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1. Educational Guidance:
Educational Guidance may be defined as the guidance which child or educand needs while
learning in educational institutions or schools. It stands to help them to sort out the problems
they face there. The educational guidance gives all kinds of information that the children or
students need to join the type of school that he may be found most suitable to each of them.
Education is the process of directing and guiding one to have his proper development.
Educational guidance is vitally related to every aspect of the educational institution or of the
school—the aims and objectives, the curriculum, the methods of teaching, discipline, role of the
teacher and the co-curricular activities.
Educational guidance assists or helps the child or educand to make curricular adjustments
according to his ability and capacity. It is a process of assisting the individual in making wise
choices in relation to his educational life. It is a process of aiding the individual in planning his
educational programme and in carrying it forward successfully.
Educational guidance is concerned with every aspect of student education. It is an assistance
given to the student or child relating to choosing an educational institution, choosing courses
and subjects, developing study habits, obtaining scholarships, making satisfactory progress in
studies, appearing examination, continuing higher education in colleges and universities and
adjusting to the life in schools and colleges. So it is a conscious effort to assist or help in the
intellectual growth of an individual or child-anything that has to do with instruction may come
under the jurisdiction of educational guidance.
The educational guidance works upon the knowledge of what and what not the students are. Of
course, it builds up its edifice on the abilities and talents they have. Indeed it is a part and parcel
of personal guidance, to which children need and should have for life as a whole. For this it has
been said that educational and personal guidance are the two faces of the same coin. This
happens by taking the situation into account so far the types of guidance are concerned.
“Educational guidance is a process concerned with bringing about between an individual with
his distinctive characteristics on the one hand and differing groups of opportunities and
requirements on the other a favourable setting for the individual’s development or education”.
“Educational guidance is a process concerned with bringing about a favourable setting for the
individual’s education. This favourable setting will include assistance with regard to choice of
subjects, use of libraries, study habits, evaluation techniques and adjustment of school life to
other activities”. —S.K. Kochhar
“Educational guidance enables each individual understand his abilities, develop them as far as
possible and relate them to the goals of life and reach that stage of mature self-guidance as a
desirable citizen of a democratic social order”. —Traxler
“Educational guidance is intended to aid the individual in choosing an appropriate programme
and in making progress in it”. Thus, guidance is concerned with right choice of educational
opportunities available.” —Ruth Strong
“Educational guidance is concerned with assistance given to pupils in their choices and
adjustments with relation to schools, curricula, courses and school life”. —A. Jones
2. Vocational Guidance:
The modern society is changing faster because of scientific and technological advancements
which results in bringing changes in the conditions of life and have created a new number of
occupations in the field of work and activities. Rapid industrialisation has resulted in a rise from
a few occupations to thousands of specialized jobs. So in this changed situation and in the
changing world of occupations and jobs there is a vital need for vocational guidance, whose
importance has realized immensely at present.
The individuals in order to make adjustment with every situation of the society have to opt
occupation or job. The selection of occupation or job for every individual should be done in
accordance with his needs, interests, abilities, attitudes, capacities etc. As a result of this all the
individuals will be recognized, accepted and regarded as positive assets for themselves as well as
for the society.
This will result in total development of the nation as a well adjusted individual can contribute to
the economic prosperity of the nation. It is therefore highly stressed that to conserve and utilize
the human resources properly and to ensure the economic prosperity of the nation, vocational
guidance is quite essential.
Meaning of Vocational Guidance:
Basically vocational guidance is accepted as that type of guidance where mere information and
advice is given in regard to choosing an occupation, preparing for it, entering in it, and
progressing. But this meaning is narrowly conceived and interpreted. This meaning of
vocational guidance is otherwise called as vocational development. In wider perspective it is
accepted in the modern educational system.
Vocational guidance is concerned with helping the individual to become aware of his strengths
and weaknesses in world of occupations and helping him to choose a vocation for his better
adjustment with every situation of the society. In other words, vocational guidance may also be
defined as a process of helping individuals or people to cope with problems relating to
occupational choices, plans, developments, adjustments and maturity.
The vocational guidance may be defined as the assistance children or students get in schools to
know the world of vocations in their life. It is an early exposure to the variety of jobs they will
have to make a choice latter in life. The vocational guidance is an incentive for hard work at
The children know by themselves what they would like to become in life and this depends on
what they do in school life. Of course, vocational guidance is meant for telling the children that it
is high time for them to think of what are the possible vocations await them in life. For this they
need to prepare themselves to be at the right track.
Regarding the meaning of vocational guidance, it can be said that vocational guidance will be
successful if it is done by helping the individual develop insight into what he is, what he wants to
be and opportunities and requirements of various occupations. Hence, “Vocational guidance is
universally accepted as a process of assisting the individual see through himself and then
assisting him to see himself through”.
The meaning of vocational guidance defined by different educationists and organisations is
given below in different headings.
“Vocational guidance is the process of helping a person to develop and accept an integrated and
adequate picture of himself, and of his role in the world of work to test this concept against
reality and to convert it into a reality with satisfaction to himself and benefit to society”. —Super
‘”According to this association vocational guidance is a process of assisting the individual to
choose an occupation, prepare for it, enter upon it and progress in it”. —National Vocational
Guidance Association
“Vocational guidance is fundamentally an effort to conserve the priceless native capacities of
youth and to costly training provided for youth in the schools”. —G.E. Meyers
“Vocational guidance is an “assistance given to an individual in solving problems related to
occupational choice and progress with due regard for the individuals’ characteristics and their
relation to the occupational opportunity”. —The General Conference of International Labour
“Vocational guidance is a process designed to aid the young persons in choosing an occupation,
in preparing for it, in finding an opening in it and in building up an efficient and successful
career”. —Frank Parson
3. Personal Guidance:
It is known to one and all that a welfare nation is built upon the foundation of healthy social
individual and democracy as its proper functioning requires socially efficient individuals. For
producing such individuals they are to be provided guidance for total development of their
For this it is the home and the educational institution or school that provides all facilities for the
growth of personal and social qualities in the individuals. Besides, individuals must be helped to
develop desirable habits and attitudes.
But it has been observed and evidenced from different studies conducted on personal guidance
that it is not an easy task on part of every individual to have total development of his personality
by developing desirable habits and attitudes. The reason is that most of the individuals confront
problems in this regard. For this there is the need of organizing personal guidance programmes
in educational institutions.
Meaning of Personal Guidance:
Personal guidance is that type of guidance given to an individual or a person to overcome his
problems of personality adjustment. It may also be accepted as the assistance given to the
individual to solve his emotional, social, ethical, and moral as well as health problems. It is a
process of guidance helping the individual to solve his problems which don’t come within the
jurisdiction of educational and vocational guidance.
It may also be defined as the oral or written assistance we need to learn how to make adjustment
in our life. It is guidance for what kind of persons we should be and how to become so in life. As
a whole the personal guidance is meant for helping each and every child to look at himself in the
right perspective.
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Various Types of Guidance

