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European a 7.90
D 14974 E

& Defence
International Security and Defence Journal
August 2018 • • ISSN 1617-7983

Securing the Baltics

UK Armoured Vehicle Programmes TYPHOON Market Perspectives

P o l i t i c s · A r m e d F o r c e s · P r o c u r e m e n t · Te c h n o l o g y
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and frigates in commission around the globe.
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based air independent propulsion systems.

Running Into a Brick Wall –

a Classic Case
It takes a great deal of application of dialec- make sure every Trumpism is broadcast to
tics to understand how President Donald the world with amplifiers. With more com-
Trump can hail the NATO summit as a re- posure in this arena, the discussion would
sounding success for his tireless efforts to become more factual and more effective.
achieve a punchier NATO. His clumsily pre- But what remains is a deep and justified
sented demand that the two percent target mistrust in the bravado of this President
should be made binding on all NATO States in changing tack. At the G-7 Summit he
by 1 January 2019 is a classic case of running Twittered his withdrawal of his signature
into a brick wall. The effect has been more under the communiqué when he was on
of a bloody nose than a victory pose. The his aircraft. He promised the President of
only problem is that the voters in America North Korea that a manoeuvre would be
don’t see it that way and that could cost him called off, without this being discussed with
what is left of his credibility in Europe, even his South Korean allies. At NATO, on the
if things seem to add up at home. It was a first day he agreed to the passages regard-
minor remark by Mr. Trump, almost as an ing allocations of burdens in the communi-
aside, that cast light on what else, for this qué, but on the second day he rewrote the
President, may be behind the more vehe- chapter. And the meeting with Russia’s Pres-
ment demands that the Europeans gear up ident Putin was more agreeable than that
their armament holdings and production: if with the allies in NATO? The fact that this
the European armaments industry is not able shakes the Europeans’ faith is obvious, even
to deliver rapidly and adequately, the US can if the USA is to fulfil faithfully all the NATO
do it, immediately. That would waken a few obligations into which they have entered.
people up, and sharply. And that is where So anyone who is watching NATO from the
the Europeans must stand together. For the outside is well advised not to misinterpret
security of Europe, a capable and efficient these internal squabbles. NATO stands by
armaments industry is just as important as the Baltic States; even in discussion with
having armed forces that are ready to go Putin (as far as we know), Trump did not
into action. This applies all the more when give any ground about the presence and
the USA can no longer be regarded as the exercise activity of NATO on the northern
blindly trusting partner. Taking on additional flank. The facts still hold: No military attack
demands has the aim of making the Europe- has been made against a NATO member;
ans more capable in performance, and under the security union is working.
some circumstances actually making them In the coming year, NATO celebrates its 70th
more independent. In this context, the sce- birthday. This is scheduled to be at another
nario simply cannot work that the USA only Summit. The Alliance wanted to celebrate
provide what the European States can al- this anniversary with a new strategic con-
ready procure from their taxpayers. That then cept. This idea has somewhat run aground.
means “Europe first”. This is the language There were too many differences of opinion,
that Trump understands. even in Europe, in particular with regard to
What Trump achieved in Brussels was that strategic issues. Nevertheless, NATO is sup-
the rest of NATO stands very much shoulder posed to take on this task. Some years ago
to shoulder, maybe even closer than before a group of experts, specialists, and experi-
the Summit. The contents of his demands, enced ex-politicians prepared a paper from
and the way he delivered them, brought eve- which such a concept was developed. It
ryone to the barricades. The unity which was would stand NATO in good stead to accept
achieved in the assessment of the security independent advice and suggestions. In this
policy situation in the world, and the deter- world, without any real leadership, a clear
mination with which NATO has strengthened orientation would be something of high
its security resources, were unfortunately strategic value.
overshadowed on the second day of the
Summit. This is also down to our media, who Rolf Clement

5/2018 · European Security & Defence 1


Friendly Rivals Russian Defence Modernisation

Photo: Presidential Palace Iran

Turkish-Iranian Relations Page 16 Achievements, Plans, Objectives Page 36

SECURITY POLICY 58 Combat Aircraft Cockpit

Developments Gain Momentum
12 Russia’s Policy of Deception and Denial Luca Peruzzi
Eugene Kogan
63 “Our goal is clear: To protect our territories,
16 Friendly Rivals people and forces.”
Turkish-Iranian Relations Interview with Yunus Emre Karaosmanoğlu,
Korhan Özkilinc Deputy Undersecretary of the Ministry of National Defense,
Republic of Turkey
21 NATO Assurance Measures
in the Baltics 65 After India's Withdrawal:
Tomáš Čižik What is Happening with the Su-57?
Georg Mader

Military CBRN Decontamination
Problems and Issues
26 Mind the Gap Dan Kaszeta
Amphibious Bridging in NATO
Tim Guest
30 Military Capabilities of the Baltic States
Giulia Tilenni 72 Poland’s Defence Industry Base
36 Modernisation of the Russian Armed Forces Eugene Kogan
Achievements, Plans, Objectives 76 ASCOD and PANDUR – Vienna Calling!
Stephen Blank Jürgen Hensel
42 “The Navy is on the right course” 78 “We have been a supplier to the Bundeswehr
Interview with Vice Admiral Andreas Krause, and international customers for more than 60 years.”
Chief of the German Navy Interview with Jan-Dirk Hellwege,
Managing Director, WesCom Signal & Rescue Germany GmbH
44 Deadly US Navy Accidents Reveal
Need to Reform Training 80 European Training Equipment Conference 2018
Sidney E. Dean Readiness, Cyber and Training were the main topics
at ITEC 2018.
William Carter
82 “Proven reliability and durability ”
48 UK Armoured Vehicle Programmes Interview with Markus Kopp,
David Saw
Managing Director, GEROH GmbH & Co. KG
54 Eurofighter TYPHOON – Who is Next to Join?
Esteban Villarejo Ceballos

2 European Security & Defence · 5/2018

Rapid Structural Change Index of Advertisers

Photo: Polish Government

AAD 11


Arms & Security 29


Diehl Aviation 59

DVD 53


Eurofighter Jagdflugzeuge 4th cover

Eurojet 55
Poland's Defence Industry Base  Page 72
Forcepol 5

Future Armoured Vehicles Survivability 79

Future Forces Forum 77

THE BRUSSELS BACKDROP General Dynamics European Land Systems 27

34 NATO Summit Marked By Disputes GEROH 21

Joris Verbeurgt IDEAS 19

Indo Defence 9

14 Kuala Lumpur I/ITSEC 71

Dzirhan Mahadzir MSPO 73

Pearson Engineering 3
Renk 49
1 Editorial Rheinmetall 23

4 Periscope SAHA 64

Sensonor 51
50 Masthead
83 Firms & Faces
thyssenkrupp Marine Systems 2nd cover
88 Preview Issue 6/2018



PEL 4616 Masterbrand Advert.indd 1 08/03/2018 17:08

5/2018 · European Security & Defence 3


Photo: Leonardo

Photo: Lockheed Martin

Australia’s New Frigates a “cutting-edge air defence system that tive clothing and equipment. This means We are excited to continue to do so with
(df) Australia is investing over €22Bn in anti- will meet the Colombian requirements that posture, force and consequently the TROPHY” added Moshe Elazar, Executive
submarine warfare frigates as part of its and potentially those of other countries in analytic results correspond to actual use.” Vice President and Head of Rafael’s Land
“SEA 5000” programme to modernise its the region”, it has been announced. “It is This military RAMSIS was designed in close and Naval Division. “The majority of TRO-
navy. BAE Systems won the corresponding the first system with these characteristics cooperation between Human Solutions and PHY components are manufactured by
competition. The winning model, GLOBAL developed in Latin America, as a result of the German Armed Forces with the core the American defence industry and we
COMBAT SHIP – AUSTRALIA, is based on the success of the collaboration between being the integrated equipment library. All are excited by the opportunity to increase
the BAE Systems TYPE 26 frigate that the Indra and CODALTEC.” To achieve this goal important equipment of German soldiers manufacturing in the US, including for Is-
Indra and CODALTEC have extended their such as combat jacket, boots, protective raeli systems, as the US acquires additional
Graphic: BAE Systems

