Sie sind auf Seite 1von 29

ADDITIONAL AGREEMENT / APPROVAL RECORD

Party Ref Ind Name Sign Date

REVISION PHILOSOPHY

All revisions for review will be issued at R01, with subsequent R02, R03, etc as required.

All revisions approved for issue or design will be issued at A01, with subsequent A02, A03, etc as
required.

Documents approved for Construction will be issued at C01, C02 , and C03 respectively.

Documents or drawings revised as ―As built‖ will be issued as Z01, Z02 Z03 etc.

Narrative sections revised from previous approved issues are to be noted in the table below and/or
highlighted in the RH margin (using the appropriate revision status) thus: | A02

Previous revision highlighting to be removed at subsequent issues.

Drawings/diagrams revised from previous approved issues are highlighted by 'clouding' the affected
areas and by the use of a triangle containing the revision status.

REVISION HISTORY

Revision Date Reason for Change

SSG-TPEF-GEN-LA-5507-00001-A01 Page 2 of 29 Pipelines Design Philosophy

This document is controlled electronically and is uncontrolled when printed


Table of Contents
DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS .......................................................................................................... 4
1.0 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................ 6
1.1Objective ............................................................................................................................... 6
1.2Background ........................................................................................................................... 6
1.3Change Control ..................................................................................................................... 7
1.4Units and Coordinates .......................................................................................................... 7
2.0 REGULATIONS, CODES AND STANDARDS ........................................................................... 9
2.1General 9
2.2Regulations ........................................................................................................................... 9
2.3Codes and Standards ........................................................................................................... 9
2.4Order of Precedence ............................................................................................................. 9
3.0 PROJECT SUMMARY ............................................................................................................. 11
3.1Project Workscope .............................................................................................................. 11
3.2Location and Interfaces ....................................................................................................... 12
3.3Pipeline Design Life ............................................................................................................ 12
4.0 ROUTE SELECTION, PERMITS AND ACQUISITION .............................................................. 13
4.1Route Selection ................................................................................................................... 13
4.2Permits 13
4.3Land Acquisition .................................................................................................................. 14
5.0 DESIGN DATA ......................................................................................................................... 15
5.1Material Data ....................................................................................................................... 15
5.3Feed Composition ............................................................................................................... 15
5.4Feed Pressure and Temperature Data ............................................................................... 15
6.0 DESIGN PHILOSOPHY ........................................................................................................... 17
6.1Flow Assurance................................................................................................................... 17
6.2Pipeline Loading Cases ...................................................................................................... 17
6.3Pipeline Expansion and Flexibility....................................................................................... 18
6.4Pipeline Wall Thickness ...................................................................................................... 19
6.5River and Swamp Crossings............................................................................................... 19
6.6Landfall and Shore Approach ............................................................................................. 19
6.7Subsea Pipeline Crossing Design ....................................................................................... 20
6.8Pipeline Branches Connections .......................................................................................... 20
6.9ESD and Blowdown ............................................................................................................ 20
6.10 Subsea Valves ...................................................................................................... 20
6.11 Sectionalising Valves ............................................................................................ 20
6.12 Corrosion Control ................................................................................................. 21
6.13 Hydrotest, Pre-Commissioning and Commissioning ............................................ 22
6.14 Pipeline Leak Detection ........................................................................................ 22
6.15 Drains ................................................................................................................... 22
6.16 Instrument Air ....................................................................................................... 22
6.17 Safeguarding Philosophy...................................................................................... 22
6.18 Pipeline Risk Analysis .......................................................................................... 22
7.0 OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS .......................................................................................... 23
7.1Start Up 23
7.2Maintenance and Inspection ............................................................................................... 23
7.3Isolation / Locked Valve Philosophy ................................................................................... 23
7.4Spares 23
8.0 CONSTRUCTABILITY / CONSTRUCTION INTERFACES...................................................... 25
9.0 REFERENCES ......................................................................................................................... 26
SHELL DESIGN AND ENGINEERING PRACTICE (DEPS)............................................................................ 27
SPDC PIPELINE ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATION............................................................. 27
INTERNATIONAL CODES AND STANDARDS .............................................................................................. 28

SSG-TPEF-GEN-LA-5507-00001-A01 Page 3 of 29 Pipelines Design Philosophy

This document is controlled electronically and is uncontrolled when printed


Definitions and Abbreviations
The following definitions and abbreviations are used in this document

Definitions
Pipeline – General A system of pipes and other components used to transport
hydrocarbon between plants. A pipeline includes pig traps and
extends from pig trap to pig trap, or, if no pig trap is fitted, to the first
isolation valve within the plant.

Pipeline – Specific A pipeline transporting processed hydrocarbon from the processing


plant. A flowline is a pipeline that transports un-processed
hydrocarbon from a well head to a remote gathering point (manifold)
or a processing plant. A Bulkline is a pipeline which transports un-
processed hydrocarbon from a remote gathering point (manifold) to a
processing plant

Company/Shell/SPDC Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Limited

Principal Party (Usually SPDC), that initiates the project and ultimately pays
for its design and construction. The Principal will generally specify
the technical requirements. The Principal may also include an agent
or consultant authorised to act for and on behalf of, the Principal.

Contractor Party, which carries out all or part of the detail design. The Principal
may undertake all or part of the duties of the Contractor.

Manufacturer/Supplier Party, which manufactures or supplies equipment and services to


perform the duties specified by the Contractor.

The word ‗shall‘ indicates a mandatory requirement.

The word ‗should‘ indicates a recommendation.

Abbreviations
AG Associated Gas
API American Petroleum Institute
API RP American Petroleum Institute – Recommended Practice
ASNT American Society for Non-Destructive Testing
ASTM American Society for Testing of Materials
BDEP Basic Design and Engineering Package
BfD SSAGS Project Basis for Design, SSG-TPD-GEN-AA-7704-00001
BP Business Plan
CAPEX Capital Expenditure
CCP Central Compressor Plant
CP Cathodic Protection
DEP Shell Standard for Design and Engineering Practice
DPR Department of Petroleum Resources
D/t Diameter to thickness ratio
EIA Environmental Impact Assessment
ELPS Escravos-Lagos Pipeline System
ESD Emergency Shutdown
FBE Fusion Bonded Epoxy
FYIP Forcados Yokri Integrated Project

SSG-TPEF-GEN-LA-5507-00001-A01 Page 4 of 29 Pipelines Design Philosophy

This document is controlled electronically and is uncontrolled when printed


HSLA High-strength low-alloy steel
CPF Central Processing Facility
ISO International Standards Organisation
LLWS Low Low Water Surface
MAOP Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure
MMscfd Million Standard Cubic Feet Per Day
NAG Non Associated Gas
NFA No Further Activity
NLNG Nigeria Liquefied Natural Gas
OGGS Offshore Gas Gathering System
OML Oil Mining Lease
OPL Oil Pipeline License
PTS Permit to Survey
QRA Quantitative Risk Analysis
RoW Right of Way
RP-A Riser Platform – A
SCS SPDC Standard Construction Specification
SIOGP Southern Swamp Integrated Oil and Gas Project
SMYS Specified Minimum Yield Strength
SPDC The Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Limited
SSAGS Southern Swamp Associated Gas

SSG-TPEF-GEN-LA-5507-00001-A01 Page 5 of 29 Pipelines Design Philosophy

This document is controlled electronically and is uncontrolled when printed


1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Objective
The objective of this document is to present the design philosophy for the SSAGS pipelines
as described in the SSAGS Project Basis for Design (Ref 1).
This document should be read in conjunction with the BfD which details the project
engineering system requirements to meet the company‘s business case objectives.