Posted on July 4, 2016
Educational Guidance: Educational guidance is that specific area of guidance help which takes care of
students’ problems which pertain to their educational progress and experiences. Students of any school
maybe classified into two groups : (a) those who are having problems with their learning and achievement
such as not progressing satisfactorily, soc finding certain subjects difficult, unable to decide which
courses they should opt for, not res liking a subject or even the school, and so on, (b) those who do not
have any problem at a particular point of time, but in order to enable them to utilize their potentialities
fully they need guidance; also they need to be saved from developing some problem in future through
preventive guidance. Both these groups of students meaning, thereby, all students need educational
Vocational Guidance: Vocational guidance is a process for helping individuals to choose an occupation,
prepare for it, enter it and develop in it. Vocational guidance is guidance given to a person chiefly about
vocational problems. It had its beginning in Person’s Vocational Bureau which was established by him in
1908 at Boston in America. According to Early Childhood Care Education, he was the one who used
the term ‘guidance’ for the first time. He used this term for aiding young people in choosing their
vocations and preparing for them. But, at that time, i.e. in the earlier stages of the vocational guidance it
was confined only to giving of occupational information. During the third and the fourth decades of the
present century, however, state governments in America gave recognition to guidance and implemented
its programmes.
Personal and Social Guidance: Personal and social guidance is the process of helping an individual to
know how to behave with consideration towards other people. Primarily, personal and social guidance
helps the individual to understand himself, know how to get on with others, learn manners and etiquette
pursue leisure time activities, practise social skills, develop family and family relationships, and
understand social roles and responsibilities.
Individual Guidance: Individual guidance or counselling is as described by Gilbert (1 95 1) a personal
and dynamic relationship between two people who approach a mutually defined problem with mutual
consideration of each other to the end that the younger or less mature or more troubled of the two is aided
to a self-determined resolution of his problems. It is an individual matter as there is only one person who
is to be aided.
Group Guidance: Group guidance means that procedure of guidance in which it is a group of more than
one individual which is helped to solve problems of the group members. In the earlier stages of guidance
and counselling individual guidance was considered more important, rather only kind of guidance. So it
was largely remedial in nature. But; later on, when it was widely accepted that guidance was a necessity
for the development of both kinds of individuals, normal as well as problem ones, Developmental concept
of guidance stressed that guidance was necessary for all. Then group guidance emerged to be more
important, because with the huge population of the schools individual guidance was not feasible. It was
uneconomical and impossible to help such a large number of pupils individually.

