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Basic Facts of
 Islam is the third in succession
of the three great monotheistic
faiths born in the Middle East (Judaism,
Christianity, Islam)
 Islam is the second largest religion in world
(1.2 billion adherents)
 Islam is the fastest growing religion in the
II. Basic Facts of Islam
  Muslims believe that the Qu'ran is God's word
as revealed to the prophet Muhammad (570-
632) through the angel Gabriel.
 According to Islam, there are 25 prophet that
sent by Allah;
 Five major prophets: Noah, Abraham, Moses,
Jesus and Muhammad (he is the last prophet).
 Muslim" is an Arabic word meaning "one who
submits to God"
The Prophet Muhammad
• Born in Mecca in Arabia
• Raised by merchants
• Received a revelation from
Allah (God) during the
month of Ramadan
• Tension between Muhammad’s
monotheism and the
polytheism of the people of
The Holy Quran

• Muslims believe the Quran is

the direct word of Allah
revealed to Muhammad
• Written and read in Arabic
Spread of Islam
The Islamic Caliphate

After the death of Muhammad, caliphs (leaders) controlled the

Muslim world. Most famous caliphates: the Umayyad dynasty and
the Abbasid dynasty. Umayyad capital city: Damascus (in Syria).
Abbasid capital: Baghdad (in Iraq).
The Golden Age of Islam

Islam flourished as a religion during The

Golden Age
 The Golden Age took place during 750-1258
AD  It has now become the second largest
religion in the world, after Christianity  Many
people turned to Islam due to its solid belief
system  Islam spread wide and fast across
the world and soon became a major religion

 Islam has many denominations but the largest

and most well known are the Sunni and Shia 
Sunni is the largest sect of Islam.  Sunni is
about 80% of all Muslims).  Sunni is the
traditional path of the religion  Sunnis believe
that the first four caliphs were the right
successors to Muhammad and that a caliph
should be chosen by all the community
 Shia is about 10-20% of Islam
 It is the second largest branch of the religion
 They believe in the political and religious
leadership of Imam
 They believe that a caliph is appointed by
divine will
 There are also many branches that pertain to
Shia Islam
 The most famous is the Twelvers who follow a
tradition called Ja'fari jurisprudence.
Short Timeline of Islam

 c. 570 CE Birth of Muhammad.

 c. 610 CE Muhammad receives first vision in a cave near
 c. 610-22 CE Muhammad preaches in Mecca.
 622 CE Hijira - Muhammad and followers flee to Medina.
 624 CE Muslims successfully attack Meccan caravans at
 625 Muslims are defeated by Meccans at Uhud.
 630 Muslims capture Mecca. Ka'ba is cleansed,
pilgrimage rites are Islamicized, tribes of Arabia vow
allegiance to Muhammad
 632 Death of Muhammad. Abu Bakr chosen as caliph.
 680 Death of Husayn marks beginning of the Shi'at Ali
("party of Ali") or Shi'a sect.
The Muslim World

• Major groups of Muslims: Sunnis and Shi’ites

• Most Muslims are Sunnis
• Shi’ites are the majority in Iraq and Iran
Islam and Women
 Women dress modestly out of reverence for
God, not for men. Muslim women are not more
submissive than other women. Some argue
that Muslim women, in fact, have been treated
better than women in other cultures. For
example, women in Islam were given the right
to vote about 1,400 years ago, centuries before
other women. Of course, like many other
cultures, patriarchal culture can corrupt Muslim
Islam Terms
 Islam: an Arabic word that means “submitting
to God” and “peace”
 Muslim: a person who follows the teachings of
Islam and “submits to God and finds peace in
Him”. All creation is Muslim.
 Shahadah: “There is no god but God and
Muhammad is the Messenger of God”.
 Allah: Arabic name for God. It is preferred
over other names because it has no gender
affiliation and does not have plurality
Understanding Islam
 Islam is a rational religion:
“The vilest of creatures are those
who choose to be deaf and
dumb and do not use their
reason.” (Qur’an 8:2)

 Muhammad reminded his

followers that “The first thing God
created was reason”. Therefore,
believers must take personal
responsibility for one’s actions
and faith.
Freedom of Conscience
 “There is no compulsion in religion. Truth
stands out clearly from falsehood;
whoever rejects evil and believes in God
has grasped the strongest rope that never
breaks. And God is All Hearing and All
Qur’an 2:256
1. Belief in only One God. He is defined as Eternal, Absolute,
Infinite, Compassionate and Merciful, the sole Creator and

2. Engage only in Righteous Actions in all areas: spiritual,

intellectual and physical activity.