already existing collaboration in the field vest, helmet and the newly-introduced elec- systems.”
of radars (resulting in TADER (Tactical Air tronic back were digitised with 3D scanners is proud to be a part of this important ef-
Defence Radar)) to the development of and integrated into the library. The RAMSIS fort to bring life-saving technology to our Bahrain Buys F-16 Block 70 ers around the world. Approximately 3,000
command and control systems, one of the mannequin can therefore be equipped as warfighters, and we are actively investing (df) Lockheed Martin has received a operational F-16s are flying today with 25
core capabilities of Indra. This system will required to suit the intended use. to ensure TROPHY provides a solid, Ameri- US$1.12Bn contract from the US Govern- leading air forces, including the US Air Force.
receive data provided by different sensors can-made foundation for the Army’s com- ment to produce 16 new F-16 Block 70 air- Bahrain will also benefit from a wide range
and merge it to present a comprehensive M109 Upgrades With ing Vehicle Protection Suite programme,” craft for the Royal Bahraini Air Force. The of possible weapons. In concert with the
and integrated vision of the real scenario Hybrid GENAIRCON said Aaron Hankins, Vice President and Kingdom of Bahrain is the first customer to US Air Force Lockheed Martin has certified
company is currently building for the British for military officers. Therefore, the system (df) INTRACOM Defense Electronics (IDE) General Manager of the Leonardo DRS procure the F-16 Block 70, the newest and more than 3,300 carriage and release con-
Navy in Glasgow. However, the nine Aus- will be capable of immediately detecting has delivered first M109 upgrades with hy- Land Systems division. “This award is the most advanced F-16 production configura- figurations for greater than 180 weapon and
tralian frigates are being built by ASC Ship- any risk and deploying the necessary ac- brid GENAIR- culmination of several years of hard work tion, the company stated. The F-16 Block 70 store types. “We value our long-standing
building (an Australian state enterprise) in tions to neutralise it. The TADER radar will CON to the by a strong, bi-national government/in- features advanced avionics, a proven Active relationship with the Kingdom of Bahrain
Adelaide, Australia. The frigates will serve be a key element of the sensor network in Hellenic Army. dustry team to protect our warfighters and Electronically Scanned Array radar, a mod- and look forward to beginning production

in the RAN as the HUNTER class and should the future CODALTEC air defence system. GENAIRCON address a critical capability gap in our ar- ernised cockpit, advanced weapons, confor- activities on their first Block 70 aircraft at
be able to carry out a variety of missions In addition, the system will be fully interop- is a fully inte- moured formations.” “Rafael has provided mal fuel tanks, an automatic ground colli- our facility in Greenville,” said Susan Ouzts,
independently or as part of units with erable with any other type of subsystem, grated power protection solutions to US service mem- sion avoidance system, an advanced engine Vice President of Lockheed Martin‘s F-16
long range and sea endurance. In addition so it can incorporate new capabilities as management bers for over two decades via lifesaving and an industry-leading extended structural programme. “This sale highlights the sig-
to the primary mission − anti-submarine they appear in the future, or integrate the solution for passive and reactive armour on vehicles service life of 12,000 hours. To date, 4,604 nificant, growing demand we see for new
warfare − the frigates are also to receive equipment used by the Armed Forces of military ve- such as BRADLEY, STRYKER and AAV7. F-16s have been procured by 28 custom- production F-16s around the globe.”
capabilities or modules for scenarios such other countries. hicles and
as humanitarian aid or disaster response. it incorporates a Hybrid Auxiliary Power
Special features are the CEA phased array Military RAMSIS Unit (HAPU), an advanced Energy Storage
radar developed in Australia and the use Digital Mannequin System (ESS) and a Vehicle Environmental
of the American AEGIS system, which is (df) Germany-based Hu- Control System (VECS), all controlled by an

Requirements? Meet Solutions:

equipped with an interface specially devel- man Solutions GmbH has intelligent central Power Management Sys-
oped by Saab Australia. According to the adapted their RAMSIS tem. The platform-customisable hybrid GE-
RAN, the HUNTER class will boast some of digital mannequin to meet NAIRCON is designed to provide extended
the most powerful warships in the world. military needs. RAMSIS “True Silent Watch” capability, contribut-
The contract to build the HUNTER class is is a digital mannequin ing to increased survivability in field op-
expected to come into force before the used worldwide by car erations. GENAIRCON enables prolonged
end of 2018; production could then start manufacturers for the control of the vehicle’s thermal and noise
in 2020. optimal ergonomic de- signatures, introducing a force multiplier in
sign of vehicle interiors. the contemporary doctrine of operations.
Colombian Air Defence It can also enter and exit Furthermore, according to the company,
System a vehicle in full combat the system offers significantly reduced
(df) The Colombian Corporación de Alta gear, equipped with the fuel consumption and maintenance re-
Graphic: Human Solutions

Tecnología para la Defensa (High-Tech most important, up-to- quirements, which increase mission sus-
Defence Corporation − CODALTEC) and date army equipment, the tainability.
Spanish company Indra will jointly develop company announced. This
provides vehicle designers Trophy On US ABRAMS

with information on the

ND Forcepol sp. z o.o.

ergonomic requirements (df) Leonardo DRS has announced that it has

of the occupants at an early stage of de- been awarded a contract worth US$193M

— 03-119 Warszawa, Poland

velopment and therefore leads to shorter to deliver TROPHY active protection systems

development times and reduced costs for to the US Army. TROPHY will installed on
late modifications to the vehicle. the ABRAMS tanks in support of immedi-
T: +48 (0)506 502 900
“Ergonomic simulation with RAMSIS De- ate operational requirements. Developed by
fense provides vehicle designers with the long-time partner Rafael Advanced Defense
U E:
practical relevance they need to precisely Systems (Israel) and currently fielding some
analyse and design functionality in the ve-
hicle,” says Anton Preiß, Director Mobil-
1,000 systems to all major Israeli ground
combat platforms, TROPHY provides com-
M W:
ity at Human Solutions. “Our mannequin bat-proven protection against anti-armour
can be realistically equipped with protec- rocket and missile threats. “Leonardo DRS

4 European Security & Defence · 5/2018 5/2018 · European Security & Defence 5

Photo: Airbus Helicopters

Counter-Drone GlobalEye Heading To has rolled out and then flown GlobalEye,” Multitouch Display for jects shown on the display. The projec-
Drone Contract A Flying Start said Lars Tossman, Saab’s Head of Airborne Safe and Easy Operation tive capacitive (PCAP) technology used
(df) The US Army has awarded a contract (df) Saab’s new GlobalEye Airborne Early Surveillance Systems. “The flight test pro- (gwh) The new fanless VistaMaster-17 by the touch sensor supports the use of
for a counter drone system to Raytheon. Warning & Control (AEW&C) aircraft gramme is running according to plan, with PPC MFD Multitouch Display from ATM the display even with gloves. The Vista-
The solution will consist of Raytheon’s achieved a number of significant mile- the flight envelope being opened up, whilst Computer enables recognition and pro- Master-17 MFD PPC Multitouch automat-
COYOTE unmanned aircraft system (UAS) stones in 2018, commencing with the roll- on the ground the mission system complet- cessing of information in 16:9 full HD ically scales the video input data. With its
and the company’s Ku-band radio fre- ed all its rig testing. We are very satisfied resolution. As on smartphones and tab- high, adjustable brightness and contrast,

Photo: Saab
quency system (KRFS) radar. “Enemy un- with all these results and believe GlobalEye lets, the user makes several simultane- the VistaMaster-17 PPC MFD Multitouch
manned aircraft are among the biggest is going to be unrivalled in the capabilities ous touches on the display’s capacitive works well under changing light condi-
threats facing our ground troops today,” it offers.” touch sensor, which simplifies procedures tions, from sunlight to the use of residual
said Dr. Thomas Bussing, Raytheon Ad- agency. The aim is to obtain type certifica- light amplifier glasses. The display has