1.2 Background
The Southern Swamp area comprises fields within Oil Mining License (OML) 35 and OML 46
in the coastal swamp area, sixty-five kilometer (65km) South of Warri. There are ten (10) fully
appraised, Ten (10) partially appraised and four (4) un-appraised fields within the node, with
expectation oil ‗Ultimate Recovery‘ (UR) of 1,636 million stock tank barrel (MMstb) and 2,138
billion standard cubic feet (Bscf) of Associated Gas (AG) (‗Gas Initially In Place‘ - GIIP UR of
4 Tcf, 53% Recovery Factor (RF)) out of which 792 MMstb and 444 Bscf has been produced
by end 2010. All existing production in the area is gathered into four flow stations at Tunu,
Ogbotobo, Benisede and Opukushi. The produced oil is evacuated via Trans Ramos pipeline
to Forcados Terminal whilst the associated gas is currently flared.
The project to end routine flaring and re-develop the fields in the southern swamp catchment
area started in 1999 as Southern Swamp Integrated Oil and Gas Project (SIOGP). This
project stalled at the Define phase in 2006 due to among other things funding challenges. In
2009 the project was re-invigorated as an AG solution project with provision for mini
development. The latest project concept now called Southern Swamp AG Solutions (SSAGS)
primarily aimed at providing AG solutions to cover ‗No further Activity‘ (NFA) production (141
million barrel (MMbbl) + 98 Bscf AG) while maximising use of existing flowstation assets in
order to reduce Capex. It also includes a reduced well scope of 21 oil wells and 2 NAG wells
to develop additional 125 MMbbl new oil and 347 Bscf of gas (AG+NAG). NAG development
is to support the sustenance of circa 100MMScf/d gas supply to the domestic market for at
least 10 years. This development will also provide anchor infrastructure to support future
development of significant discovered and undiscovered potentials within the node (presently
about 820 MMboe).
Gas will be exported to Escravos Lagos Pipeline System (ELPS) via the existing 24‖ Offshore
Gas Gathering System (OGGS) line from EA Riser Platform (RP-A) to Forcados Yokri
(reverse flow) and the existing 16‖line from Forcados Yokri Integrated Project (FYIP) central
processing facility (CPF) to Odidi. A new pipeline will be installed from Tunu to EA RP-A. In
order to allow gas from Southern Swamp to reverse flow through OGGS to FYIP.

SSG-TPEF-GEN-LA-5507-00001-A01 Page 6 of 29 Pipelines Design Philosophy

This document is controlled electronically and is uncontrolled when printed


SSAGG proposed Process Schematic

Export

Ogbotobo Benisede
ELPS 10 MMscf /d 20 MMscf /d
AG
FYIP Phase 1 & 2 Facility AG AG Opukushi
CCP 30 MMscf /d
H2O HC
230 MMscf/d
usm

NAG Plant CPF


40 MMscf/d 110 MMscf/d

1NAG Wells + 12 estuary Oil well + AG AG

CCP H2O HC usm


16‘x32km Tunu CPF Tunu
EARP 160 MMscfd 2x35 MMscf/d AG 15 MMscf /d

NAG Slug catcher


120 MMscf/d 2 NAG Wells 120bar
To OGGS TUNU Facility

FYIP CCP by-pass line


USM - Ultrasonic-Flow •Uptime for new gas facilities 90%
Meter •Deferment for oil facilities 18-24%

Figure 1 – Southern Swamp Development Schematic

1.3 Change Control


This document is a controlled document and falls under the SPDC Corporate Change Control
Procedure (Ref 2).

1.4 Units and Coordinates


Except where otherwise noted, SI units shall be used in all reports and calculations. The size
of the unit shall be appropriate to the value being measured.

Units Preferred Units (Allowable Alternatives)


Mass Flow kg/hr (kg/s, tonnes/hr)
Liquid Volume Flow std. m³/hr (m³/s, kbpd)
Gas Volume Flow normal m³/hr (m³/s, MMscfd)
Level m or % full (mm)
Pressure barg (bara)
Temperature ºC
Length m, km
Diameter mm
Wall thickness mm
Area m²

SSG-TPEF-GEN-LA-5507-00001-A01 Page 7 of 29 Pipelines Design Philosophy

This document is controlled electronically and is uncontrolled when printed


Volume m³
Weight kg, tonne
Force N, kN, MN
Density kg/m³
Velocity m/s
Power W, kW, MW
Dynamic Viscosity cP
Kinematic Viscosity cSt
Energy J, kW, MW
Entropy kJ/kg.K
Heat transfer coefficient W/ m².K
Specific Heat Capacity kJ/kg.K
Thermal Conductivity W/m.K
Calorific Value MJ/ m³ (BTU/scf)

The co-ordinate system shall be based on the Nigerian Transverse Mercator Projection Mid-
Belt (Minna Datum).

SSG-TPEF-GEN-LA-5507-00001-A01 Page 8 of 29 Pipelines Design Philosophy

This document is controlled electronically and is uncontrolled when printed


2.0 REGULATIONS, CODES AND STANDARDS
2.1 General
The regulations, codes and standards to be applied shall always be the latest revision thereof
and any amendment or supplement thereto in effect as at the contract date with contractor,
manufacturer or supplier.

Design, fabrication and installation work will be governed by the following regulations, codes
and standards.
2.2 Regulations
Local laws regulating the oil and gas industry shall be strictly adhered to. Guidance on the
statutory requirements for pipelines design, construction and operation should be obtained
from the following documents:

Regulation Function

Petroleum Act, CAP P10, Laws of This is the principal statute regulating the oil industry.
the Federation of Nigeria, LFN The following regulations relevant to this project are
2004, as amended issued pursuant to the Act.
Mineral Oil (Safety) Regulations These regulations, in so far as they apply to pipelines,
1963, as amended. require compliance with the IP, API and ASME codes
and standards.

