABS is suitable for water supply.

274
AREA ''B''
PARTIII UTILITIES
2. MECHANICAL
SYSTEMS
AREA "I" UTILITIES PART Ill
---
. . ~

MECHANICAL SYSTEMS

A. HEAT, MOISTURE, HUMAN COMFORT

1. What does Ashrae mean? Energy conservation is A B C D


the theme of this. 0 0 0 0
A. AMERICAN C. ALASKAN SOCIETY
SOCIETY OF OF HOUSING,
HEATING, RESTORATION AND
REFRIGERATING AREA CONVERSION
AND AIR- ENVIRONMENT
CONDITIONING
ENGINEERS
B. AMERICAN D. AUSTRALIAN
SYSTEM OF SYSTEM OF
HEATING HEATING,
RESISTANCE REFRIGERATION
AND AERIAL AND AIR
COMFORT CONDITIONING
ENGINEERS ENVIRONMENT

2. Food taken into the body may be thought of as a A B C D


fuel that is subject to a low-grade burning process 0000
sufficient to maintain a body temperature of (37°C).
There is a wide variation in metabolic
(METABOLISM) rates dependent on physical activity.
For aA average size man; the Met unit corresponds
to 360 BTu:-.. A sleeping inan gives off 0.7 to 1.2
METABOLIC RATE or MET UNITS so 360 x 0.7 =
252 BTuh. A basketball player in action generates
and loses2136BTuhofthe Met units is 7.6 (7.6x360).
What then is BTuh? (Definition: The amount of heat
required to raise the temperature of one pound water
by one degree fahrenheit).
A. BUILDER'S C. BRITISH THERMAL
TEMPERATURE UNITS per hour
UNITS per hour
B. BEST D. BRICK TOWN
TEMPERATURE UNITS per hour
UNITS per hour

276
3. H it is very very cold outSide during December in A B C D
Baguio, where would you put the heater?
0000
A. ABOVE THE WINDOW INSIDE

B. BELOW THE WINDOW INSIDE

C. NEAR THE WAU AWAY FROM THE WINDOW

D. BELOW THE WINDOW OUTSIDE

4. For energy conservation, walls and roofs, and A B C D


sometimes floors- if there is outdoor space below-
must be resistant to the rapid transrrission of heat.
0000
Slow pasage of heat also resuls in warmer, more
comfortable inside surface temperatures. Insulation
is highly essential . are needed to
prevent colder parts of roofs and walls where it
condenses or freezes.

A. DAMPPROOFING C. TEMPERATURE
CONTROLLERS

B. DEW D. VAPOR BARRIERS


COLLECTORS

The human body loses heat in three ways

5. One way is through . This is the A B C D


transfer of heat through the movement of a fluid,
either a gas or liquid. This occurs when the air
0000
temperature surrounding a ·person is less than the
body's skin temperature, around 85 degrees
fahrenheit (30°C). The body heats the surrounding
air, which rises and is replaced with cooler air.

A. CONDUCTION C. CONDUCTIVITY

B. CONDUCTANCE D. CONVECTION

6. The other way is by . Heat loss A B C D


through this way occurs when moisture changes to 0000
a vapor as a person perspires or breathes.

A. EVAPORATION C. DEWPOINT

B. ENTHALPY D. COEFACIENT OF
HEAT TRANSFER

277
7. Another way is by . This is the transfer A B C D
of heat through electromagnetic waves from one
surface to a colder surface. The body can lose heat
0000
to a cooler atmosphere or to a cooler surface.

A. LATENT HEAT C. INFILTRATION

B. RAOIATION D. MEAN RADIANT


TEMPERATURE

8. Heat gain is most affected by: A B C D

I. Motors Ill. People 0000


II. Sunlight IV. Fluorescent Lighting
v. Humidity

A II and Ill C. I, II, Ill and IV

B. II, 111 and v D. ALL OF THE ABOVE

9. The is a graphic representation of A B C D


the thermodynamic properties of moist air. It is used
for a wide· variety of applications in heating and air-
0000
conditioning design, including dew point
temperatures, determining relative humidity,
calculating ENTHALPY (in thermodynamics) and
determining humidity ratios. These values are
needed to compute the relationships of heat and air
flow in air conditioning design.

A. PSYCHROMETRIC C. TEMPERATURE
CHART CHART

B. BAR CHART D. THERMODYNAMIC


CHART

10. Heat is lost through insulating glass by what process? A B C D

A VENTILATION C. AIR CONDITIONING 0000


B. RADIATION D. CONVECTION

11. In calculating solar heat gair., what value must you A B C D


have in addition to the area of the glass? 0000
A. SENSIBLE HEAT C. EFFECTIVE
TEMPERATURE

B. DESIGN D. MEAN RADIANT


COOLING LOAD TEMPERATURE
FACTOR
278
12. A high value of what property is desirable in heat A B C 0
loss calculations?
0000
A PROPORTION C. RESISTANCE
OF GLASS
B. TIGHT D. ABSORPTION
CONSTRUCTION

13. Weatherstripping is a good energy conservation A B C 0


strategy because it affects what? This is the transfer
of air into and out of a building through open doors,
0000
through
A INSULATION C. INFILTRATION
B. BODYHEAT D. EXHAUSTION

14. Select the incorrect statement. A B C D


A RELATIVE HUMIDITY is a measure of thermal 0000
comfort
B. PEOPLE FEEL more comfortable in the cold
months if the MAT is high.
C. THERE ARE DIFFERENCES in comfort level
between different cultural groups.
D. The range of comfortable dry bulb temperature
is dependent on air movement.

