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Substation Automation and RET 670

Protection Training Transformer Protection


Restricted Earthfault
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Restricted Earthfault Protection

Restricted earthfault protection (PDIF, 87N)


Up to three instances available
Low impedance type
Can be used on all directly or low impedance earthed windings
Up to 4 three-phase CT inputs

REF1-
REFPDIF_87N
I3P
I3PW1CT1
I3PW1CT2
I3PW2CT1
I3PW2CT2
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Restricted Earthfault Protection

Restricted earthfault protection (PDIF, 87N)


Able to handle multiple circuit breaker applications as well as
autotransformers in 1½ CB applications

I3P I3P
I3PW1CT1 I3PW1CT1
I3PW1CT2 I3PW1CT2
I3PW2CT1 I3PW2CT1
I3PW2CT2 I3PW2CT2
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Restricted Earthfault Protection

Restricted earthfault protection (PDIF, 87N)


Functionality
Zero sequence differential protection with a percentage biased
operate/restrain characteristic, plus an additional zero sequence
current directional comparison criterion
Requires no current magnitude or phase correction, even when OLTC
present
Insensitive to inrush and overexcitation currents
Only danger is eventual CT saturation
2nd harmonic restraint (reactor energizing)
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Restricted Earthfault Protection
Restricted earthfault protection (PDIF, 87N)
Functionality
Three-section operate/restrain characteristic

Settings:
IdMin

Dependent on the magnitude of the bias


current, the corresponding zone (section) of
the operate - bias characteristic is applied.
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Restricted Earthfault Protection

Restricted earthfault protection (PDIF, 87N)


Functionality
Operate/restrain characteristic
Differential current – vector sum of the fundamental
frequency neutral current and the fundamental frequency
residual current (calculated from the three line-side
fundamental frequency phase currents)

Idiff = IN + 3I0

For multiple circuit breaker applications, the two contributing


residual currents are internally summed to produce the
overall line-side residual current
I3P
I3PW1 = I3PW1CT1 + I3PW1CT2
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007

I3PW1CT1
I3PW1CT2
I3PW2CT1
I3PW2CT2
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Restricted Earthfault Protection

Restricted earthfault protection (PDIF, 87N)


Functionality
Operate/restrain characteristic
Single circuit breaker applications – ordinary power trfrs

I3P
I3PW1CT1
I3PW1CT2
I3PW2CT1
I3PW2CT2

curr(x) = MAX [I3PW1CT1]


curr(z) = IN
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007

i.e. Ibias = MAX [curr(x); curr(z)]


©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Restricted Earthfault Protection
Restricted earthfault protection (PDIF, 87N)
Functionality
Operate/restrain characteristic
Multiple circuit breaker applications-CTFactor
A factor to allow a sensitive function also at multi-breaker
arrangement where the rating in the bay is much higher than
the rated current of the transformer winding.
CTFactor = Irated pri_CT / Irated_W
The CTFactor is generally chosen so that when 1pu primary
current flows through the CT, this would contribute a 1pu
component to the bias calculation – e.g.
Irated pri_CT = 1000A
Irated_W = 500A
contribution to bias calculation = 1000 / (1000/500) = 500A
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007

Ibias (pu) = Ibias (pri A) / IBase, where IBase = Irated_W


Without CTFactor, a 1pu CT primary current would contribute
a 1000A component to the bias calculation (i.e. 2pu)
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Restricted Earthfault Protection

Restricted earthfault protection (PDIF, 87N)


Functionality
Operate/restrain characteristic
Multiple circuit breaker applications – ordinary power trfrs

I3P
I3PW1CT1
I3PW1CT2
I3PW2CT1
I3PW2CT2

curr(a) = MAX [I3PW1CT1] / CTFactorPri1


curr(b) = MAX [I3PW1CT2] / CTFactorPri2
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007

curr(x) = MAX [I3PW1CT1 + I3PW1CT2]


curr(z) = IN
i.e. Ibias = MAX [curr(a); curr(b); curr(x); curr(z)]
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Restricted Earthfault Protection

Restricted earthfault protection (PDIF, 87N)


Functionality
Operate/restrain characteristic
Multiple circuit breaker applications
Applying the CTFactor gives a gain in the sensitivity for
internal faults (by reducing the contribution to the bias from
the T-side CTs), but still ensures adequate biasing for
through fault conditions
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Restricted Earthfault Protection

Restricted earthfault protection (PDIF, 87N)


Functionality
Operate/restrain characteristic
Single circuit breaker applications – autotransformers

I3P
I3PW1CT1
I3PW1CT2
I3PW2CT1
I3PW2CT2

curr(x) = MAX [I3PW1CT1]


curr(y) = MAX [I3PW2CT1]
curr(z) = IN
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007

i.e. Ibias = MAX [curr(x); curr(y); curr(z)]