Oil Pipelines Act, 1956. CAP. 145 Provides for licenses to be granted for the
(Amended 1965, CAP. 338, LFN establishment and maintenance of pipelines incidental
1990) and supplementary to oilfields and oil mining, and for
purposes ancillary to such pipelines.
Oil and Gas Pipelines Regulations, Detailed regulations for the design, construction and
1995 maintenance of oil and gas pipelines
Environmental Impact Assessment Makes the conduct of an EIA mandatory prior to the
Act, CAP E12, LFN 2004. development of any project or activity likely to have a
significant effect on the environment
Federal Environment Protection Provides for the protection of the environment and
Agency Act, CAP F13, LFN 2004. sustainable development of Nigeria‘s natural
resources.
Environmental Guidelines and Document is issued by the DPR and provides
Standards For The Petroleum guidelines on pollution abatement and relevant
Industry In Nigeria, 1991. legislation.

2.3 Codes and Standards


Applicable codes and standards for the project fall under the following broad categories:

 SPDC Standard Construction Specifications (SCS)


 Shell Design and Engineering Practice (DEPs)
 ASME Codes and Standards
 International Codes and Standards
The detailed list of applicable codes and standards are listed in section 9.0.

2.4 Order of Precedence


Should any conflict occur as a result of applying this philosophy document, the order of
preference shall be as follows:

SSG-TPEF-GEN-LA-5507-00001-A01 Page 9 of 29 Pipelines Design Philosophy

This document is controlled electronically and is uncontrolled when printed


 Nigerian National Standards.
 This philosophy document / project functional specifications.
 SPDC Standard Construction Specifications.
 SPDC Engineering Specifications.
 DEPs.
 International Standards.
Where there are conflicts of interpretation, the principal will review to determine what should
apply.

2.4 Pipeline Design Codes

The primary pipeline design code prescribed by the Nigerian national Standard is:

a) ASME B31.8: Pipeline Gas Transmission.

In addition to the codes above, the current Shell DEP prescribes the following design code:

a) ISO 13623 Petroleum and natural gas Industries – Pipeline Transportation Systems

Since the Nigerian design code mandates the use of ASME B31.8, the use of ISO
13623 shall be by exception only.

SSG-TPEF-GEN-LA-5507-00001-A01 Page 10 of 29 Pipelines Design Philosophy

This document is controlled electronically and is uncontrolled when printed


3.0 PROJECT SUMMARY
3.1 Project Work scope
The Southern Swamp Associated Gas Gathering project aims to gather all associated gas
from the Tunu, Ogbotobo, Benisede and Opukushi Flowstations and non associated gas from
two Dodo North field NAG wells to a new Gas Processing Facility at Tunu and export the
treated gas to the domestic market. The figure below provides an overview of the pipeline
scope:

Figure 2 – Southern Swamp Pipelines Schematic

The project work scope consists of:

 Identification of optimum AG pipeline route between the Flowstations and Tunu CPF.
 Identification of optimum route for the NAG flowlines between the wells and CPF.
 Design and installation of the following AG pipelines:
o 12‖ x 16km pipeline from the Benisede flowstation to the Tunu CPF.
o 12‖ x 24km pipeline from the Opukushi flowstation to the Tunu CPF
o 8‖ x 16km pipeline from the Ogbotobo flowstation to the Tunu CPF
 Design and installation of two 10‖ x 150m NAG flowlines, to transport:
o 100 MMscfd of gas from the Dodo North well 1 and
o 60 MMscfd of gas from the Dodo North well 2 to a new NAG Bulkline M/F
 Design and installation of a 10‖ x 10km NAG Pipeline, to transport Dodo North well 1
and 2 well fluid from new NAG Bulkline M/F to Tunu CPF.
 Design and installation of a 16‖ x 32km gas export pipeline, to ship a maximum of 160
MMscfd of gas, from the Tunu CPF to the EA RP-A riser platform and onwards via
existing facilities to the ELPS manifold at Odidi.
 Provision of pig launching / receiving facilities at either end of the AG / NAG lines.

SSG-TPEF-GEN-LA-5507-00001-A01 Page 11 of 29 Pipelines Design Philosophy

This document is controlled electronically and is uncontrolled when printed


 Revalidation of operating conditions in the existing pipelines downstream of the 16‖ x
32km Tunu – EA RP-A pipeline and the impact on operations at the Bonny NLNG, EA
RP-A, North Bank CCP and the Odidi ELPS manifold.
 Provision of control and monitoring systems for the pipelines.
 Design and installation of corrosion protection measures for the pipelines
 Provision of tie-ins for future NAG flowlines at the CPF.

3.2 Location and Interfaces


The pipelines have physical interfaces with the following facilities:

 Proposed Ogbotobo flowstation AG module


 Proposed Benisede flowstation AG module
 Proposed Opukushi flowstation AG module
 Proposed Dodo North NAG well 1
 Proposed Dodo North NAG well 2
 Proposed Tunu CPF
 EA RP-A
 Pipeline approach, landfall and offshore locations

The scope of the SSAGS Pipeline project shall be as stated under ―Definitions and
Abbreviations‖ and figure 5A in the DEP for Pipeline Pig Trap Systems (Ref 3).

Utilities and services for any pipeline shall be provided at the facility to which the line is tied. A
16‖ diameter riser is installed at the EA RP-A. An hydraulic analysis shall be conducted to
confirm the adequacy of the line size and it‘s integrity confirmed prior to BDEP completion.

Documents and drawings addressing all pipeline interfaces at the above locations shall be
developed during the BDEP, Detail Design, Construction and Commissioning of the pipelines.

3.3 Pipeline Design Life


The Southern Swamp Associated Gas Gathering facilities are to be designed for a 25 year
service life in line with the project BfD. Consequently, the design life of the pipelines shall be
consistent with this service life and shall not be less than 25 years. Corrosion protection and
material selection shall be based on a target design life of 25 years.

SSG-TPEF-GEN-LA-5507-00001-A01 Page 12 of 29 Pipelines Design Philosophy

This document is controlled electronically and is uncontrolled when printed


4.0 ROUTE SELECTION, PERMITS and ACQUISITION
4.1 Route Selection
Routes for the pipelines were earlier selected. Refer to:
 Route Selection Study for Gathering Lines (Ref 4).
 Dodo Flowlines Route Selection Report (Ref 5) and
 Tunu – OGGS RP-A Pipeline Route Survey Report (Ref 6).

A Routing Study should be carried out to confirm the adequacy of the selected routes.

In executing the study, it should be noted that the lines should be routed along existing SPDC
RoW and within common RoW‘s in order to minimise land take with consideration for
acquisition of additional strips where existing corridor is insufficient. Temporary acquisition
may be required for laydown and pipelay activities.

