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Chemistry

Project
On
Coin Analysis
AIM
Qualitative
Analysis
Of
Different
Coins
CERTIFICATE
This is hereby to certify that, the original and
genuine investigation work has been carried out
to investigate about the subject matter and the
related data collection and investigation has
been completed solely, sincerely and
satisfactorily regarding her project titled
“Qualitative Analysis of Coins”.
Teacher’s Signature
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It would be my utmost pleasure to express my
sincere thanks to My Chemistry Teacher
Mrs./Mr.__________, in providing a helping
hand in this project. Her valuable guidance,
support and supervision all through this project
titled “Qualitative Analysis of Coins”, is
responsible for attaining its present form.
PURPOSE
I was interested in finding out the contents of
the coins we use in everyday life money
transactions. Humans have been using coins
since their invention in 700 B.C. for trading of
goods and services.
Another fact which inspired me to do this project
is that I am in touch with qualitative analysis
whose knowledge with other factors helped me
to do so.
CONTENTS
Introduction
Theory
Apparatus
Chemicals Required
20 Paise Coin (India)
1 Cent Coin (U.S.A)
2 Rupee Coin (India)
1 Rupee Coin (India)
Result
Conclusion
INTRODUCTION
An alloy is a mixture or metallic solid solution composed of
two or more elements. Complete solid solution alloys give
single solid phase-microstructure. Alloys usually have
different properties from those of the component elements.
Alloying a metal is done by combining it with one or more
other metals or non-metals that often enhance its
properties.Alloys are used in ornaments, bells, statues,
buildings, and even coins.
Coins-A Historical Approach
The history of coins extends from ancient times to the
present, and is related to economic history, the history of
minting technologies, and the history of coin collecting.
Coins are still widely used for monetary and other purposes.
Since the time they were invented in 700 B.C., coins have
been the most universal embodiment of money.
The first coins were made of electrum, a naturally occurring
pale yellow mixture of gold and silver that was further
alloyed with silver and copper.
Some of the earliest coins were beaten at the edges to
imitate the shape of a cow, in indication of their value. Most
coins are circular but some were rectangular. Also a lot of
coins, especially in China had a hole through the center so
they could be tied on to a string.Some of the earliest coins to
be made purely from silver and gold were the silver Dirham
and gold Dinar.
Coins were first made of scraps of metal. Ancient coins were
produced through a process of hitting a hammer positioned
over an anvil.The Chinese produced primarily cast coinage,
and this spread to South-East Asia and Japan.
The type of mintage method (being hammered, milled or
cast) does limit the materials which can be used for the coin.
For example antimony coins, (which are very rare) are
nearly always cast examples, because of the brittle nature of
the metal, and thus it would break if

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THEORY
A coin is a piece of hard material that is standardized in
weight, is produced in large quantities in order to facilitate
trade, and primarily can be used as a legal tender token for
commerce in the designated country, region, or territory.
Coins are usually metal or a metallic material and
sometimes made of synthetic materials, usually in the shape
of a disc, and most often issued by a government. Coins are
used as a form of money in transactions of various kinds,
from the everyday circulation coins to the storage of large
numbers of bullion coins. In the present day, coins and
banknotes make up currency, the cash forms of all modern
money systems.
An alloy is a homogeneous mixture of two or more metals or
a metal and non-metal.
They are generally harder than their components with
reduced malleability and ductility. Alloys are prepared
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to enhance certain characteristics of the constituent metals,
as per requirement.
The coinage metals comprise, at minimum, those metallic
chemical elements which have historically been used as
components in alloys used to mint coins.
Coins that are intended for circulation have some special
requirements based on the conditions they will encounter.
For example, a coin may be in circulation for up to 30 years,
and so must have excellent wear resistance and anti-
corrosion properties. Achieving this goal necessitates the use
of base metal alloys. Some metals like manganese have
occasionally been used in coins, but suffer from making the
coins too hard to take an impression well.
A common base metal alloy for everyday coinage is Cupro-
Nickel (also cupronickel), with varying proportions of copper
and nickel, most commonly 75% Cu 25% Ni. Cupronickel has
a silver color, is hard wearing and has excellent striking
properties, essential for the design of the coin to be pressed
accurately and quickly during manufacture.
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APPARATUS
Test Tubes
Test Tube Holder
Test Tube Stand
Beaker
Burner
Tripod Stand
pH Paper
Wire Gauge
Water Bath
Filter Paper
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CHEMICALS REQUIRED
Hydrochloric Acid (HCl)
Sodium Hydroxide
Hydrogen Sulphide Gas
Nitric Acid (HNO3)
Ammonium Acetate
Potassium Iodide
Potassium Chromate
Potassium Ferrocyanide
Ammonium Hydroxide
Ammonium Chloride
Potassium Sulphocyanide
Potassium Nitrite
Ammonium Thiocyanide
Dimethyl Glyoxime
Bromine Water
Ammonium Carbonate
Ammonium Phosphate
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Observation Inference
Twenty
Paise Coin
(India)-
Made in
2003 Experiment
Zero Group:
Add concentrated No white fumes Ammonia (NH4+) is
solution of observed. absent.
sodium hydroxide(NaOH) to it.
Group I:
Add dilute solution of No white precipitate Pb2+, Ag2+ and Hg22+
formed. are absent.
hydrochloric acid to the original
solution.
Group II:
Add dilute solution of No black or yellow Pb2+, Cu2+,As3+ are
HCl to precipitate formed. absent.
the original solution and pass
H2S gas through it.
Group III:
Add NH4Cl and A white precipitate is Al3+ may be present.
NH4OH(in obtained.
excess) to the original solution.