Photo: ATM
vanced Missile Systems Vice President. Next Generation V-200B tion so that the helicopter can be delivered: been tested according to current military
“Our small, expendable COYOTE pro- (df) At the Farnborough International Air the Navy is scheduled to receive the first environmental standards and for electro-
vides the Army with an affordable and Show UMS SKELDAR announced the launch three aircraft at the end of 2019. The Sea magnetic compatibility.
highly effective solution for countering of the SKELDAR V-200B, a modification of Lion was designed from the outset as a
the growing UAS threat.” Equipped with their mid-sized heavy fuel engined Verti- naval helicopter and is intended to replace New Red Dot Sights
an advanced seeker and warhead, Coyote the Sea King Mk41 fleet of the German (ck) Aimpoint, the inventor of red dot


can identify and eliminate hostile UAVs Armed Forces. It is compatible with the sighting technology, has launched a new
when paired with the KRFS radar, which out of the first aircraft in February 2018. F124 (SACHSEN class) and F125 (BADEN- series of red dot sights, the Aimpoint
acquires and tracks all sizes of UAS. COY- At the Farnborough International Airshow WÜRTTEMBERG class) frigates, and the ACRO (Advanced Compact Reflex Optic)
Saab explained the achievements being de- (BERLIN class) joint support ships. It will series. The small ACRO electronic red dot
Photo: Raytheon

livered with this newest addition to its air- also be possible to operate the Sea Lion sights were specially developed for use
borne surveillance system family. According from the planned multi-role combat ship on pistols and other weapon platforms,
to the company, GlobalEye is a true swing- 180 (MKS 180). The Bundeswehr has or- because for many years the end users
role multi-mission solution. “It combines dered a total of 18 Sea Lions, which are to have been demanding a small, closed red
multiple sensors and sophisticated data fu- be delivered by 2022. From then on, the as soldiers are used to this kind of man- dot sight that fits on handguns. The AC-
sion into an intuitive mission system on the helicopter will also take over the SAR role machine interaction. Multitouch makes RO P-1 offers a closed system that is more
Bombardier Global 6000 jet, with fully net- cal Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) UAV. The of the Sea King. it easy to move, select or enlarge ob- durable than open systems. It is also the
worked communications,” the company SKELDAR V-200B completed trials earlier in
stated. “This capability gives excellent flex- 2018, following an intensive modification
ibility across the full mission spectrum from audit, based on in-theatre performance
OTES can be flown individually or netted peacetime to warfighting, and particularly feedback and the strategic imperative to
together in swarms. They are adaptable benefits joint force commanders manag- further widen its competitive advantage.
for a variety of missions including sur- ing combined air, sea and land operations.” “It is no secret that more players are at-
veillance, electronic warfare and strike. The Development and Production contract tempting to enter the maritime market for
Raytheon announced it is finalising de- for GlobalEyewas awarded at the Dubai rotary UAVs,” said David Willems, Head of
velopment of advanced COYOTE variants Air Show in November 2015 by the United Business Development at UMS SKELDAR,
that will fly faster and farther. Because of Arab Emirates with an initial order for two the UAV joint venture between Sweden’s
an urgent operational need, the Army is systems. An additional order by the UAE Saab and UMS AERO of Switzerland. “Re-
expected to use COYOTE as a counter-UAS for a third system was announced in 2017. cent navy contracts have stipulated the role
solution before the end of 2018. “In a period of just over two years Saab and specification, and this has confirmed
our strategy of development is absolutely
the right move at the right time. We are able
to fly longer - over five hours - at maximum
payload capacity through weight savings
from design modifications and our 2-stroke 7. INTERNATIONAL FAIR
Find us on facebook! engine configuration provides significantly
unmatched time between overhauls.” OF DEFENCE,

Sea Lion Subject
to Qualification SECURITY,
(gwh) The first flight of the second pro-
totype in series configuration on July 10, PROTECTION
2018 marked the start of the qualification
phase for the NH90 Sea Lion naval helicop-
ter in Donauwörth. The helicopter is be-
ing tested by a team of representatives of

News – Events – Opinions

the manufacturer, Airbus Helicopters, and
representatives of the Bundeswehr from 20. - 23. 9. 2018
Gornja Radgona, Slovenia
the Navy, the German Military Aviation Authority (Luftfahrtamt der Bundeswehr)
and the German BAAINBw procurement

6 European Security & Defence · 5/2018

Photo: Aimpoint

al requirements. Airbus’ HFORCE system basic configuration and scale up gradu- and all the automotive components, the FLIR Launches vide its 8x8 amphibious armoured platform
will allow Hungary to equip and operate ally or quickly according to operational hull and final integration for wheeled identiFINDER R200-GN design, core components and services, to
their aircraft with ballistic or guided air- needs and budget availability. variants. Leonardo’s responsibilities are (cl) FLIR has introduced its FLIR identiFINDER support BAE Systems within the framework
to-ground and air-to-air weapons. The the weapon systems, sights and fire con- R200-GN spectroscopic personal radiation of their contract with the US Marine Corps.
H145M is a tried-and-tested light twin- GPS Anti-Jam Navigation trol systems and the hull and the final detector (SPRD), an addition to its identi-

Photo: Iveco Defence Vehicles

engine helicopter that was first delivered System FINDER R200-Series of handheld radiation

Photo Iveco
in 2015 to the German Armed Forces and (ck) Modern navigation, communications security solutions. The SPRD is able to de-
has since been ordered by Thailand and and reconnaissance systems, as well as tect neutron and gamma radiation, alert-
the Republic of Serbia. Powered by two electronic combat systems integrated in- ing first responders to radiation threats. The
Safran ARRIEL 2E engines, the H145M is to modern platforms, depend on the un- new neutron capability is an important early
the quietest helicopter in its class and is warning system as neutrons can penetrate

Photo: IAI
equipped with full authority digital en- material and travel longer distances than
only sight in its size category tested for gine control (FADEC) and the HELIONIX other forms of radiation. Recording and
shock, vibration, temperature range and digital avionics suite. It includes a high sending real-time dose rates and geotag
other environmental hazards. The sight performance 4-axis autopilot, increasing information via a companion mobile app The Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV) is
can perform under tough conditions safety and reducing pilot workload. Last has been made possible by the integrated open ocean-capable, equipped with a new
while adding negligible size and weight year Hungary also acquired two Airbus Bluetooth Smart wireless technology. The six-cylinder 700hp engine. The vehicle is
to the equipment. Tested with at least A319 military troop transporters. integration for the tracked armoured ruggedised pager-sized device is certified mobile in all terrain. The US Marine Corps’
20,000 rounds on a .40 cal pistol slide, vehicles. The systems of the CENTAURO according to IP67 and protected against Developmental Testing and Operational
it is robust and reliable: the ACRO P-1 Modular Air Defence II are highly advanced in terms of power, dust and water (up to 1 m depth); it is also Assessment has proven its capabilities for
sight was developed for integration onto System observation capability, mobility, ergo- certified according to MIL-STD-810G, guar- water and land operations, payload and
pistol slides. The sight can also be used (ck) Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) nomics, weapons range, communica- anteeing its resistance against salt and fog, survivability. It has a suspended interior seat-
as a backup sight for magnifying scopes has unveiled the BARAK-MX, a modu- tions and crew protection. The new 8x8 and it meets the 1.5 m drop criteria required ing structure for 13 embarked Marines, and
or personal defence weapons. The sight lar naval and land-based air and missile vehicle has a power pack delivering over by the performance standards for alarming blast-mitigating positions for a crew of three.
is a 1X (non-magnifying) parallax-free defence system. The BARAK-MX sup- 700 HP and an H-drive architecture. The PRDs, ANSI N42.32.
optic that features a 3.5 minute of angle ports radars and launchers, providing system is entirely digital and features a GA-ASI Maximising Fuel
(MOA) red dot for fast target acquisition. optimised response to fighter aircraft, interrupted availability of satellite-based modern turret mounting with a 120/45 Iveco Defence Vehicles to Capacity for MQ-25
It is fully submersible to 25 metres and al- helicopters, UASs, cruise missiles, sur- navigation and timing for their operation. mm gun. Summed up, the CENTAURO II Deliver Amphibious Platform (cl) By employing an integrated fuel tank
lows continuous operation for over 1 year face-air and surface-surface missiles. Despite this dependency, most platforms will be adaptable to any scenario. In the (cl) Iveco Defence Vehicles, CNH Industrial structure, General Atomics Aeronautical
on a single CR1225 battery. Dot intensity Based on operationally proven com- do not use countermeasures to protect future, 126 more vehicles will be deliv- subsidiary specialised in the construction of Systems (GA-ASI) can maximise fuel of-
is adjusted with side push buttons. mand and control, it supports the use of these essential assets, and if they remain ered to the Italian Army. protected and armoured vehicles, will pro- fload for the MQ-25 unmanned aerial
three additional interceptor rockets: The exposed, even jammers with low perfor-
Hungary Orders 20 H145Ms mance can disrupt or even deny the oper-
Photo: IAI