The optimal route should impose minimal impact on the environment. Route selection will be
subjected to the statutory requirement for ESHIA. Considerations to improve access and re-
routing to avoid areas where there may be difficulties with the pipeline construction shall be
made during the detail design phase. The following points should be considered:

 Rivers and ravines should be crossed at right angles and in a straight run of the river
away from caving banks, if possible. A safe distance of at least 60m shall be
maintained between new and existing crossing(s) to avoid damage to existing
pipelines during construction activities.
 Areas with potential for communities to expand beyond the current limits should be
detailed, while areas with a high potential for community encroachment should be
avoided. However, where pipelines must traverse these areas design factors shall be
applied as advised by the project QRA or other major risk assessment.
 Pipeline building proximity distances and design factors shall be in line with section
6.2.1.2 of the DEP for Pipeline Engineering (Ref 7).
 Pipelines should not be routed parallel and adjacent to power lines where reasonable
alternatives are available.
 Land ownership may require the re-routing of the pipeline.

The pipeline end points and preliminary route should be finalised using a combination of
satellite imagery, state maps, field reconnaissance, aerial photography and helicopter overfly.

After preliminary determination of the route, an ownership search and preliminary survey
should be made to determine actual conditions along the route. Based on the survey and
related information, the route should be finalized and re-surveyed as required.
4.2 Permits
Environmental permits will be required for the new pipeline facilities. These permits shall
comply with the statutory Nigerian regulations listed in section 2.1.

Land use permits shall be required where the pipelines crosses state lands, roads, rivers etc.
and the design/installation of the pipeline must be in compliance with the specific permit
requirements. Any conditions or special requirements should be indicated on the design
drawings, or in the contract documents.

The required statutory permits, PTS/OPL/EIA etc., shall be secured as part of project
execution.

SSG-TPEF-GEN-LA-5507-00001-A01 Page 13 of 29 Pipelines Design Philosophy

This document is controlled electronically and is uncontrolled when printed


4.3 Land Acquisition
Generally, permanent RoW shall be 15m wide with the minimum separation distance between
lines in the same trench in line with section 25.8.2 of SPDC‘s SCS and the separation
distance between new and existing lines designed to section 6.2.1.7 of the DEP for Pipeline
Engineering (Ref 7).

Temporary RoW acquisition will be required to cater for equipment workspace, linepipe
laydown areas and excavated spoil management. These shall be acquired during the
acquisition of the mainline RoW and ownership will be relinquished on construction
completion.

SSG-TPEF-GEN-LA-5507-00001-A01 Page 14 of 29 Pipelines Design Philosophy

This document is controlled electronically and is uncontrolled when printed


5.0 DESIGN DATA
5.1 Material Data
Selection of materials shall take into account the maximum and minimum process conditions,
the high strain capacity requirements, the extremes of ambient temperatures and any and all
other conditions that are likely to affect the performance of the material. Particular attention
shall be given to minimise the potential for brittle fracture of materials due to the low ambient
temperatures.
The linepipe material shall be carbon steel and 450MPa steel grade is recommended to
reduce steel/construction cost and construction duration. Induction bends shall be 5D for all
pipelines. Other material data shall be as detailed in the Materials Selection Report (Ref 11).
Corrosion mitigation shall include any or a combination of coatings, corrosion inhibitors,
linings, cathodic protection, use of corrosion allowance or corrosion resistant materials, in
order to provide the facilities with a safe, reliable and cost effective material solution.
Any material or corrosion data or guidelines issued for BDEP and detail design shall be
treated as provisional and checked and verified for consistency with a safe, technically
appropriate and cost effective design for the design life of the facilities.

5.2 Production Forecast


The production forecast is detailed in section 3.2 of the BfD and is based on SPDC BP-2010.
The production from the Tunu CPF is made up of AG and NAG. The Tunu CPF will be
designed for a normal sales gas throughput rate of 160MMscfd based on 2 x 80MMscfd
export compression trains.

5.3 Feed Composition


The AG and NAG composition are detailed in section 3.4 of the BfD. The production is not
anticipated to contain significant levels of sulphur compounds such as H 2S, carbonyl sulphide,
etc. Consequently, the pipelines will not be designed to NACE specifications to
accommodate sour service.

5.4 Feed Pressure and Temperature Data


The delivery temperatures and pressures for the pipelines will depend on production rates
and operational factors at the production and reception facilities. The minimum pipeline inlet
pressures to ensure gas delivery at Tunu, North Bank CCP and at the Odidi ELPS tie-in shall
be calculated at the BDEP phase. Operating conditions for the pipelines are detailed below:
Operating Conditions – AG Pipelines
Benisede Ogbotobo Opukushi Tunu
Design Flow Rate 20 MMscfd 10 MMscfd 30 MMscfd 15 MMscfd
1
Design Pressure To be based on final material selection.
Min Landing Pressure @Tunu CPF 7 barg 7 barg 7 barg 7 barg
Max. Design Gas Temperature 80°C 80°C 80°C 80°C
2
Min. Design Gas Temperature 0°C 0°C 0°C 0°C
Operating Conditions – NAG Flowlines
Dodo North 1 Dodo North 2
Design Flow Rate 100 MMscfd 60 MMscfd
3
Design Pressure – Mainline 263 barg 263 barg
Min Landing Pressure @Tunu CPF 112 barg 112 barg
FTHP 150 barg 150 barg

SSG-TPEF-GEN-LA-5507-00001-A01 Page 15 of 29 Pipelines Design Philosophy

This document is controlled electronically and is uncontrolled when printed


CITHP 246 barg 263 barg
Max. Design Gas Temperature 110°C 110°C
2
Min. Design Gas Temperature -45°C -45°C

Future NAG pipelines routed to the Tunu CPF must conform to the design limits specified
above.

Operating Conditions – NAG Bulkline


Property Value
Design Pressure 150 barg
Max. Design Gas Temperature 110°C
2
Min. Design Gas Temperature -45°C (see previous page)

Operating Conditions – Export Pipeline


Property Value
Design Flow Rate 160 MMscfd
Design Pressure 150 barg
MAOP 147.5 barg
MOP 135 barg
Min. Landing Pressure @ ELPS 72 barg
Max. Design Gas Temperature 80°C
2
Min. Design Gas Temperature -45°C (see previous page)

1. The expected pipeline inlet pressure for the AG lines is less than 15 barg with corresponding wall thicknesses
less than 1mm for any of the likely HSLA material. Consequently, the maximum design pressure for the AG
lines shall be dictated by section 6.4.1.1 of DEP 31.40.00.10 Pipeline Engineering, which requires the pipe wall
thickness be not less than 4.8mm.
2. Transient temperatures during start up and blowdown could be lower due to J-T effects. This should be taken
into consideration during material selection.