15. A roof covers an area 12 meters wide and 24 meters A B C D


long. With heavy insulation, the resistance has been
calculated as 38 and th.e design equivalent
0000
temperature difference as 44. If the design
temperature is -5° and it is desired to maintain a 70°
indoor temperature (F), what is the heat loss through
the roof?
A. 3661 BTuh C. 5824 BTuh
B. 5455 BTuh D. 6240 BTuh

16. What would be the best design strategy for passive A B C D


cooling during the summer in a hot-humid climate? 0000
A. Design a series of pools and fountains to cooi by
evaporation
B. Include broad overhangs to shield glass and out-
door activities from the sun
C. Orient the building to catch summer breezes
D. Use light-colored sw1aces to reflect sunlight and
solar gain.

279
B. HEATING, VENTJLAlWG, SOLAR ENERGY

Heat flows through Homogenous solids. Beginning with


the combustion of fuel in boilers or furnaces, heat flows
by various methods to warm the OCaJpied spaces and
hence minimally outdoors by transmission through
exterior room surfaces or by the loss or expulsion of
warmed air through openings in the building. There are
three ways where\n heat is transferred.

1. One way is by . The inside of a A B C D


concrete wall which has one side exposed to outside
extreme cold tempera1Ure feels coki to the touch.
0000
Heat is being lead from the side Of higher tefl1)erature
to that of lower temperature. To prevent heat loss by
this way, we must use materials that are poor
conductors. (An example is when a cold steel rod is
heated at one end, soon your hand will feel the heat
at the other end).

A. FEEDER C. FORWARDER

B. CONDUCTION D. LEAD-ON

2. The second way is by . From this A B C D


point, it is transferred to the outside air by this system. 0000
To prevent heat loss, materials must be used which
will reflect rather than radiate heat. (An exalll>le is 3
lamp.which when heated is felt by a person near it).

A. REFLECTION C. RADIATION

B. EMISSION D. EJECTION

3. The third way. is by . When air is A B C D


heated, it expands and begins to circulate. During 0000
the circulation, it comes in contact with cooler
surfaces, some of its heat is given up to them. It is
therefore important to try to prevent air currents from
being set up in the waDs and ceilings of our building.
(in a cavity wall, a hollow wall, or a metal fireplcfce,
cold «Ur enters from below, is heated, expands and
become lighter. Hot air goes up, and cooler air again
enters).

A. CONVEYANCE C~ CONVERSION

B. TRANSPORTATION D. CONVECTION

280
4. To prevent heat from the inside to escape to the cold A B C D
climate outside or to prevent the transfer of hot
outside temperature in summer to the living spac~
0000
within the building, we should specify and use
_ _ _ _ _ .Materials such as blankets, batts.
slabs, loose fill.

A. THERMAL C. HEATERS
INSULATION

B. BLOCKADE D. TEMPERATURE
GAUGE

Solar energy is being tapped in many strange and


wondrous ways. However there are two ways of heating
or cooling a building using the solar (sun's) heat.

5. The" "is so called because it employs A B C D


no sophisticated collectors and no expensive
technology to.harness the sun's energy. This is used
0000
for an "energy conscious" building. It is low-energy
consuming building which uses solar power for air
conditioning and other methods which use little or
no energy at all, and at usually low cost.

A. BUDGETED C. PASSIVE
SOLAR DESIGN SOLAR DESIGN

B. COST-CONTROL D. SUN CONTROL


SOLAR DESIGN DESIGN

6. The systems require expensive and A B C D


energy consuming equipment to operate electric 0000
water heaters and air conditioners. In short they are
technologically designed solar buildings. The
awesome energy of the sun's radiation is harnessed,
absorbed, transferred and stored for building heating
and cooling. Using this system, the temperatures
inside a house will stay at 68° to 70°F (19°C to 21 °C)
during even the coldest days.

A. HEAT C. MECHANICAL SOLAR


GENERATING DESIGN
DEVICE

B. ACTIVE SOLAR D. SUN CONTROL


DESIGN DESIGN

281
7. A is an integration of a house, a A B C D
greenhouse, a solar heater, and a solar still. The
space between the solar collector and the heat
0000
storage wall is large enough to be used for growing
food:
A. BIOSPHERE C. ENVIRONMENTAL
ARENA
B. ECO-SPHERE D. SOLAR HOUSE

8. In Thermodynamics, an , is a quantity A B C D
expressed as the Internal Energy of a system plus
the product of the pressure and volume of the system,
0000
having the property that during an isobaric process,
the change in the quantity is equal to the heat
transferred during the process.
A. ENTASIS C. ELEMENT
B. ANALYTIC D. ENTHALPY