3. All God’s creation is “Muslim”. Only humans are given

CHOICE to submit (be Muslim) or reject submission to God’s will.

4. All children are born without sin and are Muslim. As they
grow older, they make their religious CHOICE.

5. God created human beings with a body and soul. The

body is a temporal host for this life, whereas the soul is eternal. It
is the soul that will survive beyond death.

6. Universality of the call. All Muslims are brothers and equals

without any distinction of class, race or tongue. Superiority is only
based on the greater fear of God and greater piety.
 worshippers line up in rows and
enact ritual in unison (prostration)
 Friday midday prayers at mosque
 month of Ramadan (ninth month of lunar
year) to test the spirit, discipline the will
and remind of the hungry and poor
 Numerous important events took place
during Ramadan (first revelation in 610 CE,
flight to Mecca in 622 CE, victory in 624
 Ramadan ends with Eid al-Fitr (period of
spiritual and moral renewal)
 Muslim place of worship Muslims
come together in a mosque for prayers
at midday on Friday (Muslim Holy Day)

 MIHRAB= small arch or hole in wall

indicates the direction of the Ka’bah in

 MINARET= high tower or dome from

which a muezzin calls the faithful to

 WUDU= cleansing process before

prayer (water)

 IMAM= chief officer in the mosque who

leads prayers
PROPHET’S MOSQUE in Madinah: the first mosque in
 Holy book of Islam which means “recitation”
 Records the revealed word of God that came through
Angel Gabriel to Muhammad over 23 years
 Muhammad dictated revelations to scribes and
companions who memorized passages
 It is the only revealed book that has remained intact and
unchanged since its revelation (oral tradition)
 Principle source of Muslim faith and practice
 Children learn to memorize the Qur’an as a child
 Divided into 114 suras (chapters); longest chapter has 286
verses, the shortest has 3 verses; approximately 78 000
words in length
al-Fatihah (The Opening)
Qur’an 1: 1-7
“In the name of Allah, Most Gracious Most
Merciful. Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher
and Sustainer of the Worlds. Most
Gracious, Most Merciful. Master of the
Day of Judgment. Thee do we worship
and Thine aid we seek: Show us the
straight way. The way of those on whom
Thou hast bestowed Thy Grace, those
whose portion is not wrath and who go not
The Kabah
 Kabah- cube shaped
building that was built by
Abraham to honour God
 Viewed as Adam’s
original place of worship
 Was filled with idols as
people in Arabia followed
 Muhammad- received
revelations that led to
Islam and monotheism
(and removal of idols)
 Site of hajj- pilgrimage to

 SEAL of the Prophets (last in a line of 28

Prophets who all preached the religion of Islam)
 Born in 570 CE
 Each succeeding Prophet added or improved upon the
cumulative message of Islam
 Through Muhammand (PBUH), the message of Islam was
completed and is preserved intact in the Qur’an
 In 622 CE, hijrah (migration) where Muhammad moved
from Mecca to Madinah (marks the beginning of the
Muslim calendar)
 Islam spread to Arabia, Spain and as far East as China
Other Prophets
 These Prophets are regarded as
most significant: Muhammad,
Moses, Abraham and Noah
 Jesus is highly respected and
considered as a great prophet by
 Qur’an re-affirms the miraculous
birth and abilities of Jesus
 Muslims believe in the Second
Coming of Jesus before the end
of time
Human Equality

 “O humankind! You were created from a single

soul, male and female, and made you into
peoples and tribes. So that you may know one
another. Truly, the most honored of you in
God’s sight is the greatest of you in piety. God
is All Knowing, All Aware”
(Qur’an 49:13)
Islam and War