3. In line with existing SPDC Gas Flowlines Design Pressure

SSG-TPEF-GEN-LA-5507-00001-A01 Page 16 of 29 Pipelines Design Philosophy

This document is controlled electronically and is uncontrolled when printed


6.0 DESIGN PHILOSOPHY
6.1 Flow Assurance
6.1.1 General
Flow requirements for the pipelines are detailed in section 5.4. A preliminary hydraulic study
has been carried out and the result detailed in section 2.1.1 of the BfD (Ref 1).
A 16‖ spare riser exists at the EA RP-A and is proposed for tie-in to the Tunu export pipeline.
The adequacy of this riser vis-à-vis the material type, grade and integrity shall be confirmed at
the BDEP phase. A static hydraulic analysis shall also be executed during the same phase to
determine the following using the best available terrain profiles for the pipelines:

 Confirmation of the preliminary line sizes


 Optimise design / operating pressures for the pipelines.
 Establish expected flow regimes
 Evaluate sensitivities to different compositions, temperatures, line pack, flow rate
ramp up / turn down and pigging operations to the domestic market and NLNG when
domestic gas demand is low.

The result of a transient hydraulic analysis during the detail design phase shall be
incorporated into the start-up, shutdown and normal operations narratives of the Pipelines
Operations and Maintenance Manual.

6.1.2 Slugging / Hold Up


The following slugging issues are to be determined from the hydraulic simulations:

 Hydrodynamic slugs formed during normal operation in the slug flow regime due to
instability of the gas-liquid interface.
 Terrain induced slugs due to liquid collection at low points in the pipelines.
 Rate induced slugs due to change in flow rate.
 Pig induced slugs due to liquids being swept out of the pipelines by pipeline pigs.
6.1.3 Pigging
All SSAGS pipelines shall be designed for sphere, foam, cup and intelligent pigs. The pigging
facilities shall be designed to handle standard inspection tools in line with DEP for Pipeline
Pig Trap Systems (Ref 3). The pig trap code breaks shall be as stated in figure 5A of
aforementioned DEP.
A suitable pigging philosophy should be developed during the BDEP phase.

6.2 Pipeline Loading Cases


6.2.1 General
The pipeline design shall conform to ISO 13623:2009 (Ref 8) as amended by the Shell DEP
for Pipeline Engineering (Ref 7).
Evaluation of combined stresses on the pipelines shall be carried out for the assurance of
mechanical strength. A preliminary stress analysis, to be carried out during the BDEP phase
shall be confirmed during detail design stage using Caesar II software or any other software
approved by the principal.
In analysing the pipeline systems, the following loads will be taken into consideration as a
minimum:

 Internal pressure loads (hoop stress).


 Sustained Loads (soil loads, soil frictional force, self weight)

SSG-TPEF-GEN-LA-5507-00001-A01 Page 17 of 29 Pipelines Design Philosophy

This document is controlled electronically and is uncontrolled when printed


 Live (axial) Loads (vehicle traffic)
 Thermal Loads (changes in operating/installation temperatures)
 Test Loads (hydrostatic testing)
 Equivalent Stresses
 Collapse load in the offshore section of the export pipeline.
 Offshore section buckling, propagation and control analysis
 Fishing Trawler and dropped object interactions

6.2.2 Stress Conditions


The following stress conditions shall be considered for the design of the pipelines:
 Circumferential stresses due to internal pressure and external sustained and live
loads.
 Expansion stresses for restrained and unrestrained portions of the system due to
internal pressure and thermal loads.
 Longitudinal stresses for unrestrained pipeline sections, due to pressure, weight and
other sustained loadings.
 Longitudinal stresses for restrained pipeline sections, due to pressure, weight and
other sustained loadings, considering the frictional restraint of the soil.
 Longitudinal stresses produced by internal pressure, live and dead loads.
 Circumferential and longitudinal stresses induced during hydrostatic testing.

6.2.3 Hydrotest Loads


A hydrotest and pre-commissioning philosophy (Ref 9) shall be developed during the BDP
phase. The philosophy shall detail hydrotest induced loads and methods to keep the stresses
within limits.

6.2.4 Above-Ground Loading Cases


The above-ground pipe work at pipeline ends shall be designed for a number of loading
cases, ensuring the stress limits are not exceeded. Loading cases include spanning,
expansion, buckling and interaction with wellheads and pipelines.
The load cases shall be analysed for installation, hydrotest and operating conditions to
determine the governing design case. An analysis of the forces imposed on monolithic
isolation joints shall be carried out as part of the detailed stress analysis during the detail
design.

6.3 Pipeline Expansion and Flexibility


Pipeline expansion should be fully considered in pipe lay stress analysis to guide pipe
handling, ditch contour and lowering operation in order to avoid unacceptable stresses.
Pipeline expansion before ditching will be analysed to ensure that unacceptable stresses are
avoided during construction.
Anchor blocks may be installed at the end of the buried pipeline in order to limit expansion
and prevent the pipe being overstressed at end or branch connections to piping. In calculating
maximum allowable thermal stress, both the short-term expansion immediately after start up
and the long-term friction relaxation shall be considered.

SSG-TPEF-GEN-LA-5507-00001-A01 Page 18 of 29 Pipelines Design Philosophy

This document is controlled electronically and is uncontrolled when printed


6.4 Pipeline Wall Thickness
The wall thickness selection for the pipelines and bends, including bend thinning, shall be
calculated with consideration to the pipeline loading cases in section 6.2 and flexural factors
in section 6.3. Such calculations should take account of the Location Classes based on
pipeline routing and recommendation for corrosion allowance contained in the Materials
Selection Report (Ref 11).
Additionally, the export pipeline wall thickness calculation shall take into account water depth,
on-bottom stability, allowable span analysis, vortex shedding analysis, buckling analysis and
pipe collapse checks.
The nominal pipe wall thickness shall not be less than 4.8mm and the diameter to wall
thickness ratio shall not exceed 60 for the export pipeline and 96 (Ref 7) for the AG and NAG
lines. Pipeline wall thickness calculations shall, as a minimum, consider all pipeline loading
cases detailed in section 6.2 and expansion / flexural factors detailed in section 6.3. The pre-
installed riser at the EA RP-A has a corrosion allowance of 3mm.

6.5 River and Swamp Crossings


6.5.1 General
The gas pipelines shall be laid in swamp and offshore areas and as such will have a concrete
weight coating applied to the outer surface all lines. The weight coating required for the
pipeline shall be defined in Buoyancy calculations during the BDEP phase.

6.5.2 Major Watercourse Crossings


These are crossings over 200m wide and 3m deep. They are generally associated with large
water flows, navigable and subject to dredging. Pipeline installation techniques across these
rivers usually require special equipment such as Cutter-Suction Dredgers and/or Horizontal
Directional Drilling. Both techniques shall provide at least 3m cover over the pipe below the
river bed.
Typical details and cross sections shall be provided for the major watercourse crossings
during the BDEP phase. Specific crossing details for each major river crossing shall be
provided during the detail design phase when the pipeline topographical survey, alignment
sheets and geotechnical site investigation details would have been re-validated.