(ck) As part of the “Zrinyi 2026” military ation of GNSS systems, which impairs the
modernisation programme the Hungar- platform's ability to perform its task. To
ian Ministry of Defence has ordered 20 address this threat, Israel Aerospace In-
H145M military helicopters equipped dustries (IAI) and Honeywell have joined
with the HFORCE weapon manage- forces to develop a turnkey GPS anti-jam
ment system. Airbus will also provide navigation system. The joint product in-
an extensive training and support pack- tegrates IAI's GPS Anti-Jam system with
BARAK MRAD is a short-range, high- Honeywell's navigation products, as a
Photo: Airbus Helicopters

speed vertically launched interceptor subsystem or as an embedded solution.

suitable for addressing threats within a Following successful development, Hon-
range of up to 35 km. It includes a radar eywell's EMBEDDED GLOBAL POSITION-
homing head and a single-pulse engine. ING SYSTEM / INERTIAL NAVIGATION
The BARAK LRAD is a medium-range, SYSTEM (EGI) will incorporate the IAI GPS
high-speed vertically launched rocket Interference Prevention System ADA, an
for addressing threats at a range of up advanced system that protects avionics
to 70 km. It has a radar homing head systems from GPS interference.
with a dual-pulse engine. The BARAK
ER is a long-range, vertically launched Ten CENTAURO II Armoured
interceptor with an accelerator engine, Vehicles for the Italian Army
age. With a maximum take-off weight dual-pulse rocket engine and advanced (cl) Senior management from the Iveco
of 3.7 tonnes, the H145M can be used radar homing head. The MRAD, LRAD – Oto Melara Consortium (CIO) have
for troop transport, surveillance, air res- and BARAK ER share many elements signed a contract valued at Euros159M
cue, armed reconnaissance and medical which is a significant advantage when to deliver the first tranche of ten CEN-
evacuation. The Hungarian fleet will be it comes to maintenance and training. TAURO II Armoured Vehicles to the Ital-
equipped with a fast roping system, high As an operationally flexible system, the ian Army. CIO was founded on equal
performance camera, fire support equip- BARAK-MX allows a choice of radar and participation between Iveco Defence
ment, ballistic protection as well as an interceptor type according to the type Vehicles and the former Oto Melara
electronic countermeasures system to of threat at hand. The system’s modular company (now part of Leonardo). Iveco
support the most demanding operation- nature allows customers to start with is responsible for engines, gearboxes

8 European Security & Defence · 5/2018


Photo: Rheinmetall
refuelling aircraft for the US Navy. The RADA’s MHR Radars Selec-
fuel tanks in a large-scale wing box test ted for US Army IM-SHORAD
article and a full-scale wing skin pre-pro- (cl) RADA Electronic Industries Ltd., an
duction validation article provide more Israeli provider of tactical land radar for
fuel carriage and delivery capacity. Vari- force and border protection, announced
ous inspections verified the production that its Multi-mission Hemispheric Radar
readiness of the co-cured wing and tail (MHR) has been down-selected as a part
components. Fuel containment sealing of the Leonardo DRS mission equipment
methods, advanced non-linear buckling package (MEP) solution for the US Army’s
finite element analysis models and thick Initial Maneuver-Short Range Air Defense
composite laminate construction were
validated as well as the MQ-25 tool- Photo: RADA Electronic Industries Ltd. not be reduced, as the VTAL protrudes
ing concepts, lamination approach and only about 25 mm above the mounting
processes. The integral fuel tank shall rail. The watertight metal housing has a
minimise technical and schedule risk. built-in MIL-STD 1913/STANAG 4694-in-
The validation of the outer mould line terface. This laser light package can work
tooling approach for the build process in extreme conditions; it is waterproof to
enables an accelerated engineering and a depth of 30 metres. To make adjust-
tooling fabrication for the MQ-25 pro- ment on the weapon easy, a laser block
gramme. is integrated at the factory.

Lincad Launches the (IM-SHORAD) capability. The prototype NDMA Awarded Contract
ARMADA contract is still to be signed. The radar to Safran Vectronix
(cl) Lincad, UK supplier of batteries, can be mounted on the Stryker A1 plat- (cl) Safran Vectronix AG, manufacturer
chargers and power management sys- form. It offers a 360°aerial surveillance of portable optronics equipment, will
tems, has launched its six-channel bat- enabling the operator to detect and track deliver several hundreds of medium and
tery conditioner, the ARMADA. This bat- Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), rotary long range multifunctional thermal imag-
tery conditioner is designed for the state wing and fixed wing threats. Four MHR ers to the Norwegian Armed Forces. The
of charge (SoC) management of lithium– radars are included in each IM-SHORAD company’s products MOSKITO TI and JIM
ion and other battery types. It is com- MEP, capable to be used at the short-halt Compact were selected by the Norwegian
patible with IrDA, SMBus smart batteries and on-the-move. This effort needs sys- Defense Material Agency (NDMA) as com-
tems that will be provided in early 2019. pact and lightweight handheld devices.
Photo: Lincad

MOSKITO IT is a monocular handheld sys-

Rheinmetall to Supply tem, weighing 1.3 kg. It includes several
Laser Light Package high performance sensors and modules like
(cl) The Federal Office for Bundeswehr an uncooled thermal imager, high grade di-
Equipment, Information Technology rect view optics (DVO), Low Light TV (LLTV)
and In-Service Support, the German channel, a laser rangefinder (LRF), a digital
procurement authority, has signed a magnetic compass (DMC) and a GPS re-
contract with Rheinmetall. Rheinmetall ceiver. JIM Compact weighs 2 kg. It is a
is going to deliver 1,745 lightweight as- binocular and compact long range hand-
sault rifle-mounted laser light packages held device. The system combines a cooled
and batteries with no communications to the Bundeswehr’s Special Forces As- high resolution thermal imager, advanced
interface. As it is able to manage lithium- sault Rifle (Sturmgewehr Spezialkräfte
Photo: Safran

ion batteries to be at less than 30% SoC, Bundeswehr, leicht). The laser light pack-
it is designed for users preparing bat- age is based on Rheinmetall’s Variable
teries for air transport in line with IATA Tactical Aiming Laser (VTAL) module.
regulations. Powered from a universal This robust and compact system is de-
AC mains supply, the automatic charg- signed for today’s shorter assault rifles.
ing and discharging of batteries through It features an extremely strong visible
battery interface adaptors, connected via red dot laser, a near-infrared dot laser
locking military-standard circular connec- and a near-infrared illuminator, which
tors, is carried out by its six independ- can be focused, and is compatible with
ent channels. This process, controlled by standard image intensifier devices. Both
the system software, must be initiated dot lasers can be adjusted with a colour- TV channel, embedded “see spot” capa-
through a push-button interface: LED coded cable switch. Two “Lumenator” bility, infrared laser pointer, a LRF, a LLTV
displays give detailed information dur- weapon lights are as well installed on the channel, a DMC and a GPS receiver. The
ing operation. As the battery is rugged, weapon, a standard version with a dual combination of the two devices will allow
it can operate in military environments, LED head and a special version for hos- day and night observation, target acquisi-
and in order to adapt to future technol- tage rescue operations. VTAL can also tion, artillery correction and fire support,
ogy, the battery conditioner accepts field be coupled with further tactical weapon forward observer and Joint Terminal Attack
software upgrades. lights. Conventional optical aiming will Controller.

