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University Mehran of Engg: & & Technology Khairpur Civil Civil Engineering Engineering Materials Materials 11

Mehran University

Mehran

University of

of Engg:

Engg: && Technology

Technology Khairpur

Khairpur

Civil Civil Engineering Engineering Materials Materials 11 st st Term 1 Term 1 st st Year
Civil
Civil Engineering
Engineering Materials
Materials
11
st
st
Term 1
Term 1
st
st
Year B.E.Civil
Year B.E.Civil

ENGINEER

ENGINEER LATIF

LATIF HYDER

HYDER WADHO

WADHO

GLASS

GLASS AND ITS MANUFACTURIN G

AND

ITS

MANUFACTURIN

G

GLASS

GLASS

GLASS GLASS Glass is obtained by fusion of silica, chalk (lime) and potash or soda at

Glass is obtained by fusion of silica, chalk (lime) and potash or soda at over 1000 0 C.In order to modify its properties of hardness, brittleness and colour ,other ingredients like iron oxide, lead oxide,borax,etc are added in varying proportions.

Functions of various important constituents of glass are given below.

(1) Silica (SiO 2 ):

It is the major constituent of all types of glass. As it fuses at very high temperatures some alkaline admixtures like sodium carbonate or potassium carbonate is added to it so as to make it fuse at lower temperature. The admixtures added to lower the fusion temperature also make the liquid silica viscous and better workable.

(2) Potash:

It renders glass infusible and

gives fire resisting properties to it.

(3) Soda:

It accelerates fusion of glass; as such excess of it is harmful.

(4) Lime (CaO):

It gives durability and toughness (hardness) to glass.

(5) Lead oxide:

It gives colour to glass.

(6) Cullet:

It is broken glass, which is used as a

raw material to reduce to its cost.

All the constituents of glass discussed above are

separately ground, sieved and mixed in definite

proportions. The mix is then fused in a tank furnace

or in a pot furnace.

Tank Furnace:

It is used for large scale productions.

Pot Furnace:

It is used for smaller production but of superior

quality.

In the furnace all the ingredients are turned into

molten state and then desired shape of glass is

obtained by Blowing, Flat drawing, Rolling,

Compression moulding and Spinning (pulling), etc.

BASED UPON ITS

COMPOSITION:

Glass is generally classified in to three

categories.

(1) Soda lime/soda ash/soft

Glass:

It is obtained from the fusion of a

mixture of silica, lime, soda and

alumina. Powdered glass too may be

added.

(2) Lead Glass:

It is obtained from the fusion of a

mixture of silica, lead and potash. Powdered glass is added. It has shining appearance and takes good polish. It is not affected by temperature. It is used for cut glass work, electric bulbs.

(3) Boro-silicate Glass:

It is obtained from the fusion of a

mixture of silica, borax, lime, etc. Powdered glass too may be added. It can with stand high temperature. It is used for manufacturing of laboratory equipments and cooking utensils.

SPECIAL COMMERCIAL

FORMS OF GLASS:
FORMS OF GLASS:

For various engineering and industrial requirements special varieties of glass with the desired specifications are made. These include the following:

(1) Sheet Glass:

(1) Sheet Glass: Sheet glass is made by blowing. It is available within 2 to 6

Sheet glass is made by blowing. It is available within 2 to 6 mm

thicknesses. It is mainly used as door and window panels and for all kinds of glazing works.

(2) Plate Glass:

(2) Plate Glass: Molten glass is rolled into plate glass with thicknesses varying from 6 to

Molten glass is rolled into plate glass with thicknesses varying from 6 to 25mm. It is also suitable for

glazing works, as table tops, windows, train carriages, buses, cars, the windscreens and superior quality mirrors.

(3) Coloured Glass:

(3) Coloured Glass: It is prepared by mixing different pigments at the fusion stage. It diffuses

It

is prepared by mixing different

pigments at the fusion stage. It diffuses the light passing through it. It is also called as stained glass. It is used in decorative works.

