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Siemens Power Technologies International PSS®SINCAL Platform October 2013 V10.0 Planning Software for Electricity, Gas,
Siemens Power Technologies International PSS®SINCAL Platform October 2013 V10.0 Planning Software for Electricity, Gas,
Siemens Power Technologies International PSS®SINCAL Platform October 2013 V10.0 Planning Software for Electricity, Gas,

Siemens Power Technologies International

PSS®SINCAL Platform October 2013 V10.0

Planning Software for Electricity, Gas, Water and District Heating and Cooling Networks

Table of Contents 1 PSS ® SINCAL Platform 5 1.1 Introduction 5 1.2 IT Architecture

Table of Contents

1

PSS ® SINCAL Platform

5

1.1

Introduction

5

1.2

IT Architecture

5

1.2.1

Data Base Concept

5

1.2.2

System Requirements

5

1.2.3

Data Exchange

5

1.2.4

Multi User Project Management

6

1.2.5

Interfaces and Automation

6

1.2.6

Smart Interface to Metering Database or SCADA

7

1.3

User Interface

7

1.4

Main Features

9

2

Electrical Networks

11

2.1

Power Flow Calculation

11

2.2

Load and Generation Profile Simulation

12

2.3

Load and Network Development

13

2.4

Optimal Network Structure

13

2.5

Optimal Load Flow

14

2.6

Optimal Branching - Tie Open Points

14

2.7

Reactive Power Optimization and Capacitor Placement

14

2.8

Volt / Var Optimization

15

2.9

Load Balancing

15

2.10

Load Allocation/Scaling and Transformer Tap Detection

16

2.11

Contingency Analysis and Restoration of Supply

16

2.12

Probabilistic Reliability

17

2.13

Cost Calculation

18

2.14

Short-Circuit Calculation

18

2.15

Multiple Faults

19

2.16

Dimensioning of Low-Voltage Networks and Fuse Coordination

19

2.17

Protection Modules

20

2.17.1

Distance Protection

20

2.17.2

Overcurrent Time Protection

20

2.17.3

Protection Simulation

21

2.18

Protection Device Management System (PSS ® PDMS)

22

2.19

Arc Flash Hazard

23

2.20 Harmonics 23 2.21 Ripple Control 24 2.22 Motor Start 24 2.23 Stability (RMS) 25

2.20

Harmonics

23

2.21

Ripple Control

24

2.22

Motor Start

24

2.23

Stability (RMS)

25

2.24

Electromagnetic Transients (EMT)

26

2.25

Eigenvalue/Modal Analysis

26

2.26

Eigenvalue Screening

26

2.27

Network Reduction

26

2.28

Identification / Optimization

27

2.29

Frequency Domain

27

2.30

Flicker

27

2.31

Torsion

28

2.32

Voltage Profile / Multiconductor Systems

28

2.33

Real-Time Simulation

28

2.34

Professional Dynamic Engine (PSS ® NETOMAC)

28

2.35

Line Constants

29

2.36

Graphical Model Builder - NETCAD/BOSL

30

2.37

Generic Wind Models

30

2.38

Generic FACTS Models

31

2.39

Grid Code –Connection of Distributed Generation to the Grid (EEG)

31

3

Gas

33

3.1

Hydraulic Calculations

33

3.1.1

Features

33

3.1.2

Network Elements

33

3.1.3

Reports and Diagrams

34

3.2

Load Profiles

34

3.3

Contingency Analysis

35

3.4

Dynamic Simulation

35

4

Water

36

4.1

Hydraulic Calculations

36

4.1.1

Features

36

4.1.2

Network Elements

36

4.1.3

Reports and Diagrams

37

4.2

Load Profiles

38

4.3

Water Tower Filling

38

4.4 Contingency Analysis 38 4.5 Dynamic Simulation 38 5 District Heating and Cooling 39 5.1

4.4

Contingency Analysis

38

4.5

Dynamic Simulation

38

5

District Heating and Cooling

39

5.1

Thermal and Hydraulic Calculations

39

5.1.1

Features

39

5.1.2

Network Elements

39

5.1.3

Reports and Diagrams

41

5.2

Load Profiles

41

5.3

Contingency Analysis

41

5.4

Dynamic Simulation

41

6

General

43

6.1

Program Updates and Hotline Support

43

6.2

Contact Address

43

1 PSS ® SINCAL Platform The system planning platform PSS®SINCAL (Siemens Network Calculation) has been

1 PSS ® SINCAL Platform

1 PSS ® SINCAL Platform The system planning platform PSS®SINCAL (Siemens Network Calculation) has been developed

The system planning platform PSS®SINCAL (Siemens Network Calculation) has been developed to analyze electricity and pipe networks, and to visualize and doc- ument the simulation results. Actually there are three applications using the same components and therefore having the same look and feel: SINCAL, NETOMAC and PDMS. The main simulation application is PSS®SINCAL where PSS®NETOMAC is a GUI for special dynamic simu- lations and PSS®PDMS is a management software for protection devices.

1.1

Introduction

PSS®SINCAL is well suited for the needs of both industry and utility companies. Its international users are munici- pal utilities, distribution and transmission companies, operators of industrial plants and power stations as well as engineering consulting firms.

PSS®SINCAL provides high-performance tools for the planning and design of supply networks for all main infrastructures: electricity, gas, water and district heat- ing.

For this reason, it is particularly suitable for multi-utility companies providing service for different infrastruc- tures. PSS®SINCAL facilitates efficient and economic cross-infrastructure network planning and operation taking advantage of synergies from using the same user interface, data handling and exchange facilities for dif- ferent infrastructures.

Professional Network Planning

In over 50 years of experience, Siemens has optimized PSS®SINCAL in close cooperation with the users and is proud to be one of the world’s leading suppliers of sys- tem planning software. Within Siemens, computer- based network analysis started on main frame comput- ers in 1960, and we were rapidly known as a leader in power system simulation.

PSS®SINCAL now establishes a new standard with a unique variety of high-quality and technical excellence

features combined with a user-friendliness which uses all possibilities of modern computers.

PSS®SINCAL provides system planners with powerful tools necessary for analyzing any network state and determining the most suitable network structure. The impact of switching operations, fluctuating load and generation, and network development scenarios can be analyzed and networks can be optimized with regard to losses and utilization.

1.2

IT Architecture

1.2.1

Data Base Concept

An important feature of PSS®SINCAL is the complete transparency of the data which is achieved by storing all data (input data, true-location and schematic network graphic, and simulation results) in a relational data base.

Users can access, enter and manage data from PSS®SINCAL or from other external applications facilitat- ing data input and management, and the cost-efficient development of interfaces.

1.2.2 System Requirements

PSS®SINCAL offers the software for both 32bit and 63bit (native version) systems.

Operating Systems Supported

Windows XP (x86) with Service Pack 3

Windows Vista (x86) with Service Pack 2

Windows 7 (x86 & x64)

Windows Server 2003 (x86) with Service Pack 2

Windows Server 2008 R2 (x86 & x64)

Database Systems Supported

Access 2003

Access 2007

Access 2010

Oracle 9i

Oracle 10g

Oracle 11g

SQL Server Express 2008

SQL Server Express 2008 R2

SQL Server 2008

SQL Server 2008 R2

1.2.3 Data Exchange

With PSS®SINCAL network data, graphic and result data can be easily exchanged, using common standard data

formats. Data import and/or export are supported for the following data formats: ■ EXCEL ■

formats. Data import and/or export are supported for the following data formats:

EXCEL

CIM/XML – div versions and profiles incl. IEC

PSS®E

61970-301

DGS exchange format

PSS®NETOMAC

PSS®ADEPT

UCTE ASCII file format

DVG exchange format

CYMDIST exchange format

XML

OLE

PSS®Engine HUB file

ODBC, SQD, SQL

PSS®SINCAL archiving

Network states via XML (e.g. open points, operat- ing states, element data)

or graphic formats, such as:

WMF, EMF

DWG, DXF import

BMP

PSP

GIF

PLT

JPG

PRN

PNG

PRT

TIF

SID import

DXF

SHP import

EPS

PIC import

PCL

SVG import

1.2.4 Multi User Project Management

The new Master Database makes it possible for multiple users to work on a network simultaneously as it is often needed in consulting teams up to large utilities. The Master Database works similar to a source control sys- tem and centrally manages the changes of the different users. Users can still do the actual editing in local data- bases assigned to them, and these can be synchronized with the Master Database. Special synchronization func- tions with conflict management under control of an administrator are used to transfer changes made by the users to the global Master Database. This assures that the data in both the Master Database and in the local client databases remain consistent.

and in the local client databases remain consistent. Figure 1-1 Multi-user-project management The Master Database

Figure 1-1 Multi-user-project management

The Master Database acts as a data container that doc- uments any changes in individual data (repository). A “labeling”-mechanisms allows to set-back of the network to a defined stage.

User roles enable the company to define different levels of access and approval of changes.

1.2.5 Interfaces and Automation

PSS®SINCAL’s data base is fully published and facilitates interfacing with GIS, EMS, SCADA, metering and protec- tion data management, ERP and other IT systems.

and protec- tion data management, ERP and other IT systems. Figure 1-2 IT architecture It is

Figure 1-2 IT architecture

It is possible to start and control PSS®SINCAL from other applications by means of COM interfaces so that it can be used as calculation engine. This automation capabil- ity provides an efficient solution to solve large-scale or recurring simulation tasks.

All data maintenance, processing and visualization of the results can be done directly in the source applica- tion. The integration as an External Server (with sepa- rate processes) or as an In-Process Server (within the same process) are possible.

Figure 1-3 Integration with external applications For high performance solutions all network data and results
Figure 1-3 Integration with external applications For high performance solutions all network data and results

Figure 1-3 Integration with external applications

For high performance solutions all network data and results can be managed in "virtual tables".

1.2.6 Smart Interface to Metering Database or SCADA

The Smart LF interface supports the dynamic supply of metering data or network state for load flow based simulations, i.e. time-stamped measured load or genera- tion data can be automatically loaded using specially designed COM interfaces. The connection between net- work elements and measured values is done by means of UUIDs (Universal Unique Identifiers).

is done by means of UUIDs (Universal Unique Identifiers). Figure 1-4 Connecting measured data using the

Figure 1-4 Connecting measured data using the Smart LF interface

1.3 User Interface

The graphical user interface is the environment in which:

Networks are drawn and data is entered;

Networks are updated with direct access to the val- ues (input, graphic, results) of the data base in user- friendly masks;

Planning scenarios are defined;

Calculations are started;

Results are displayed;

The analysis of the network can be done by filtering or color-coding;

More than one network can be calculated at the same time;

Reports are generated;

Network schematics are plotted and diagrams are printed;

Data import or export is done.

The graphic user interface makes it possible to enter and display networks in true-location, schematic or mixed form. The network and additional graphics information can be drawn and organized in different graphical lay- ers. Different variants can be conveniently handled by the variant management tool.

Various steady-state and dynamic calculation methods are available. It is also possible to simulate the effect of time series (e.g. generation and load profiles) or time events (e.g. switching, load growth, equipment (de-) commissioning dates) on the network.

Calculation results can be depicted in different ways (e.g. tables, screen forms, diagrams and reports) and evaluated in the network diagram by means of coloring according to predefined criteria. For instance, “traffic light colors” can indicate the state of system elements.

The macro function of PSS®SINCAL enables the connec- tion and synchronized calculation of separately modeled networks, i.e. no merging of data sets is needed. Addi- tionally, the use of separately defined equipment type data bases in different network areas is supported.

The variant management tool organizes variants in a tree structure. Changes are automatically applied to subordinated variants. Each variant can be independent- ly loaded, displayed and evaluated. Minimum, maximum and average values of all evaluated variants can be dis- played in the single-line diagram.

Selected Features of Graphical User Interface

Fully graphical Microsoft® Windows® application with browser, menu bars, toolbars, pop-up windows, etc.