10 European Security & Defence · 5/2018


Russia’s Policy of Deception and Denial referendum, and that was all. For inexplica-
ble reasons, the West rejected the Russian
narrative and unanimously imposed eco-
nomic sanctions against Russia (with the
Eugene Kogan exception of Turkey as a member of NATO‘s
Western alliance), which still exist despite
President Putin‘s “good will“ to improve
A policy of deception and denial is the cornerstone of Russia‘s same strategy to the annexation of Crimea, relations with the West. Putin laments that

Photo: Kremlin
which was supposedly necessary to defend his country is punished for a non-existent
overarching strategy of confusion, paralysis and ultimately defeat the endangered Russian population. crime (annexation of Crimea) that Russia
of the opponent. We must not forget that President Putin did not commit because it was the free will
has repeatedly said that Russia did not an- of the Crimean Russians to belong to Rus- At the 70th session of the UN General Assembly on 28 September 2015,
nex Crimea, but rather accepted the will of sia. Sanctions, however, did not prevent President Putin declared that the West had staged a coup in Ukraine.

C onsistency, conviction and persever-

ance are key words to describe the
policy of deception and denial. The cases
Photo: Kremlin the Russian people living on the peninsula
to return to Russia through the referendum
on 16 March 2014, which would make the
Russia from continuing its policy of decep-
tion and denial.
If one believes the Kremlin, then the
any involvement. It also rejects all allega-
tions from the United Kingdom, because
surprise, surprise, they see no discrepancy
between the freedoms taken for granted
presented below shed light on the consist- whole story more credible and legally bind- subsequent war in eastern Ukraine has they are allegedly flawed; according to the and the support of the autocratic regime.
ent pattern of President Vladimir Putin‘s ing. Putin‘s statement was reiterated by shown that there was no Russian military Kremlin, there are actors who are interest- So far the Russian policy of deception and
government to deceive others and depict Sergei Lavrov, Foreign Minister, when he involvement and that since March 2014 no ed in blaming Russia. denial has worked like magic in various
Russia as the one that comes to the aid said that Moscow ”will respect the will of Russian soldier has fought on the side of the In short, there is a uniform pattern of Rus- places around the world; Moscow has little
of the underdogs, whether in Georgia, the Crimean people“. separatists. Western reports of this kind are sian behaviour based on deception and de- reason to change it even if the West con-
Ukraine or elsewhere. Syria is a special case Russian media then spread the story that allegedly shameful lies that are supposed nial of Russian involvement; any Western tinues to scold Russia. Moreover, Russian
where Russia cannot abandon its military Crimea is legally bound to Russia, and to damage the reputation of the Russian evidence is rejected on the grounds that politicians feel that the West can always
bases to aggressive Western powers. As a throughout Russia people did not under- military and President Putin as commander- it does not have a sufficient basis and that be outwitted, because the West needs
result, Russia paints an image of an alleged- stand why the West showed such a hostile in-chief. If the European Union and NATO Russia has acted correctly or is not involved. Russia more than Russia needs the West.
ly bellicose West that wants to destroywhat attitude. However, the referendum was member states provide sound evidence of According to Russian logic, Western accu- This prevailing view finds support among
remains of Syria, while Russia is depicted considered illegal by most members of the Russia‘s involvement in various operations sations are always unfounded and mali- Western economic circles and lobbyists
as defending the independence and sover- European Union, the United States and around the world, the Russians claim that cious. who are campaigning for a rapprochement
eignty of the country against the obtrusive Canada, as it took place at a time when this evidence is either not concrete enough This is a consistent pattern, and things will with Putin‘s Russia. After all, these circles
West. In other words, Russia is good, at- Russian soldiers were stationed on the pen- or is deliberately intended to denigrate go on like this. In support of the author‘s are interested in maintaining economic
tentive and caring, while the West is evil, insula. Thirteen members of the United Na- Russia. Russia‘s refusal to take responsibility claim, I quote James Mattis, US Secretary relations with Russia despite Russia‘s per-
irresponsible and careless. tions Security Council voted in favour of for misconduct is therefore in line with its of Defence, who told reporters in Washing- sistent misconduct, which they prefer to
President Putin has consistently pursued a resolution invalidating the referendum, policy of deception and denial. Russia does ton on 27 March 2018: “They remove the overlook. In addition to the moneyed cir-
and implemented his policy of decep- but Russia vetoed it and China abstained. A not intend to change this policy in the badges from the soldiers‘ uniforms and go cles, various political left- and right-wing
tion and denial since the outbreak of the resolution of the UN General Assembly was near future, as this policy has repeatedly to Crimea. They have nothing to do with parties are in favour of maintaining cordial
Russian-Georgian war in August 2008, a adopted on 27 March 2014 by 100 votes in acquitted Russia of misconduct, while the what the separatists are doing in eastern relations with Putin‘s Russia. Once again,
war which Russia blames on Georgia and favour, 11 against and 58 abstentions, in- evildoers in the West have repeatedly failed Ukraine. I‘m not sure how they can say Putin‘s useful idiots continue to stand up
in which Russia was obliged to come to the President Putin has consistently validating the referendum and confirming to provide sufficient evidence of Russia‘s that, but they are doing things they obvi- for Putin‘s Russia, despite the latter‘s con-
aid of the underdogs Abkhazia and South pursued a policy of deception and Ukraine‘s territorial integrity. Nevertheless, involvement. ously want to deny.“ This has been Russia‘s sistent policy of deception and denial. It is
Ossetia. Despite the ceasefire agreement denial. Russia refuses to recognise the resolution, In another Russian narrative, Syrian Presi- way out of a delicate situation. Whether or uncertain whether the West will come to its
between Russia and Georgia signed on 12 which underlines Russia‘s contempt for the dent Bashar al-Assad is said to have called not the West believes in the Russian nar- senses and understand that Putin‘s Russia is
August 2008, which provided for the with- opponent as uncontrolled, unpredictable international community and shows that on the Russian military to defend Syria‘s rative is irrelevant to President Putin and a destructive force, but one thing is certain:
drawal of Russian and Georgian forces to and revengeful. According to Russian politi- Russia‘s national interests take precedence sovereignty and territorial integrity, while his government; having an honest face Putin‘s useful idiots will not disappear from
pre-conflict positions, Russian troops did cians, Georgia continues to have a grudge over the resolutions of the international the West came to Syria without invitation and smiling behind the backs of naive the international stage and their numbers
not retreat to the positions they held before against the independent states Abkhazia community. and should therefore leave sooner rather Europeans and Americans is Russia‘s way will not decline but rise; their voices will be
the beginning of hostilities, but remained and South Ossetia, and one fine day – in In addition, the Kremlin’s version of the than later. Once again, Russia appears as of outwitting and dividing the EU and US heard constantly, and Putin will continue
in the occupied territories of Abkhazia and the not-too-distant future – Georgia will try Crimea story was disseminated in Eng- a friendly supporter of humanitarian aid, politicians and ordinary citizens. We must to count on their support, as in a good old-
South Ossetia on the pretext of defend- to reclaim both areas. Even if this is far from lish-language media outlets to convince while the West is a warmonger who does not forget that Putin has many supporters fashioned marriage.
ing the territories against aggressive and the truth, it is the goal of Putin‘s govern- short-sighted Westerners that it was in- not want to leave Syria. At the same time, in the West who, despite repeated fraud, After all, Russia‘s policy of deception and
unpredictable Georgian policies. The sub- ment to slander the Georgian government. deed the desire of the Russian majority Russia has no plans to leave Syria in the still want to deal with Putin‘s Russia; Jeremy denial is consistent. Those who are vulner-
sequent Russian policy of integrating Geor- Consequently, Russia always holds others in Crimea (about 60 percent) to rejoin foreseeable future, although it often says Corbyn, leader of the UK Labour Party, for able become believers and loyal suppor-
gian territory in South Ossetia is seen by responsible for any misconduct and rep- Russia and not remain part of Ukraine. it is withdrawing militarily. The claim to example, said on 21 March 2018 that he ters; they are 100% convinced of Putin‘s
Putin‘s government as a normal thing, and resents Russian actions, such as the oc- Whether a similar strategy can be applied withdraw from Syria has already become would “do business“ with Russian Presi- sincerity and become Putin‘s useful idiots
weakened Georgia can do little about it if cupation of territories, as a humanitarian in the Baltic States and Kazakhstan, all a recurring proverb in Russia. And once dent Vladimir Putin, although he claimed at home and abroad who perceive the
it doesn‘t want to provoke Russia; Georgia gesture for vulnerable minorities protected countries with a large Russian popula- again, according to Russian interpretation, “all fingers point to Russia on Salisbury“, West as aggressive and expansive. Russia‘s
simply complains about being encircled by by Russia from militant Georgia. The fact tion, cannot be discussed in this article, Russia is right and the West is wrong. Since namely to the poisoning of Sergei Skripal policy of deception and denial, including
Russia. Thus Russia can portray its weaker that Russia is occupying Abkhazia and but this possibility cannot be ignored. In the West is involved in the Syrian military and his daughter Yulia Skripal. Russia‘s refusal to take responsibility for
South Ossetia and that the occupied ter- addition, a wealth of articles on this topic operation, it should then also pay for the Russia's Western admirers can indeed be misconduct, is a successful strategy for
Au th o r ritories simply have no choice but to be pro- has been published since March 2014. reconstruction of the country after the war. described as Putin‘s useful idiots of the 21st Russia to act from a position of weakness.
Russian is denied by Moscow, although the The claim that the people of Crimea wel- Yet another Russian narrative refers to century. Many of them live in the Member It remains to be seen whether the West
Eugene Kogan is a defence reality in the occupied territories looks quite comed unification with Russia only at gun- the poisoning of Sergei Skripal and his States of the European Union and propa- will accept Russia‘s manoeuvring. It can
and security expert based in Tbilisi, different. Russian politicians would imme- point is absurd, the Kremlin claims. The daughter Yulia Skripal in March 2018, who gate Putin‘s Russia and thus enjoy Western be said, however, that this is an ongoing
Georgia. diately reject the author‘s analysis, but that Russian soldiers on the peninsula were only were allegedly poisoned by Russia. As in fundamental freedoms, while at the same issue on which we have not yet heard the
is to be expected. Russia has applied the responsible for the proper conduct of the the cases mentioned above, Russia denies time praising Putin‘s autocratic regime and, last word 