6.5.3 Minor Watercourse Crossings


These are defined as those where the river crossing installations may be achieved by normal
excavation, trenching, laying and backfilling. Typical crossing details shall be provided during
the BDEP phase to show the construction type required at the crossings.

6.6 Landfall and Shore Approach


The offshore pipeline landfall consists of a very shallow sloping seabed, assumed to be in the
order of 1:1000. Consideration should be given the Beach Pull construction method for the
installation of the offshore pipeline landfall. Landfall and shore approach drawings are to be
produced during BDEP phase.
Sheet pilling is required at the landfall to minimise the width of excavation. The trench depth is
selected such that the pipeline is under submerged condition during construction and is
subsequently provided with a 2m minimum soil cover after backfilling. Depending on the
construction scenario and the selected pipelay barge operating draft, additional dredging may
be required to bring the barge close to the shore.

SSG-TPEF-GEN-LA-5507-00001-A01 Page 19 of 29 Pipelines Design Philosophy

This document is controlled electronically and is uncontrolled when printed


Two factors that primarily influence the pulling capacity required for a bottom pull are the
length of pull and the concrete thickness, which determines the pipe weight. An additional
condition is that the maximum pull force shall not exceed the strength of the pipe during
installation. Beach pull calculations are to be determined during the BDEP phase.

6.7 Subsea Pipeline Crossing Design


The crossings shall be as near to a right angle as possible and the included angle shall not be
less than 30°. There shall be an adequate separation between the two pipelines at the
crossing so that they do not interfere with each other. The minimum recommended clearance
is 300mm.
Possible interference of the cathodic protection systems shall be avoided. The crossing
design shall consider allowable stress levels in the pipelines and allowable free-spans as well
as any potential interference with fishing activities or other potential accidental loading
conditions. The crossing shall be protected by mattresses, grout bags or other acceptable
alternatives and shall provide protection against ice gouging should it be located in a
susceptible area.
The pipeline crossing shall not restrict the operation of the pipeline system and should impose
minimum restriction on maintenance.

6.8 Pipeline Branches Connections


Where a tie-in is required on the pipeline, barred tees shall be installed on all branches larger
than 25% of the pipeline diameter. In all cases, branch connections shall comply with the
DEP for Pipeline Engineering.

6.9 ESD and Blowdown


Emergency shutdown valves shall be installed within the fenced areas after the pipe exits and
before entering the scraper traps at each ends of the Tunu export and NAG pipelines. The
ESD valves will close the pipelines at either end should an emergency shutdown be initiated
in the control room within on site plant facilities. In general, these shutdown valves will only
be activated automatically on a fire or high-level gas release within the plant, wellhead or riser
platform area.
Manual or controlled blowdown of the export and NAG pipelines will be carried out through
the Tunu flare system during pipeline emergency or repair. Blowdown capacities shall be
determined during the BDEP phase.
There shall be neither overpressure protection nor emergency blowdown on the AG pipelines
as these are low pressure gas gathering pipelines

6.10 Subsea Valves


A risk assessment was performed during the OGGS FEED to determine the need for the
installation of riser/subsea valves, (i.e. subsea isolation valves – SSIV‘s) which included this
pipeline. Subsea Isolation valves are not required (Ref 10). This shall considered during the
SSGAS pipelines Major Risk Assessment Studies.

6.11 Sectionalizing Valves


The Oil and Gas Pipelines Regulations, 1995, recommends adherence to ASME B31.8. This
code requires the installation of sectionalizing valves every 32km along gas pipelines. As all
SSAGS pipelines are less than 32km, pipeline sectionalizing valves are not recommended.
Furthermore, Nigerian regulations require the installation of block valves at major watercourse
crossings. To this end, rivers will be surveyed during the BDEP phase to confirm this

SSG-TPEF-GEN-LA-5507-00001-A01 Page 20 of 29 Pipelines Design Philosophy

This document is controlled electronically and is uncontrolled when printed


requirement and the BDEP phase shall proceed on this basis. However, a waiver should be
sought from the Nigerian Department of Petroleum Resources with supporting QRA
proposing the removal of such valves for reasons of vandalism by third parties.

6.12 Corrosion Control


Details of the pipeline corrosion control are provided in the Corrosion Control Strategy (Ref
12). However, the following specific points should be noted:

6.12.1 General
The CP design and supply for the onshore section of the pipelines shall be in accordance with
section 27 of the SCS and DEP 30.10.73.31 while the offshore section shall be in accordance
with DEP 30.10.73.32.

6.12.2 Onshore CP System


Soil Resistivity surveys and an assessment of the existing Plant CP systems shall be
conducted to establish CP requirements for the onshore segment of the pipelines including
confirmation of the design premise, stand-alone or integrated. When these surveys have been
completed a design for the Impressed Current Cathodic protection of the pipelines should be
developed. A temporary cathodic protection system is required during construction.
Test stations shall be installed at spacings of typically of 1 – 2km, including pipeline and river
crossings as well as at isolating joint locations. Test stations shall include bare steel coupons
buried adjacent to the pipeline.

6.12.3 Offshore CP System


The offshore section of the Tunu export pipeline shall be protected by a cathodic protection
system based on bracelet-type sacrificial anodes. The cathodic protection system shall be
designed to maintain the exposed pipeline metal surfaces within an electrochemical potential
range, which controls corrosion within acceptable limits without causing material damage.
At the interfaces with onshore pipelines, platforms or crossings, particular attention should be
paid to the compatibility of the possibly different cathodic protection systems and isolation
joints specified where necessary.
A monitoring plan for the cathodic protection system shall be developed.

6.12.4 Isolation Joints


Isolating joints shall be installed at the following locations on the onshore pipelines:
 Close to the interface with the export pipeline offshore section. Note that Isolation
joint at Tunu Beach will be buried to minimise third party interference.
 Immediately downstream of the pig traps at the interface between buried and non-
buried pipeline sections.
The isolation joint specification will cater for potential interferences between the Tunu export
pipeline offshore and onshore CP systems.

6.12.5 Rectifiers
Transformer-rectifiers will be air-cooled units if located in an equipment/control room or oil
cooled units if located externally within flowstations / Tunu CPF. In the latter case, the
enclosures will be IP54 rated or better, and shall be rated for use in hazardous areas if
appropriate to their selected location.

SSG-TPEF-GEN-LA-5507-00001-A01 Page 21 of 29 Pipelines Design Philosophy

This document is controlled electronically and is uncontrolled when printed


6.12.6 Interfaces
The onshore section CP system interfaces with the systems installed Flowstations and the
Tunu CPF. The cathodic protection design report should evaluate interference hazards and
suggest measures that can be taken to minimize such effects. Test stations installed along
the parallel route sections should have cables to each of the pipelines to facilitate addition of
resistive interference bonds should these become necessary.

