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7.

11 - BEARING

LUBRICATION
-The purpose of lubrication are to lubricate areas of rubbing contact between the rolling
elements and the cage.

LUBRICATION WILL;
1) Reduce friction and wear - Direct metallic contact between the bearing rings, rolling elements
and the cage is prevented by an oil film which reduces the friction and wear.
2) Extend of fatigue life - Rolling fatigue life of bearings depends on greatly upon the viscosity
and film thickness between the rolling contact surfaces.
3) Dissipate frictional heat and cooling - Circulating lubrication may be used to carry away
frictional heat.
4) Others - Prevent foreign materials from entering the bearing and guards against corrosion
and rusting.

-For low rotational speeds or oscillating functions grease is a suitable lubricant. For high
rotational speed, grease would generate excessive temperature because of churning, so oil is
more suitable.

-Bearing fitted in engines and gearboxes are generally lubricated by oil spray, splash, mist, drip
feed or controlled level oil bath, and loss of lubricant is prevented by the use of oil retaining
devices such as labyrinth seals, felt or rubber washers and oil throwers.

-Most bearings used in airframe and external applications are shielded or sealed to prevent
entry of dirt or fluids and packed with anti-freeze grease. These bearings cannot be re-greased
and must be replaced if the lubricant has been washed out.

-Grease nipples are provided for some open bearings so that the grease may be replenished at
specific intervals or when lost due to use of solvents. Nipples should be wiped clean before
applying the grease gun to prevent the entry of dirt into the bearing. Will displace the old
grease.

-Wheel bearings are normally tapered roller bearing and should be re-packed with the correct
grease.

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TYPES OF LUBRICATION
Four forms of lubrication may be identified;
1)Hydrodynamic lubrication
-Also called fluid or full-film lubrication.
-Load carrying surfaces of the bearing are separated by a relatively thick film of lubricant to
prevent metal-to-metal contact.
-Does not depend upon the introduction of the lubrication under pressure, but does require the
existence of an adequate supply of all times.
-In this type of lubrication a measureable quantity of oil is retained between the mating
surfaces. The oil comprises of 3 layers, two outer layers clinging to their respective surfaces, the
central layer consists of molecules of air which is sheared.
-The thinner the oil (the lower the viscosity) the greater the ease with shearing takes place.
-In this type, viscosity is the most important.
-Effective, when in motion.

2) Boundary lubrication
-Oil film between the mating parts are only a few molecules thick.
-Viscosity is not an important factor.
-The important factor is the oiliness, this is the ability of oil to cling together (cohesiveness) and
stick to the surface (adhesiveness)

3) Hydrostatic lubrication
-Introducing at enough pressure to separate the surfaces with a relatively thick film of lubricant.
-Does not require motion of one surface relative to another.

4) Solid film lubrication


-When parts are operated at extreme temperatures, a lubricant such as graphite or
molybdenum disulfide must be used because the ordinary mineral greases are not satisfactory.

INSPECTION
-Needs to be inspected for damage and deterioration.
-Wear or corrosion, once started, progress rapidly and should be discarded.
-Routine inspection carried out after frequent replacement of bearings.
-Might not be possible to examine raceways while bearing is in place, so examine the rings
externally for overheating, damage and corrosion and loose rivets.

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BEARING SHOULD BE CHECKED FOR WEAR AS FOLLOWS
-Actuate the moving parts slowly to check for smoothness of operation. Roughness may result
from grit in the bearing or surface damage to roller bearings caused by corrosion or excessive
wears.
-Check for wear by moving the inner race or shaft in both axial and radial directions.
-Check shielded bearings to ensure that there is no rubbing contact between the stationary and
rotating components. Contact between the shield and inner ring is evidence of excessive wear
in the bearing and could lead to contamination.
-The internal condition can be revealed by an examination of the lubrication. Metal particles
reflect light and give a rough feeling when lubricant is rubbed into the palm of the hand.
-Airframe bearings are exposed to moisture so inspections must be carried out to check for rust
stains.

PRECAUTION FOR PROPER HEANDLING OF BEARINGS


-Keep bearing and surrounding area clean (to prevent entry of dust)
-Handle bearing carefully (do not apply heavy shocks)
-Use proper tools (do not use general-purpose tools)
-Prevent corrosion (prevent rusting of corrosion caused by moisture and corrosive gases)

CLEANING BEARINGS
-First should be wiped of all greases.
-Dry compressed air can be used to dislodge it, but bearing should not be allowed to rotate.
-Secondly, should be soaked or swilled in white spirit to remove any remaining grease or dirt,
allowed to rotate slowly.
-If cannot be cleaned by the above method, a forced jet of white spirit may be used and assisted
if mounted on a tapered mandrel so the inner ring will remain stationary while the outer ring
revolve slowly. Do not vapor-degrease bearings as vapors support contaminants.
-After cleaning, the bearing should be dried clean, warm, dry, compressed air, taking care to
permit only very slow rotation and lightly lubricated with oil to prevent corrosion.