 Like Christianity, Islam permits

fighting in self defense, in defense
of religion, or on the part of those who have been
expelled forcibly from their homes
 Strict rules for combat, which includes prohibitions
against harming civilians and against destroying
crops, trees and livestock
 “Fight in the cause of God against those who fight you,
but do not transgress limits. God does not love
transgressors” (Qur’an 2:190)
 “And fight them unitl persecution is no more, and
religion is for God. But if they desist, then let there be
no hosility excpet against wrongdoers” (Qur’an 2:193)
Day of
 All humans will be bodily
resurrected and assembled
for final accounting of deeds
 Soul will move on to afterlife
 Upon the Final Judgment = world will end and
we will stand before God to confront our own life
and actions
 Desire for purified soul= heaven (eternal abode
of beauty and majesty)
 Disbelievers and unpure soul= hell (abode of
great torment and anguish)
 Jihad does not mean “holy war”
 Literally, jihad means to strive, struggle and
exert effort.
 Concept includes struggle against evil
inclinations within oneself, struggle to improve
quality of life in society, struggle in the battlefield
for self defense or fighting against tyranny or
 There is no such thing as “holy war” in Islam, but
it is the frequent repetition in the West that many
people accept it as if it were a fact
Women’s Rights

 According to Quran, men and women are equal before

 Under Islamic law, women have the right to own
property, receive an education and take part in
community life
 Islamic rules for simple, modest and dignified dress
applies to women and men equally
 In many Muslim countries there are cultural practices
that are inconsistent and contrary to the authentic
teachings of Islam
Honor killing- deeply rooted in
Islamic culture
 Victim of rape is
killed…women’s fault
for being
raped….thus, cover

 Jordan, article 340 of

the criminal code
does not penalize
murder of women
Islam: Controversial
 Right to punish women
 Polygamy
 Jihad vs. Holy War
 Hijab :liberation or suppression
 Muhammad Cartoons: freedom of speech vs
freedom of religion
 Appeal of Suicide Bombers
 Afghanistan's Taliban
 War on Islam
Role of Islam in Society
 In the Islamic way of thinking religion is related to
politics - but this does not mean man does not need
the rationality of modern science

 Instead, it means that a devoted religious man

should try to co-ordinate his political reactions with
his religious values.

 DR MOHSEN KADIVAR, Iranian cleric

Role of Islam in Society
 “In the Islamic system of values and from the point of
view of Muslim fundamentalists, religion cannot be
separated from any aspect of life.”

 “Religion is omnipresent in every aspect of a Muslim

individual's private and social life from the economy to
social relations.”

 “What does harm to the society is not religion - it is the

way in which some of the rulers take advantage of

DR MEHDI KHAZALI, Iranian cleric

Terrorism and The Muslim

– “God is our purpose, the Prophet our leader,

the Quran our constitution, jihad our way and
dying for God’s cause our supreme objective.”
Hassan al-Banna founder of the Muslim

Merging the Taliban and Al Qaeda
 In the early 1980s, Mustafa Abu al-Yazid served three
years in an Egyptian prison for links to the group
responsible for the 1981 assassination of Egyptian
President Anwar Sadat (the Muslim Brotherhood).
After his release, Yazid went to Afghanistan, and
became a founding member of Al Qaeda.
 He followed bin Laden to Sudan and back to
Afghanistan, where he served as al Qaeda's chief
financial officer, managing secret bank accounts in the
Persian Gulf that were used to finance the Sept. 11
 After the U.S. and its allies invaded Afghanistan in
2001, Yazid went into hiding for years. He surfaced in
May 2007 during a 45-minute interview posted on the
Web by al Sabah, in which he was introduced as the
``official in charge'' of the terrorist movement's
operations in Afghanistan.
 Mustafa Abu al-Yazid, the terror leader who earlier this
year said he would use nukes on America if he could
only get his hands on some.

Muslim Brotherhood Organizations

Islamic Jihad,
Al-Gama’a al Hamas
Islamiya, Jihad Hezbollah
Talaat al-Fath

Al Qaeda
Islamic Salvation Front, Hizballah Al-Hijaz
Armed Islamic Group

National Islamic Front

Jemaah Islamiyah

Radical Muslim Terror Attacks in Europe
 Mar. 2004 Madrid train bombings by an al-Qaeda-inspired
terrorist cell, three days before Spain's general elections. 191
killed; 1,755 wounded.
 Nov. 2004 – Dutch film-maker Theo van Gogh is murdered by
Islamic extremist Mohammed Bouyeri, a Dutch citizen.
 July 2005 - 52 people died in the London bombings carried out
by four British Muslims.
 Oct. 2005 - More than three weeks of rioting in France's mainly
Muslim suburbs
 Jan. 2006 - Violent protests across Europe and Middle Mast
over publication by a Danish newspaper of cartoons of the
Prophet Mohammed.