Note: set IBase = highest winding rated current,
normally Irated_MV
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Restricted Earthfault Protection

Restricted earthfault protection (PDIF, 87N)


Functionality
Operate/restrain characteristic
Multiple circuit breaker applications – autotransformers

I3P
I3PW1CT1
I3PW1CT2
I3PW2CT1
I3PW2CT2
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Restricted Earthfault Protection

Restricted earthfault protection (PDIF, 87N)


Functionality
Operate/restrain characteristic
Multiple circuit breaker autotransformer applications
curr(a) = MAX [I3PW1CT1] / CTFactorPri1 I3P
I3PW1CT1
curr(b) = MAX [I3PW1CT2] / CTFactorPri2 I3PW1CT2
I3PW2CT1
I3PW2CT2
curr(c) = MAX [I3PW2CT1] / CTFactorSec1
curr(d) = MAX [I3PW2CT2] / CTFactorSec2
curr(x) = MAX [I3PW1CT1 + I3PW1CT2]
curr(y) = MAX [I3PW2CT1 + I3PW2CT2]
curr(z) = IN
i.e. Ibias = MAX [curr(a);…….curr(z)]
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Restricted Earthfault Protection
Restricted earthfault protection (PDIF, 87N)
Directional criterion – external earth fault
zone of protection

s I zs1 I a0=
o A (L1) a (L1)
u I zs1 I b0=
r B (L2) b (L2)
c
C (L3)
I zs1 I c0= c (L3)
e
Uzs Current in the neutral (IN)
3Io=3I zs1 IN = -3Izs1 IN serves as a directional
reference because it has
the same direction for both
internal and external faults.

zs voltage is max.
at the earth fault For external fault
ROA

3I0 Currents 3Io and IN are theoretically


MTA 180o out of phase for any external
IN earth fault.
Reference is
ROA
neutral current

Restrain for Operate for Relay Operate Angle (ROA)


ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007

external fault internal fault Settable 60° to 90


©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Restricted Earthfault Protection

Restricted earthfault protection (PDIF, 87N)


Directional criterion – internal earth fault
power system
contribution to
fault current zone of protection

s Izs2 a=
Izs1 I
o A (L1) 0 a (L1)
u Izs2 Izs1 b=
B (L2) I b (L2)
r 0
c Izs2 Izs1 I c=
e C (L3) 0 c (L2)

Ifault Current in the neutral (IN)


Uz serves as a directional
3Io = -3Izs2 IN
s reference because it has
the same direction for both
IN = - 3Izs1 internal and external faults.

Return path for 3Izs2 Return path for 3Izs1 The residual current 3I0 and the
neutral current IN are theoretically
For internal fault
equal in magnitude and 180
ROA 3I0 degrees
currents 3Io and IN are approximately
MTA
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007

IN in phase for an internal earth fault.


Reference is
ROA
neutral current Relay Operate Angle (ROA)
Settable 60° to 90
Restrain for Operate for
external fault internal fault
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Restricted Earthfault Protection

Restricted earthfault protection (PDIF, 87N)


2nd harmonic analysis / blocking
Required primarily to prevent unwanted operation on reactor
energizing due to possible line-side CT saturation caused by a high dc
component of long duration.
The current through the neutral CT does not have the same dc-
component, or the same amplitude, and consequently the risk of
saturation in this CT is much less
The differential current that appears as a result of the saturation may
be so high that it reaches the operate area of the characteristic
If the ratio between 2nd harmonic and fundamental exceeds 60%, the
function is blocked
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Restricted Earthfault Protection

Restricted earthfault protection (PDIF, 87N)


Overview of restricted earthfault protection function
3I0 < 3% of Ibase A directional check is only executed if

3I0 > 3% of Ibase


The magnitude of the line-side residual
current (3I0) is at least 3% of IBase

start has been registered from the operate-


restrain characteristic
Directional ≥1
check

& TRIP
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007

& START
IN > 50% of Idmin
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Restricted Earthfault Protection

Restricted earthfault protection (PDIF, 87N)


Function block

‘Analog’ quantity inputs

‘Analog’ quantity outputs


ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©
RET 670 – Restricted Earthfault Protection - Settings

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Restricted Earthfault Protection - Settings
Settings
Settings group N1
Differential protection
LowImpREF(PDIF,87N)

Off; On
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Restricted Earthfault Protection

Restricted earthfault protection (PDIF, 87N)


Service values
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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RET 670 – Restricted Earthfault Protection

Restricted earthfault protection (PDIF, 87N)


Service values
ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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ABB Power Technologies AB, 2007
©

2008-05-23 Substation Automation and Protection Training


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