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INSPECTION AFTER REMOVAL
-After removal and cleaning, bearing should be inspected.
-Slight corrosion on the outer surface of the rings is usually acceptable.
-If the rings show signs of creep or spinning, the outside and inside diameter of the bearing
should be checked with a micrometer and plug gauge respectively.
-The running smoothness of bearing maybe determined by mounting it on a shaft, which is
mechanically rotated at 500-1000 rev/min. And axial and radial loads in either direction must be
applied. The outer ring must be square to the shaft or roughness may result.

OPERATION INSPECTION
-After the mounting has been completed, a running test should be conducted to determine if
the bearing has been mounted correctly. If abnormality is found, must be stopped immediately.

MACHINE SIZE OPERATING PROCEDURE BEARING CONDITION CHECKS


SMALL Manual operation, turn the Stick slip – debris, cracks,
bearing by hand. dents
Uneven-rotating torque
Excessive torque
SMALL Power operation, initially at a Check for irregular noise,
low speed and load to reach bearing temperature rise and
rating lubricant leakage and
discoloration
LARGE Idle operation, turn on the Check for irregular noise and
power and allow rotating vibration
slowly. Turn of the power and
allow the bearing to coast to
as stop.
LARGE Power operation, initially at a Check for irregular noise,
low speed and load to reach bearing temperature rise and
rating lubricant leakage and
discoloration

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BEARING DAMAGE TYPES AND THEIR CAUSES
-Often fail prematurely due to avoidable mistakes. The causes of this include improper
mounting, mishandling, and poor lubrication, entry of foreign matter or abnormal heat
generation.

1) FLAKING – Occurs when small pieces of bearing materials are split off from the smooth
surface of the raceway or rolling element due to rolling fatigue, causing roughness/coarse.

2) PEELING – Dull or cloudy spots appear on surface along with light wear. From dull spots, tiny
cracks are generated downwards. Small particles fall off and minor flaking occurs.

3) SCORING – Scoring is surface damage due to accumulated small seizures caused by sliding
under improper lubrication or severe operating conditions. Linear damage appears
circumferentially on the raceway and roller surfaces.

4) SMEARING – Smearing is surface damage which occurs from a collection of small seizures
between bearing components caused by oil film rupture and sliding. Surface roughening occurs
along with melting.

5) FRACTURE – Small pieces which were broken off due to excessive load or shock load acting
locally on a roller corner or rib of a raceway ring.

6) CRACKS – Cracks in the raceway ring and rolling elements. If continued, larger cracks or
fracture.

7) CAGE DAMAGE – Cage deformation, fracture and wear.

8) DENTING – When debris such as small metallic particles are caught in the rolling contact
zone, denting occurs on the raceway surface or rolling element surface.

9) PITTING – Has a dull luster and appears on the rolling element surface or raceway surface.

10) WEAR – Surface deterioration due to sliding friction.

11) FRETTING – Occurs at fitting surface and also at contact area between raceway ring and
rolling element.

12) FALSE BRINELLING – Occurrence of hollow spots that resemble brinell dents and is due to
wear caused by vibration and swaying.

13) CREEP – Relative slippage occurs between fitting surfaces and thereby creates a clearance

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between them surface.

14) SEIZURE – When sudden overheating occurs during rotation, the bearing becomes
discolored. Then, the raceway rings, rolling elements, and cage will soften, melt and deform as
damage accumulates.

15) ELECTRICAL CORROSION (ARCING) – When electric current passes through a bearing, arcing
and burning occur through the thin oil film. These contact points are melted locally to form
‘fluting’ or groove-like corrugation.

16) RUST AND CORROSION – Pits on the surface of rings and rolling elements.

17) MOUNTING FLAWS – Scratches on the surface of raceways or rolling elements

17) DISCOLORATION – Due to reacting with lubricant at high temperature.

CARE AFTER INSPECTION


-Bearings that are satisfactory and can be reused should be lubricated with oil or grease as
appropriate and installed.
-Bearing which are to be stored should be dipped in rust preventive oil, wrapped in greaseproof
paper, boxed and labeled, should be stored horizontally.
-After inspection, bearing are checked for the presence of magnetism.
-Don’t transfer bearings in electrically propelled trucks.
-Don’t mix bearings indiscriminately.

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