Sie sind auf Seite 1von 22

SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND BUILT

ENVIRONMENT
COURSEWORK COVER SHEET

FOR THE ATTENTION OF LECTURER:


(PLEASE PRINT)

Student Name: SALIL SANTOSH GADKARI


Matriculation Number: S1703830 Year of Study: 2017

 Programme Title: Msc. Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Assignment Title: Renewable Energy Technologies Coursework - Resubmission

Module: Renewable Energy Technologies


Student Declaration

This piece of work is not plagiarised. It is my own original work and has not been submitted
elsewhere in fulfilment of the requirements of this or any other award.

Signature: SALIL SANTOSH GADKARI Date: 13th August


Your mark could have been higher if:

Additional Marker Comments:

Marker Signature: Total Mark

Marker Name:
Date:

1
Contents
Assignment Title: Renewable Energy Technologies Coursework - Resubmission 1
1.Introduction 3
2. Energy Demand of the House 4
2.1 HEATING DEMAND 5
2.2 Hot water Demand 6
3.Comparison of Renewable sources 7
3.1 Hydropower 7
3.2 Solar power 9
3.3 Wind Energy 10
3.4 BIOFUEL 11
4. Wind Turbine specifications and Requirements 12
4.1 Working of a Wind Turbine 13
5.RETScreen Software Project Report – Wind Energy for a small dwelling 14
5.1 Base Case Power System 14
5.2Wind Turbine and Turbine Losses 15
5.3 Energy Storage 16
5.4 Carbon Emission 17
6. CONCLUSION 18
7. REFERENCES 19
APPENDIX I 21

2
1.Introduction
Over several decades the world`s continued dependency on fossil fuels has led to a steady rate in
their depletion thereby leading to a rise in carbon gases. In addition the rapid need for oil and gas is
depleting the oil resources, leading UK to import additional fuel to meet the country’s demands
(Delay, 2013). This is leading to fears over security of stock. The UK is subject to growing fuel-price
instability as we become more open to world market variations.

For the following report and for investing in a renewable energy project there are several factors,
which should be taken into consideration. First, it is important to evaluate the motivation for a
project and its development. The motivation could be to decrease greenhouse emissions, to reduce
energy bills, to generate a positive image for a company or to tackle the fossil fuel challenge. The
incentives for project development will form all traits of the project such as the type of project,
which was selected to invest on, the financing tool chosen or choice of possible project associates.

The energy which is generated by coal, and gas plants emit harmful gases and they dump their waste
into water bodies causing air and water pollution. It is proven that this pollution can be linked to
breathing problems, neurological damage, heart attacks, and cancer (Delay, 2013). Thus generating
electricity from renewable sources of energy will also lead to several health benefits for the public.

In 2015 Scotland’s renewable energy sector contributed to a total of 26% in the UK renewable
generation. In Scotland the renewable sector is the biggest contributor for generation of electricity,
even more than nuclear generation and fossil fuel generation (Scottish Gov, 2016).

In the following paper the four major renewable sources wind, solar, biofuel and hydro will be
evaluated to justify which one of these sources would be most suitable to run a house and display an
energy model via RETScreen.

3
2. Energy Demand of the House
The energy demand for a cabin in Glen Ogle for the writer is calculated based on the electricity
devices and their energy uses, which will be used during his stay.

The energy demand for 6 months is calculated as that is the period of when the writer will occupy
the cabin. The house would be occupied at alternate months. In terms of electricity, usage the
lightings and heating demand will consume the maximum energy. The electricity and heating
demands are calculated based on the essential items, which would be used in a retreat. This is an
essential part which will be used to select a suitable renewable source to supply the recommended
power.