9. The occupants of a building produce two (2) kinds A B C D


of heat: one· is the LATt;:NT HEAT and the other is 0000
_ _ _ _ _ in the form of moisture from breathing
and perspiration. This is assumed to be about 225
BTuh, simply multiply the number of occupant by 225
to calculate the heat.
A. DEW POINT C. HOT POINT
B. EXCESSIVE HEAT D. SENSIBLE HEAT

10. In warm air heating, a is needed. This A B C D


is constructed of sheet metal or glass fiber - either
round or rectangular.
0000
A. CONDUCTOR C. PIPE
B. DUCT D. SLEEVE

11. These wil be necessary to balance the system and A B C D


adjust it to the desires of the occupants. These are 0000
used where branch ducts leave the larger trunk ducts.
Each user can have its flow controlled by an
adjustable splitter in the basement
at the foot of the riser. Labels should indicate the
rooms served.
A. VANES C. DAMPERS
B. BLINDS D. SLATS

282
12. SUpply (sometimes called diffusers) A B C D
should be equipped with dampers and should have
their vanes arranged to disperse the air and to reduce
0000
its velocity as soon as possible after entering the
room. A common method is to provide vanes that
divert the air half to the right and half to the left.
Provide wall slotted type return grilles.

A. REGISTERS C. EXHAUSTS

B. GRILLES D. CONTROLLERS

13. This kind of FIREPLACE give off as much radiant A B C D


heat as conventional types, but to this they add 0000
circulating air warmed by convection. These
fireplaces have a double or triple-wall firebox with
an intervening air space several inches wide. Vents
at the bottom of the firebox draw cool air into this
space between the inner and outer walls, where it is
warmed. The heated air rises by convection to be
expelled through vents located above the firebox
opening or farther away - even to other rooms
through ducts.

A. HEATERS C. CENTRAL HEATING

B. HEAT D. HEAT GENERATING


CIRCULATING DEVICE

14. Smoke and combustion gases from the burning wood A B C D


pass up the . Usually made of Terra
Cotta pipe or 0.30 M. x 0.30 M. hollow block smoke
0000
chase.

A. SMOKE ESCAPE C. AIR SUPPLY

B. HOLLOW SPACE D. CHIMNEY FLUE

15. This is often used in factories, whether for hanging A B C D


on from the ceiling or attached to the wall or window.
It can also be with four wheels and back curtain, put
0000
on the ground for easy moving. This is also called a
long distance ventilator tor vessel workshops, steel
mill, basement and tunnel ventilation, etc.

A. JUMBO FAN C. PACKAGED AIR

B. AIR INDUCTOR D. BLOWER

283
1'8. A , (OZVENT is one product name) A B C D
II an aU aluminum ventilator which uses no electricity, 0000
it is deSigned to allow natural breeze to provkte all
the turning requirements for maximum ventilation.
Once installed, there is no further running cost for
resk:tential and Industrial use, attached to the roof.

A. CIRCULAR AIR C. TURBINE


EXHAUST VENTILATOR

B. MOVABLE D. ROOF EXHAUST


VENTILATOR

c. AIR-CONDITIONING

-1. The process of treatrng air so as to control A B C D


'simultaneously its temperature, humk:tity, cleanliness, 0000
and distribution to meet the requirements of the
conditioned space.

A. AIR FRESHING C. AIR CLEANING

B. AIR D. AIR CONTROLLING


CONDITIONING

2. This type of air conditioning system having 2 units, A B C D


the indoor unit and the outdoor unit. The heat inside 0000
a room is absorbed through the indoor unit and is
released through the outdoor unit. This type can be
wall-mounted, ceiling-mounted, floor-mounted, or,
packaged.

A. DUAL-TYPE C. SPLIT-TYPE

B. HALF-TYPE D. COMBIN-ATION TYPE

3. This type of air conditioning system is a semi-fixed, A B C D


air conditioning system. It is so because it requires 0000
a wall opening for it to be installed.

A. EXTERIOR TYPE C. SINGLE-UNIT TYPE

B. WALL-MOUNTED D. WINDOW-MOUNTED
TYPE TYPE

284
4. In larger buildings and those wlh varied and diverse A B C D
occupancy, it is usually preferred to _ _ __
the refrigeration plant. The condenser is cooled by
0000
water circulated to an outdoor cooling tower and the
evaporator produces chilled water. The latter is then
pumped to whenever it is needed in the building or
to the A.H.U. (Air Handling Unit), each serving many
rooms.
A. CENTRALIZED C. ONE STATION TYPE
AIR CONDITIONING

B. OVERALL AIR D. GENERAL A. C.


CONDITIONING

Question 1, 2 and 3 are based on the following situation.


A Developer is planning to build a small shopping mall
for resale. You have been hired as the architect. The
mall will consist of 4,000 sq.m. of rentable area on one
level surrounding a small enclosed courtyard. Existing
utilities adjacent to the site include water, sanitary sewer,
storm sewer, natural gas and electricity.