Intuitive handling

Multi-layer and multi-window concept

Multi-network graphic view concept, i.e. different network graphics can be viewed for one technical da- taset, e.g. both schematic and geographic view

technical da- taset, e.g. both schematic and geographic view Figure 1-5 Multiple Network Graphic View ■

Figure 1-5 Multiple Network Graphic View

User-defined design of tab bars

Separate windows for network diagram, data base editing, messages, diagrams, etc.

Variety of grid, zoom, sketching and editing func- tions

■ One data object for all means: selection of equipments in drop-down menus without redundan-

One data object for all means: selection of equipments in drop-down menus without redundan- cies in graphic and data base. Each object is used for all calculation methods and variants. Different data of the same element can be displayed according to the selected view and calculation method.

Easy changes of single elements and groups (vary- ing, shifting, deleting, copying)

Digitizing facilities for low- and medium-voltage networks for more planning quality

Scanning and hybrid graphics or files from other systems as background graphic

Automatic creation or user-defined drawing of sin- gle-line diagrams

Automatic back documentation of alphanumerical networks or imported networks from other systems. Single-line diagram can be easily generated by plac- ing the nodes.

True-location geographic networks graphic

Network graphics using world coordinates format and are not limited to paper sizes

Free rotation of already defined models including adjusting the existing model on top of a background map.

Background maps from the internet can be directly integrated

Background maps from the internet can be directly integrated Figure 1-6 Background map from internet with

Figure 1-6 Background map from internet with network and dy- namic results

Direct data base access

Linkage between tabular data, dialog entry, diagrams and graphical network representation: Selected ele- ments in the tabular view will be marked and zoomed in the graphical representation. Even pro- gram messages (e.g. warning messages that input data is outside the typical range) are linked to ele- ments

Text filters for input and result data allow user- defined display of data in the network diagram

Traffic light or user-defined color-coding of network components and area-wise contour plotting.

of network components and area-wise contour plotting. Figure 1-7 Graphical evaluation of load centers Figure 1-8

Figure 1-7 Graphical evaluation of load centers

plotting. Figure 1-7 Graphical evaluation of load centers Figure 1-8 Graphical evaluation ■ The content of

Figure 1-8 Graphical evaluation

The content of all (graphical) reports, drawings, tables is completely user-defined

Easy documentation with additional input of lines, circles, rectangles, polygons, text fields, etc.

Free positioning of every element and description text

Plots in scale mode or WYSIWYG mode

Diagrams: multiple curves per chart, multiple axis, user-defined units

Curve tracking and reading of exact values and coor- dinates (e.g. location in km)

Parameter files store user-defined settings

Header and legend templates can be linked to any project

Annotations of plant and equipment can be defined in terms of: scope, units, formats, positions, num- bers

Figure 1-9 Symbols for DC-infeeds/loads 1.4 Main Features ■ Standard data base All data for
Figure 1-9 Symbols for DC-infeeds/loads 1.4 Main Features ■ Standard data base All data for

Figure 1-9 Symbols for DC-infeeds/loads

1.4 Main Features

Standard data base

All data for network calculation and planning are stored within one data base with standard SQL ac- cess. It is not necessary to handle different input files

Direct access

PSS®SINCAL works directly with this data base. It does not make temporary exports/imports as many other programs. This is essentially important for the work with the system free of redundancies.

Automatic update

When working with PSS®SINCAL all changes are au- tomatically and immediately saved in the data base.

Undo

PSS®SINCAL supports ‘stepwise undo’ and ‘restora- tion of last saved data’ functions.

Libraries

Data bases with various types of equipment (e.g. ca- bles, overhead lines, transformers, protection devic- es, etc.) are provided and can be augmented by the user.

User macros

There is a library for built-in models and models for whole parts of the network. Macros can also be complete data bases. PSS®SINCAL can work with more than one data base at the same time.

Data base management

Full and flexible data management including tree list and browser functionality is available for input data, results and variants. Freely defined queries can be di- rectly accessed through the GUI.

All information can directly be passed to any Office Application by copy and paste.

Reports

Freely definable reports with all means of List & La- bel® (combit GmbH) are provided. Many standard reports for each calculation method are available.

Simple reports could also be achieved by just copy and paste data into the preferred application.

by just copy and paste data into the preferred application. Figure 1-10 Report ■ One data

Figure 1-10 Report

One data base for everything

Fully integrated system (data – calculation – user in- terface – analysis) with object-orientated models

Interfaces

Interfaces to GIS and SCADA systems are availa- ble/customizable as additional components.

This could be standard ASCII-file definitions or direct OLE or ODBC links, SQL procedures etc.

No node limitation

The number of nodes/substations is unrestricted (e.g. networks with 50.000 nodes or more have been calculated in connection to GIS systems.) because the program automatically allocates the required memory.

Multi-network simulation

PSS®SINCAL can simultaneously simulate several networks that are not linked together at the same time.

Variants

Variants are organized in a tree structure. Changes in one variant will automatically update all dependent sub-variants. Network development is easy to han- dle. Analysis across variants is a very mighty tool which is available by standard data base actions and also covers the diagram display.

Figure 1-11 Diagram with graphs from different variants ■ Mixed graphical representation For network planning
Figure 1-11 Diagram with graphs from different variants ■ Mixed graphical representation For network planning

Figure 1-11 Diagram with graphs from different variants

Mixed graphical representation

For network planning the representation of the net- work depends on the tasks you have to do. If you want to set protection devices or have a look on the structure of the network, schematic view is the best. In medium- and low-voltage networks however a semi scale drawing enables the engineer to take into consideration local characteristics and topographical demands. PSS®SINCAL can mix semi-scale structures with schematic structures even within one network diagram. User defined units are also available. PSS®SINCAL works in a world coordinate system. Therefore no maps can be too large sized. Maps of different scale can be integrated into the same map. Only the paper size of the plotter sets limits.

Models

Every network component has to be modeled only once for different analysis tasks. The mathematical model changes according to the selected analysis method. For instance, lines can have PI equation or wave equation, loads/asynchronous motors can change their behavior during calculation. For har- monics the frequency dependency of the impedance can be taken into account.

Not all network elements must have a graphical rep- resentation. PSS®SINCAL includes elements without graphical representation in the calculation and pro- vide their results in the spreadsheet view. This shows that each element is an object with different attrib- utes.

Name plate values

PSS®SINCAL works with name plate values. Most of the input data are entered in their physical quantities so that you can easily use the known data of equip- ment and save a lot of data conversion or prepara- tion time just before the calculation.

The specification of lines differ for low voltage and medium voltage systems (e.g. cable types with tech- nical data that are available in the data base:

NKBA

values are normally measured). According to that

)

or high voltage system (where electrical

more input options for cable and overhead lines are available.

Check of input data

Every input data is carefully checked at once. That could be the topology (e.g. the node name must be unique) or the specific value of the equipment (e.g. the range of input data for Xd” of generator or the vector groups of transformers). Standard values are available, too.

Online help

The online help is working with latest HTML based helping functions. Even manuals can be generated out of this information.

Batch mode/Macro Recorder/Automation

With the batch mode functionality the user can de- fine several tasks, which have to be done often (mul- tiple runs) or for overnight procedures in variant cal- culations. For batch mode, users need not know a specific command structure, but only record the steps the program should do later on.

Interactive mode

PSS®SINCAL can be used as a calculation engine run- ning in the background of other programs. For in- stance, load flow or other calculations can be started within the GIS environment using the GIS’ network data and PSS®SINCAL’s analysis capabilities. The re- sults will be displayed in the GIS, i.e. in this case it is not necessary to open the PSS®SINCAL user inter- face. If PSS®SINCAL shall be used for further network analysis the open data base can be used as the inter- changing platform for data. No other interface has to be developed.

Single-/multi-user data base

PSS®SINCAL can work in single-user or multi user mode with Oracle data base or SQL Server data base.

ASP system

PSS®SINCAL can also work as an ASP (Application Service Provider) System. With this option the user can work with PSS®SINCAL via internet and PSS®SINCAL is managed on a PC hosted by Siemens with high security fire walls. The user has permanent access to the newest version of PSS®SINCAL, does not need to provide PC capacity (only a display sta- tion) and just pays for the time he actually works with the program.

2 Electrical Networks PSS®SINCAL offers a comprehensive range of analysis modules and tools facilitating the

2 Electrical Networks

2 Electrical Networks PSS®SINCAL offers a comprehensive range of analysis modules and tools facilitating the planning,

PSS®SINCAL offers a comprehensive range of analysis modules and tools facilitating the planning, design and operation of power systems. Its field of application ranges from short-term to long-term planning tasks, fault analysis, reliability, harmonic response, protection coordination, stability (RMS) and electromagnetic tran- sient (EMT) studies.

PSS®SINCAL supports all types of networks from low to the highest voltage levels with balanced and unbalanced network models e.g. four wire systems or transposed systems with the full coupling matrix.

Using the PSS®SINCAL program, engineers can simulate future scenarios and thus help avoid costly design errors or misinvestment. It is the ideal tool for simulating Smart Grids and their effects including linkage to Smart Meters.

Several analysis modules, such as protection or dynamic simulation, are also ideally suited for training purposes.

The following calculation methods are available for elec- trical power systems:

Overview of methods

Power Flow (Balanced/Unbalanced)

Load and Generation Profiles

Load and Network Development

Optimal Network Structures

Optimal Load Flow

Optimal Branching/Tie Open Points

Reactive Power Optimization

& Capacitor Placement

Load Balancing

Load Allocation/Scaling

& Transformer Tap Detection

Contingency Analysis

Probabilistic Reliability

Cost Calculation

Short Circuit: 1-, 2- and 3-phase

Multiple Fault

Dimensioning of Low-Voltage Networks

Distance Protection

Overcurrent Time Protection

Protection Simulation

Protection Device Management System (PSS®PDMS)

Arc Flash Hazard

Harmonics

Ripple Control

Motor Start

Stability (RMS) (Balanced/Unbalanced models and disturbances)

Electromagnetic Transients (EMT)

Eigenvalue/Modal Analysis

Eigenvalue Screening

Dynamic Network Reduction

Identification/Optimization

Frequency Domain

Flicker

Torsion

Voltage Profile/Multiconductor Systems

Real Time Simulation

Professional Dynamic Engine (PSS®NETOMAC)

Line Constant Calculation

Graphical Model Builder (GMB) NETCAD/BOSL

Generic Wind Models

FACTS Models

2.1 Power Flow Calculation

Power Flow Calculation is the program module for the analysis and optimization of existing networks. Weak point determination is one of the important tasks in network planning. Different algorithms – i.e. Newton- Raphson, current iteration and others – are available for calculating the distribution of currents, voltages and loads in the network, even under difficult circumstances, e.g. when several infeeds, transformer taps and poor supply voltages are involved.

PSS®SINCAL can handle more than one – isolated – network at the same time.

Networks with more than one slack are possible.

■ The power flow type of each generator or infeed can be set individually, e.g.

The power flow type of each generator or infeed can be set individually, e.g. swing bus (slack), PV, PQ or I type. Controllers with operating points and limits can be modeled. A re-Dispatch according to user defined limits or power frequency characteristics is se- lectable.

Transfer capacity planning through different network areas /groups is possible.

The voltage and power controller can automatically calculate the optimal tap position of transformers or other switched elements like shunts or capacitors based on specified target voltage or power ranges.

Voltage and power regulation at a remote node is possible.

Master and slave controller function for networks with parallel transformers is available.

Different load types can be modeled.

Load flow can handle phase shifting transformers and fully unbalanced transformers like center-tapped models.

Load flow already supports voltage and power de- pendent shedding of loads or generators (e.g. DC El- ements like Photovoltaic Panels)

Many other PSS®SINCAL modules, such as multiple faults, stability, motor start or protection, use the re- sults of the load flow module as a starting condition.