Electrical devices to be used during Stay

Hour of
use per Days of
Rating day use Total Electricity
S/N Description AC/DC Quantity (W) (h/d) required (kWh)
1 Lighting systems DC 11 32 8.0 180 506.88
2 Microwave AC 1 1200 1.0 180 216.00
3 Fridge (A+) AC 1 67 9.6 180 118
4 Electric cooker AC 1 1000 3.0 180 540.00
5 Blender AC 1 400 1.0 180 72.00
6 Toaster AC 1 1250 0.5 180 112.50
7 Television AC 1 200 3.0 180 108.00
8 Pressing iron AC 1 1000 0.5 180 90.00
9 Laptop DC 1 100 2.0 180 36.00
11 Washing Machine AC 1 500 1.0 51 25.50
12 Smart Phone Charger DC 2 7 2.0 180 5.04

Total 2475.12 kWh

4
2.1 HEATING DEMAND
Heat Loss Coefficient = 160W.

Heat loss = (Internal temperature – Outside Temperature) x 160

The temperatures were taken from the (MET Office,2015)

A sample calculation of January is carried out ..

Temperature needed in the room - 23

Outside temperature - 5.5

 160 x 17.5 = 2800 W

2960 x (Number of hours in a month=744 )

= 2083.22 kWh

Months Average Outside Internal Heating


Temperature (C) Temperature(C) demand in a
month (kWh)
April 7.1 23 1818.33

June 12.9 22 1048.32

August 14.3 23 1035.648

October 8.7 23 1702.27

December 3.9 23 2273.66

Total Heating 9961.448


Demand kWh

5
2.2 Hot water Demand

Energy required to heat water

Q = m C DT

Where, m = mass of the water (kg)

C = Specific heat capacity (J/ kg °C) = 4.186 joule/gram °

DT = Difference in temperature {Rise in temperature}

Mass of water = 150kg

Normally an average person uses about 110-120 kg of water. However, an additional 30Kg more has
been added every alternate month for any guests who may live with the writer at a certain time.

Months Temperature Temperature DT Energy Energy Energy


of water of Hot water Required demand Demand per
for heating per day month(kWh)
in (kJ) (kWh)
January 5.5 50 44.5 27946.890 7.76 240.56

April 7 50 43 27004.860 7.51 232.81

June 13 50 37 23236.740 6.45 193.5

August 14.5 50 35.5 22294.710 6.19 191.89

October 8.5 50 41.5 26062.830 7.24 224.44

December 4 50 46 28888.920 8.02 248.62

Total water heating Demand = 1422.9kWh

The energy required to run the appliances and the heating will be met by the electricity generated
by the renewable power source . Total Energy demand including heating and hot water

= 13,864.6 kWh

6
3.Comparison of Renewable sources

A comparison will be made based on the four renewable sources wind, solar, hydropower and
biomass. They will be weighed on terms of their storage requirements, season variability and
demand requirements.

3.1 Hydropower
The turbines used to generate hydropower are much more compact than those used as wind
turbines. This is primarily because the density of air is 800 times lesser than that of water. In terms
of storage, hydropower is reliable as it will involve the use of a water body like a reservoir. Since
the generation of electricity from hydropower is totally dependent on the flow of water in a river.
Thus energy generated hydropower can be predicted well in advance making it much more reliable
than the wind and solar sources.

Figure 1: Generation of Hydro Power (Electropedia ,2007)

To achieve Seasonal requirements for a hydropower device it has to be in a region where there is
moderate rainfall to fill up the reservoirs and rivers. Since it requires a rush of water, there has to be
a large area free to build a dam or in this case a hilly area so water can fall.

A very popular type of hydropower plant uses a dam, which holds water in the reservoir. The water
flows through a turbine, which in turn rotates the hydraulic rotor to produce power through a
generator. Pumped storage plant is yet another type of a hydro turbine. As the name suggests, the
power is directed from a power grid to the electric generators. The turbines then pumps water from
a river or lower reservoir to an upper reservoir. Generators are present which rotate the turbines
backward. For the generation of this power, the water is released from the higher reservoir back
down to the river, which advances the turbine’s rotation to generate electricity.