12 European Security & Defence · 5/2018 5/2018 · European Security & Defence 13
Viewpoint from
Kuala Lumpur

Business as Usual

Dzirhan Mahadzir
sphere rather than in defence and security. been put on hold due to funding issues budget will be tabled. The Mahathir ad-
Ties with the UK and Europe are expected and the 2018 General Election. No state- ministration will then indicate any changes
to be steady, though the contentious is- ment has come from the minister so far in regard to defence plans under the 11th
sue of the EU’s plan to ban palm oil may as to whether these upgrades will be pur- Malaysia Plan of 2016–2020 which out-
result in the Malaysian government being sued or alterative plans considered. The lines the overall Malaysian government
less inclined to consider European defence opinion of some in the RMAF is for the spending for a five-year period. The pre-
purchases if the ban becomes reality. It re- HAWKs and S-61 NURIs to be replaced vious Najib administration had not made
mains to be seen how Malaysia’s relations rather than upgraded, the HAWKs with any significant defence procurement al-
with the Middle East will be. Saudi Arabia the Light Combat Aircraft requirement location under the 11th Plan. However

A t the time of writing in July, more

than two months have passed since
Malaysia elected the Pakatan Harapan
pected to occur, except that such activities
could possibly be reduced due to cost-sav-
ing measures, as the new government has
and its population, unlike measures agreed
upon by the previous administration where
Malaysia’s participation in the BRI had
has yet to react officially to Malaysia issuing
the recall order for its two C-130 Hercules
and military personnel in Saudi Arabia that
that the RMAF has formulated (though
this is an RMAF requirement that has yet
to be endorsed or approved by the gov-
the Mahathir administration is likely to be
cautious on defence spending, given that
it campaigned on cutting excessive gov-
coalition into office, overturning 60 years to contend with a debt of RM1Tr (€210Bn) solely benefitted China. Mahathir and his formed part of the Saudi coalition against ernment) and the NURIs with additional ernment spending. After assuming office,
of continuous government by the Barisan inherited from the previous government. administration had swiftly moved to can- Yemen, which the previous Najib admin- H225Ms to add to the 12 that the RMAF Mahathir stated that the previous admin-
National coalition. Ironically the end of the Mahathir has proposed that the Spratly cel all such programmes though it remains istration had committed to. Beyond that, already operates. istration had left Malaysia with excessive
Barisan National’s rule was brought about Islands countries de-escalate and reduce to be seen how much Malaysia will have the current Malaysian Government has not Little has been said also on the Royal Ma- debt, thus spending on defence in light of
by Mahathir Mohamed, Malaysia’s longest tensions by reducing the presence of their to pay China in compensation for these turned much attention to the Middle East. laysian Navy’s Littoral Mission Ship pro- this will be politically unviable.
serving prime minister from 1991 to 2003, marines and conducting joint patrols in the cancellations. Malaysia’s Finance Minister gramme. The Najib administration had
who joined the then political opposition region only with lightly armed ships. At the Lim Guan Eng will visit China in late July to Procurement Programmes ordered four of the 68-metre ships, two Change or Continuity
to campaign against then Prime Minister same time, he has declared that Malaysia discuss these issues and Mahathir himself is to be built by China Shipbuilding and Off-
Najib Tun Razak with the result that Ma- will retain the five islands all claimed un- expected to follow up with a visit to China At the Ministry of Defence, Defence Min- shore International Co. Ltd and two by In conclusion, much remains to be seen
hathir is now once again prime minister der Mahathir's government during his first in August. ister Mohamad Sabu is finding his way Malaysia’s Boustead Naval Shipyard, with in regard to Malaysia’s defence policy
of Malaysia. Mahathir's first term as prime term as prime minister and where it has Mahathir and his government as a whole around there. He himself admitted on his the first two built in China to be delivered and development, but for the moment
minister was often marked by his willing- deployed forces. are expected to maintain a balance in re- appointment that he has much to learn in 2019 and 2020, followed subsequently in regard to military engagements with
ness to speak out against Western politics, lations with the United States and China and little knowledge on defence. Unfor- by the Malaysian-built ships. Post election, various countries, it remains business
although Malaysia continued to strongly Foreign Relations while ensuring that Malaysia benefits from tunately this means that he has yet to controversy has arisen over the costs of the as usual. The main exercises include an
cooperate with Western countries behind its relations with both countries. Regionally, address some outstanding issues in the RM1.17Bn contract (€247M) for four ships RMAF contingent of 5 F/A-18 HORNETS
the headlines, including in defence. Ironi- The current developments in regard to Ma- Malaysia is expected to follow the principle Ministry of Defence, the main one being which were lightly armed with a 30mm and an A400M taking part in the Pitch
cally, it was the then Secretary of Defense, laysia’s position on the South China Sea of non-interference in the internal affairs the yet-to-be-signed contract for MBDA’s gun and two 12.7mm guns, though the Black Exercise in Australia held in July–
Najib Tun Razak, in 2002, who stated in a and Spratly Islands is similar to Malaysia’s of ASEAN countries. However, relations MICA surface-to-air missiles that are to ships were planned to also incorporate August this year; the joint Malaysia-China
speech to the Heritage Foundation in the outlook in Mahathir’s first tenure as prime with Singapore are likely to be somewhat equip the under construction MAHARAJA three mission modules containers of 6 exercise Aman Youyi, which will focus on
United States that the United States and minister, in that the overall situation and contentious, given Mahathir’s past history LELA class Littoral Combat Ships which are tonnes each. There is also debate around counter-terrorism and maritime security,
Malaysia have a long history of military co- claims by countries there are of limited con- of rocky relations with the island state and based on Naval Group’s GOWIND design. whether Malaysia should be having its na- is scheduled to be held in mid-October
operation and will continue to do so. cern to Malaysia so long as it does not af- the perception in some quarters in Malay- The first of the six-ship class was originally val ships being built in China, given China’s this year, with Thailand invited as observ-
fect or touch upon Malaysia’s claims there. sia that Singapore benefited too much at scheduled to conduct sea trials and com- claims on the South China Sea included ers, while around August–September
The Spratly Islands Dispute Mahathir’s policies in his first tenure were the expense of Malaysia during the Najib missioned in 2019, but it is now highly portions of Malaysia’s EEZ. The Mahathir this year, the Malaysian phase of the US
marked by the fact that Malaysia was open administration. Relations with Japan are ex- likely that this date will slip. The minister administration, on assuming office, stated CARAT (Cooperation Afloat and Readiness
Similarly, Mahathir has now made public to any arrangement or agreement, as long pected to grow significantly, given the mu- has also not address the outstanding is- that all contracts involving China would be Training) exercise will be carried out, involv-
statements that he does not want to see as the arrangement benefitted Malaysia or tual admiration that Mahathir and Japan sues of upgrades for the Royal Malaysian reviewed and scrutinised, though no state- ing at sea and amphibious landing exer-
too many warships in the South China Sea, its people and was not in violation of in- have for each other and Japan was the first Air Force’s BAE HAWK fighter aircraft, ments have been made in regard to the cises. Thus, overall, no policy changes in
but at the working level there have been ternational law. Thus Mahathir has stated foreign country that Mahathir visited after Lockheed Martin C-130 transports and LMS contract. regard to military engagement with foreign
few political changes in terms of coopera- that Malaysia is open to participation in he entered his current premiership though Sikorsky S-61 helicopter fleet. All these Outwardly the biggest indication as to countries have occurred, though it remains
tion and engagement with foreign military China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) but on such growing of relations is expected to be were supposed to have been carried out where Malaysia is heading in defence to be seen as to whether this will continue
forces, and no significant changes are ex- the condition that it must benefit Malaysia more in the economic and technological by the previous administration but had will be in October 2018, when the 2019 or be changed next year.  