Basic principles
Guidance is based on a true concept of the client.
Guidance is designed to provide assistance to aperson in crisis in solving it through
self-discoveryand self-direction.
3.Guidance is a learning process.4.Guidance is helping client
understandhimself.5.Guidance leads one to makeintelligent chores, move on to
adecision or adjust to any situation athand.
What principles are consideredin guidance work?
By Crow and Crow:
1.Every aspect of an individual’scomplex personality patternsconstitutes a
significant factors of histotal display of attitude andbehaviors.
What principles are consideredin guidance work?
By Crow and Crow:
2.Although all human beings are similarin many ways, individual differencesmust be
What principles are consideredin guidance work?
3.The function of guidance is tohelp a person:(a)formulate and
accept stimulatingworthwhile , and attainable goals
of behavior(b)apply these objectives in conductinghis affairs
What principles are consideredin guidance work?
By Crow and Crow:
4.Existing social, economic and politicalunrest is giving rise to manymaladjustive
factors that require thecooperation of experienced guidanceworkers.
5.Guidance is a continuous process.6.Guidance is not limited to a few.7.Guidance is
education, but not alleducation is guidance.
5.Guidance is a continuous process.6.Guidance is not limited to a few.7.Guidance is
education, but not alleducation is guidance.
What principles are consideredin guidance work?

What principles are consideredin guidance work?

8.Generally accepted areas of guidanceinclude concern with the extent towhich an
individual’s physical andmental health interferes with hisadjustment to home,
school, andvocational demands.
What principles are consideredin guidance work?
9.Guidance is fundamentally theresponsibility of parents in the homeof teachers in
the school.10.Specific guidance problems in anyage level should be referred
topersons trained to deal with particularareas of adjustments.
What principles are consideredin guidance work?
11.Programs of individual evaluationand research should be conducted,and
progress and achievement madeaccessible to guidance workers. 12.The guidance
program should beflexible in terms of individual andcommunity needs or else it will
loseits value.
What principles are consideredin guidance work?
13.Responsibility for the managementof a guidance program should appearin the
attitudes toward the programof all who are associated with it.14.Continuous or
periodic appraisalsshould be made.
What principles are consideredin guidance work?
15.Guidance is preventive rather thancurative.16.Test have their placein guidance.
What principles are consideredin guidance work?
17.The phase is an individual’sdevelopment history does not exhibita unitary
problem.18.Individuals tend to be different orlike one another.
What principles are consideredin guidance work?

Why It Is Important To Identify and Meet Individual Learner Needs When Teaching Small Class
Education is crucial to the success of an individual in their adult life, and the best way to start
that individual off on the right path is by providing the most superior education that you as a
parent can provide. While many public schools get a bad reputation for huge classes and little
attention to detail, a public charter school often has small class sizes that allow for a more
individual approach.
Meeting the individual needs of each student can be a monumental task for teachers. But doing
so is very important for preparing these students to become active, effective learners for life.
This is a big leap away from the near factory style “teaching to the test” that has been used for
years. Moving toward a more personal approach can help ease stress on both teacher and
student in the classroom, especially in small class sizes.
Similarities Between Students
According to Simpson and Ure (1994), all students share a need for certain categories of
structures in the classroom. They all need a curriculum, cognition of said curriculum,
management of learning, motivation to learn, and an understanding that personal factors will
affect the learning environment on occasion. Within these categories, each student has a
different level of need and aptitude. Moving toward a more personalized learning environment
allows these differences to be less of a detriment, and more of a help.
Curriculum and Cognition
Allowing for each student to approach the curriculum as they are able, to an extent, better
enables them to retain the materials given, thus improving morale and each student’s
excitement for learning. This also enables the cognition aspect, allowing misunderstandings to
be addressed as it comes up, rather than persisting because the focus is on keeping everyone
at the same speed, as it has been for years. Each student has work appropriate to their level of
understanding, the advanced student having a heavier workload than the student who may be
struggling to keep up.
Motivation and Management
In identifying each student’s individual learning needs, that student becomes a kind of partner in
their teaching. They can feel a sense of personal, active engagement with the material, rather
than a passive, just show up kind of class. This active engagement leads to a more adaptive
learning mentality that can better prepare students for future learning and careers. It also shifts
the focus from just the test material, broadening the scope of classroom material.
Teacher as a Learning Facilitator, Not a Lecturer
A shift from teacher-as-lecturer to teacher-as-facilitator can lead to better use of classroom time,
and student-teacher interactions. Students can feel as though the teacher is really present in the
teaching, and not just imparting test answers. Students can also have a pride of achievement in
each goal met, because they helped to set those goals in the first place.
Shifting to a Personalized Learning Paradigm
In short, shifting to a more personalized learning paradigm leads to more actively engaged
students, and allows for each student’s individual talents to develop. The classroom becomes a
place of effective study, and less of a bore to some students, less stress for others. The
struggling student can get more help, and the advanced student can be more engaged and
challenged at the same time as the average student is enabled to advance further in their
understanding of the material. All of these students will also have the necessary skills to move
on in their education, or to adapt to the constant changes of any career later on.
When will you make the decision to take your child's education to the next level? We invite you
to visit us, talk with one of our staff members, and see why a public charter school might be the
best choice for your family.