7
Power Requirement

Catchment Area = 0.8 km2 x 106m2

Water head = 8m

Available Energy= E(kWh)= 0.003V.h

Where V is the volume of the reservoir (m3)

H= water head

But v = CrAd(m3)

Where Cr = run off coefficient

A = catchment area

D = annual rainfall

But typical value of Cr =0.6

Typical value for cycle efficiency = 0.72 but annual rainfall in Scotland from MET office,2016
=2000mm=2m

Volume of rainfall = 0.6 x 2 x0.8 x 106

=0.96x 106m3

Therefore

E(kWh) = 0.003 x v x h

= 0.003 x0.96x106 x 8

= 23040 kWh

= 23.04MWh

Rout turbine efficiency = cycle = 0.72

Available energy = 23.04 x 0.72 x 106

= 15.58 MWh

8
3.2 Solar power
Solar power is one of the most popular and well known of all the renewable energy sources. Solar
devices sizes range from that of a coin to that of a car.

Figure 2: Solar power Generation (Meyer,2013)

Energy from the solar resource can be stored in photovoltaic (PV) or thermal collectors. A solar
thermal is a tool, which absorbs the energy from the sun and converts it into heat for future use. A
solar thermal collector is a device that collects energy from the sun and transforms it into heat. In
terms of seasonal variability, the sun is around all of the year but that is totally dependent on the
weather. In Scotland’s case, the weather is mostly wet all year around, therefore solar power
generation is not very feasible .In terms of PV there are three types of solar PV devices: a) basic PV
b) PV with storage c) Hybrid.

The traditional solar cells are created from silicon which is a flexible element. These cells are flat
plate and are very reliable and efficient. The next category of solar cells is made from amorphous
silicon or cadium telluride materials. They are thin (just a few micrometers thick), which makes them
double as roof tiles or glaze for skylights . The latest generation of solar cells is prepared from a
selection of new materials other than silicon, like solar inks using orthodox printing press
technologies, solar dyes, and conductive plastics. The PV material is more expensive, but because so
little is needed, these systems are becoming cost effective for use by utilities and industry.(Wilson
et.al,2016)

Now the solar energy captured by a PV will be calculated below:

Available Solar energy (PV)

Plan area of House = 45m2

Data from RET Screen.

Manufacturer: Sharp

Model: 9-SL-FS-F1356G5

9
The polycrystalline type panel are most commonly use due to its better performance with cost
effective.
A= 27.4m2
r = solar panel efficiency = 13% to 16%. (Energy informative, 2015)
H = Average solar energy radiation = 2.66Kwh/m2/day (APPENDIX I)
= 27.4 * 0.13 * 2.66 * 0.80

= 7.36 kWh
Energy annually =2688 kWh

3.3 Wind Energy

In the UK, harnessing wind power is the most popular and used renewable energy resource. Wind is
available throughout the world and there are no special topographical characteristics required to
harness wind energy. Installation of wind turbines is particularly cheap and it can be done without
complex planning and time. In addition, they are a range of sizes which are available for a wind
turbine, these wind turbines can be connected to the electric grid to supply power to towns and
cities.

For a wind turbine, the land, which is required, is larger than what is required for a coal plant or a
nuclear power plant. Normally in a wind farm, the wind turbines are placed at around 5-10 rotor
diameters apart from each other to avoid vibration effect. (UCS ,2013)

Power Requirement calculations

Capacity of wind turbine = 6 Kw

Hub height = 18m

Swept area per turbine =24.6m2

Rotor Diameter = 5.6 -6m

Typical load factor = 0.3

Annual output (kWh) = capacity of wind turbine x load factor x hours per year

= 6 x0.3 x 8760 kWh

= 15,768 kWh

The available power comes up to15,768 kWh, so theoretically it can meet the energy demands for
the writer’s retreat. It can be seen that the energy demands meets when the turbine is run for year
. However, since it has to run for only 6 months two turbines would be required to satisfy the energy
demand for the same.

