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AN46

Section 7.1

CHAPTER 7 Analytic Trigonometry

7.1 Assess Your Understanding (page 445)
p
p
5p
7.
x =
sin y
8.
0
x
p
9.
- q
6
x
6
q
10. F
11. T
12. T
13.
0
15.
- p
17.
0
19.
21.
23.
25. 0. 10
27. 1.37
2
4
3
6
4p
- 3p
1
29. 0.51
31.
-0.38
33.
-0.12
35. 1.08
37.
39.
41.
- p
43.
- p
45.
47.
4
49. Not defined
51. p
5
8
8
5
4
1
57.
f -1 1x2 = -tan -1 1x + 32 - 1
53.
f -1 1x2 = sin -1 x - 5 2
55.
f -1 1x2
=
cos -1 a- x
b
3
2
-1
Range of f
= Domain of f
=
1 - q, q 2
-1
-1
Range of f
=
Domain of f
=
3 - 3,
74
Range of f
=
Domain of f
=
3 -2, 24
f -1 =
f -1 =
f -1 =
Range
of
a -1 -
p , p
- 1 b
Range
of
c -
p , p d
Range
of
c 0, p d
2
2
2
2
3
1
22
1
59.
f -1 1x2
=
2 c sin -1 a x b
- 1 d
61.
e
f
63.
e -
f
65.
E 23 F
67.
5 -16
3
2
4
-1
Range of f
=
Domain of f
=
3 - 3,
34
69.
(a)
13.92 h or 13 h, 55 min
(b)
12 h
(c) 13.85 h or 13 h, 51 min
1
p
1
p
f -1 =
Range
of
c -
-
4 , -
+
d
71.
(a)
13.3 h or 13 h, 18 min
(b)
12 h
(c) 13.26 h or 13 h, 15 min
2
2
4

73.

(a)

12 h

(b)

12 h

(c)

12 h

(d)

It is 12 h.

75. 3.35 min

77. (a)

p

3

square units

7.2 Assess Your Understanding (page 452)

u

6.

F

33.

22
23
7.
T
8.
T
9.
11.
-
2
3
p
25 35.
- p
37.
39.
- p
4
6
2
2u 2 - 1
61.
63.
65.

13.

2

41.

1

p

6

67.

ƒuƒ (c) 37.96 ft high

ƒuƒ

81. (a)

u

u = 22.3°

4.
x =
sec y; Ú 1; 0; p
- 214
27.
29.
2
2
1
55. 2.55
57.
21 + u 2

5. cosine

31.

-

59.

10

21 - u 2

 79 (a) u = 31.89° (b) 54.64 ft in diameter 83 P

5

5

0

15.

43.

5

13

(b)

(b)

5p

12

22 17.

square units
- 22
19.
2

79.

4250 mi

21.

3

3p

4

23.

- p

3

2p

3

69.

45. 1.32

3p

4

71.

47. 0.46

- 3

4

73.

5

13

v

0

= 2940.23 ft/s

49.

-0.34

75.

p

6

51. 2.72

77.

- 215

25.

53.

22

4

-0.73

7.3 Assess Your Understanding (page 460)

7.

p ; 5p

6

6

8.

e u ` u

=

p

6

+

2pk, u =

5p

6

+ 2pk, k is any integer f

9.

F

10. F

11.

e

7p , 11p

6

6

f

17. e

31.

37.

41.

e

, 7p , 11p

p

2

3p , 7p

6

4

4

6

f 33.

e

11p

6

3

f

e u ` u

e u ` u

= 5p

=

6

p

3

+

kp f ; 5p

6

+ kp, u

f 19.

e

p 2p

,
3

4p

,
3

,
3

35.

e u ` u

=

5p

f

p

6

21.

e

4p

8p

16p

11p

f
9

+ , 5p , 13p , 17p , 25p , 29p

7p

23.

e

7p

f

25.

e

3p

9

,
9

,

5p

e u ` u

43.

2kp f ; p

6

6

,
6

6

6

=

2

+

e u ` u

2kp, u =

=

8p

3

+

p

4

,
4

+

2kp, u =

6

39.

6

3p

2

4kp, u =

+

6

6

2kp f ; p

2

10p

3

+

=

, 11p , 17p , 23p , 29p , 35p

6

6

6

6

6

2p

3

+

kp f ; p

3

3

, 2p , 4p , 5p , 7p , 8p

3

3

3

3

13.

f

e

p

3

,

27.

e

2p

3

2p

3

4p

,

3

4p

,
3

,

f

5p

3

f

29.

15.

e

3p

4

e

p

4

,

5p

,
4

3p

4

f

, 3p , 5p , 7p , 9p , 11p

2

2

2

2

4kp f ; 8p

3

3

3

3

2

, 10p , 20p , 22p , 32p , 34p

3

3

,

5p

4

,

7p

4

f

e

p 2p

,
3

4p

,
3

3p

,
2

p 5p

,
6

3p

,
2

f

93.