Starting value determination algorithm

PSS ® E load flow calculations can be directly started in the PSS ® SINCAL user interface if PSS ® E V32 or V33 is installed and licensed on the computer.

Color-coded evaluations of input data and results in the network graphic and filtering of data in the spreadsheet view is possible e.g. for:

Voltage ranges

Node overviews

Network and sub-network losses

Tap settings for transformers

Loading of elements

Voltage profiles

Graphical evaluation can be done, e.g.:

Overloaded system elements

Isolated network parts (without a feeding)

Contour plots of selected results, such as load flows, load densities and short-circuit levels, in the network diagrams with selected results

Customizable annotations

Displaying of selected network regions which are of interest (not every element must have a graphical representation)

Diagrams (e.g. voltage profile) showing the results for selected paths through the network can be creat- ed

Unbalanced Power Flow

In PSS®SINCAL balanced network models can be easi- ly transformed into an unbalanced network model by simply specifying the connected phases and entering single- or two-phase connected network elements (loads, generators, transformers, center-tap trans- formers, lines, etc.).

2.2 Load and Generation Profile Simulation

The Load and Generation Profile Simulation is a special form of load flow calculation varying load consumption and generation output over time according to a given daily, weekly or yearly profile. Typically, load profiles with 15-min time steps are used to simulate the effect changing load flows conditions.

For this task, besides the normal nominal power, loads have assigned information on the specific type of con- sumer with a daily load profile (in absolute or relative values). Optionally, the user can define customer data like annual consumption or maximum power demand.

The power of each load or generator at a given point in time is calculated based on the given parameters and operation profile.

For customer loads of the same type it is possible to consider the effect of simultaneity/coincidence. This can be easily done by means of the simultaneity factor which can be defined as a function. Different simultane- ity functions can be defined for different customer groups. The actual simultaneity factor is calculated based on the number of downstream connected cus- tomers of the same load type. Taking into account the effect of simultaneity, the load flow calculation can no longer calculate with static impedances for the network in dependency of the location of the consumers.

the network in dependency of the location of the consumers. Figure 2-1 Generation and Load Profile

Figure 2-1 Generation and Load Profile

Results ■ All load flow results are available including the anal- ysis of maximum or

Results

All load flow results are available including the anal- ysis of maximum or minimum values (e.g. for volt- ages and loading etc.).

Diagrams with daily, weekly and yearly profiles for nodes and branches are created.

Voltage band and loading limit violations as well as line utilization during the simulation period are indi- cated in diagrams.

Total losses and lost energy are presented in a dia- gram.

2.3 Load and Network Development

The Load Development module provides information on how to develop electric networks taking into account future load growth and migration. Load forecasts are the input data and can be derived by historical data directly in the GUI. PSS®SINCAL Load Development calculations are enhanced load flow calculations with load and gen- eration levels that vary over time. PSS®SINCAL automat- ically determines load flow results at points in time when changes are applied to the network.

In addition to nominal values, PSS®SINCAL assigns load changes (i.e. in-/decreases) and considers commission- ing and decommissioning dates for network compo- nents. Absolute or relative load changes can be assigned to individual loads, groups/types of loads or loads in graphically selected areas. A commissioning and de- commission date can be entered for each network ele- ment. This allows taking new loads, transformer, lines, etc. into service and existing ones out of service at fu- ture points in time. All network development scenarios and the foresighted assessment of future network per- formance can be modeled.

The entire load flow calculation results with evaluation of minimum and maximum values (e.g. voltages or loading levels) and diagrams with information on power requirements and overloaded lines are provided.

Additional information is provided if limits have been violated during the calculation period.

The Load Development tool provides valuable infor- mation to identify weak points and to prioritize required network reinforcement or restructuring measures.

required network reinforcement or restructuring measures. Figure 2-2 Secured Power and Load Increase 2.4 Optimal

Figure 2-2 Secured Power and Load Increase

2.4

Optimal Network

Structure

The purpose of this optimization is the determination of the best possible structure for medium-voltage net- works. The conventional operating forms of loops and feeders serve as the basis for structure optimization. The optimization of greenfield developments or existing networks can be carried out.

The optimization is based on a station and route model defining possible connections between infeed and loads. The optimization has the objective to minimize losses while complying with technical limits (max. feeder load, max. voltage drop, etc.). The cost of transforming the network into the proposed structure is determined.

the network into the proposed structure is determined. Figure 2-3 Route and station model PSS SINCAL

Figure 2-3 Route and station model

Figure 2-4 Resulting optimal routes Three optimization methods - rotating ray, best savings and best
Figure 2-4 Resulting optimal routes Three optimization methods - rotating ray, best savings and best

Figure 2-4 Resulting optimal routes

Three optimization methods - rotating ray, best savings and best neighbor – are available. The first static optimi- zation loop determines the target network solution. In a second loop, the dynamic optimization calculates the optimal network development sequence for the trans- formation from the initial into the target network at minimum cost.

2.5 Optimal Load Flow

PSS SINCAL Load Flow Optimization is an important tool for evaluating and enhancing network structures and loads. It is used for network operating maintenance and in network planning. PSS SINCAL alters network varia- bles within a defined control range to minimize active power losses. This lets the user evaluate the networks and work out network variations to assure cost-effective network planning.

PSS SINCAL determines network conditions with the fewest possible transmission losses and the smallest number of violated technical limits. This reduces the voltage variance at the network nodes.

The system variables in this case are generator voltages, generator reactive powers and the transformation ratios of the transformers. Observed limits are the loading of plant and equipment, the voltage range and the P/Q diagram allowed for the generators.

PSS SINCAL supports two different algorithms to solve the problem:

Gradient Method

Network optimization is an indirect gradient method with an external penalty function. This method first determines the set of permissible solutions and then selects the best possible solution

Once a network model has been created, then the goal is to minimize a specific non-linear function. This can be either an objective function or a cost function.

PSS SINCAL recreates predefined technical limits for network elements as non-linear secondary condi- tions. This model can be either an equation or an inequation.

Generic Method

This method is based on the „Ant“-Algorithm which is

a kind of swarm intelligence with meta-heuristic op- timization.

By defining the number/level of generations the user can control the accuracy. Advantage of this method

is that the result is fairly independent from the start-

ing conditions.

2.6 Optimal Branching - Tie Open Points

In meshed networks, this method can be used for calcu- lating the positions of the optimal tie open points and for applying them to the network configuration at the press of a button. It enables the network to be split into a radial network structure with minimum system losses. For this method, the load flow calculation is used to determine the point of minimum voltage. Then the cir- cuit is opened at the side of the loop with the minimum current. This is continued until the selected network area is unmeshed. Topological changes are taken into account at each new calculation step.

This method is well suited for the identification of the optimal open points separating network areas supplied by different transformers.

Determination of the radial network structure with lowest losses

Applicable for different network levels

Defining network areas where no open point chang- es should be proposed.

Automatic transfer and application of open point (switch position) changes.

Color-coding of open points, feeders and supply areas in the network diagram

2.7 Reactive Power Optimization and Capacitor Placement

Reactive Power Optimization

The optimized utilization of reactive power compensa- tion has a positive effect on network operation. Typical advantages are:

Reduction in transported apparent power and load- ing of network components

■ Reduction in system losses ■ Improved voltage profile and mitigation of voltage limit violation

Reduction in system losses

Improved voltage profile and mitigation of voltage limit violation

Postponement of otherwise required network rein- forcement

Cost of reactive power consumption can be reduced

A series of load flow calculations for the entire network

determines the required reactive power. In each individ- ual load flow calculation, a fraction of the reactive pow- er requirement at the transformers is compensated. The reactive power requirement can be inductive or capaci- tive. The calculation of the reactive power requirement

is carried out for selected voltage levels. In the graphical

network diagram, shunt reactor or capacitor symbols are depicted at the lower voltage side terminals of trans- formers for network areas where reactive power is needed to achieve a specified power factor. PSS®SINCAL can also propose standard ratings based on types speci-

fied in the equipment data base.

All relevant load flow results, such as the required reac- tive power, reduction in losses, etc., can be displayed.

Automatic Capacitor Placement

This optimization method has the objective to reduce network losses by placing capacitors in the network. PSS®SINCAL can identify optimum locations for capaci- tor installation offsetting the costs for capacitors and expected savings from reduced losses. Based on costs and savings the return on investment is calculated.

on costs and savings the return on investment is calculated. Figure 2-5 Optimal compensation with investment

Figure 2-5 Optimal compensation with investment

2.8 Volt / Var Optimization

With this procedure the voltage and the power factor can be controlled in radial medium- and low-voltage feeders, which can be symmetrical or unsymmetrical,

with the result that all consumer nodes are located in the defined voltage range and that the transferred reac- tive power is as low as possible. The optimization of the voltage is required to ensure acceptable network opera- tion on the basis of the prescribed limits for all consum- ers at the feeder. The optimization of the power factor reduces the transfer of reactive power (and hence the losses) at the feeder.

The power factor it is getting smaller with the number of inductive consumers (the cable capacities reduce this effect slightly).

The aim of the VoltVar optimization is to determine at what point of the feeder a capacitor should be installed and how the transformer must be set at the beginning of the feeder. This will ensure that the consumer nodes of the feeder are within the permissible range under high load and under low load.

the permissible range under high load and under low load. Figure 2-6 Optimum compensation 2.9 Load
the permissible range under high load and under low load. Figure 2-6 Optimum compensation 2.9 Load

Figure 2-6 Optimum compensation

2.9 Load Balancing

The Load Balancing method can be used in unbalanced networks to optimize the connection of single- and two- phase connected loads with the objective to achieve balanced system loading. Complete feeder could be relinked as a whole.

Load balancing is a combinatorial problem which is solved by PSS®SINCAL using a genetic optimization algo- rithm that varies the combinations of the connected phases of single-phase (L1-G, L2-G, L3-G) and two-phase (L1-L2, L2-L3, L3-L1) connected loads. The result of the optimization is the system configuration that results in the lowest system unbalance factor of all analyzed com- binations.

The result dialog in PSS®SINCAL lists the existing and newly proposed phase connections for loads where changes in phase connection would achieve a more balanced load flow in the network. The result can be

reviewed in the result dialog window where changes of the connected phases can be applied

reviewed in the result dialog window where changes of the connected phases can be applied to the network for selected loads.

2.10 Load Allocation/Scaling and Transformer Tap Detection

The Load Allocation method (Substation Load Assign- ment module) is an enhancement of the Load Flow calculation module enabling feeder load scaling. It is used to scale loads in order to determine load flow con- ditions matching measured currents or apparent power flows. For this purpose, recorded maximum meter read- ings can be entered at loads and meters placed on lines in the network. The load allocation function scales loads to which meter readings are assigned so that the results of the load flow calculation match the recorded maxi- mum flows at the measurement points. Hence, the ap- plication load allocation function can improve the net- work model and lead to simulation results that are closer to real network conditions.

Tap Zone Detection is an enhanced load flow simulation method combining load trimming for minimum and maximum load conditions with transformer tap optimi- zation so that the voltage of the regulated feeder re- mains within the permitted voltage range.

The results are the load flow results for minimum and maximum load conditions. Resulting tap positions can be visualized by means of color-coding in the network graphic. The calculated minimum and maximum voltag- es can be visualized and compared to the permissible voltage limits in voltage profile diagrams.

the permissible voltage limits in voltage profile diagrams. Figure 2-7 Color-coded Tap Zones 2.11 Contingency Analysis

Figure 2-7 Color-coded Tap Zones

2.11 Contingency Analysis and Restoration of Supply

The purpose of the Contingency Analysis module is to assess the load flow in networks during outages of net- work components and generators. It provides infor- mation on security of supply and weak points in the network. The network operator obtains important in- formation on following issues:

n-1 and n-1-1 criteria compliance

Risk of supply interruptions

Overload conditions due to network component outages

Unfeasible network conditions as a result of network component outages

Priorities of network development measures

Form of contractual agreements with consumers

Contingency Analysis comprises a series of load flow calculations. One or more elements are considered on outage in each individual load flow calculation. PSS®SINCAL can simulate the outage of a single network component, or a group of components (that have to be operative as a group) and overloaded components. Con- ditional and unconditional outages as well as base (n-1) and resulting (n-2) outages can be modeled.

as base (n-1) and resulting (n-2) outages can be modeled. Figure 2-8 Evaluation of contingency analysis

Figure 2-8 Evaluation of contingency analysis

All relevant results (minimum and maximum values, unsupplied consumers, overloads, etc.) are recorded. The results can be summarized in a clearly arranged tree structure. For large networks, the evaluation can be limited to the main characteristics in order to be able to deal with large amounts of data and to achieve short calculation times. Detailed load flow results are provided for the analysis of critical cases.