10
3.4 BIOFUEL

Conventional fuels such as diesel and petrol are also technically biofuels, but since they have been
created from ancient plants and animals decomposed millions of years back, they are known as fossil
fuels. However, the biofuels of today are made from plants by chemical reactions or fermentation,
which breaks down the plant material into starches, sugars and other compounds. The ethanol, or
glucose from the plants, has energy, which can be used for power generation. Biofuel can also be
used from the landfill disposal of biodegradable waste

Figure 3: Production of Biomass (Thinklink, 2016)

Normally alcohol based biofuels have the stability to stay through storage for short period of time
but care must be taken when stored for a longer time period. For example during winter when the
fuel might freeze up if kept through extended periods (Miller ,2010).Therefore, an extra oxidant can
be added to increase stability.

Biofuel is reliant on solar energy via photosynthesis to create the wood needed. In terms of seasonal
variability, trees need wet seasons as well as regular flow of solar energy from the sun. One of the
disadvantage of biofuel is that a lot of energy that is consumed in the process of converting the
crops into fuel. The energy used in the biofuel manufacturing process is typically generated from
coal and nuclear sources, so in creating the biofuel, non-renewable energy sources are used. Hence,
biofuels do not substitute as much oil as they consume. (SCOWCROFT and NIES, 2011)

11
Available Energy

Total Available land = 1.5 hec


6m3 of timber per hectare per year = 11GJ/m3
If 6m3 of timber is produced per hectare then for 1.5 hectares, a total of =
= 6m3 x 1.5 =9m3 of timber can be produced per year.

If 11Gj is generated per m3 then 9m3 will produce 9 x 11 = 99 G-J


But 1 Joule = But 1 joule = 2.77 x 10-7 kWh
Therefore, the total energy available is 2.77 x 10-7 x 99 x 109
=
274.23 x 102
= 27.4 MWh

RESOURCE Total Electricity which can be generated


Solar (PV) 2.68 MWh
Wind 15,768 MWh
Hydropower 15.58 MWh
Biomass 27.4 MWh

Wind energy is chosen as it meets the demands needed by the electricity consumption. Solar
sources are eliminated as a fuel source as their available energy is low. Also, they are mostly used for
heating which are being met by electricity. Biomass meets the energy requirements but a lot of
energy is consumed in creating the final product of biomass which also consumes almost 9m3 of
timber .

Hydroelectricity meets the energy demands but the storage requirements and construction of the
hydro pumps are expensive and labor intensive. It also interferes with natural course of nature by
blocking water flow and changing the course of rivers. This affects the marine life present in the
water body, which leads to a great environmental imbalance.

4. Wind Turbine specifications and Requirements


The wind turbine, which is normally fitted upon a tall tower of around 10m, collects wind energy
and converts it into electricity. The electricity generated from the turbine will be sent to the house
to meet the demands of the house. Extra electricity is stored in batteries for backup if wind turbines
fails to catch wind due to wind being unpredictable (Bergey ,2014)
Normally in an off grid system a wind turbine works in parallel to a fuel-powered generator, so it
reduces fuel consumption when the generator shuts down or when the wind output exceeds the
specified limit. (Beacon Power, 2013). But when the load of the generators is equal to that of the
wind turbine, the generator is typically kept at a minimal operational level for the chance event
that when power of the wind falls below the connected load. Standalone systems take advantage of
different technologies and methods to transmit efficient power, cost effective solutions, and
minimize inconvenience.

12
These can mean a combination of fossil fuel systems to regulate the electricity flow generated by the
turbine so the demands can be met. In addition to the wind turbine system, some additional
equipment will be required to condition and safely transfer the electricity to the load. This
equipment and devices may include:

 Batteries
 Charge regulator
 Power conditioning equipment
 Safety apparatus
 Meters and arrangement.

The model used in this project is a 6kW wind turbine. This is enough to provide power for a large
house or a small farm. The wind turbine should be placed such that the next residential house
should at least be 100m from, the turbine site (Kluuge,2012)This will be an offgrid installation and
hence the profit from exporting power to the central grid won’t be taken into account .The 6kw
wind turbine will be placed on an 18m tower.