Non-Assimilation in Europe
 France – Oct. 2005 riots in Muslim suburb of Paris; continued
concentration in poor suburbs of urban areas since 1980’s
including Paris, Lille, Lyon, Marseille
 Britain – Almost half the 1350 mosques are run by radical
Deobandi sect that created the Taliban. A new generation of
British imams have a radical agenda: scorn for Muslims who
say they are British; preach friendship with a Jew or a Christian
makes “a mockery of Allah’s religion”. Seventeen of Britain’s
26 Islamic seminaries are run by Deobandis.
 Netherlands – Imams at 180 of 450 mosques have left; the
vacuum is being filled by unqualified, radical preachers. One
million Muslims in Netherlands. Uproar over Nov. 2006 ban on
burqas in public places.

Oct. 16, 2009 Protesters rallied as anti-Islamic Dutch lawmaker Geert
Wilders held a news conference in London.

Sharia h

Partial Assimilation in the U.S.
 Roughly 5M Muslims in the U.S. accounting for about
1.6% of the U.S. population.
 Largest segment is African-Americans (42% of U.S.
Muslims); followed by south Asians (24%), then Arabs
(12%). Other groups contribute 5% or less to the U.S.
Muslim population.
 Largest populations are in California (1M), New York
(800K), Illinois (420K), and New Jersey (200K);
Indiana, Michigan, Virginia, Texas and Ohio contain
fewer than 200K each.
 The U.S. has 843 mosques and 165 Islamic schools

Imam Khomeini
"There is no room for play in Islam... It is deadly
serious about everything."
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
Speech at Qum, reported in Time magazine January 7,
Revolutionary Art

"The Vampires of the

West and East all feeding
on the Muslim Ummah."
Muslim clergy and soldiers clasp hands in friendship atop an
armored personnel carrier.
Across the
Radical Islam
globe, there are
terrorists killing
in the name of
Islam, but a new
study shows
that al Qaeda
attacks kill eight
times more
Muslims than
Bernard Lewis:
- Who did this to us?
- Blaming the West vs. corrupt regimes vs. each other
- Islam and liberal democracy - compatible?

Communication Filters vis-à-vis West . . .

Radical Islam
The radical neo-fundamentalists view the action as more
important than the result. Thus, individual jihad becomes
more important than victory. The goal is to serve God,
not to achieve a certain political agenda. The results will
come when God wills it.
- Magnus Norell
The Main Categories of Non-
State Terrorist Groups
 Ethno-nationalist separatist and irredentist
 Secular left-wing groups
 Secular right-wing groups
 Religious terrorist groups
 Single-issue groups
Types Religious Terrorist Groups
Jihadist Groups
Different Interest Integrating Groups(al –Qaida)
State Sponsored Groups (Hezbollah)
Geographically fixed Groups (Hamas)
Types Religious Terrorist Groups II
1) Islamist terrorism;
2) Jewish fundamentalist terrorism, primarily
inside Israel;
3) Christian terrorism, which can be further
subdivided into fundamentalist terrorism of an
Orthodox (mainly in Russia), Catholic, or
Protestant stamp (which, in the U.S., is
especially aimed at stopping the provision of
abortions) and terrorism inspired by the
idiosyncratic Christian Identity doctrine;
4) Hindu fundamentalist/nationalist terrorism;
5) Terrorism carried out by apocalyptic religious
Distribution of Muslim
 Muszlim  1198,2 MILLIONS*
Szunnita 952,4
Síita 111,8
Vahabita 108,0
Szikh 20,0
Bahái 6,0
 * ROSTOVÁNYI ZS.: Mit kell tudni az
iszlámról? Kossuth Könyvkiadó,
Budapest, 1983., p. 239.
The Religions of the World
Salafi-jihad ideology