6.13 Hydrotest, Pre-Commissioning and Commissioning


For hydrotest, pre-commissioning and commissioning of the SSAGS pipelines, refer to the
Hydrostatic Testing and Pre-commissioning Philosophy (Ref 9)

6.14 Pipeline Leak Detection


There will be no online pipeline leak detection system on the SSAGS pipelines.

6.15 Drains
All pig launchers and receivers should be integrated within the common open and closed
(except NAG) drain facilities. Open and closed drains should be routed so as to minimize
pockets and sloped down to the existing collection pits / tanks. All drain systems will be
atmospheric systems and so there will be no continuous or regular discharge of pressurized
hydrocarbons to drain systems. Vessels will be depressurized before draining to sumps.
The existing pig trap on the EA RP-A platform is connected to the platform drain system.
Liquids generated by pigging the export pipeline at Tunu will be allowed to flow directly into
the EA RP-A to North Bank CCP pipeline.

6.16 Instrument Air


All host stations shall provide instrument air and/or hydraulic supplies to the pig launching and
receiving facilities. Instrument air shall for the NAG lines shall be provided from the NAG well
gas bottles.

6.17 Safeguarding Philosophy


6.17.1 AG and Export Lines
The EA RP-A Riser Platform forms a manifolding facility for the OGGS pipeline system, and
hence provides a central point for OGGS status monitoring. The platform is normally
unmanned, except during pigging operations and maintenance activities. Operators will
monitor the status of the platform from both the EA Production Facility CCR and the Central
Production Co-ordination Centre, using monitoring systems on the platform and telemetry
links. The Tunu CPF Process Automation System will control gas delivery into the export
pipeline at the Tunu CPF (Ref 13). Similarly, the PAS for the three Flowstations will control
delivery into the AG pipelines (Ref 14).
6.17.2 NAG Pipelines
The design pressure for the NAG lines shall be 263barg which is equal to the CITHP.
However, the possibility of designing to the FTHP of 150 barg in addition to a pressure
protection system should be investigated during BDEP phase.

6.18 Pipeline Risk Analysis


A comprehensive risk analysis for the SSAGS pipelines shall be carried throughout the BDEP
and followed up during the detailed design phase to identify and mitigate major risks
throughout the pipeline design life.

SSG-TPEF-GEN-LA-5507-00001-A01 Page 22 of 29 Pipelines Design Philosophy

This document is controlled electronically and is uncontrolled when printed


7.0 OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS
7.1 Start Up
The start-up philosophy for the export pipeline is dependent on the SSAGS start-up. Tunu will
require fuel gas for start-up and a preference may be to backpressure the export pipeline from
the EA RP-A to allow fuel gas import. The high pressure drop that would result from this
action may result in temperatures below the design temperature of the pipeline and /or the
formation of ice or hydrates.
The export pipeline will need to be dried prior to use and then inerted with nitrogen.
Procedures are to be developed to avoid hydrate formation during start up. This philosophy
and the impact on material selection, if any, will be further developed during the BDEP phase.

7.2 Maintenance and Inspection


Facilities for permanent pig launching and receiving are required at all SSAGS end facilities.
Access platforms shall be provided local to the receivers and launchers to ensure accessibility
of all valves, strainers, instrumentation and other in-line equipment. All pipelines launching
and receiving facilities shall be designed such that their associated doors can only be opened
on positive confirmation of depressurization. Riser and Pig receiving facilities are already
installed at the EA RP-A, the launching facility at the Tunu CPF should therefore be a similar
design to the receiver. An interlock system shall be installed on pig traps to prevent the
pipeline valves being opened when the end closure is open and to ensure that the trap is fully
vented before being opened.
Provision for flushing/purging facilities is required on the carbon steel launchers and receivers
to prevent ignition/combustion from possible accumulation of pyrophoric matter as traces of
H2S might be present in the process fluids.
Adequate pig handling equipment shall be provided at all launchers and receivers with
appropriate access, lay down areas, lifting, purging and flushing equipment.
Baseline intelligent pigging surveys shall be carried out as soon as possible after the pipeline
is commissioned to establish the ―as new‖ wall thickness readings throughout the pipeline for
future comparison with later surveys. The pipelines should therefore be designed to for
intelligent pigging in line with the DEP for Pig Trap Systems (Ref 3)

7.3 Isolation / Locked Valve Philosophy


Sufficient isolation points must be provided in the design throughout the plant to ensure safe
isolation of system, sub-system and each unit of pipeline equipment. Operating manuals shall
specify plant, equipment and pipeline system isolation requirements. A locked-open/locked-
close register shall be in place. Double block and bleed philosophy shall apply to all gas
transmission and drain connections requiring isolation. Integral double block and bleed valves
may be used for:

 Equipment removal and/or in-situ maintenance jobs


 Repairs and modification through appropriate change control procedure
 Vessel/Tank entry for inspection and/or repairs.
7.4 Spares
A spare parts policy compatible with availability requirements of the end facilities shall be
established. Electronic Spare Parts Interchange ability Records (E-SPIR) will be provided by
the vendors. Specifications for pipeline valves shall take local inspection, maintenance and
replacement of valves into consideration.
In addition to the commissioning spares, two-year operational spares and special
maintenance tools will be provided as part of the initial equipment purchase. Specifications for

SSG-TPEF-GEN-LA-5507-00001-A01 Page 23 of 29 Pipelines Design Philosophy

This document is controlled electronically and is uncontrolled when printed


equipment requiring spares should be prepared with consideration for local in-stock
availability of the spares.

SSG-TPEF-GEN-LA-5507-00001-A01 Page 24 of 29 Pipelines Design Philosophy

This document is controlled electronically and is uncontrolled when printed


8.0 CONSTRUCTABILITY / CONSTRUCTION INTERFACES
A full constructability review shall be conducted during the BDEP and detail engineering
phase of the project. This shall consider the construction through the following areas.

 Offshore, beach landings and EA RP-A areas


 Flowstation and wellhead areas
 Swamp and sand-filled areas subject to flooding.
 River crossings
 Areas close to communities

The constructability review will consider the pipeline material delivery schedule, QA inspection
access, construction access, roads, lay down areas, RoW width and construction spreads
required for installing the pipelines through the above area. Due to the critical nature of the
offshore section, vendor competency will be paramount in the contracting process.

The result of the constructability review shall be incorporated into the BDEP and detail
engineering.