4.1 Working of a Wind Turbine

The rotor blades capture the energy of moving air when wind passes through the rotor , which
initialises the shaft into moving. A gearbox is present in the turbine, which converts this low speed
rotation into a high-speed rotation which powers up the generator(Hau,2013). The generator then
transforms this kinetic energy into electrical energy, which is then sent to the electrical storage of
the turbine. A power controller is used regulate this unstable electricity and a battery is loaded with
power. The inverter is used to converting AC electricity into DC to matches the requirements of the
load
A backup generator is also connected to the system and when the turbine is down the backup
generator can function and restrict heavier loads like the washing machine, heating pump etc. A
battery storage charger can also run with additional generating capacity.
The generator should be able to carry out the peak load and run it efficiently. It should also be able
to run for short lengths of time at maximum capacity.

Such load management and proper timing of peak power consumption can lead to considerable cost
benefits. The Sirocco E5.6-6 was included as the model of the wind turbine to be used in this project.
The availability rate of the Scirocco wind turbine is very high which makes it a dependable and
efficient source of power. It is a cost effective device, which relies on renewable energy, can
withstand time and different weather conditions. According to its manufacturer, it has superior low
and medium wind performances which helps it’s create new possibilities for application of medium
size wind power in the circulated power production with minimal environmental effect.

13
5.RETScreen Software Project Report – Wind Energy for a small
dwelling

Figure 1 Title page

Glen Ogle, in Scotland, has an annual mean windspeed of 8.1m/s measured at 10m height with a
relatively low daily solar radiation giving the choice of wind energy a distinctive advantage. The
complete climate data is shown in figure 6.

Figure 6. Complete climate data for proposed site

5.1 Base Case Power System


This section shows the details of an alternative source of energy in the absence of proposed
renewable energy project. The base case power system is usually a fossil fuel based power system.
The implementation of the proposed renewable energy will lead to carbon emission reduction. In
the base case power system analysis, the monthly load variation has been indicated. This allowed
the indication of the period of six months when the proposed power system will not be in use. Figure
7 shows the complete analysis of the base case system.

14
Figure 7 Base case power system analysis

5.2Wind Turbine and Turbine Losses


6kW Wind Turbine from Eoltecs SAS has been proposed and analysed. Figure 8 shows the power
and energy curves of the propsed Wind Turbine System. The proposed project is for 6 months
utilisation in a year. This means that only half of the energy will be available. Hence, two 6kW Wind
Turbines have been proposed and analysed. The combined turbines is expected to produce about
15.6 MWh for six months per year with a combined capacity factor of 14.8% capable of meeting the
anticipated annual demandas seen in Figure 10. Array losses relating to the cluster of the two
turbines have been realistically assumed to be 2%. Airfoil losses resulting from soiling activities such
as bugs or icing accumulation has been assumed to be 5%. Also, because wind is stochastic,
availability has been put at 90%.

15
Figure 8 6kW Eoltecs SAS power and energy curve.

5.3 Energy Storage


As mentioned above, wind energy is stochastic, the energy storage facility has also been analysed to
be able to supply full load capacity. 5 days of autonomy has been proposed based on robust wind
data for the proposed location. The 12kW inverter is suitable as the power storage facility should be
able to supplied needed full load in the absence of the proposed wind energy. The complete energy
storage analysis is shown in figure 9

Figure 9 Energy Storage

16
5.4 Carbon Emission
Wind Energy is not only renewable, but also a clean energy technology. It does not produce carbon
emission. The implementation of the proposed project will cut down carbon emission from the use
of fossil fuel by 12.5. This is equivalent to 5,371 of litres of gasoline not consumed. The Carbon
Emission Analysis is shown in figure 11.