14 European Security & Defence · 5/2018 5/2018 · European Security & Defence 15

Friendly Rivals

Photo: Free Gaza Movement

has used this to its advantage and influ-
enced the Iraqi government with the help
of machinations. There are no longer any
Turkish-Iranian Relations Korhan Özkilinc Sunni members of the government as be-
fore; the members of the government are
mainly Shiites. This has led to tensions be-
A geopolitical perspective on the Turkish-Iranian relationship is tween Turkey and Iran with far-reaching
that expanded into a proxy war. The so- consequences in the Arab world. The for-
important, as Turkey and Iran are the main regional powers in the called Islamic State (IS) usedthe unstable mer Iraqi government under Nouri al-Maliki
Middle East. It is impossible to influence regional policy without situation in Syria and Iraq to proclaim a and the present government under Haider
“Caliphate State”, which was the begin- al-Abadi are also constantly trying to con-
the participation of both countries. ning of a long long reign in the Middle East. solidate their control over Iran's political
As if all this was not enough, Kurdish na- institutions and security services in order to
tionalism reached its peak in Northern Syria curb the freedom of the Sunni Arabs and

D ue to the historical and cultural ties in

the region, they have established mul-
tifaceted relations with neighbouring coun-
According to the treaty, Mesopotamia fell
to the Ottomans and Yerevan to the Sa-
favids in the South Caucasus. Diplomatic
and Northern Iraq. The terror organisation
PKK with its offshoots PJAK in Iran and
PYD in Syria ruthlessly tried to establish
Kurds in Iraq.
Turkey has a strong interest in a politically
stable, independent and economically
tries, which makes them competitors. The relations were intensively expanded from a Marxist–Leninist Kurdistan. Due to the prosperous Iraq, but classifies Iran's ambi-
unstable political situation in Lebanon and tions as very dangerous. Iraq's ties with Iran
Graphic: Amir Ebrahimi

the assistance of Iran and Syria, Hezbollah should be prevented by a close relationship The Israeli attack on the Turkish ship MAVI MARMARA in 2010, in which
is strongly represented throughout the Le- between Ankara and the Kurdish regional ten Turkish citizens were killed and several dozen injured, strained
vant, but could also cause violence in Israel. government in Northern Iraq. Not only has israeli relations with Turkey.
In Yemen, the Houthi rebels, supported by the economic development of the Kurd-
Iran, are fighting their arch-enemy Saudi ish areas led to prosperity in Northern Iraq, large participation of the Kurdish people, an independent Kurdish state. This devel-
Arabia and turning the situation in the but the Kurds have also become politically the Iraqi government declared the referen- opment must not obscure the fact that the
southern Gulf region into a witch's caul- more self-confident. dum unconstitutional. The result was that political supporters of the Kurds were Isra-
dron. Iran is a deeply divided country with As a result, the Iraqi Kurds, led by Masud the two competitors Iran and Turkey were el and the USA at the time. Apart from the
a very conflict-ridden political landscape Barzani, held an independence referen- in agreement this time, because both Kurdish question, Ankara and Tehran have
with revolutionary ideology that empha- dum on 25 September 2017, despite the countries have large Kurdish minorities in recently become good friends in the Qatar
sizes self-sufficiency and resistance to the ban by the Supreme Court. Despite the their own country and are strictly against crisis. Both countries were on Qatar's side
"imperial" West.
In contrast to Iran's strategy, Turkey is trying
to undermine Iran's ambitions by restoring
political and economic stability in the region.
Unfortunately, little attention is paid to Irani-
an water policy in geopolitics. Isa Kalantari,
former minister of agriculture and now min-
ister of the environment of the Rohani gov-
ernment, recently said in an interview: "Iran
with its 7,000-year history will no longer be
habitable in 20 years if water resources con-
tinue to be destroyed so quickly. Iran must
fear water scarcity more than nuclear war,
Israel or the United States."
The Kurdish population is distributed between Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey
and Armenia. Iraq and the Kurds
two countries pursue different approaches 1835 onwards through the international Wars have been raging in the Middle East
in international politics, but are not only po- deployment of the first Ottoman ambassa- for decades for various reasons. Iran and
litically but also economically interdepend- dor Esad Efendi. Despite all this, the tension Iraq fought each other between 1980 and
ent, especially in energy and water security. between the empires continued into the 1988, resulting in millions of deaths. The
19th century, but the Qasr-e Shirin Treaty Second Gulf War followed in 1991, caused
Historical Background resolved all conflicts. It is worth noting that by the occupation of Kuwait by Iraq; the
today the borders between Turkey and Iran USA and its partners liberated Kuwait
Relations between Iran and Turkey date back and Iran and Iraq are designed in accord- from Saddam Hussein. Finally, Iraqi Presi-
to the Ottoman Empire (Turkish, Sunni) and ance with the Qasr-e Shirin Treaty. dent Saddam Hussein was overthrown by
the Safavid Empire (Persian, Shiite). From the US in the third Gulf War (Iraq War) in
1514, both empires were continuously in- The Crisis-Ridden Middle East 2003. The end of the US occupation was
volved in wars for over a century and fought announced by former US President Barack
for supremacy in the Caucasus and Mesopo- After the end of the Cold War, dynamic Obama, and troop withdrawal was com-
tamia; the confessional differences, in particu- changes took place in Turkey and Iran, pleted on 18 December 2011.
lar, reinforced the conflicts. The treaty of Qasr- prompting both Ankara and Tehran to re- Unfortunately, the American withdrawal
e Shirin ended the sporadic wars between the define their strategies of influence. In 2011, from Iraq has created a power vacuum
Ottomans and the Safavids in 1639. a small spark in Syria triggered a civil war and plunged the country into chaos. Iran