The purpose of the Restoration of Supply method is to restore the supply of all consumers (loads, asynchronous machines, etc.) to a normal operating state after outage of network components.

At first, PSS®SINCAL tries to restore supply primarily by closing switches. If this is not sufficient to restore supply to all consumers then the algorithm tries to transfer loads to other feeders. If even this fails then consump- tion is reduced or loads are shed. As results different switching options with all performed restoration measures and the not supplied network elements are provided.

Figure 2-9 Restoration of supply protocol 2.12 Probabilistic Reliability A number of different criteria are
Figure 2-9 Restoration of supply protocol 2.12 Probabilistic Reliability A number of different criteria are

Figure 2-9 Restoration of supply protocol

2.12 Probabilistic Reliability

A number of different criteria are used in the network planning process to assess the reliability of power sys- tems. There is a differentiation, for example, between failure and customer-orientated planning criteria, and deterministic and probabilistic criteria. A failure- orientated reliability criterion such as the (n-1) criteri- on, for example filters out those failures whose effects are unacceptable. Only one fault or two faults (n-2) are assessed at a time. In PSS®SINCAL this can be done with the Contingency Analysis module.

Customer-orientated planning criteria summate all fault- related supply interruptions of a customer. Probabilistic reliability calculations are employed for determining expected values for individual customers. These charac- teristic values can then be compared against limit values for specific customers.

For a long time, deterministic reliability criteria were used exclusively for assessing adequate reliability of a power supply at the planning stage of a network. The task of the planner was to select a limited number of system states and fault scenarios and then to examine them for adherence to the requirements specified by the criterion.

The probabilistic reliability calculation makes special demands on the data base. In addition to the electrical and topographical data for load flow and short circuit calculations, additional information is needed for setting the boundaries of the network to be examined, and its component parts, for network protection and for simu- lating faults.

When analyzing reliability it is usually necessary to sub- divide large transmission and distribution networks into

smaller sub-systems. The subdivision of the system aris- es from the task to be examined. Within the examined system there are further boundaries. All individual items of equipment whose failure has the same effects on network performance are combined to form component units. This subdivision is especially important with re- gard to the degree of detail and computation time. The bounding of components, from which the inception of a fault and the intervention of the system protection can be simulated, is obtained by grouping items of equip- ment that are all tripped by the primary protection when a fault occurs. Overhead power lines, cables, transform- ers and bus bars usually comprise this tripping range orientated component bounding; the outgoing feeder and the equipment of the switch bay are assigned to the corresponding components.

Failure models have been developed from analyses of the operation of real networks and from fault statistics which allow the course of events of faults to be classi- fied. The most important models are:

Independent single failure: failure of one single component

Common mode failure: simultaneous failure of sev- eral components due to a common cause

Multiple earth fault with multiple tripping: interde- pendent failure of two components in networks with resonant earthing or with an isolated neutral on the basis of an existing earth fault

Failure during maintenance of the backup compo- nent: interdependent failure during maintenance of the backup component

Over-functioning of protection devices: stochastic secondary failure due to non-selective tripping of the protection system

Protection device failure: stochastic secondary failure due to failure of the primary protection device and tripping of the backup protection device

The analytic method combinatorial generates all failure combinations. Only those combinations with a probabil- ity above a given threshold value are further considered in the calculation. Another possibility to limit the num- ber of the combinations included in the calculation is the limitation of the order, i.e. the number of simulta- neously failed elements, of the combinations. Probabilis- tic reliability calculation allows a quantitative description of supply reliability through appropriate characteristic indices. Internationally in the field of reliability calcula- tion a multitude of different more or less meaningful and widespread indices exist. However, certain basic indices have proven to be valuable, and from those basic indices further sizes can be calculated on demand.

For a more detailed simulation PSS®SINCAL also offers a fully featured Monte Carlo method. This especially is useful in the area of maintenance outages. Parallel us-

age of the full cores enables the user to get to a solution in a

age of the full cores enables the user to get to a solution in a reasonable time.

Symbol

Name

Unit

Hu

Frequency of supply interruptions

1/a

Tu

Mean duration of supply interruptions

h or min

Qu

Unavailability

1(common:

min/a)

Lu

(Cumulated) inter-

MVA/a

rupted power

Wu

(Cumulated) energy

MVAh/a

not supplied

PSS®SINCAL also supports most of the indices like SAIFI, SAIDI, MAIFI, ASIFI, ASIDI or CAIDI.

2.13 Cost Calculation

The Economic Efficiency calculations determine the economic benefit of development and restructuring measures and evaluate costs at yearly intervals.

To determine the economic benefit, PSS SINCAL uses an evaluation method commonly used in electricity compa- nies: the Net Present Value Method.

To evaluate costs, the Summation Method determines costs at yearly intervals.

Economic Efficiency calculations determine the costs and present values resulting from network operations and diverse expansion and restructuring measures for the time period from the current view time t0 to the planning horizon tn.

from the current view time t0 to the planning horizon tn. Figure 2-10 Timeline for economic

Figure 2-10 Timeline for economic calculation

The calculation results are prepared annually at the end of the year. These "annual tranches" are used to evaluate

both investment expenditures and ongoing annual costs. The annual results are provided both as present values and not yet discounted costs.

Analogous to the net present value method, the costs Cc are determined from the acquisition costs Ci and shut- down costs Cs together with the operating costs in the observation period. If the calculatory life span of the equipment is greater than the planning horizon, then the residual value Cr also needs to be considered.

The summation method provides you with the actual costs for individual annual tranches and the sum of all occurring costs for the planning horizon.

PSS®SINCAL provides two different types of results:

Total results for the entire observation period

Results for each annual tranche in the observation period

The economic efficiency of an investment is actually evaluated using the total results from the entire obser- vation period tn – t0. All accruing costs are evaluated and then compared to the anticipated income.

For current network operation, mainly expected annual costs are of interest. Results are prepared for individual annual tranches.

Results are prepared for individual annual tranches. Figure 2-11 Cost per year 2.14 Short-Circuit Calculation

Figure 2-11 Cost per year

2.14 Short-Circuit Calculation

Short-Circuit Calculation is the method employed for assessing the correct ratings for the network (i.e. the maximum fault currents) and also the correct protection settings (i.e. the minimum fault currents).

Single-phase, two-phase, two-phase-to-ground and three-phase faults can be calculated for individual nodes or whole sub-networks, i.e. it is possible to calculate the short-circuit current distribution in the network for each fault condition. The calculation can be performed in accordance with the standards ANSI C37, IEC 61363-1, VDE 0102, IEC 60909, engineering recommendation G74, and taking into account pre-fault loading. Any possible changes to the standard are incorporated di- rectly and smoothly into the calculation process, since our experts are participating in standards committee meetings. In the case of asymmetrical faults different transformer vector groups are also taken into account, as are the various methods of neutral earthing em-

ployed. The short-circuit current rating of bus bars and cables (1-second current) can be checked,

ployed. The short-circuit current rating of bus bars and cables (1-second current) can be checked, too.

Network design and planning tasks for which expected maximum currents are decisive are normally carried out in accordance with the relevant standard. However, if the minimum fault currents need to be determined, the preferred choice is the load flow superposition method, which takes into account the network’s pre-fault loading condition. This is especially the case when the fault current has the same order of magnitude as the load current.

The key values of the short-circuit analysis standards for assessing the fault characteristics (such as Ik“, ip, Ia, Sk“, Uo, Z0/Z1, etc.) and other relevant information are stored in the data base where they are available for further calculations. The calculation reports include fault location-based tables with all contributions and branch- es viewed together with summaries of results.

IEC 60909/VDE 102

IEC 61363-1

ANSI C37

Engineering Recommendation G74

Short-circuit analysis considering pre-fault loading conditions

Calculation with symmetrical components

Arc impedances can be taken into consideration

Key values are Ik“ ,ip, Ia, Sk“, Uo, Z0/Z1

ip can be calculated optionally according to radial network, meshed network or to the equivalent fre- quency method.

Block generators are implemented according to the standards in two different ways (generator and transformer as two separate elements or combined as one element).

DC equipment like PV or Wind is modeled with the correct contribution, different to normal rotating machines, taking into consideration also the possible disconnection according to the connection rules.

Neutral grounding

Phase shifts in transformers

Calculation in selected or all voltage levels at the same time.

Calculation of all currents in the whole network for a single fault location.

Calculation of faults at every node in specified volt- age levels simultaneously.

Various reports for all nodes, all fault locations all network levels

Color-coded evaluation of network diagrams, e.g. the violation of equipment ratings such as the permissi- ble 1-sec short circuit current rating of lines or bus bars.

2.15 Multiple Faults

When faults and interruptions occur simultaneously in several locations, e.g. in the not-so-rare case of a double earth fault, the multiple fault calculation determines the steady-state distribution of current and voltage in the network. The actual switching configuration is taken into account, as is load flow.

Possible fault types at nodes are:

Single-phase fault

Two-phase fault with/without earth

Three-phase fault with/without earth

Additionally, it is possible to place line faults and to vary their location on the line. The following fault and con- ductor interruption types can be simulated on lines:

Single-phase, two-phase and three-phase interrup- tion

Single-phase interruption and single-phase earth fault

Two-phase interruption and two-phase earth fault

Three-phase interruption and single-phase or three- phase earth fault

Two-phase interruption and two-phase fault

Three-phase interruption and two-phase or three- phase fault

The multiple fault analysis is based on a complete 3- phase system representation (symmetrical components).

All specified faults can be combined to different “fault packages” which can be calculated simultaneously. Re- sults can be shown case by case in the network diagram, reports or data base masks.

2.16 Dimensioning of Low-Voltage Networks and Fuse Coordination

Rating of low-voltage networks, i.e. checking the trip- ping conditions, is a combination of load-flow calcula- tion and short-circuit calculation. In accordance with the VDE 0102 standard, the program utilizes the minimum single-phase fault currents to determine the maximum permitted rated current of the appropriate fuse. For this purpose the protected zone under investigation is exam- ined with help of a travelling fault to find the point where the minimum fault currents flow through the adjoining fuses. A protected zone can be limited by up to three protection devices. PSS®SINCAL identifies the existing fuses whose rated current exceeds the maxi-

mum permitted value. A situation where the load cur- rent exceeds the maximum permitted current

mum permitted value. A situation where the load cur- rent exceeds the maximum permitted current of the fuse will also be reported.

Unique method of checking fuses in low voltage networks

Results are the identification of deviations from planning standards

Fuses with incorrect rated currents are indicated in the network diagram

2.17 Protection Modules

If a misoperation has occurred and needs to be under-

stood (“post mortem analysis”) or if you want to evaluate

– hypothetical – fault conditions, a stepped event analy-

sis is the best solution. PSS®SINCAL’s interactive protec- tion simulation is one of the most powerful tools in the industry for evaluating protection system response from

the time a fault occurs until it is cleared – time step by time step. Every time a relay is tripping the system stops and the engineer can analyze the conditions of all relays in masks, diagrams and reports and adapt the relay settings according to the demands. At any time the user can continue the simulation until the fault is cleared and

a total fault clearance time is calculated.