Figure 10 Proposed Wind Energy Analysis Report

17
Figure 11. Carbon Emission Analysis.

6. CONCLUSION

The main objective of his project was to design a renewable power source of energy to meet certain
electrical needs of a person. The four sources of energy wind, solar (PV), hydropower and biomass
were compared in terms of their seasonal variability, storage requirements, and available power. It
was found that wind has a distinctive advantage over the other three being generating more power
and being available throughout in Scotland. Installations of a wind turbine does not take up much
land and does not leave an environmental impact. The software RET Screen was used to determine
the output of a wind turbine in an off grid situation and the resulting output from RETScreen was
similar to the value which was calculated mathematically.

18
7. REFERENCES
Beacon Power, 2013. Islands & Isolated Grids Beacon power. [viewed 12th April 2017].
Available from: http://beaconpower.com/islands-isolated-grids/.

Bergey Windpower, 2014. Small Wind Turbines for Microgrids. USA: Bergey Windpower Co.
[viewed 8th April 2017]. Available from: http://bergey.com/documents/2014/06/small-wind-
turbines-for-microgrids-faq.pdf.

DELAY, T., 2013. UK energy – time to face some hard truths Carbon Trust. [viewed 8th April
2017]. Available from: https://www.carbontrust.com/news/2013/04/uk-energy-time-to-face-
some-hard-truths/.

Electropedia, 2007.Woodbank Communications. [viewed 12th April 2017]. Available


from: http://www.mpoweruk.com/hydro_power.htm.

Eoltec, 2007. Scirocco E5.6-6 : Best Wind technologu for High Performance Eoltec SAS. [viewed
10th April 2017]. Available from: https://www.solacity.com/docs/Scirocco%20V02d_Eng.pdf.

MEYER , B., 2013. WHAT IS A SOLAR MACHINE Next Era Energy Resources. [viewed 9th April
2017]. Available from: http://www.portalsolar.com.br/usina-solar.html.

Scotland Government, 2016. Energy in Scotland: Get the facts Scotland Government. [viewed
8th April 2017]. Available from: http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Business-Industry/Energy/Facts.

Thinglink, 2016. Biomass Process [viewed 6th April2017]. Available


from: https://www.thinglink.com/scene/733752582647840769.

Met Office, 2014. Glen Ogle Climate [viewed 25th July 2017]. Available from:
http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/public/weather/climate/gfhbvxqrb.

Energy informative, 2015. Which Solar Panel Type is Best? Mono- vs. Polycrystalline vs. Thin Film
Energy informative. [viewed 22/04/2017]. Available from: http://energyinformative.org/best-solar-
panel-monocrystalline-polycrystalline-thin-film/.

Kluuge, 2012. Turbine Installation Evergreen Computing. [viewed 25th April 2017]. Available from:
https://www.windprospect.com/projects?p=turbine.

MILLER, T., 2010. Biofuels: Marine transport, handling and storage issues. United Kingdom: UK P&I.
[viewed 23rd July 2017]. Available from: https://www.ukpandi.com/fileadmin/uploads/uk-
pi/LP%20Documents/Carefully_to_Carry/Biofuels.pdf.

WILSON, G., KURTZ, S. and WERNER, M., 2016. Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics National
Center for Photovoltaics. [viewed 20th June 2017]. Available from:
https://www.nrel.gov/workingwithus/re-photovoltaics.html.

Union of Concerned Scientists, 2013. Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Union of Concerned
Scientists. [viewed 24th June 2017]. Available from: http://www.ucsusa.org/clean-
energy/renewable-energy/environmental-impacts-wind-power#.WZBuTOmQzIU.

19
SCOWCROFT, J. and NIES, S., 2011. Biomass 2020: Opportunities, Challenges and Solutions. Belgium:
EURELECTRIC. [viewed 9th August 2017]. Available from:
http://www.eurelectric.org/media/26720/resap_biomass_2020_8-11-11_prefinal-2011-113-0004-
01-e.pdf.

HAU, E., 2013. Wind Turbines : Fundamentals ,Technologies,Applications. 3rd ed.


Germany: Springer.

20
APPENDIX I

Available from : http://www.rensmart.com/Weather/NASAPOWERSolar

21
22