SSG-TPEF-GEN-LA-5507-00001-A01 Page 25 of 29 Pipelines Design Philosophy

This document is controlled electronically and is uncontrolled when printed


9.0 REFERENCES
1. SSAGS Project Basis for Design, SSG-TPD-GEN-AA-7704-00001
2. SPDC Corporate Change Control Procedure, SPDC-2011-02-00000205
3. DEP 31.40.10.13, Design of Pipeline Pig Trap Systems, February 2011
4. Route Selection Study for Gathering Lines SF3-12.01.PPE.001
5. Dodo Flowlines Route Selection Report SDA-SSG-GEN-AA8212-00004
6. Tunu – OGGS RP-A Pipeline Route Survey Report
7. DEP 31.40.00.10, Pipeline Engineering, February 2011
8. ISO 13623:2009, Pipeline Transportation Systems
9. Hydrostatic Testing & Pre-commissioning Philosophy, SSG-TPEF-GEN-LA-5507-00001
10. OGGS Basis of design End of FEED update Report number OG-BFK-1001
11. Material Selection Report
12. Corrosion Control Strategy
13. Process Control Philosophy & Narrative (CPF)
14. Process Control Philosophy & Narrative (F/S)
15. Applicable codes and standards are detailed overleaf

SSG-TPEF-GEN-LA-5507-00001-A01 Page 26 of 29 Pipelines Design Philosophy

This document is controlled electronically and is uncontrolled when printed


Shell Design and Engineering Practice (DEPs)
Document Number Document Title
DEP 30.10.73.10-Gen Cathodic Protection
DEP 30.10.73.31-Gen Design of Cathodic Protection Systems for Onshore Buried Pipelines
DEP 30.48.00.31-Gen. Painting and Coating of New Equipment
DEP 31.36.00.30-Gen Pipeline transportation systems - pipeline valves (amendments/supplements to
ISO 14313)
DEP 31.38.01.29-Gen Pipe supports
DEP 31.40.00.10-Gen. Pipeline Engineering - November 1993
DEP 31.40.10.13-Gen Design of Pipeline Pig Trap Systems
DEP 31.40.10.14-Gen Pipeline Overpressure Protection
DEP 31.40.20.37-Gen Linepipe for critical service.
DEP 31.40.20.33-Gen Linepipe induction bends (amendments/supplements to ISO 15590-1)
DEP 31.40.21.30-Gen. Pipeline fittings (amendments/supplements to MSS SP-75)
DEP 31.40.21.31-Gen Pipeline Isolation Joints (amendments/supplements to MSS SP-75)
DEP 31.40.21.32-Gen. Pig trap end closures (amendments/supplements to MSS SP-75)
DEP 31.40.21.33-Gen. Pig signallers: Intrusive type
DEP 31.40.21.34-Gen. Carbon and low alloy steel pipeline flanges for use in oil and gas operations
(amendments/supplements to MSS SP-44)
DEP 31.40.30.30-Gen Concrete coating of linepipe
DEP 31.40.30.31-Gen External polyethylene and polypropylene coating for line pipe
DEP 31.40.40.38-Gen Hydrostatic pressure testing of new pipelines
DEP 31.40.50.30-Gen Pre-commissioning of pipelines
DEP 31.40.60.11-Gen. Pipeline leak detection
DEP 61.40.20.30-Gen. Welding of pipelines and related facilities (amendments/supplements to
ANSI/API STD 1104)

SPDC Pipeline Engineering Construction Specification

Descriptions Document Number


SPDC Standard Construction Specification – Pipeline Section 25 - Jan. 1985, Rev. 03
Construction

SSG-TPEF-GEN-LA-5507-00001-A01 Page 27 of 29 Pipelines Design Philosophy

This document is controlled electronically and is uncontrolled when printed


International Codes and Standards
American Society of Mechanical Engineers - ASME
Document Number Document Title
ASME B1.20.1 (Jan 2001) Pipe Threads, General Purpose
ASME B16.10 (Jan 2003) Face to Face and End to End Dimensions of Valves
ASME B16.10 Face to Face Dimensions for Flanged Globe Style Control
Valves
ASME B16.11 (Jan 2001) Forged Fitting Butt-Welding and Threaded
ASME B16.20 (Jan 1998) Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges Ring-Joint, Spiral-Wound, and
Jacketed
ASME B16.21 (Jan 1992) Non-metallic Flat Gaskets for Pipe Flanges
ASME B16.25 (May 1997) Butt Welding Ends
ASME B16.28 (Jan 1994) Wrought Steel Butt-Welding Short Radius Elbows and Returns
ASME B16.34 (Jan 1996) Valves - Flanged, Threaded and Welding end
ASME B16.47 (Jan 1996) Large Diameter Steel Flanges
ASME B16.5 Steel Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
ASME B16.9 (Jan 2003) Factor -Made Wrought steel Butt-Welding Fittings
ASME B31.3 (April 2002) Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping
ASME B31.4 2000 (Jan 2002) Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and
other Liquids
ASME B31.8 (2003) Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems

American Society for Testing and Materials - ASTM


Document Number Document Title
ASTM A 105 (Oct 2003) Forgings, Carbon Steel, For Piping Components
ASTM A 134 (2001) Spec for electric fusion arc welded steel pipe
ASTM A-234 (Oct 2003) Spec for pipe fittings of wrought carbon steel and alloy steel for
moderate & high temperature service
ASTM A-370 (Oct 2003) Std. Test Methods & Definitions for Mech. Test of Steel Products
ASTM A-694 ( Oct 2003) Spec for Carbon & Alloy steel forgings for pipe flanges, fittings,
valves and parts for high pressure transmission service.
ASTM D1250 (2002) Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards
ASTM E 92 (2003) Test Method for Vickers Hardness of Metallic Materials

American Petroleum Institute


Document Number Document Title
API 1102 (July 2002) Steel Pipelines Crossing Railroads and Highways

SSG-TPEF-GEN-LA-5507-00001-A01 Page 28 of 29 Pipelines Design Philosophy

This document is controlled electronically and is uncontrolled when printed


API 1104 (Sept 1999) Standard for Welding Pipelines and Related Facilities
API 598 (Oct 1996) Valve Inspection and Test
API 6D (Jan 2002) Pipeline Valves, (steel gate, plug ball and check valves)
API 6FA (April 1999) Specification for Fire Test for Valves
API RP 552 (Note 1) (Oct 1994) Transmission Systems
API RP 554 (Note 1) (Sept 1995) Process Instrumentation and Control
API RP521 (Mar 1997) Guide for Pressure Relieving and Depressuring Systems, 3rd
Edition, 1990.

ISO Standards
Document Number Document Title
Petroleum and natural gas industries — Steel pipe for pipeline
ISO 3183 transportation systems
ISO 13623 Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries – Pipeline transportation
systems
ISO 15590-1 Induction Bends for Pipeline Transportations Systems

ISO 15590-1 Induction Bends for Pipeline Transportations Systems

ISO 15590-1 Induction Bends for Pipeline Transportations Systems

SSG-TPEF-GEN-LA-5507-00001-A01 Page 29 of 29 Pipelines Design Philosophy

This document is controlled electronically and is uncontrolled when printed