5. Which mechanical system for the lease area would A B C D


you recommend?
0000
A. a multizone system with economizer cycle
B. an active solar energy system for heating and
evaporative cooling

C. a direct expansion system with passive solar


design of the building

D. individual rooftop heat pumps

6. What cooling system would work best for the A B C D


enclosed courtyard?
0000
A. EVAPORATIVE C. COMPRESSIVE
COOLING WITH REFRIGERATION
A CLOSED
WATER LOOP

B. ABSORPTION D. PASSIVE COOLING


COOLING WITH
SOLAR ASSIST

285
7. Wtich of the following would be most important in A B C D
the selection of an HVAC system for this project? 0000
I. Flexibility II. Cimatic Zone
Ill. Economics IV. The Tenant's Prefe-
rence

V. Building Scale

A. 1,11 and V C. II, Ill and v

B. II, Ill and IV D. ALL OF THE ABOVE


A B C D

8. A seven-storey office building is to have a variable 0000


air volume system. The building will have 10,500
square meter of net space and an estimated 12,600
sq.m. of gross area. About how much space should
be allowed for HVAC systems?

A. 250 sq.m. C. 630 sq.m.

B. 380sq.m. D. 760 sq.m.


A B C D

9. Select the iilcorrect f;tatement. 0000


A. A health center would probably use no.4 or no.5
fuel oil.

B. Heat pumps rely on solar energy more than elec-


tricity.

C. Natural gas has a higher heating value than pro-


pane

D. Electricity is not a good choice for powering boil-


ers in remote areas
A B C D

10. A main trunk duct is to be placed above a suspended 0000


ceiling and below the structural framing. If ceiling
space for the duct is not a problem, which of the
following shapes of duCts would be the best to use
assuming equal capacities?

A RECTANGULAR, C. RECTANGULAR,
with the long with the long
dimension horizontal dimension vertical

B. SQUARE D. ROUND

286
11. A standard gas furnace has aft the follOWing concept: A B C D

A. FLUE C. COMBUSTION 0000


CHAMBER

B. DAMPER D. FILTERS

12. The heat gain for a building has been calculated at A B C D


108,000 BTuh. What size compressive refrigeration 0000
machine should be specified?

A. 9 tons C. 36tons

B. 12 tons D. 54 tons

13. An Economizer cycle: A B C D


A. only cools as much chilled water as required by 0000
the demand load

B. uses outdoor air to cool a building

C. automatically reduces the amount of time the


compressor runs

D. uses air and water to cool the condenser coils

14. The cooling system for a restaurant kitchen must A B C D


remove which of the following? 0000
A. sensible heat only C. sensible and latent heat

B. latent heat only D. sensible heat and latent


heat at 30% of sensible
heat.

287
D. CONVEYORS, VERTICAL TRANSPORTATioN, BUILDING MECHANI-
CAL EQUIPMENT

1. is a term that describes all the A B C D


methods used to move people and materials 0000
vertically. This- includes passenger and freight
elevators, escalators, dumbwaiters, vertical
converyor, moving ramps, wheelchair lifts, and
platform lifts.

A. VERTICAL C. FLOOR TO FLOOR


TRANSPORTATION CONVEYANCE

B. VERTICAL D. UP AND DOWN


MOVEMENT MOVEMENT

2. are one of the two major types used A B C D


for the movement of people and freight; This elevator
is lifted by a plunger, or ram, set in the ground directly
0000
under the car and operated with oil as the pressure
fluid. As a consequence, the cylinder for the ram must
be extended into the ground as high as the elevator
rises. This is used for two to six stories high only.
Travel time is 7.50 M to 48 M per minute and are
therefore not appropriate for moving large numbers
of people quickly.

A. COMPUTERIZED C. HYDRAULIC
ELEVATORS ELEVATORS

B. OIL-FILLED D. MECHANIZED
ELEVATORS ELEVATORS

3. This is the most common type used for passenger A B C D


service. They are capable of much rngher lifts and 0000
greater speeds than hydraulic types and can be
precisely controlled for accelerating and decelerating.
The system employs a cab suspended by cables
(known as ropes) that are draped over a sheave and
attached to a counterWeight. A motor drives the
sheave, which transmits lifting power to the ropes
by the friction of the ropes in grooves of the sheave.
This type is also called the TRACTION ELEVATORS.

A. GENERATOR C. COMPUTER-AIDED
OPERATED ELEVATORS
ELEVATORS

B. AUTOMATED D. ELECTRIC
ELEVATORS ELEVATORS

288
4. There are two types of Electric Elevators. One is the A B C D
_ _ _ which uses a direct current (de) motor directly
connected to the sheave. The break is also mounted
0000
on the same shaft. These are dependable and easy to
maintain and used on high-speed elevators.
A. IDLER-TYPE C. NOISELESS TYPE
MACHINES

B. GEARLESS D. TRANSMISSION
TRACTION TYPE MACHINES
MACHINES

5. The other type is the _ _ _ . Which is used for A B C D


slow speeds from 7.50 m to 150m per mrnute. A high-
speed de or ac motor drives a worm gear reduction
0000
assembly to provide a slow sheave speed with high
torque. With the many possible variations in gear
reduction ratios, sheave diameters, motor speeds, and
roping arrangements, This type provide a great deal
of flexibility for slow-speed, high-capacity elevators
A. TRACK TYPE C GEARED TRACTION
ELEVATORS
B. AUTOMATIC D. ROLL E:R TYPE
TRANSMISSION

6. __________ refers to the arrangement of cables A B C D


supporting the elevator. The simplest type is the single
wrap, in which the rope passes over the sheave only
0000
once and is then connected to the counterweight. For
high-speed elevators, additional traction is usually
required so the rope is wound over the sheave size
This is known as a double-wrap arrangement

A. BINDING C. ROLLING
B. ROPING D. WRAPPING

7. For skyscraper buildings such as the world trade center A B C D


and multi-use buildings such as the John-Hancock
Tower - both are stacked. multiple buildings - The
0000
elevator solution involves transporting large groups of
people from the street lobby to an upper lobby, called
a . At this point, the passengers transfer
to another elevator to continue their upward journey.