Easy to use

Interactively controlled

Realistic relay models

Automatically generated and interacting windows

Clear documentation in diagrams, reports and net- work diagram

Protection Devices

Overcurrent time protection:

Fuses

Bimetallic relays

Contactors

Miniature circuit breaker

Low-voltage circuit breaker

Definite time relays

British Standard behavior

All types of circuit breaker with instrument trans- former

Free user-defined relays with predefined block structures

Distance protection:

Many predefined relays from different manufac- turers are available which model the behavior of the selected distance relay

Different starting characteristics can be modeled

MHO and polygonal characteristics can be entered

The user can define starting and tripping charac- teristics (composed of lines and circles)

Differential relays:

for reliability studies

In general, differential protection is used as main protec- tion with fast operating times. Other protection devices provide backup. The determination of the settings of backup protection devices is the main objective of the protection coordination.

2.17.1 Distance Protection

The Distance Protection method calculates the imped- ance settings for the three zones and the overreach zones (auto-reclosure and signal comparison) of dis- tance protection relays in any type of meshed network.

When grading impedances are calculated, the setting given priority is the one that causes the protection to respond selectively regardless of how the network is connected. Initially, all values are calculated for the first zones and this is followed by all second zones and then all third zones. The second and third zone of the relays can be altered during or after calculation of the settings while working interactively from the screen, so it is a simple matter to accommodate the protection engi- neer’s ideas. There are various ways of taking into ac- count the time grading of the third zone. The results of the program are provided in time grading diagrams drawn to scale and a table of settings for each protection device.

No definition of grading paths, system builds them automatically

Worst case network for each relay is build during the calculation (according to different strategies)

The algorithm DISTAL has the objective to determine settings that provide selectivity for all switching con- ditions

Specific modeling of each relay behavior

Results are relay specific settings

Calculation of primary or secondary values

Interaction between the calculation of each zone possible

Diagrams of relay setting and range of zones into the network

2.17.2 Overcurrent Time Protection

The Protection Simulation module simulates the time sequence of the fault clearance in radial and meshed networks. This unique feature is called stepped event

analysis. For this purpose, there is a data base of protec- tion devices storing approximately

analysis. For this purpose, there is a data base of protec- tion devices storing approximately 1000 circuit breakers with instrument transformers, low-voltage circuit break- ers, fuses, bimetallic relays, contactors and miniature circuit breakers together with all possible settings. The combination with distance protection relays is no prob- lem.

Faults can be simulated at nodes or anywhere on power lines or cables. The following fault types can be mod- eled:

Single-phase fault

Two-phase fault

Two-phase-to-ground fault

Three-phase fault

User-defined multiple faults packages, e.g. cross- country faults. (see multiple fault module descrip- tion).

Fault impedances, e.g. arc impedance can be simulated, if required.

Starting and triggering of protection devices are simu- lated in as many time steps as necessary. The operating state of the protection devices can be visualized in the network diagram by color code. Any violations of the grading times are also indicated, as is multiple tripping of protection devices. Directional elements can be freely defined. Damage curves for cables and transformer loadings are also displayed in graphical form.

The system generates grading diagrams for I2t, RX, and Zt functionality. The fields of application are the check- ing of thermal loads and incorrect tripping in normal operation, the determination of disconnection times, the coordination of protection and the checking of grad- ing times.

Specialties

Meshed networks

Across all network levels

Data base with more than 1000 protection devices

Directional element

Protection failure

Over and undervoltage tripping

Interlocks and intertripping

Free definition of protection devices

Mechanical protection devices

Faults located on node or lines

Fault impedances

Various short circuits

Colored display of the various relay states

Delays of relays/waiting times

Decaying back-feed of asynchronous motors

Cable/transformer damages curves

2.17.3 Protection Simulation

For networks with overcurrent, distance and differential protection devices.

This enhanced Protection Simulation module considers the settings of overcurrent and distance protection de- vices; as well as the protected zones of differential pro- tection devices. The following steps are carried out:

1. Load flow calculation for direction decision and relay starting.

2. Determination of the protection devices that limit the concerned protected area and that have to trip.

3. Calculation of currents, impedances and tripping times.

4. Tripping of the device with the shortest release time.

5. Changing of network topology.

6. If fault is not cleared: second short-circuit calculation and determination of the next relay to trip.

7. Repetition of the above steps until the fault is cleared and the total fault clearance time is determined.

8. Evaluation whether the correct relays have tripped, and provision of all relevant information, e.g. indica- tion of unselective relay operation.

Important is the simulation of special protection device properties:

Directional elements

Starting conditions:

Overcurrent

Voltage-controlled under-impedance

Impedance characteristics

Interlocks and intertripping

Asymmetrical faults

Protection failure

Simulation across several voltage levels

Representation of downstream overcurrent time relays

Method

On disposal: load flow and several short circuits

Time-sequential work: possibility of correction or changes

Active elements with dynamic properties

■ Choosing or changing the protection philosophy Graphic Documentation ■ I-t grading diagram: across voltage

Choosing or changing the protection philosophy

Graphic Documentation

I-t grading diagram: across voltage levels, additional information

interactive changing of protection characteristics

Display of protection settings in network diagram

Z-t diagram: several downstream relays, impedance and zone reaches

R-X diagram: impedance area with directional lines and pointers

Composite protection: diagrams with both types of relays to check the coordination.

Different protection devices

Protection device catalogue with all setting facilities

Facility to augment the catalogs

Definition of general protection elements

Protection simulation

Symmetrical and asymmetrical short circuits

With and without preload

Faults at nodes and on lines

With and without fault impedances

Visualization of the operational state of protection devices (e.g. started, tripped) by means of color code.

Protection Documentation

PSS®SINCAL also offers a fully automated documenta- tion of selected grading paths. This enables the protec- tion engineer to quickly generate the necessary dia- grams and maps.

to quickly generate the necessary dia- grams and maps. Figure 2-12 Documentation of grading path 2.18

Figure 2-12 Documentation of grading path

2.18 Protection Device Management System (PSS ® PDMS)

PSS®PDMS is a universal program to centrally manage protection devices and their settings. All the data are stored in a central relational database (either Microsoft Access or Oracle) for protection devices and can be read by other programs at any time.

devices and can be read by other programs at any time. Figure 2-13 Workflow for device

Figure 2-13 Workflow for device data

PSS®PDMS’ key features are:

Data is stored in a central relational database (either Microsoft Access or Oracle or MS SQL Server).

PSS®PDMS is a multi-user enterprise application.

A modern Windows user interface optimally supports data management.

Protection devices are modeled comprehensively with all their functions and settings including differ- ent parameter sets for the same relay.

Settings are checked against the available settings ranges

Protection device templates can be created and man- aged and then used to generate real protection de- vices.

It is easy to connect to external documents (parame- ter files, descriptions of protection devices etc.)

Extensive functions for relay import and export.

Access rights (user roles) can be specified and cus- tomized according to the company’s need

User defined Workflow (e.g. planned, approved, active settings) is supported including historical set- tings

Data exchange with PSS®SINCAL enables the planner to verify the settings directly in the network model

Figure 2-14 Mask with protection device setting 2.19 Arc Flash Hazard PSS®SINCAL‘s Arc Flash module
Figure 2-14 Mask with protection device setting 2.19 Arc Flash Hazard PSS®SINCAL‘s Arc Flash module

Figure 2-14 Mask with protection device setting

2.19 Arc Flash Hazard

PSS®SINCAL‘s Arc Flash module is intended for designers and facility operators of electrical plants. It determines the arc flash hazard distance and the incident energy to which employees could be exposed, based on the guide- lines defined by IEEE 1584 standard.

Its calculation features include the Empirical Model, Lee Method, current limiting fuses and low-voltage circuit breakers as given in IEEE 1584. The Arc Flash Hazard calculations cover the empirically derived model for voltages from 208V to 15kV and a theoretically derived model for any voltage level. Additionally, user-defined O/C protection devices including I-t characteristics and current limiting behavior can be added, i.e. the usage is not limited to the protection devices stated in IEEE 1584.

Furthermore, required Personal Protective Equipment classes are determined in accordance with NFPA 70E standard. The calculated results can be documented in one-line diagrams, automatically generated reports and as printable warning labels.

generated reports and as printable warning labels. Figure 2-15 Warning label 2.20 Harmonics The Harmonics

Figure 2-15 Warning label

2.20 Harmonics

The Harmonics module is used for calculating the distri- bution of harmonics in electrical networks as well as for calculating frequency response. The calculated harmonic currents and voltages in the network can be evaluated

by several different methods such as, for example TIF, THFF or EDC.

different methods such as, for example TIF, THFF or EDC. Figure 2-16 Frequency scan and locus

Figure 2-16 Frequency scan and locus curve

In addition to the graphical output of frequency re- sponses for the required nodes, the network impedances are also shown in the complex plane and the harmonics level for all nodes and network levels with the appropri- ate limit values.

Oberschwingung - Netzebenenpegel: 0.5KV u rel [%] 100 10 THD, U < 69 kV 1
Oberschwingung - Netzebenenpegel: 0.5KV
u rel [%]
100
10
THD, U <
69 kV
1
THD
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0
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20
21
22
23
24
25
26
0.5KV

n [1]

Figure 2-17 Voltage distortion and limit

The input data must be supplemented with the frequen- cy relationship of the network elements, for the purpose of which three different methods are available. The transmission lines are simulated with wave equations. Simulation of a resonance network is possible with very convenient inputs. Current and voltage infeeds are also allowed for odd-number harmonics anywhere in the network. A variety of different filters are offered.

Three phase harmonic voltage and current distribu- tion (unbalanced harmonic short circuit)

Voltage and current harmonic distortion

Determination of harmonic distortion factors. The calculated harmonic currents and voltages in the network can be evaluated by several different meth- ods such as, for example TIF, THFF or EDC.

For harmonics we also have transformer vector groups. That is why you can calculate the wipe out of the 5 and 7 when you have one transformer YY0 and

another turning 30 degrees when you have two 6- pulse bridges. ■ PSS®SINCAL provides you

another turning 30 degrees when you have two 6- pulse bridges.

PSS®SINCAL provides you with three different meth- ods for defining the dependency of the network el- ements from the frequency. They take into consider- ation the skin and proximity effects.

Resonance network equivalent modeling is available.

Lines are modeled by wave equation

Special filter configuration are available

Overloading can be shown as in every other method by coloring the results (and of course by reports).

In addition to the graphical output of frequency responses for the required nodes, the network im- pedances are also shown on the complex plane and the harmonics level for all nodes and network levels with the appropriate limit values.

Filters can be calculated/designed to the specific demands.

Superposed harmonic distortion is shown in bar charts with the specific (country) standard limits.

Diagrams for harmonic response

Diagrams with polar plot of the impedance. (R-X plots)

Detailed tabular reports

2.21 Ripple Control

The Ripple Control module calculates the ripple control level and the distribution of the ripple-control currents in the electrical network for serial and parallel signal inputs. The frequency relationship of the elements can be entered for this method, too.

PSS®SINCAL reproduces all the active and passive net- work elements (generators, loads, and lines) as imped- ances. When doing so, the reactive part of the power must be separated into an inductive part and a capaci- tive part for compensation. Ripple control transmitters are reproduced as voltage sources or current sources.

are reproduced as voltage sources or current sources. Figure 2-18 Control transmitter This module is used

Figure 2-18 Control transmitter

This module is used to check the level for the remote switching of e.g. street lamps or electric heating.

2.22 Motor Start

The Motor Start module is an effective tool for the calcu- lation of the operational behavior of the electrical net- work. It provides answers to questions like:

Will the motor start successfully considering the given load torque?

How large is the voltage dip during the motor start?

What are the operation points of the motors?

How long is the start-up time?

What is the network loading during motor start?