The Needs of Learners

The needs of learners should be considered within the contexts of:

 their current physical, social, intellectual, and emotional development

 the classroom and school environment
 the special nature of their communities
 a wider knowledge about the health status, needs, and physical activity patterns
of children, adolescents, and adults in New Zealand society.
Those who identify students' learning needs should be informed by consultation
with the students themselves, school staff members, parents, caregivers, and
education professionals.

Cultural Inclusiveness

New Zealand's bicultural heritage is unique and is important to all New Zealanders.
Schools and teachers need to:

 ensure that the concept of hauora is reflected in students' learning experiences

in health education and physical education at all levels of schooling
 recognise that te reo Maori and nga tikanga Maori are taonga and have an
important place within the health and physical education curriculum
 develop health education and physical education concepts within Maori and other
cultural contexts that are relevant to students, for example, in the context of te
reo kori.
Te reo kori encourages the exploration of Maori language, concepts, and values. It
promotes the development of physical skills, self-awareness, and confidence and
also provides an opportunity for students to experience and understand aspects of
the culture of the tangata whenua.

Health education and physical education programmes must be inclusive of the

diverse groups within New Zealand society, recognising and valuing the
experiences, cultural traditions, histories, and languages of all New Zealanders. In
developing a culturally inclusive curriculum, it is important to:

 recognise that students may need to meet more than one set of cultural
 ensure that members of cultural groups within the local and wider community
are consulted when the school health and physical education programme is
 ensure that the teaching practices, the language, and the resource materials
used in the school environment are non-racist and culturally inclusive.
Gender Inclusiveness

Health and Physical Education in the New Zealand Curriculum (1999) provides
many opportunities for teachers and schools to address issues that specifically
affect the learning experiences of girls or boys and to select learning outcomes that
are equitable, regardless of gender, across all essential learning areas.

Health education and physical education programmes that are gender

inclusive will:

 incorporate a range of experiences that are relevant to the knowledge, skills,

and aspirations of both boys and girls, using gender inclusive language, resource
materials, and illustrative examples
 ensure that both girls and boys take active leadership roles in health education
and physical education settings
 provide opportunities for students to critically analyse the ways in which some
existing concepts of masculinity and femininity may have a detrimental effect on
the health and the physical activity patterns of boys and girls, men and women
 provide opportunities for boys and girls to develop knowledge, understandings,
skills, and behaviours that will enable them to achieve relationships
characterised by equality and mutual respect
 provide role models, for both girls and boys, of men and women who are
encouraging, sensitive, tolerant, assertive, and physically active
 encourage girls and boys to participate in all aspects of health education and
physical education in an atmosphere that challenges gender stereotyping and
 ensure that boys and girls have equitable access to resources, including teacher
time, learning assistance, and technologies, across all learning activities.
Meeting the Needs of Students with Special Needs and Abilities

The school curriculum will provide learning opportunities which will enable all
students to achieve the learning objectives to the best of their ability.

The New Zealand Curriculum Framework, page 6

Students who have exceptional ability in health education and physical education,
along with students who have a temporary or permanent disability (whether
sensory, physical, social, or intellectual), require programmes that extend them,
challenge them, and broaden their abilities. These groups of students need
programmes adapted and organised to provide access to relevant opportunities,
meet their individual needs, and contribute to the development of their awareness
of their personal identity and their sense of self-worth.

It is important that students with special needs and abilities:

 are identified early

 have their learning needs addressed from the beginning, through relevant and
consistent programmes
 work at their own pace
 work towards goals and face challenges that encourage them to develop to their
full potential
 are valued by their peers, their teachers, the school, and the wider community
 help to plan programmes to meet their particular learning needs
 are included in regular lessons (and that resources or teaching approaches are
adapted, as appropriate, to meet their special needs).
The teachers who identify students with special needs should consult with parents,
other teachers, and specialist educators before designing and implementing special
learning programmes. Students with disabilities should be provided with means of
access to all school facilities.