(4)

Wired Glass:

(4) Wired Glass: This is the plate and sheet glass in which steel wires or mesh

This is the plate and sheet glass in which steel wires or mesh is embedded during the rolling process.

The steel wire acts as reinforcement. It is also called as reinforced glass. It is used for sky-lights, high class roofing works and fire proof doors and windows.

(5) Structural Glass:

This type of glass is used in constructional

(5) Structural Glass: This type of glass is used in constructional works and can be embedded

works and can be embedded anywhere within the walls and ceilings. It is made in the form of hollow square blocks, tiles, bricks and lenses. It is light in weight. It can be easily cut and drilled. It is used for transparent face work, partition

walls, roofing and flooring works where ever light is desired to pass through. It is also used for heat and sound insulation works.

(6) Laminated Glass:

(6) Laminated Glass: This is also safety glass; it consists of sheets of glass glued together

This is also safety glass; it consists of sheets of glass glued together with a celluloid layer between them. It is used for the wind screens and rear glass in the automobiles etc.

(7) Bullet-Proof Glass:

This is bullet-resistant glass. It consists of a number of glass layers alternating with vinyl-

(7) Bullet-Proof Glass: This is bullet-resistant glass. It consists of a number of glass layers alternating

resin plastic layers, pressed together. The inner glass plates are thick and cooling process is carried out under specially controlled manner. It is made in variable thicknesses, varying from 15mm to 80mm. This glass is used when extra safety measures are required. It is used in aircrafts, bullet proof automobiles, cabins, offices and enclosures.

(8) Fibre Glass:

This is also described as glass wool; it is in the form of glass

(8) Fibre Glass: This is also described as glass wool; it is in the form of

fibres which are soft and flexible. It is highly resistant to wear and tear. It is mainly used for all kinds of thermal and sound insulation works.

(9) Foam Glass:

It is porous or cellular variety of glass, light
It is porous or cellular variety of glass, light

in weight but rigid in form. It is water proof. Also it is good heat insulator. It can be sawn or cut into any shape or size like wood. It is prepared by heating the mixture of a finely ground glass and carbon. It is used for all kinds of thermal and sound insulation works. It is also used for refrigeration and air conditioning works.

(10) Flint Glass:

It

is the glass containing lead which

(10) Flint Glass: It is the glass containing lead which makes it highly shining and capable

makes it highly shining and capable of high polish. It is costly glass. It is also known as shielding glass as it stops different kinds of radiations. It is widely used for high-class glass ware like cut glass, table glass, as optical glass for lenses, prisms and slabs, electric bulbs, electric tubes, radio valves, etc.

(11) Soluble Glass:

It is that type of glass which is soluble in water. It may be kept in the form of small chips or pieces or in liquid glass. It is prepared by melting a mixture of silica and sodium sulphate or potassium carbonate. The soluble glass is used for mixing with cement to make it resistant to

the acids.

PROPERTIES (OR) CHARACTERISTICS OF

GLASS:

(1) It has highly shining appearance and takes good

polish.

(2) It is not affected by temperature except in some

exceptional cases.

(3) It is fire retardant.

(4) It provides heat insulation.

(5) It also ensures transmission of light.

(6) It is available in various varieties.

(7) It transmits light but also provide privacy by

obstructing vision.

(8) Glass blocks provide heat and sound proof

properties.

USES OF GLASS:

(1) Glass is extensively used in building construction

since long time for glazing doors and windows.

(2) It is also used for decoration.

(3) It is also used for sound insulation purposes.

(4) It is used for cut glass work, electric bulbs (lead

glass).

(5) It is used for manufacturing of laboratory

equipments and cooking utensils (Boro-silicate

glass).

(6) It is used for partition walls.

(7) It is used for cabinets, show cases, shop fronts.

(8) It is also used as fire retarder.

ANNOUNCEMENT

SESSIONAL TEST

Date :

Day

:

13 April, 2012 Friday

Time : During CEM Class