A. BALCONY C. BREATH TAKING


SYSTEMS SYSTEMS

B. LANDSCAPE VIEW D. SKY PLAZA SYSTEMS

289
8. By placing the traction lifting mechanism behind the A B C D
car, attaching the car at the back, and using a glass-
enclosed, car, a spectacular unit car. be constructed
0000
that becomes an attraction in itseH. If the back screen
is treated properly the car gives the impression of
movement without any apparent motive force or
machinery.
A. OBSERVATION C. OPEN VIEW
CAR ELEVATORS
B. VIEW DECK D. EXPOSED ELEVATOR

9. Although elevators are normally conceived as A B C D


travelling vertically, this is not necessarily so.
_ _ _ _ _ Elevators have been constructed in
0000
numerous locations. The design varies depending
on the angle of incline.
A. SLOPING C. LEANING ELEVATOR
B. SLANTOF D. UNEVEN
INCLINED
ELEVATORS

10. Although recognition of the special needs of the A B C 0


handicapped has only of late been made official
through legislation, and only for public buildings. the
0000
elevator industry has been providing for the
handicapped for years, on a private basis
~----_and private residential elevators are
widely used to overcome the stair barrier in private
homes. All units operate on household electric
current and require minimal maintenance.
A. SINGLE FLOOR C. ESCALATOR
B. HYDRAULIC LIFT D. WHEEL, CHAIR LIFTS

11. are designed and intended to A B C D


transport only equipment and materials and those 0000
passengers needed to handle these equipments.
These are commonly available in capacities from
1,136 kilos to 3,636 kilos, with some multiple ram
hydraulic elevators capable of lifting up to 45,455
kilos. Speeds range from 16M per minute to 66M
per minute with speeds up to 267M per minute
available for very tall buildings.
A. BULK ELEVATORS C. FREIGHT
ELEVATORS
B. MASS ELEVATORS D. SOLID ELEVATORS

290
12. are very efficient devices for A B C D
transporting large numbers of people from one level
to another. They are also useful for directing the flow
0000
of traffic where it is desired. This device (also called
the Electric Stairway) is power driven and are rated
by speed and width. The two available speeds are 9
meters per minute and 12 MpM. The two available
widths are O.BOM and 1.20M. These are housed in a
trussed assembly set at a 30-degree angle.

A. ESCALATORS C. RAISERS

B. RAMP STAIRS D. HORIZONTAL LIFTS

13. This often provide the most convenient and A B C D


economical means of transporting relatively small
articles between levels. In department stores, such
0000
units transport merchandise from stack areas to
.selling or pick up counters; in hospitals, these are
often utilized for transporting food, drugs, linens, etc.
In multi-level restaurants and office, they are used
for delivery of food from the kitchen and for return of
soiled dishes. Cars are limited to 0.81 sq.m and a
maximum height of 1.20M. Controlled by call and
send.

A. SHAFT C. SERVICE FLOOR TO


ELEVATORS FLOOR

B. MANUAL LIFTERS D. MANUAL


DUMBWAITERS

14. These units are also known as "EJECTION LIFTS" A B C D


because of the method of delivery used in institutions
that require rapid scheduled vertical movement of
0000
relatively large items, like food carts, linens, dishes,
bulk liquids, containers, etc. This lifts maybe a
"CART", a "BASKET" or just containing the items
being transported. Payload capacity is available up
to 45 kilos, Round trip time about 21/2 minutes,
disadvantages are high cost and large shaft area
required.

A. MATERIAL C. AUTOMATED
ELEVATORS DUMBWAITERS

B. AUTOMATIC D. VERTICAL WAITERS


TRANSFERER

291
15. ESCALATORS have as their primary function the A B C D
movement of large numbers of people vertically.
However serves a dual function, that
0000
is, Horizontal and Vertical transportation. This is the
combined function. It differs from Escalators in
application, function, construction, and capacity.

A. MOVING WALKS C. MOVING FLOORS


of so incline and
MOVING RAMPS
of 15° incline

B. MOVING D. CIRCULATING
SIDEWALKS FLOORS

16. When a parking space is limited. This Hightech A B C D


Parking invention is used. It is called ___________ .
This can be installed in two hours, anywhere you
0000
want to double the available parking space - one
car would be parked on top of the other.

A. EXCHANGEABLE C. DOUBLE DECK


PARKING SYSTEM PARKING

B. SPACE SAVER LIFT D. ELECTRO-


HYDRAULIC S!NCLE
POST LIFT

E. MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS

Questions 1 through 3 are based on the tollow1ng Situa-


tion:
A developer in a midsize Metro Manila City is planninr:J a
small shopping mall for resale. The Mall will consist of
4,000 square meter of rentable area on one level sur-
rounding a small enclosed courtyard. Existing utilities
adjacent to the site include water, sanitary sewer, storm
sewer, natural gas, and electricity.