45. 50.41, 2.736

59. e

77. e

p

2

p

, 7p , 11p

6

6

47.

51.37, 4.516

e 0,

p

4

5p

,
4

49.

f

63.

81.

52.69, 3.596

51.

e

p 2p

2

,
3

4p

,
3

3p

,
2

-1.31,

1.98, 3.84

f

51.82, 4.466

65.

5p6

83. 0.52

53.

52.08, 5.226

67.

e

p

4

5p

,
4

f

85. 1.26

87.

55.

69.

50.73, 2.416

e 0,

p 5p

, p,
3

3

f

57.

71.

1.02

89. 0, 2.15

2

e

6

f 61.

3

, 5p

3

f 79. No real solution

-1.02,

91. 0.76, 1.35

f

73.

e

p

2

f

75.

p

3

, 2p , 4p , 5p

3

3

3

95. (a)

-2p, -p, 0, p, 2p, 3p, 4p

(b)

5P
3
13P
3
6 ,
2
6 ,
2
3
y
17P
3
2
6 ,
2
3
. 75
3
P
x
7P
3
6 ,
2
P
3
,
6
2

11P

6 ,

(c)

(d)

e

e

- 11p

6

,

- 7p , p

6

6

, 5p , 13p , 17p

6

6

6

f

x ` - 11p

6

6

x

6

- 7p or p

6

6

6

x

6

5p

6

or 13p

6

6

x

6

17p f

6

506

Section 7.4

AN47

97.
(a)
e x ` x
=
- p
+ kp, k is any integer f
4
99.
(a), (d)
(b)
5P
7
12 ,
2
y
7
P
7
g(x) 7
12 ,
2
2
P
x
f(x)
3 sin(2x) 2
p
p
(c) e x ` 12
6
x
6
5p f or a
b
12
12 , 5p
12

e

 103. (a) 0 s, 0.43 s, 0.86 s (b) 0.21 s (c) [0, 0.03] h[0.39, 0.43]h [0.86, 0.89] 105. (a) 150 mi (b) 6.06, 8.44, 15.72, 18.11 min (c) Before 6.06 min,

between 8.44 and 15.72 min, and after

 18.11 min (d) No 107 2.03, 4.91

-

p

2

f

6

x

6

- p

4

or a -

p

2

, -

p

4

101.

(a), (d)

b

(b)

p

12

12 , 5p

e 2p , 4p

3

3

f

2p

3

y
g(x) 2 cos x 3
5
4P
2P
3 , 2
3 , 2
2P
x
f(x
)
4
cos x
4p f
, 4p
6
x
6
or a 2p
b
3
3
3

111.

117.

28.90°

If

u

(b)

 (c) e x ` (b) 123.6 m

109. (a) 30°, 60° (c)

113. Yes; it varies from 1.25 to 1.34.

115. 1.47 is the angle

130

0

is the original angle of incidence and

sin u

=

sin f

n 2 .

f

of refraction, then

The angle of incidence of the

 emerging beam is also f, and the index of refraction is 1 . n 2

90 Thus, u is the angle of refraction of the emerging beam.

0

7.4 Assess Your Understanding (page 469)

3. identity; conditional

4.

-1

5.

0

6.

T

7.

F

8.

 T 9. 1 11. 1 + sin u 13. 1 15. 2 17. 3 sin u + 1 cos u cos u sin u cos u sin u + 1

19.

csc u

# cos u

1 cos u

=

sin u # cos u

=

sin u

= cot u

21.

1

+ tan

2

1 - u2

=

1

+ 1 -tan u2

2

=

1

+ tan

2

u

=

sec

2

u

23.

25.

cos u1tan u +

cot u2 =

tan u

cot u

- cos

2 u

=

cos u a

sin u

cos

1

u

tan u # tan u

+

-

cos u b sin u

=

cos 2 u =

cos u a sin 2 u + cos 2 u cos u sin u

1

-

cos 2 u

= sin 2 u

b

= cos u a

cos u sin u b

1

27.

1sec u

- 121sec u +

=

1

sin u

= csc u

12

=

sec 2 u -

1

= tan 2

u

29.