With this method, the demand of power during motor start with inclusion of the voltage at the motor terminal can be calculated. This is a dynamic process, which will be solved by the method of homogeneous time steps. For this, a calculation loop over a period of time is de- fined; and load flow and motor power are determined. Non-linear saturation and star-delta switching is availa- ble.

Any number of motors can be started at different times.

Within PSS®SINCAL the user can define the functions motor torque, load torque and current as functions of speed in diagrams with quick response to the input data. NEMA models as pre-defined equipment are also sup- ported.

Soft startup can be done by defining

Maximum current

Auto transformer

Capacitor units

Combinations of it

For analyses, the load flow results and the following diagrams are available:

Function of time: active power, reactive power, speed, current, voltage, slip

Function of speed: motor torque, load torque

Motor current in complex plane:

Heyland circle

Motoranlauf - Drehmoment-/Gegenmomentkennlinie: Motor2 M [Nm] 6000 5500 5000 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000
Motoranlauf - Drehmoment-/Gegenmomentkennlinie: Motor2
M
[Nm]
6000
5500
5000
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
n [1/min]
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
Motor2
Motor2

Figure 2-19 Motor and load torque

2.23 Stability (RMS) The Stability method can provide the answer to the question of whether

2.23 Stability (RMS)

The Stability method can provide the answer to the question of whether or not the generators can continue in stable operation in the network in the case of faults or interruptions. It handles both balanced and unbalanced network models with balanced and unbalanced disturb- ances like fault right through studies.

Modeling of Network and Machines

No limitations in the size of the network and in the number of machines

Network modeling with complex impedances

Fundamental frequency model for simulating elec- tromechanical phenomena

Quasi steady-state values

Differential equations for machines

Short-term (stability) model: Park equations 5th order

Long-term model: Park equation 2nd order

Synchronous machines are built with their direct and quadrature axes:

Derived data: subtransient, transient and synchro- nous reactances; time constants

Original data: physical resistances and reactances (impedances)

Modeling of Controllers

Differential equations for controllers

PSS®SINCAL offers a controller library which contains – among others – the following components:

IEEE standards

Excitation systems

Turbine governors

Power System Stabilizer (PSS)

PSS®E controller models

By the use of a so called “Block-Orientated Simulation Language” (BOSL) it is also possible to include user- definable controller structures.

Manufacturer models can be built for example in MATLAB/SIMULINK or modern programming lan- guages. With an additional standardized header file (see Appendix G in IEC 61400-27) these models can be compiled and linked as a DLL file. Such DLL files can be exchanged between different parties as black- boxes.

Modeling of Fault Scenarios

Potential bus bar faults are:

Single-phase fault

Two-phase fault with/without earth

Three-phase fault with/without earth

The following interruptions and faults are possible on conductors:

Single-phase, two-phase and three-phase interrup- tion

Single-phase interruption and single-phase earth fault

Two-phase interruption and two-phase earth fault

Three-phase interruption and single-phase or three- phase earth fault

Two-phase interruption and two-phase fault

Three-phase interruption and two-phase or three- phase fault

In addition, it is also possible to energize or de-energize node elements at specific times.

The user can simulate:

Fault application and removal

Line switching and line reclosing

Disconnection of lines, cables, transformers etc.

Addition and removal of shunts

Output of Results

The program calculates the characteristic data of the machines, such as

Phase currents and voltages

Slip and rotor displacement angle

Excitation current and excitation voltage

Power outputs

Torques

Currents and voltages and powers and impedances for any item of plant and equipment are available, too.

Diagrams

In diagrams all results call be displayed in a user-defined manner. Diagrams can be arranged in overviews or in separate diagrams.

can be arranged in overviews or in separate diagrams. Figure 2-20 RMS and EMT plot of

Figure 2-20 RMS and EMT plot of the same signal

2.24 Electromagnetic Transients (EMT) PSS®SINCAL Stability is used for investigations for which the envelope curves

2.24 Electromagnetic Transients (EMT)

PSS®SINCAL Stability is used for investigations for which the envelope curves of the characteristic values are sufficient results. If the 3-phase reel waveform is needed PSS®SINCAL’s Electromagnetic Transients module is used.

PSS®SINCAL’s Electromagnetic Transients module allows for networks, machines (park 7th order) and controllers to be modeled by means of differential equations. Sym- metrical systems are entered single-phasely and com- pleted to three-phase systems. Asymmetrical systems can be accommodated by means of elements in the individual phases. This is also possible for any kind of DC system. Special equipment (e.g. load models, FACTS elements, controls, etc.) can be user-defined by means of BOSL (Block oriented Simulation Language). There- fore, the EMT module can provide a complete solution of all electromechanical (RMS) and electromagnetic (EMT) phenomena, including asymmetrical and non-linear events. The main field of application is in the design of equipment and apparatus while taking into account transient phenomena.

For instance, typical applications are wind park integra- tion studies, investigations of dynamics of industrial networks and studies of HCDC and FACTS plants.

The results are depicted in diagrams and can be ana- lyzed with the evaluation tool SIGRA or Comtrade view- ers.

2.25 Eigenvalue/Modal Analysis

In addition to the facility for simulation in the time do- main, PSS®SINCAL also permits the study of networks, machines, shafts and control systems in the frequency domain. Furthermore the elements of control systems can be analyzed and system behavior can be optimized.

In large-scale electrical systems the relationships be- tween generators, networks and control systems are becoming ever more complex. FACTS elements are used for the fast active control of transmission systems and for filtering purposes in distribution systems. The analy- sis of such complex interactions between systems and equipment requires modern methods which are able to describe the behavior of the whole system both simply and clearly. PSS®SINCAL uses the analysis of system Eigen values for this purpose. Compared with traditional methods of simulation, this method provides more in- formation about the behavior of the system regarding damping, frequency response, observability, controllabil- ity and the effects of system state.

Specific areas of application for Eigen value analysis are inter-system oscillation, voltage stability, modeling of dynamic equivalents, controller design, subsynchronous resonance and harmonics effects.

2.26 Eigenvalue Screening

A full solution of Eigenvalue- and modal analysis in large

electrical power systems can be very time consuming. Also linearized models of the equipment are needed. To get a quick overview of oscillation frequencies, dampings and right locations for damping equipment, the Eigenvalue screening method for stability time do- main simulations can be used. This method is much

faster in large systems. It can be used as a pre- calculation for the main Eigenvalue- and modal analysis.

It can also be used for the tuning of stabilizers during

the simulation run.

2.27 Network Reduction

Deregulation and privatization in the power industry are significantly changing relations among power genera- tion, transmission and distribution systems. Utilities are faced to be oriented to a competitive market environ- ment to maximize their profits. In this new situation, detailed network data among competitive companies are becoming more and more confidential. Thus, ex- changes of the network data among these companies could become difficult. However, with enhanced stabil- ity requirements, dynamic behaviors of the intercon- nected power systems involved need to be carefully studied online and offline. This includes studies such as overall system stability, dynamic security assessment and coordinating system controls in a global manner, etc. All of these studies require knowledge of intercon- nected neighbor networks. Thus, an issue on the estab- lishment of equivalent networks for a large, multi- owner’s interconnected power system become essential.

On the other hand, in power system analysis, it is also a common practice to represent the parts of a large inter- connected power system by some forms of a reduced order equivalent model, e.g., models used for studies on investigating or verifying dynamic behaviors of the sys- tem, for fundamental frequency over voltage studies or for AC filter performance calculations, etc. Due to lim- ited size and capacity of tools used for real-time simula- tion, users are sometimes forced to reduce their net- works to match the size and capacity of the tool used. Furthermore, a reduced model can simplify the network calculation and save the investigation time in some cases. Depending on different applications, equivalent models are established either by a static or a dynamic network reduction process.

After defining the network part which shall be reduced this program module automatically generates a dynam- ic equivalent network part with the same dynamic behavior than the original system. The identification process contains four steps:

Identification of coherent generators by cross- correlation analysis

■ Equivalent generator for each coherent generator group ■ Passive network reduction (“Load Flow Reduction”)

Equivalent generator for each coherent generator group

Passive network reduction (“Load Flow Reduction”)

Identification of controller parameter for each equiv- alent generator

Also a normal passive network reduction based on Ward and Extended Ward is available to replace selected network groups by a network equivalent.

2.28 Identification / Optimization

The data collection at the beginning of a system study is one of the critical and time consuming activities. In many cases the electrical data for simulation models are not available. In special cases only measurements from the system are available. In our software special algo- rithms can identify parameters of electrical models from measurements. The same algorithms can be used for the optimization of settings of models.

The identification is possible for any model in the fre- quency range (e.g. controller transfer functions) and in the time domain (transient and stability mode). The identification mode is used for example for the following functions:

Parameterizing of asynchronous machines from torque-speed characteristic considering saturation (Fig. 2-22)

Parameterizing of synchronous machines

Establishing of dynamic equivalent networks (active equivalent network)

Reduction of dynamic loads (e.g. equivalent motor groups)

Parameterizing of closed-loop controllers (voltage controllers, turbine controllers)

Parameterizing of cable data and line data from ge- ometry of configurations (constant and frequency- dependent parameters)

(constant and frequency- dependent parameters) Figure 2-21 ASM identification The possibility of optimizing

Figure 2-21 ASM identification

The possibility of optimizing can be applied to any ele- ment in the system. All modeling possibilities described are permissible so that linear and non-linear problems

can be solved. The user defines the target function as evaluation function with any input variables from the network or the control loop. Secondary conditions can be considered as defined by the user. The parameters to be varied can be selected and providing with a starting value and possible upper or lower variation limit. Opti- mizing is possible in the time and in frequency domain, with load flow and for general mathematical functions that are defined as block oriented structures. As an ex- ample of optimizing, the tuning of an exciter controller with PSS (power system stabilizer) can be shown (Figure 2-22 dynamic behavior before and after optimization).

2-22 dynamic behavior before and after optimization). Figure 2-22 PSS optimization 2.29 Frequency Domain In

Figure 2-22 PSS optimization

2.29 Frequency Domain

In addition to the facility for simulation in the time do- main, the dynamic engine also permits the study of networks, machines, shafts and control systems in the frequency domain. As well as allowing the elements of control systems to be analyzed, it also permits the study of networks, protection systems and machines at differ- ent frequencies (Figure 2-23).

and machines at differ- ent frequencies (Figure 2-23). Figure 2-23 Frequency domain 2.30 Flicker Flicker is

Figure 2-23 Frequency domain

2.30 Flicker

Flicker is a visible change in brightness of a lamp due to rapid fluctuations in the voltage of the power system.

The source of this is the voltage drop generated over the source impedance of the

The source of this is the voltage drop generated over the source impedance of the grid by the changing load cur- rent of an equipment or facility. These fluctuations in time generate flicker. The effects can range from dis- turbance to epileptic attacks of photosensitive persons. Flicker may also affect sensitive electronic equipment such as television receivers or industrial processes rely- ing on constant electrical power. The requirements of flicker evaluation are defined in standards. Two different standards can be used separately. Figure 2-24 shows results from a flicker evaluation.

Figure 2-24 shows results from a flicker evaluation. Figure 2-24 Flicker evaluation 2.31 Torsion In some

Figure 2-24 Flicker evaluation

2.31

Torsion

In some countries, e.g. USA, Canada, China and Brazil, electrical energy has to be transported over very long transmission lines on account of the long distances between the generating plants and the loads. Series capacitors are used in the transmission lines to improve the transmission capability, the stability of the power system and to compensate for the voltage drops due to the high line inductance.

The presence of the series capacitors in a power system has brought up the phenomena of subsynchronous resonance (SSR). These phenomena originally resulted in the destruction of two generator shafts in the early 1970s. Since then, considerable efforts have been spent to study this phenomena and to find solutions to pre- vent the damaging effects.