Al Qaida and
affiliated groups
Islam by country
The Global Caliphate

 The Taliban and Al Qaeda in Afghanistan

 The Global Caliphate
 Why Islamic Radicals Hate the U.S. and
the West
 Non-assimilation in Europe
 Partial Assimilation in the U.S.
 What Islam is Not
What Islam is Not
The Arab Spring
 Al Qaeda in Iraq
 Tunisia
 Egypt
 Libya
 Bahrain
 Yemen
 Syria is Different
 Mali and AQIM
Al Qaeda in Iraq
2003 - Al Qaeda in Iraq draws on Sunni Baathists to form an
insurgency, supported by Iran.
– Al Qaeda in Iraq (AQI) is 90% Iraqi membership however the leadership
and suicide bombers are 90% foreign fighters.
• Originally led by Jordanian, Abu Musab al
Zarqawi, who targeted Shia to provoke a Shia-
Sunni civil war.
– Aug 03 bomb killed 85 Shia in Najaf; Mar 04 attacks Shia mosques during
Ashura, killing over 180; Feb 06 destroyed Shia Mosque in Samarra
 June 2006 killed by U.S. forces; succeeded by Abu Ayyub al-Masri,
an Egyptian

Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi
Al Qaeda in Iraq
 AQI recruits Sunnis and uses violence to terrorize
Sunnis into participation.
 By 2006 AQI was so unpopular their continued
presence relied on continuous violence against their
 AQI tried to solidify its position in Anbar by marrying
some of its senior leaders to the daughters of Anbari
tribal leaders, as al Qaeda has done in South Asia.
The sheikhs resisted; AQI attacked them and their
 AQI operations in Anbar were broken by sustained
operations by Iraqi security forces assisting the
coalition surge and commitment to remain in the
province after clearing AQI80 leaders to prevent their
Abu Ayyub al-Masri
Close confidant of Ayman al Zawahiri; a member
of Egyptian Islamic Jihad, the group that folded
into al Qaeda under Zawahiri’s leadership.
2002 - Entered Iraq prior to US invasion,
established the first terror cell in Baghdad.
Experienced bomb maker; built car bombs and
trained al Qaeda operatives.
Attempted to unite disparate Sunni insurgent
Oct 2006 - Al Qaeda established “Islamic State of
Abu Ayyub al-Masri
April 2010 killed by American and Iraqi forces near

The “Awakening People”
 9/17/08 Dexter Filkins, NYTimes reporter and author of "Forever War"
interviewed 9/17/08 on National Public Radio’s Morning Edition program.
 Gen. Odierno (who relieved Gen. David Petraeus as Commanding General of
Multi-National Force - Iraq (MNF-I)) commented that al Qaeda drove car
bombs into Shia mosques, and Shia militias would then retaliate in Sunni
neighborhoods. When the Sunni turned on al Qaeda the cycle was broken.
 The “awakening people” had been insurgents; then placed on the US payroll,
about $500/mo. They wiped out much of the al Qaeda leadership in Iraq.
The more moderate Iraqi insurgents turned on the fanatic al Qaeda leaders
who were not capable of change and were killing Shia and keeping the civil
war alive. A Sunni sheikh told Filkins that in six weeks they killed 466 al
Qaeda leaders in his area, and he was very pleased with this. "We have a
list“ said the sheikh.
 Filkins recounts how Baghdad has changed since 2003: neighborhoods
where Americans couldn't even go in 2003 are now safe for Americans to go
jogging, as Filkins did. "Now women are walking around alone, which was
unheard of. They were wearing jeans and not covering their heads. It was
completely normal."
 Reference:

 Dec 2010 – 26-year-old vendor
Mohamed Bouazizi immolates
himself after police confiscate
his fruit and vegetable cart
because he lacks a permit;
protests and then riots follow
 Jan 2011 - Pres. Zine El Abidine
Ben Ali flees to Saudi Arabia
ending more than 20 years of
 Oct 2011 – Islamic party
Ennahda wins first elections
 Jan 2011 protest erupt in Cairo’s Tahrir square
 Feb 2011 Pres. Hasni Mubarak steps down after nearly 30 years in power.
The Muslim Brotherhood is the major opposition to the government
 Aug 2011 – Mubarak goes on trial
 Oct 2011 – Coptic Christians protest destruction of a church by Islamists;
Army attacks protesters with tanks, killing 27
 Nov 2011 – Muslim Brotherhood elected to a majority of seats
 June 2012 – Mohammed Morsi of Muslim Brotherhood elected president;
Mubarek sentenced to life in prison
 Nov 2012 – Protests against Morsi’s draft constitution giving him unlimited
power including legislation without judicial oversight; drafted by Muslim
Brotherhood and Salafist allies, it could allow clerics to intervene in
lawmaking and leave minority groups without proper legal protection
 Dec 2012 – Morsi signs new constitution into law

 Feb 2011 – Protest begin in Benghazi after
the arrest of a human rights activist
 Mar 2011 – UN authorizes a no-fly zone;
NATO airstrikes begin
 Aug 2011 – Rebels enter Tripoli
 Oct 2011 – Moammar Gadhafi killed by
rebels in Sirte
 Sept 2012 – Al Qaeda in Islamic Mahgreb
(AQIM), Al-Qaida affiliate “Imprisoned Omar
Abdul Rahman Brigades”, and Ansar
alShariah attack US consulate and CIA
annes in Benghazi, killing Ambassador
Christopher Stevens, Information Officer
Sean Smith, embassy security personnel
Glen Doherty and Tyrone Woods, and
injuring 10 others

 Jan - Feb 2011: weeks of protests in
Bahrain are crushed by troops from Saudi
 Nov 2011 – King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa
promises reforms

 Feb 2011 – Protests in Yemen erupt then subside
when President Ali Abdullah Saleh pledges not to
seek another term
 June 2011 – Saleh injured in an explosion; goes to
Saudi Arabia for treatment but does not relinquish
 Nov 2011 – Saleh steps down after 33 years; his
relatives and associates continue to hold power
 Feb 2012 – Saleh transfers powers to former vice

 Muslim Brotherhood in Syria founded in the late 1930s. After
the 1963 coup brought the Ba'ath Party to power, it was banned
and became a resistance movement against Alawite Assad
regime. Armed struggle climaxed in the Hama uprising of 1982
- thousands killed by the military, and membership in the
Syrian Brotherhood became a capital offence
 March 2011 – protests erupt; the government of Bashar Assad
immediately responds with troops
 Feb 2012 – government attacks rebels in Homs
 July 2012 – government massacres 225 in Tremseh; rebel
bomb kills many of Assad’s top advisors; 200,000 refugees
have fled Syria
 Increasingly Al Qaeda, Islamists, and Salafists from across the
Muslim world have swelled the ranks of rebel forces and call for
sharia law and an Islamic republic
to replace Assad
 Mar 2012 military junior officers launch a coup in
protest to the government response to the rebel group
National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad
 Al Qaeda in the Islamic Magreb (AQIM), active since
2007 in Mali, allied with MNLA then drove them out of
northern Mali
 AQIM, Ansar Dine, and Mauritanian offshoot of AQIM
called MUJAO (Movement for Unity and Jihad in West
Africa), have imposed strict sharia law including
stonings, amputations, and floggings; kidnapped and
sometimes executed aid workers, businessmen, and
tourists; recruited and armed children as young as 12
Manhattan, Feb. 2006
London, Feb. 2006
Sharia Law Is Coming To Europe
 Polygamy
 Stonings
 Persecution of Jews
 Rapes
 Banning of national flags
 No more piggy banks or bacon
 No more custard cones
 Cannot fly British flag in prisons
London, Feb. 2006
 2006- Offensive statements about religion
became punishable by fine and
 The accused is guilty until proven innocent
 Oslo police afraid to crack down on
Islamist gangs
 Finn Graff, cartoonist, depicts Jews as
Nazis….afraid of Islamists
 Codie Scott, 14 y.o. arrested for
complaining that her fellow Pakistani
students could not communicate
 40% of Muslims want Sharia law
 70% refuse to condemn suicide bombers
 Ruth Kelly, GB communities secretary,
considers Sharia law in Muslim
Pakistan, Feb. 2006
Islamic terrorist attakcs in Europe
 France:
 Danmark: duble attack