1sec u

+

tan u21sec u - tan u2 = sec

2 u

-

tan 2 u

=

1

31.

cos

2

u11 + tan

2

u2

= cos

2

u sec

2

u

= cos

2

u

#

1

cos 2 u

=

1

 33. 1sin u + cos u2 2 + 1sin u - cos u2 2 = = sin 2 u sin 2 u + 2 sin u cos u + cos 2 u + sin 2 u - 2 sin u cos u + cos 2 u + cos 2 u + sin 2 u + cos 2 u = 1 + 1 = 2 35. sec 4 u - sec 2 u = sec 2 u1sec 2 u - 12 = 11 + tan 2 u2 tan 2 u = tan 4 u + tan 2 u 37. sec u 1 sin u 1 - sin u # 1 + sin u 1 - sin 2 u cos 2 u cos u - tan u = cos u - = cos u cos u 1 + sin u = cos u11 + sin u2 = cos u11 + sin u2 = 1 + sin u 39. 3 sin 2 u + 4 cos 2 u = 3 sin 2 u + 3 cos 2 u + cos 2 u = 31sin 2 u + cos 2 u2 + cos 2 u = 3 + cos 2 u 41. 1 - 1 cos 2 u u + sin 1 1 - sin 2 u = 1 - 11 + sin u211 - sin u2 1 11 - sin u2 = sin u = - 1 + sin u 1 + sin u = - 1 + 1 cot v + 1 1 1 + tan v cot v cot v cot v + 1 sec u sin u cos u 43. 1 tan v - = 1 - 1 = cot v - 1 = cot v - 1 45. csc u + cos u = 1 + tan u = sin u u cos + tan u = tan u + tan u = 2 tan u cot v cot v sin u 1 + 1 csc u + 1 47. sin u 1 csc u + csc u csc u + 1 = = = 1 - sin u 1 1 1 csc u - csc u - 1 - csc u csc u 49. 1 - sin v cos v 11 - sin v2 2 + cos 2 v 1 - 2 sin v + sin 2 v + cos 2 v 2 - 2 sin v 211 - sin v2 2 2 sec v cos v + 1 - sin v = cos v11 - sin v2 = cos v11 - sin v2 = cos v11 - sin v2 = cos v11 - sin v2 = cos v = 51. sin u = 1 = 1 = 1 sin u - cos u sin u - cos u 1 cos u 1 - cot u sin u - sin u 53. 1sec u - tan u2 2 = sec 2 u - 2 sec u tan u + tan 2 u = 1 2 sin u sin 2 u 1 - 2 sin u + sin 2 u 11 - sin u2 2 11 - sin u2 2 cos 2 u - cos 2 u + cos 2 u = cos 2 u = 1 - sin 2 u = 11 - sin u211 + sin u2 1 - sin u = 1 + sin u cos u sin u cos u sin u cos u sin u cos 2 u sin 2 u 55. + = + = + = + 1 - tan u 1 - cot u 1 sin u 1 - cos u cos u - sin u sin u - cos u cos u - sin u sin u - cos u - cos u sin u cos u sin u cos 2 u - sin 2 u 1cos u - sin u21cos u + sin u2 = sin u + cos u = cos u - sin u = cos u - sin u 57. tan u + cos u cos u sin u11 + sin u2 + cos 2 u sin u + sin 2 u + cos 2 u sin u + 1 1 = sec u 1 + sin u = sin u u + cos 1 + sin u = cos u11 + sin u2 = cos u11 + sin u2 = = cos u11 + sin u2 cos u