1. Which mechanical system for the lease area would A B C D


you recommend? 0000
A. a multizone system with economizer cycle

B. an active solar energy system for heating and


evaporative cooling

292
C. a direct expansion system with passive solar
design of the building

D. individual rooftop heat pumps

2. What cooling system would work best for the A c D


8
enclosed courtyard? 0000
A. evaporative cooling C. absorption cooling with
with a closed water solar assist
loop

B. compressive refri- D. passive cooling


geration

3. Which of the following would be most important in A c D


B
the selection of an HVAC system for this project. 0000
I. flexibility IV. the tenant's preference

If. climatic zone v. building scale

Ill. economics

A. I, II, and V C. II, Ill, and V

B. II, Ill, and IV D. all of the above

4. A seven-story office building is to have a variable air A B C D


volume system. The building will have 10,500 square
meter of net space and an estimated 12,600 square
0000
meter, of gross area. About how much space should
be allowed for HVAC system?

A. 250 square meter C. 630 square meter

B. 380 square meter D. 760 square meter

5. Select the incorrect statement. A B C D

A. A health center would probably use no. 4 or no. 0000


5fueloi.

B. Heat pumps rely on solar energy more than elec-


tricity.

C. Natural gas has a higher heating value than pro-


pane.

D. Electricity is not a good choice for powering boil-


ers in remotP. areas.

293
6. A main trunk duct is to be placed above a suspended A B c D
ceiling and below the structural framing. If ceiling
space for the duct is not a problem, which of the
0000
following shapes of ducts would be best to use
assuming equal capacities?

A. rectangular, with the C. rectangular, with the


long dimension hori- long dimension vertica
z0ntal

B. square D. round

7. A standard gas furnace has all of the following A B c D


except:
0000
A. flue c. combustion chamber

B. damger D. filters

8. The heat gain for a building has been calculated at A B c D


108,000 BTU h. What size compressive refrigeration
machine should be specified?
0000
A. 9 tons· c. 36 tnns

B. 12 tons D. 54 tons

9. An economizer cycle: A B c D
A. only cools as much chilled water as required by 0000
the demand load

B. uses outdoor air to cool a building

C. automatically reduces the amount of time the


compressor runs

D. uses air and water to cool the condenser coils

10. The cooling system for a restaurant kitchen must A B c D


remove which of the following? 0000
A. sensible heat only C. sensible and latent heat

B. latent heat only D. sensible heat and latent


heat at 30% of sensible
heat

294
AREA ''8''
PARTIII UTILITIES
3. ELECTRICAL AND
OTHER POWER
SYSTEMS
AREA "8" UTILITIES PART Ill

A. PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY

Electricity constitutes a form of energy itself which occurs


naturally only in unusable forms such as lighting. The
primary problem in the utilization of electric energy is that,
unlike fuels or even heat, it cannot be stored and therefore
must be generated and utilized at the same instant.

1. The bulk of electric energy utilized is in the form of A B C D


_ _ _ _ _ generators produced by alternators. 0000
A. ALTERNATING C. POWER SUPPLY
CURRENT

B. VOLTAGE D. CIRCUITRY

2. generators are utilized for special A B C D


applications requiring large quantities of this. In the 0000
building field, such a requirement is found in elevator
work. Smaller quantities for this generator, furnished
either by batteries or by rectifiers are utilized for
telephone and signal equipment, controls, etc.

A. DISTRIBUTION C. DEMAND-CURRENT
CIRCUIT

B. ALTERNATING D. DIRECT-CURRENT
(a-c) (d-e)

3. The UNIT OF ELECTRIC CURRENT is the A B C D


_ _ _ _". When electricity flows in a conductor, 0000
a certain number of electrons pass a given point in
the conductor in 1 second or 6.25 x 1018 electrons.
On a 120 volt service, the ordinary 100 watt lamp
filament carries about 0.833. The motor for a desk
calculator, about 1 00.

A. VOLTAGE C. AMPERE (amp)

B. WATT D. IMPEDANCE

296
4. The UNIT OF ELECTRIC POTENTIAL is the A B C D
_ _ _ _ _".The electron movement and its
concomittant energy, which constitutes electricity, is
0000
caused by creating a higher positive electric charge
at one point on a conductor that exists at another
point on that same conductor. In a storage battery
there is a force attraction between the negative and
positive charges.This is EMF (electromotive force)
produced by a battery or generator which causes·
current to flow when the terminals between which
this potential exists are connected by a conductor.

A. TIME HOURS C. KINETIC ENERGY

B. VOLT or V D. OHM

5. The UNIT OF ELECTRIC RESISTANCE is the A B C D


______ ... The flow of current in an electric
.circuit is impeded (resisted) by resistance; which is
0000
the electrical term for friction. In a direct current( d-e)
this unit is called resistance and is abbreviated R; in
an alternating current circuit (a-c) it is called
impedance and is abbreviated Z.

