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MPLS Basic Knowledge

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The course introduce the basic
concept of MPLS, including
MPLS label, MPLS switching,
MPLS label allocating.

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Upon completion of this course,
you will be able to:
Describe the switching
process of MPLS, the method
to allocate and control the
label.

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Chapter 1 MPLS Overview

Chapter 2 Label and Label Stack

Chapter 3 MPLS Forwarding and Allocation

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MPLS

MPLS——Multi-Protocol Label Switching


Multi-Protocol,support multiple Layer-3 protocols, such
as IP, IPv6, IPX.
MPLS uses a short label of fixed length to encapsulate
packets
Label packets, and replace IP forwarding with label
switching

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Origin: To Integrate IP with ATM
•The IP technology performs poorly in forwarding packets because of
inevitable software dependence on searching routes through the
longest match algorithm
•The ATM technology is difficult to popularize because of its complex
protocol and high cost in deployment

The traditional IP technology is simple and costs little in deployment

Connectionless Connectionless
control plane control plane Connection-oriented
control plane

Connectionless Connection-oriented Connection-oriented


forwarding plane forwarding plane forwarding plane

IP MPLS ATM
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MPLS

MPLS works between the data link layer and the


network layer in the TCP/IP protocol stack
MPLS forwards packets based on labels instead of IP
addresses
A label is a short connection identifier of fixed length
with local significance
MPLS is not limited by any specific protocol of the
data link layer and is enabled to use any Layer 2
media to transfer packets.

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Connection-oriented Features
S2 1 S6 S2 S6

1 1
S1 S8 S1 S3 S5 S8

S3 S5 VC
2 2

S4 2 S7 S4 S7

connection-oriented: cell
Connectionless: packet route switching
Path 1 = S1, S2, S6, S8 VC = S1, S4, S7, S8
Path 2 = S1, S4, S7, S8 The data reach their
The data reach their destination in order along the
destination out of order same connection
along different paths Fixed time delay, easy to
control
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Traditional IP Forwarding

Parse IP header Parse IP header Parse IP header


mapped to next hop mapped to next hop mapped to next hop

IP header is parsed at each hop, resulting in low efficiency.


All routers are expected to know all routes in the entire
network.

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MPLS Network Structure

LER
Non-MPLS
MPLS network
network Non-MPLS
network
Core LSR Core LSR

LER
LER

Core LSR

Core LSR
Non-MPLS
network Non-MPLS
network
LER
LER
The fundamental element of an MPLS
LSR: Label Switch Router
network is Label Switching Router.
LER: Label Edge Router
Many LSRs on a network form an MPLS
LSP: Label Switch Path
domain LSR

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Basic Working Process of MPLS
When IP packets enter an MPLS network, the LER at the entrance
analyzes IP packets and then adds proper labels
When IP packets leave the MPLS network, the labels are deleted on
the LER that is the exit.
The path that IP packets pass through on an MPLS network is called
the LSP
Core LSR
Edge LSR Edge LSR

IP IP L1 IP L2 IP L3 IP

Traditional Traditional IP
IP forwarding Label forwarding forwarding

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Chapter 1 MPLS Overview

Chapter 2 Label and Label Stack

Chapter 3 MPLS Forwarding and Allocation

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Label Operations
Push: When an IP packet enters an MPLS domain, the
ingress adds a new label to the packet

Swap: label is deleted from the top of the label stack


and a new label assigned by the next hop is added
according to the label forwarding table

Pop: When a packet leaves an MPLS domain, the


label is popped out from the MPLS packet

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Establishing Dynamic LSPs

Dynamic LSPs are set up automatically by the signaling protocol:

LDP
The Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) is specially
defined for distributing labels.
LDP sets up an LSP in hop-by-hop mode, LDP identifies
the next hop along the LSP according to the routing and
forwarding table on each LSR

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Chapter 1 MPLS Overview

Chapter 2 Label and Label Stack

Chapter 3 MPLS Forwarding and Allocation

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MPLS LDP : Label Distribution Protocol

LDP is a widely-used label distribution protocol in the


MPLS architecture.
By using LDP, label switching routers (LSRs) negotiate
over the distribution of labels to establish LSPs.
LSRs associate the incoming labels with the outgoing
label assigned for specified forwarding equivalence
classes (FECs) on the next hop.

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Basic Concepts of LDP Sessions
LDP Peers
Are two LSRs that run LDP to exchange label or FEC
mapping information.
LSP peers learn the label mapping information from
each other through LDP sessions between them

LDP Sessions
Are used between LSRs to swap labels. LDP
sessions are classified to two types as follows:

•Local LDP session: can be set up only between


adjacent LSRs.

•Remote LDP session: can be set between non-


adjacent LSRs or adjacent LSRs.
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LDP Discovery
The LDP discovery mechanism refers to that an LSR to
create sessions sends Hello messages to adjacent
LSRs periodically to notify the adjacency

Basic discovery mechanism


The basic discovery mechanism is used to discover
local LDP peers that are directly connected at the link
layer and establish local LDP sessions.
In this mechanism, an LSR periodically sends LDP Link
Hello messages as UDP packets from the interface to
the group multicast address of "all routers on the
subnet.“
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Thank You
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