Additional to the electrical system model, where the generators are represented by Park equations and the admittance, are represented by differential equations, the turbine-generator shaft model is also taken into account. The shaft assembly is modeled by n rotating lumped masses which are coupled by n-1 rotating springs. For example: the steam turbine lumped masses are usually representing the major turbine sections such as the high pressure (HP),the intermediate pressure (MP) and the various low pressure turbines (LPA, LPB) as illus- trated in Figure 2-25.

turbines (LPA, LPB) as illus- trated in Figure 2-25. Figure 2-25 Torsion model of a steam

Figure 2-25 Torsion model of a steam turbine

2.32 Voltage Profile / Multiconductor Systems

This module handles continuous load flow calculations for investigations of multiconductor systems, e.g. rail- way tunnels (Figure 2-26).

systems, e.g. rail- way tunnels (Figure 2-26). Figure 2-26 Multiconductor system 2.33 Real-Time Simulation

Figure 2-26 Multiconductor system

2.33 Real-Time Simulation

One of the important features of the PSS®NETOMAC program is the possibility of simulation in real-time. Our real-time simulation is used for example for:

Closed-loop hardware in-the-loop tests (protection devices, controller, etc.). Additional hardware (DINEMO-II, OMICRON) is needed.

Dynamic Security Assessment (SIGUARD®): Dynamic calculation engine added to SCADA systems.

Dynamic calculation engine in process management systems (e.g. SICAM230, T3000).

2.34 Professional Dynamic Engine (PSS ® NETOMAC)

As our dynamic engine is the best in class and there is no limitation in simulation at all, we offer two different GUI to make use of the strengths of it in different areas.

As PSS®SINCAL offers the full bunch of software features the engineer will need in modern network planning there are specialists that need specific features we sup- port with our PSS®NETOMAC application. The engine is exactly the same than in PSS®SINCAL but to achieve speed and offer full programming option for profession- al dynamic users we built the new application without data base but also in COM-Server-Technology.

PSS®NETOMAC has basically been de-signed for users that need very flexible network modeling, something

that is impossible with PSS®SINCAL. Modeling net-works with PSS®NETOMAC is, in fact, very similar to

that is impossible with PSS®SINCAL. Modeling net-works with PSS®NETOMAC is, in fact, very similar to program- ming. Instead of writing a program, PSS®NETOMAC models the network and the equipment in structured ASCII files, defines the corresponding malfunctions and network changes and programs the controlling elements (directly with FORTAN or with BOSL).

controlling elements (directly with FORTAN or with BOSL). Figure 2-27 PSS®NETOMAC user interface PSS®NETOMAC’s new

Figure 2-27 PSS®NETOMAC user interface

PSS®NETOMAC’s new graphic user inter-face is similar to

a modern software development environment. The

networks being inspected are structured as projects. In these projects, both the input data and the results are

administered.

The functions for evaluating simulation results are di- rectly integrated in the user interface. The input data

and results can be displayed in Tabular View. This makes

it easy to visualize the flexible .xres results files (XML

format) and access the appropriate evaluation functions.

To display signals in EMT or Stability Simulation, PSS®NETOMAC also has an integrated diagram system.

PSS®NETOMAC’s diagram system is even more flexible for data connection than the one from PSS®SINCAL. Using Drag & Drop, you can pull signals that are dis- played in the Signal Explorer directly into the diagram. If you want you can assign a projection formula to each signal that is used to display and convert the signals.

signal that is used to disp lay and convert the signals. Figure 2-28 PSS®NETOMAC diagram system

Figure 2-28 PSS®NETOMAC diagram system

2.35 Line Constants

The Line Constants calculation module is capable of determining characteristic parameters of overhead lines and under-ground cables. The line parameters required for network analysis i.e. load flow, short circuits, inter- ferences and other studies can be calculated based on geometrical configuration (i.e. tower or trench struc- ture), overhead line or cable type. The following systems can be calculated:

One-phase systems with ground return conductor

Two-phase systems (AC systems, e.g. railway sys- tems)

Three-phase systems

Sections with up to 9 parallel systems with different voltages are possible.

The fully couple matrix can be automatically assigned to the elements of the network model.

assigned to the elements of the network model. Figure 2-29 Screenshot Line Constants module PSS SINCAL

Figure 2-29 Screenshot Line Constants module

2.36 Graphical Model Builder - NETCAD/BOSL In PSS®SINCAL a modern Microsoft® Visio®-based Graphical Model Builder

2.36 Graphical Model Builder - NETCAD/BOSL

In PSS®SINCAL a modern Microsoft® Visio®-based Graphical Model Builder (GMB) is integrated as a stand- alone application. This Graphical Model Builder uses the powerful Visio interface to easily create dynamic mod- els. It is a simple and quick-to-operate drawing tool for implementing, editing and documenting of dynamic models:

Excitation systems (AVRs)

Turbine Governors

Power System Stabilizers

HVDC Models

FACTS Models

Load Models

Transformer Models

New Sources Models (e.g. Generic Wind Models)

New Storages Models

Protection Functions

Models) ■ New Storages Models ■ Protection Functions Figure 2-30 Screenshot Graphical Model Builder The Graphical

Figure 2-30 Screenshot Graphical Model Builder

The Graphical Model Builder system has a large symbol library which contains more than 100 different control blocks in the form of symbols. The user establishes sys- tem diagrams and the block diagram by graphical con- nection of library symbols. The data is input via masks that are object-related and have abbreviated aid texts in addition to detailed aid texts. It is also possible to com- bine groups of linked symbols to form independent new symbols as macro models and to add these to the sym- bol library or to the user’s own library.

The symbol library “BOSL” (Block-Oriented Simulation Language) contains more than 100 different function blocks. These blocks can be combined to any open or closed-loop control structures or evaluation devices by means of the graphic interface. Besides very simple blocks, such as PID elements, there are also complex “blocks”, such as FFT (Fast Fourier Transformation). The

controllers can be stored as subsystems in a library so as to link them quickly to a system. Parameterizing can be input individually and changed, or the default values can be used. Optionally complex open and closed-loop con- trol and protective functions can be implemented with the Block-oriented Simulation Language. External, user- defined subroutines can also be coupled (open-loop) and there is an interface to real-time applications (closed-loop). The block-oriented structures can be combined with FORTRAN-like terms, such as mathemati- cal functions, logical terms or instructions, e.g. IF/THEN/ELSE.

The user can switch between two different block styles:

1. The European DIN symbols and 2. The transfer func- tions. The Graphical Model Builder also offers testing and debugging functionalities like in Matlab® Simulink®. After finishing the design of the model there is no need for compiling and linking. The user can now start PSS®SINCAL and the dynamic simulation.

Figure 2-31 below shows the basic voltage control of a DFIG (Doubly Fed Induction Generator) wind machine built with BOSL.

Black-Box manufacturer models can be connected with input and output values in NetCad.

can be connected with input and output values in NetCad. Figure 2-31 DFIG voltage controller 2.37

Figure 2-31 DFIG voltage controller

2.37 Generic Wind Models

The Generic Wind Model package contains the following models for load flow and stability simulations:

Squirrel-cage induction generator (SCIG)

The SCIG model represents a fixed-speed wind tur- bine. It includes the induction machine model, single or two-mass mechanical model, aerodynamic model, over-/ undervoltage protection, no-load compensat- ing capacitor or switched capacitor bank.

Doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG):

The model includes the induction machine represen- tation, DC-circuit, rotor side converter control and protection (reactive current boosting, crowbar pro-

tection), line-side converter control, single or two- mass mechanical model, over-/ undervoltage protec- tion. ■

tection), line-side converter control, single or two- mass mechanical model, over-/ undervoltage protec- tion.

Full converter wind generator (FCSG):

The FCSG model is based on a variable speed genera- tor. It includes the synchronous machine model, in- verter and control, AC voltage/reactive power con- trol, DC-voltage control, reactive current boosting, current limitation, virtual inertia / pitch control, aer- odynamics model; overspeed/DC overvoltage, AC over-/undervoltage protection.

2.38 Generic FACTS Models

The FACTS Model package contains the following models for load flow and stability simulations:

SVC - Static Var Compensator

SVC Plus – STATCOM

Mechanically Switched Capacitors

TCSC – Thyristor Controlled Series Compensation

■ TCSC – Thyristor Controlled Series Compensation Figure 2-32 SVC characteristic 2.39 Grid Code –Connection

Figure 2-32 SVC characteristic

2.39 Grid Code –Connection of Distributed Generation to the Grid (EEG)

Beside the usage of separate calculation methods PSS®SINCAL also offers full solutions to a complete workflow.

One of the most frequently used and increasing plan- ning tasks is the connection of distributed generators to the grid. PSS®SINCAL offers a verification tool to check whether these power plants comply with the Grid Code interconnection requirements. The check of the Grid Code is a combination of diverse calculation methods like Load Flow, Short Circuit and Harmonics and the evaluation of the results against the permissible limits in the (national) standards. For this the technical parame- ters of the generator have to be described in more de- tail:

of the generator have to be described in more de- tail: Figure 2-33 Parameters of a

Figure 2-33 Parameters of a PV generator

The complete workflow is started by a simple „click“on the respective generator. The following requirements are checked in one run:

Utilization of all elements

Slow voltage changes

Fast voltage changes

Flicker evaluations

Harmonic evaluations

A brief overview is shown in a special result viewer:

A brief overview is shown in a special result viewer: Figure 2-34 Overview of connection conditions

Figure 2-34 Overview of connection conditions

A full report can be created by a simple click. This Mi- crosoft® Word® document

A full report can be created by a simple click. This Mi- crosoft® Word® document is ready to be provided to the regulator / grid operator for acknowledgement.

to the regulator / grid operator for acknowledgement. Figure 2-35 Excerpt from a Microsoft® Word® report

Figure 2-35 Excerpt from a Microsoft® Word® report

3 Gas Calculations for different pressure levels PSS®SINCAL Gas calculates the flow conditions in meshed

3

Gas

3 Gas Calculations for different pressure levels PSS®SINCAL Gas calculates the flow conditions in meshed networks

Calculations for different pressure levels

PSS®SINCAL Gas calculates the flow conditions in meshed networks with different pressure levels. It is possible to perform steady-state as well as dynamic calculations. The effects of time events or time series on network performance can be displayed as a function of location in various graphs.

With the aid of dynamic simulation, it is possible to ob- serve different states and changes of state in the net- work at certain times. In this way, it is also possible on the basis of predetermined time series (for consumers, supply, control, etc.) and time events (valve position, consumer shut-off etc.) to calculate values for quanti- ties, flows and pressures in the network.

The following PSS®SINCAL analysis methods are availa- ble:

Thermal and Hydraulic Calculations

Load Profiles

Contingency Analysis

Dynamic Simulation

3.1 Hydraulic Calculations

The program can handle all steady-state pressure, vol- ume and temperature distribution in meshed networks.

3.1.1

Features

The program works according to the Hardy-Cross Method and the second rule of Kirchhoff.

For lambda calculations there is a choice between Nikuradse’s or Prantl-Colebrook’s or Unger Prantl- Colebrock’s formula.

Undersupply

If the differential pressure is below the minimum pressure although all valves are open, the consump- tion of the customers will decrease. If required, this effect can be modeled in PSS®SINCAL.

Re-Dispatch of supply

It monitors the limits of the supplies and re-

distributes the energy between the different sources.

Locking of pipes

Locking of pipes (or other elements) on one or both ends is possible without deleting the elements.

Definition of characteristic curves for pumps and valves.

Checking of the operating points and limits of pumps, valves and network groups

Weak point analysis and color-coded visualization of identified system components in the network.

Graphical identification of elements, which are af- fected by pipe failures.

Definition of specific groups of network elements, e.g. consumer groups with identical behavior.

Pumps and valves in every network situation, e.g. in loops.

3.1.2 Network Elements

Nodes

Geodetic altitudes will be taken into consideration.

Coordinates can be entered in the Gauss-Krueger- System.

Leakage node

Only in dynamic calculation. The user can enter start- ing and ending time of the leakage, output surface (mm 2 ), pressure and leakage with/without re- sistance.