A. OHM C. POWER FACTOR

B. VOLT D. REACTANCE

6. Materials display different resistance to the flow of A B C D


electric current. Metals generally have the least 0000
resistance and are therefore called _ _ _ __
The best materials are the precious metals- silver,
gold, platinum - with copper and aluminum only
slightly inferior.

A. LEADERS C. WIRINGS

B. CONDUCTORS D. CONDENSER

7. Conversely, materials that resist the flow of current A B C D


are called . Glass, mica, rubber, oil, 0000
distilled water, porcelain, exhibit this property, and is
used around the conductor for safety. Common
examples are rubber and plastic wire coverings,
porcelain lamp sockets, and oil-immersed switches.

A. ALANKETS C. INSULATORS
B. ISOLATORS D. ABSORBERS

297
8. The current I that will flow in a d-e circuit is directly A B C D
proportional to the voltage V and inversely
proportional to the resistance R of the circuit.
0000
Expressed as an equation, we hav9 the basic OHM's

LAW that I = V . An Incandescent lamp having a hot


R
resistance of 66 ohms is. put into a socket that is
connected to a 115V supply. What current flows
through the lamp? (using a 200W bulb)

A. 1.65 amperes C. 2.25 amperes

B. 1.28 amperes D. 1.74 amperes

-9. Resistance therefore is expressed in the equation A B C D


0000
R = V . A house electric water heater is rated 220V
I .
and 20 amperes. What is the unit's resistance when
drawing this amount of current? (using a 1320 watt
portable heater)

A. 9 ohms C. 12.8 ohms

B. 11 ohms D. 15 ohms

An electric CIRCUIT may be defined as a complete


conducting path that carries current from a source of
electricity to and through some electrical device (or load)
and back to the source. A current can never flow unless
there is a complete (closed) circuit.

10 One arrangement of a circuit is the ---~­ A B C D


circuits. In this way, the elements are connected one
after the other: Thus, the resistance and voltages
0000
add. In any of this kind of circuit, the total resistance
R is the sum of the resistance around the circuit. A
practical application of this kind of circuit is found in
an incandescent lamp street lighting cicuits. The loss
of one lamp can disable the entire circuit.
Furthermore, the point of fault is difficult to pinpoint,
necessitating individual testing of lamps. (also
christmas lights)

A. SINGLE C. SERIES

B. ALIGNED D. GROUP

298
11. When two or more branches or loads in a circuit are A B C D
connected between the same two points, they are
said to be connected in " " circuits or
0000
MULTIPLE. This connection is the standard
arrangement in all building wiring. Such that
groupings can be done like convenience outlets, one
group, the other group are ceiling lights.
A. DOUBLE C. DUAL
B. COUPLED D. PARALLEL

12. The unit of Electric Power is the WATT or W. The A B C D


power input to any electrical device having a.
resistance R and in which the current is I is given by
0000
v
the equation W = FR or W = I(IR) and since I=-
R
then V = IR or W = I(V). This is the product of volts
times current in d.c. circuits. An incandescent lamp
has a resistance R = 66 ohms, with a 115V supply.
Find the power drawn in watts.
A. 200 watts C. 165 watts
B. 250 watts D. 225 watts

B. ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS: MATERIALS, WIRING


1. of a typical building electrical system, A B C D
from the incoming service to the utilization items at
the end of the system. This is so called when
0000
electrical symbols are used in lieu of the blocks.
A. ELECTRICAL PLAN C.· SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM
B. SERIAL ~YMBOL D. ELECTRICAL
DIAGRAM CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

2. A or block diagram is done using rectangles A B C D


to indicate the major components. It shows the spatial 0000
relations between components. An example is to
show the vertical section on each floor the circuit
from meter to panels to machine room to circuit
breakers to upper floor circuits or from high-voltage
primary feeders to transformer vaults to secondary
service conductors to main switch boards to main
feeders to distribution panels to lighting and
appliance panels to receptacles and ceiling outlets.
A. MULTI-STORY C. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
DIAGRAM
B. RISER DIAGRAM D. CONNECTING
I)IAGRAM

299
3. are used to change alternating current A B C D
voltages, either up or down. In most cases, power is
supplied to a building at a high voltage because the
0000
lines can be smaller and there is less voltage drop.
These are rated on their kilovolt-amperes capacity (kva)
and described by their type, phase, voltages, method
of cooling, insulation type, and noise level. For cooling,
they are either dry, oil filled, or silicone filled.
A. DIFFERENTIATOR C. CHANGER
B. ALTERNATOR D. TRANSFORMER

4. is required for electrical systems that A B C D


relate to the safety of occupants or community needs.
This includes such things as exit lighting, alarm
0000
systems, elevators, telephone systems, and fire
pumps, as well as equipment that could have life-
threatening implications if power were lost, such as
some medical equipments. This is supplied by
GENERATORS or BATTERIES. Generators for large
electrical loads for long periods of time. Batteries are
used for smaller loads for shorter time periods.
A. EMERGENCY C. STANDBY POWER
POWER
B. ALTERNATIVE D. ELECTRICAL
POWER STORAGE

5. on the other hand, provides electricity A B C D


for functions thatthe building owner requires to avoid
an interruption in business. This often includes
0000
computer operations or industrial processes
A. STORED POWER C. EMERGENCY
POWER
B. STANDBY POWER D. FUTURE USE