AN48

Section 7.4

tan u +
sec u -
1
tan u +
1sec u
-
12 # tan u
+
1sec u
-
12
tan 2 u
+
2 tan u1sec u - 12
+ sec 2 u
-
2 sec u
+
1
59.
=
=
tan u
- sec u
+
1
tan u
-
1sec u
-
12
tan u
+
1sec u
-
12
tan 2 u -
1sec 2 u
-
2 sec u
+
12
sec 2 u
-
1
+
2 tan u1sec u -
12
+
sec 2 u
-
2 sec u
+
1
2 sec 2 u
-
2 sec u
+ 2 tan u1sec u -
12
=
=
sec 2 u -
1
-
sec 2 u
+
2 sec u
-
1
-2
+
2 sec u
2 sec u1sec u - 12
+
2 tan u1sec u - 12
21sec u - 121sec u + tan u2
=
=
=
tan u
+ sec u
21sec u - 12
21sec u - 12
sin u
cos u
sin 2 u
- cos 2 u
-
tan u -
cot u
cos u
sin u
cos u sin u
sin 2 u
- cos 2 u
61.
=
=
=
=
sin 2 u
- cos 2 u
tan u +
cot u
sin u u + cos u
sin 2 u
+ cos 2 u
1
cos
sin u
cos u sin u
sin u
cos u
sin 2 u - cos 2 u
-
tan u
- cot u
cos u
sin u
cos u sin u
63.
+
1
=
+
1
=
+
1
= sin 2 u
- cos 2 u
+
1
=
sin 2 u
+
11
-
cos 2 u2 =
2 sin 2 u
tan u +
cot u
sin u
cos u
sin 2 u +
cos 2 u
+
cos u
sin u
cos u sin u
1
sin u
1
+
sin u
+
sec u +
tan u
cos u
cos u
cos u
1
+
sin u
sin u
sin u
1
65.
=
=
=
=
= tan u sec u
cot u
+ cos u
cos u
cos u
+
cos u sin u
cos u
# cos u11
+ sin u2
cos u #
cos u
+ cos u
sin u
sin u
1 - tan 2 2 u
u
1
-
tan 2 u
+
1
+
tan 2 u
2
67.
+
1
=
=
=
=
2 cos 2 u
1 + tan
1
+
tan 2 u
csc u
1
+ tan 2 u
sec
2 2 u
sec u -
csc u
sec u
1
1
69.
=
-
=
sin u -
cos u
sec u csc u
sec u csc u -
sec u csc u =
csc u
sec u
1
1
- cos 2 u
sin 2 u
71.
sec u
- cos u
=
-
cos u =
=
=
cos u
cos u
cos u
sin u # sin u u
cos
= sin u tan u
1
1
1
+
sin u
+
1
-
sin u
2
73.
+
=
=
=
=
2 sec 2 u
1 -
sin u
1
+
sin u
11
+
sin u211 - sin u2
1
-
sin 2 u
cos
2 2 u
sec u
sec u
+
sin u
sec u11 + sin u2
sec u11 + sin u2
# 1
1
+
sin u
75.
=
=
=
=
1 -
sin u
1
-
sin u
1
+
sin u
1
- sin 2 u
cos 2 u
cos 3 u
2
2 sin v
-
1sec v
-
tan v2 2 +
1
sec 2 v
-
2 sec v tan v
+
tan 2 v
+
1
2 sec 2 v
-
2 sec v tan v
cos 2 v
cos 2 v
2
-
2 sin v # sin v cos v
77.
=
=
=
=
csc v1sec v - tan v2
1
1
sin v
cos v b
1
-
sin v
1
-
sin v
cos 2 v
1
-
sin v
-
b
sin v a cos v
sin v a 1
cos v
sin v cos v
211 - sin v2
#
sin v
2 sin v
=
=
=
2 tan v
cos v
+ cos u
1
-
sin v
cos v
sin u
sin u -
cos u
sin u
cos u
sin 2 u +
cos 2 u
1
79.
-
=
+
1
-
1
+
=
=
= sec u csc u
cos u
sin 3 u +
sin u
cos
u
sin u
cos u sin u
cos u sin u
cos 3 u
1sin u
+
cos u21sin 2 u - sin u cos u + cos 2 u2
81.
=
=
sin 2 u
+
cos 2 u
-
sin u cos u =
1
-
sin u cos u
sin u +
cos 2 u -
cos u
sin 2 u
sin u
+ cos u
cos 2 u
- sin 2 u
cos 2 u
- sin 2 u
83.
= =
= cos 2 u
1
- tan 2 u
sin 2 u
cos 2 u
- sin 2 u
1
-
cos 2 u
cos 2 u
 85. 12 cos 2 u - 12 2 [2 cos 2 u - 1sin 2 u + cos 2 u2] 2 1cos 2 u - sin 2 u2 2 cos 2 u - sin 2 u = 11 - sin 2 u2 - sin 2 u = 1 2 sin 2 u cos 4 u - sin 4 u = 1cos 2 u - sin 2 u21cos 2 u + sin 2 u2 = cos 2 u - sin 2 u = - 87. 1 + sin u + cos u 11 + sin u2 + cos u # 11 + sin u2 + cos u 1 + 2 sin u + sin 2 u + 211 + sin u2 cos u + cos 2 u 1 + sin u - cos u = 11 + sin u2 - cos u 11 + sin u2 + cos u = 1 + 2 sin u + sin 2 u - cos 2 u 1 + 2 sin u + sin 2 u + 211 + sin u21cos u2 + 11 - sin 2 u2 2 + 2 sin u + 211 + sin u21cos u2 = 1 + 2 sin u + sin 2 u - 11 - sin 2 u2 = 2 sin u + 2 sin 2 u 211 + sin u2 + 211 + sin u21cos u2 211 + sin u211 + cos u2 1 + cos u = 2 sin u11 + sin u2 = 2 sin u11 + sin u2 = 89. 1a sin u + b cos u2 2 + 1a cos u - b sin u2 2 = a 2 sin 2 u + sin u b 2 cos 2 u 2ab sin u cos u + + a 2 cos 2 u - 2ab sin u cos u + b 2 sin 2 u = a 2 1sin 2 u + cos 2 u2 + b 2 1cos 2 u + sin 2 u2 = a 2 + b 2 91. tan a tan a + tan b = tan a 1tan a tan b2 # cot a + tan b + cot b = 1 1 tan b + tan b + tan a = + tan a tan b b = tan a + tan tan a tan b 93. 1sin a + cos b2 2 tan a + + 1cos b tan b tan a tan b - + sin