Generators

Following infeed types are available:

Flow supply

The input flow at the supply remains constant and does not depend on the pressure at the source. Constant supply can be given in Nm 3 /h, m 3 /h or MW. Initial starting values can be considered for dynamic simulations.

Pressure supply

Surplus pressure will be constant at the supply point. It is independent of the load distribution in the network. The pressure supply compensates the difference between the total input at supply points and the total output at the distribution points.

Pipes

Pressure losses are calculated for pipe elements.

A data base with appropriate inside diameters of

pipes can be defined.

The roughness of the pipes, the additional factor for the pipe bend, Zeta, annual roughness

The roughness of the pipes, the additional factor for the pipe bend, Zeta, annual roughness increase and annual diameter reduction and leakage will be taken into account during the calculation.

Pipe data can be entered for each pipe individually or by reference to a standard type.

Locking fittings sliding valves

Pipes with a valve for which the diameter of the valve can be regulated. Additionally, the Zeta value can be entered as a function of the valve position. This behavior can be defined in a table/diagram.

Check valve

Pipe with uni-directional flow (from pipe start to end). The diameter is a function of flow velocity.

The pressure loss of the check valve is a function of the opening angle which is a function of velocity.

Pressure regulator

This network element regulates the pressure so that the pressure set point will be maintained at a speci- fied node. It can result in a pressure increase or de- crease.

The set point can be a fixed value or can be depend- ent of a governor value, the circulation volume.

Pressure guards and pressure limitations will be checked.

Constant pressure decrease

A

pressure decrease between a start and end point

can be defined. The pressure decrease is independ-

ent of the output flow.

Compressor

A

pressure increase between the start point and the

end point can be defined. Any node pressure can be

regulated by this element.

Line with constant flow

The flow in the line remains constant and is inde- pendent of the load distribution within the network and the pressure.

Differential pressure regulator

This network element maintains a given pressure dif- ference between reference nodes. The point of regu- lation can be on both sides of the pipe.

Pressure buffer

This element simulates a gas reservoir with overflow.

There will be a flow in or out of the pressure buffer.

If the pressure is below a defined threshold there will

be no consumption. If the pressure exceeds the threshold value the consumption will be calculated

in such a way that the pressure equals the defined pressure.

In the dynamic calculation the starting pressure will be taken from the steady-state calculation.

Consumer

Consumers create gas flows in pipes which are equivalent to the specified consumption and inde- pendent of the pressure. Consumer types with dif- ferent characteristics can be defined and these types can be assigned to groups of consumers.

3.1.3 Reports and Diagrams

Tables and Reports

The user can define the content of reports in selection lists.

General network data

All element data

Node reports with pressures (absolute, working, air), altitude and flow (Nm 3 /h) and all connected ele- ments with flow, flow speed and pressure difference

Pipe elements with flow, pressure, pressure de- crease, flow speed, length and diameter etc.

Results summaries with minimal and maximum pres- sure and maximum velocity

Diagrams

Longitudinal section:

Users can freely define routes through the network showing results such as:

Pressure

Air pressure

along automatically generated paths.

Network Diagram

Graphical output of following values:

Nodes: altitude, consumption, pressure absolute, relative

Pipes: flow, pressure absolute, pressure decrease, length, diameter, flow speed

Color-coded filter functions for pressure, flow, speed, consumption, etc.

3.2 Load Profiles

Time Series

The Load Profile simulation is a special form of flow calculation that allows the simulation of varying con- sumption or infeed conditions based on chronological profiles, e.g. daily profiles in 15-min time steps.

For this task, in addition to their nominal data the con- sumer and infeed models

For this task, in addition to their nominal data the con- sumer and infeed models include an assigned load/infeed profile which can be defined in absolute or relative values.

Based on the specified nominal data and time series the gas flows in the network are calculated. The time series analysis also allows modeling consumption taking into account the effect of simultaneity depending on the number of consumers of identical type. This can be achieved by defining and assigning consumer types.

The outcome of the time series simulation is:

The results of flow calculations of all time steps are available, including the analysis of maximum or min- imum values (e.g. pressure, etc.).

Diagrams showing daily profiles of result data ob- served at selected nodes and branches in the net- work.

3.3 Contingency Analysis

The purpose of the Contingency Analysis module is to assess the performance of the network during outage of network components. The outcome of the contingency analysis is the determination of weak points or condi- tions that may lead supply interruptions.

Contingency Analysis comprises a series of flow calcula- tions. One or more elements are considered on outage in each individual load flow calculation. PSS®SINCAL can simulate the outage of a single network component or a group of components. Conditional and unconditional outages as well as base and resulting outages can be modeled.

All relevant results (minimum and maximum values, unsupplied consumers, etc.) are recorded and summa- rized in a clearly arranged results dialog window.

3.4 Dynamic Simulation

This method calculates the gas transportation time and flow path:

Calculation of transportation time and flow path for freely defined consumers.

Results can be displayed graphically.

Flow paths through the network are determined automatically, even in meshed networks.

are determined automatically, even in meshed networks. Figure 3-1 Result evaluation in color-coded network graphic

Figure 3-1 Result evaluation in color-coded network graphic and in diagram view

4 Water Steady-state, dynamic and water tower filling calcu- lation In the water supply field,

4

Water

4 Water Steady-state, dynamic and water tower filling calcu- lation In the water supply field, PSS®SINCAL

Steady-state, dynamic and water tower filling calcu- lation

In the water supply field, PSS®SINCAL calculates the steady-state and dynamic flow conditions in any meshed network with different pressure levels for Newtonian liquids in filled pipes. The Hardy-Cross method is applied for this purpose.

Steady-state calculation provides results such as pres- sure, rate of flow and flow velocity, as well as the oper- ating points of control devices. In addition, pressure characteristic graphs are also available.

With the aid of dynamic simulation, it is possible to ob- serve different states and changes of state in the net- work at certain times. In this way, it is also possible on the basis of predetermined time series (for consumers, supply, regulators, etc.) and time events (valve position, consumer shut-off etc.) to calculate values for quanti- ties, flows and pressures in the network.

Using the Water Tower Filling model, it is possible to perform calculations for the water network on a quasi- dynamic basis. Here, the changes in pressure in the network caused by in- and outflows in the water towers are taken into account. The effects of changes in the loading of the network and in the position of control elements are simulated by time events or time series.

Water Tower Filling makes it possible to plan the opti- mum layout of new tanks and capacity utilization of existing tanks. The results can be visualized as graphs for pressure, filling level, filling volume or in- and out- flow at the water towers as a function of time.

The following PSS®SINCAL analysis methods are availa- ble:

Overview of Methods

Hydraulic Calculations

Load Profiles

Water Tower Filling

Contingency Analysis

Dynamic Simulation

4.1 Hydraulic Calculations

The program can handle all steady-state pressure, vol- ume and temperature distribution in meshed networks.

4.1.1 Features

The program works according to the Hardy-Cross Method and the second rule of Kirchhoff.

For lambda calculations there is a choice between Nikuradse’s or Prantl-Colebrook’s or Unger Prantl- Colebrock’s formula.

Undersupply

If the differential pressure is below the minimum pressure although all valves are open, the consump- tion of the customers will decrease. This effect can be taken into account, if required.

Re-Dispatch of supply

It monitors the limits of the supplies and re- distributes the energy between the different sources.

Locking of pipes

Locking of pipes (or other elements) on one or both ends is possible without deleting the elements.

Definition of characteristic curves for pumps and valves

Checking of the operating points and limits of pumps, valves and network groups

Weak point analysis and color-coded visualization of the identified weak points

Graphical identification of elements which are af- fected by pipe failures

Definition of specific groups of network elements, e.g. consumer groups with specific behavior

Pumps and valves in every network situation, e.g. in loops

4.1.2 Network Elements

Nodes

Geodetic altitudes will be taken into consideration.

Coordinates can be entered in the Gauss-Krueger- System.

Generators

The following infeed types are available:

Water tower:

The pressure in the water tower will be kept con- stant independently of the consumption in the network. The water level is set by the user. The wa- ter tower compensates the difference between the

total input at supply points and the total output at the distribution points. ■ Reciprocating

total input at supply points and the total output at the distribution points.

Reciprocating pump

This element supplies water to the network at a constant output flow. The water comes from a wa- ter reservoir, which is assumed to be unlimited or an upstream supply network. The output flow is independent from the pressure at the source node.

Centrifugal pump

The centrifugal pump supplies water in accordance to a given infeed characteristic assuming an unlim- ited water reservoir or upstream supply network as source. The predicted output is used as the initial starting value for the simulation. The pump’s oper- ating point is determined by interpolation between the nearest set points of the pump characteristic.

Pipes

Pressure losses are calculated for this element.

A data base with appropriate inside diameters of pipes can be defined.

The roughness of the pipes, the additional factor for the pipe bend, Zeta, annual roughness increase and annual diameter reduction and leakage will be taken into account during the calculation.

Types of pipes with special values can be defined and used for groups of pipes.

Locking fittings sliding valves

Pipe with a valve for which the diameter of the valve can be regulated. As a special function the Zeta value can be given as a function of the valve position. This function can be defined in a table/diagram.

Check valve

Pipe with uni-directional flow. Cross section is a func- tion of flow speed.

Pressure losses through the check valve are a func- tion of opening angle, which is a function of speed.

Pressure regulator

Network element which regulates the pressure in a way that the set point of the pressure on a defined node will be maintained. This could be a pressure in- crease or a pressure decrease element.

The position of the valve will be calculated out of the Zeta value.

The set point can be a fixed value or can be depend- ent of a governor value, the circulation volume.

Pressure guards and pressure limitations will be checked.

Constant pressure decrease

A pressure decrease between the start and end point

can be defined. The pressure decrease is independ- ent of the output flow.

Differential pressure regulator

The given value for regulation is the difference of pressure between two reference nodes. The point of regulation can be both sides of the pipe.

The set point can be a fixed value or can be depend- ent of a governor value, the circulation volume.

Pumps

Pumps can have different operation types:

Fixed output reciprocating pump

Fixed speed centrifugal pump

Fixed output height pressure regulation

Fixed pressure pressure regulation

For other details see specific regulators.

Pressure buffer

This element simulates a water reservoir with over- flow.

If the pressure is below a defined value there will be

no consumption. If the pressure exceeds the defined pressure threshold, the consumption will be calculat- ed in such a way that the pressure equals the defined pressure.

In the dynamic calculation the starting pressure will

be taken from the steady state calculation. With this value the filling of the tower will be calculated ac-

cording to the pressure buffer characteristic. There will be a flow in or out of the pressure buffer.

Consumer

Consumers create water flows in the network that are equivalent to their consumption in the outlet pipes. The flow is independent of the consumer’s water pressure. Types of consumers with special val- ues can be defined and assigned to groups of con- sumers.

4.1.3 Reports and Diagrams

Tables and reports

The user can define the content of reports in selection lists.

General network data

All element data

Node reports with pressure and altitude and all con- nected elements with flow, flow speed and pressure difference

Pipe elements with flow, pressure, pressure de- crease, flow speed, length and diameter

■ Results summaries with minimal and maximum pres- sure and maximum velocity Diagrams Longitudinal section

Results summaries with minimal and maximum pres- sure and maximum velocity

Diagrams

Longitudinal section

Users can define free routes through the network show- ing values, such as:

Pressure

Altitude

along the automatically generated paths.

Network Diagram

Graphical output of following values:

Nodes: altitude, consumption, absolute and relative pressure

Pipes: flow, absolute pressure, pressure drop, length, diameter, flow speed, type of pipe

Color-coded filter functions for pressure, flow, speed, consumption, etc.

4.2 Load Profiles

Time Series

The load profile calculation is a special form of flow calculation that allows the simulation of varying con- sumption or infeed conditions based on chronological profiles, e.g. daily profiles in 15-min time steps.