6. 1s a type of wiring system that relies A B C D


upon the construction of the cable itself for protection
both of and from the 'hot' conductors, since raceways
0000
are not required in the installation. These are
exposed insulated cables. It is an assembly of wires,
normally plastic insulated, bounded together with a
tape or braid and then wrapped with a spiral-wound
interlocking strip of steel tape. It is then enclosed
with a flexible steel armor.
A. MOVABLE WIRE C. FIREPROOF WIRE
B. ARMORED WIRE D. AC ("BX")

300
7. Known by its trade name as" ",this is A B C D
a non-metallic sheathed cable, similar to BX. However,
not having the physical protection of metallic armor,
0000
use is restricted to small buildings up to three floors.
Easier to handle, this cable type comprises an
assembly of two or more plastic-insulated conductors
and a ground wire, all covered with a flame retardant,
moisture-resistant plastic jacket.
A. DUMEX C. ROMEX
B. FLAT WIRE D. ESSEX
8. A is a factory-assembled channel A B C D
with conductors for one to four circuits permanently 0000
installed in the track. Power is taken from the track
by special tap-off devices that contact the track's
electrified conductors and carry the power to the
attached lighting fixture. The tracks are generally
rated 20 amperes, and are restricted to 120V. The
· electrified conductors are permanently installed in
the aluminum track, which is grounded for safety.
A. SLIDING LIGHT C. TRACK CIRCUIT
B. HANGER D. LIGHTING TRACK

9. This is an . A CABLE TRAY is a continuos A B C D


open support for approved cables. When used as a 0000
general wiring system, the cables must be self-
protected, jacketed types. The advantages of this
system are free-air rated cables, easy installation
and maintenance, and relatively low cost. The
disad'{antages are bulkiness and the required
accessil1ility.
A. OPEN RACEWAY C. OPEN TRACK
B. EXPOSED D. BARE PIPE
TROUGH

10. . Included here are CONDUIT PIPES, A B C D


surface raceways and underfloor ducts which are 0000
FIRST INSTALLED, then the wiring is inserted and
pulled in later. The nominal trade sizes are 1/ 2 ", 3/ 4", 1"",
11/ 2 ", 2", 21/ 2 ", 3", 3 1/ 2 ", 4", 5" and 6". (12.70 mm, 19.05
mm, 25.41 mm, 38.11 mm, 50.82 mm, 63.52 mm, 76.23
mm, 88.93 mm, 101.64 mm, 127.05 mm and 152.46
mm) the total number of conductors in the sizes of
conduct pipes are shown on a table. Materials are G. I
steel pipe and now uPVC is also used.
A. UNEXPOSED C. CLOSED SLEEVE
RUNAWAY
B. CLOSED D. CLOSETED
RACEWAY CIRCUITRY

301
11. In order to provide access to the conduits for installing A B C D
the necessary wires and for making connections to
them, the continuos conduit runs are interrupted at
0000
frequent intervals by sheet-metal or cast-metal
boxes. These boxes are usually of a rectangular,
octagon, or round form having punched holes to fit
the conduits which terminate in them. The threaded
ends of the conduit are held rigid in the holes by
means of a BUSHING on the inside and a LOCKNUT
on the outside of the box.
A. JUNCTION BOXES C. PULL BOXES AND
CONNECTION
BOXES
B. UNION BOXES D. SAFE BOXES

12. An is an elevated (0.60 x 0.60M) A B C D


modular slab that gi~es the building's users 0000
instantaneous access to a below floor plenum which
can accomodate HVAC, electrical communications
and EDP lines, as well as unforseen future
developments and capacity. The building's users and
visitors will walk confidently on a surface with the
solid feeling of a poured slab. Since the system uses
no grid of stringers, maximum accessibflity is assured
when you need to change office layout, repair utilities,
or upgrade capabilities, you can do it with a minimum
of expense and disruption. Simply lift the floor panels
and move the services.
A. ACCESS C. REPLACABLE
FLOORING FLOORING
B. HANDY D. COMPUTER FLOOR
FLOORING

C. SERVICE AND UTILIZATION

1. Electric Service is normally tapped onto the utility A B C D


lines at a mutually agreeable point at or beyond the 0000
property line. The service tap may be a connection
on a pole with an drop to the building.
Materials can be bare, weatherproof or
preassembled. Bare copper cable supported on
porcelain or glass insulators on crossarms is normally
used for high voltage (2.4 KV and higher) lines.
A. NPC SERVICE C. UTILITY SYSTEM

B. OVERHEAD D. OUTSIDE SERVICE


SERVICE

302
2. Another electric service is by or direct A B C D
burial techniques. The advantages of this is 0000
attractiveness (lack of overhead visual clutter)
service reliability and long life. Disadvantages are
high cost.

A. BASEMENT C. UNDERGROUND
SERVICE SERVICE

B. DEEP EARTH D. CREMATION


SERVICE SERVICE

3. As a Service Equipment, between A B C D


the high voltage incoming utility lines and the 0000
secondary service conductors is required whenever
the building voltage is different from the utility voltage.
It may be pole or pad-mounted outside the building,
or installed in a room or vault inside the building.
These are devices that changes alternating current,
(a-c) of