16 European Security & Defence · 5/2018

Photo: US State Department

The Turkish–Israeli friendship was for a long hostile attitude of Iran and Armenia has sible site for nuclear experiments alongside
time observed with great concern by Teh- prompted Azerbaijan to intensify coopera- the research reactors in Tehran, Bonab and
ran, because Iran feared that Israel could tion with Turkey and Israel in military and Ramsar. According to US reports, Iran car-
use Turkey for its military attacks against defence matters. Azerbaijan supplies most ried out a nuclear programme under Shah
Iranian installations. It is no secret that Iran of its natural gas and oil to the international Mohammad Reza Pahlavi until the end of
has used the PKK terrorist organisation in markets through Turkey, and recently the the 1970s and is suspected of developing
order to destabilise Turkey from within. main section of the TANAP Trans-Anatolian nuclear weapons.
But Israel's aggressive attitude towards Natural Gas Pipeline was completed. Tur- It is an open secret that the Islamic Repub-
the Palestinian people, especially in Gaza, key and Azerbaijan call themselves "one lic regards nuclear capability as a deterrent
has weighed on relations between Ankara nation, two countries", the economic de- against the threat emanating from the USA
and Tel Aviv. A tragedy, which marked the velopment of both countries has not yet and its partners, in particular Israel and
lowest point in Israel and Turkey's relation- reached its peak and also holds enormous Saudi Arabia. It is worth mentioning that
ship, occured in May 2010 as part of the potential for foreign investors. Saudi Arabia is considered a great threat,
peaceful protests to lift the Gaza blockade. because Saudi Arabia and Iran claim to be
Israeli commandos attacked the ship "Mavi The Iranian Nuclear the rightful leaders of the Muslim world.
Marmara" in international waters, killing Programme Turkey is very concerned about Iran's nu-
ten Turkish citizens and seriously injuring clear programme, as an Iranian nuclear
several dozen. Ankara broke off all relations Iran has its own uranium deposits in power would destabilise the Middle East
with Israel. Although Israeli Prime Minis- Anarak, Gchine and Yazd; uranium ore is and trigger a regional arms race. The con-
ter Benjamin Netanyahu apologised a few currently being mined in Saghand. The mili- sequences would first affect Saudi Arabia
years later for the deaths of several Turkish tary facility in Parchin is considered a pos- and then Egypt. Moreover, Ankara does
The representatives of the UN Security Council’s five permanent members, China, France, Russia, the UK and civilians, his aggressive attitude towards the
the US, together with Germany and the EU negotiated with Iran about its nuclear programme. Palestinians caused relations with Ankara
to stall. As long as relations between Turkey
when an alliance of several states such as dreds of deaths and also engulfed other the Hezbollah militia, which is seen as a bul- and Israel remain reserved, Iran will ben- 10th International Defence Exhibition And Seminar
Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Egypt and Bahrain Arab countries. The damage was devastat- wark against Israel. Allegedly Iran is fighting efit, but if the Palestine question were to
accused the Gulf state of terrorist support ing and caused the deaths of thousands in Syria with its Revolutionary Guard and be resolved, this would be detrimental to
and politically isolated it in June 2017. of people. From a Turkish perspective, the Shiite mercenaries with more than 250,000 Iran. Turkey would not only strengthen its
Turkey is fighting more intensively against Arab Spring was a "democratisation pro- fighters. relations with Israel, but the peace process
the Kurdish terror organisations PKK, PJAK cess", but from an Iranian perspective it Things became even more complicated would give Ankara an enormous reputa-
(Iran) and PYD (Syria) than Iran, because was an "Islamic revolution”. In the initial when Russia gave Bashar Al-Assad political tion in the Arab world. In other words, not
Tehran sees the Kurdish terror organisa- phase, many Arab countries saw Turkey's and military support to expand its sphere only Tehran, but also Cairo and Riyadh do
tions as an important instrument against position positively, but when the protests of influence in the Mediterranean region. not want a peaceful solution to this issue.
Turkey and wants to keep them as lever- in Egypt were bloodily suppressed by the This was also one of the reasons why the
age. These developments could profoundly armed forces and democratically elected US chose the Syrian branch of the terrorist Turkish Dominance in the
change relations between the two coun- Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi was organisation PKK, the PYD, as a partner Caucasus and Central Asia
tries. Obviously, Tehran has recently come overthrown and sentenced to death, the in Syria instead of its long-standing NATO 27- 30 November 2018
to the conclusion that a cooperative Turkey Turkish government sided with the Egyp- partner Turkey. When IS and PYD gained Thanks to former President Turgut Özal,
brings more advantages than disadvan- tian people. Since then, Turkey’s attitude a lot of ground, Ankara took the initiative Turkey has cleverly exploited the collapse of Karachi Expo Centre
tages. towards Egypt and some Gulf states has to drive the PYD and IS from the Turkish– the Soviet Union and expanded its sphere www. id e a sp a kist a n . g o v. p k
Turkey has three objectives in Iraq: firstly, been viewed with suspicion; political rela- Syrian border through Operation Euphrates of influence in the Caucasus and Central
the elimination of the terrorist organisa- tions with Egypt have come to a standstill Shield and Operation Olive Branch, which Asia. Turkey benefitted in particular from
tions IS, PKK, PJAK and PYD in the Qandil and many military exercises and projects aroused US opposition. The Syrian bor- its strong cultural ties with Azerbaijan, Ka-
and Sinjar mountains. Secondly, Turkey have been suspended until further notice. der towns Afrin and Manbij, former PYD zakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan.
wants to maintain Iraq's sovereignty and, strongholds, are now under the control of In addition to Turkey's reputation, this has
thirdly, to prevent a “Shiite Crescent“ unit- Proxy War in Syria the Turkish armed forces. The main pur- also benefitted the Turkish economy, par-
ingIran, Iraq, Syria and Lebanon. Iran wants pose of the operations is to address Tur- ticularly the Turkish defence industry.
a weak Iraq to maintain its supply routes to As part of the Arab Spring in early 2011, key's security concerns. Russia, Turkey and In the Caucasus, Iran is supported only by
Syria and Lebanon on the one hand, and the protests against Assad's authoritar- Iran are currently trying to end the proxy Armenia and in Central Asia only by Ta-
a controllable Iraq capable of facing the ian regime in Syria began. As the protests war in Syria and have therefore started the jikistan. Iran's relations with the Tajiks are
resurgence of the IS groups on the other. turned into a civil war, foreign influence Astana process without the participation of good, as 85% of the Tajiks are of Iranian
The "Shiite Crescent" would allow Iran to and participation grew and, as a result, the the USA and the West. origin. Good relations with Armenia are
influence the region from the Caspian Sea Syrian civil war evolved into a bloody proxy important for Iran, because Tehran needs a
to the Mediterranean and Persian Gulf and war. In Syria in particular, the differences The Palestinian Question counterweight against the strategic alliance
impose its geopolitical will on the world. between Turkey and Iran are clearly vis- and Israel’s Policies of Turkey and Azerbaijan in the Caucasus. In
ible. Turkey calls on Syrian President Bashar the explosive conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh
"Arab Spring" Al-Assad to take clear steps towards de- For centuries, Turkey has been good friends between Azerbaijan and Armenia, Iran is
mocratisation and refrain from repressive with the Jewish citizens and for decades supporting Armenia instead of the Shiite
“Arab Spring" is an allusion to the Prague measures against his people, but Assad has with the State of Israel. This attitude has Azerbaijan. In doing so, Iran wants to keep
Spring of 1968 and has its origins in Tu- not yet complied. The partnership between been translated excellently into economic Azerbaijan weak in international politics and
nisia. On 17 December 2010, protests Damascus and Tehran dates back to the and military relationships. The relationship prevent Armenia's geographical isolation.
began against the head of state Zine el- Iranian Revolution, when both countries between Ankara and Tel Aviv was actu- Furthermore, Azerbaijan and Iran have un- Official Publisher of Show Daily Media Partners

Abidine Ben Ali, which, until his escape showed solidarity against Iraq. At the same ally so good that Israeli fighter pilots were resolved conflicts such as Iran's claim to the
from Tunisia, caused uprisings with hun- time, the two countries are supporters of trained in Turkish airspace for a long time. energy resources of the Caspian Sea. The
C-175, Block-9, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Near Aziz Bhatti Park, Karachi. Tel: (92-21) 34821159, (92-21) 34821160 Fax: (92-21) 34821179
18 European Security & Defence · 5/2018 Email:
Photo: Wikipedia

Tehran should be watched carefully, espe-

cially the conservative camp. But Turkey will
continue to have a lot to do in the future,
because Ankara has recently begun con-
structive talks with Tehran, which would
help the West.

As a NATO partner, Turkey holds a unique
position in the Middle East and stands on
multiple sides in regional conflicts, fre-
quently in opposition to Iran. The govern-
ment in Ankara wants to safeguard the
sovereignty of its territory and therefore
has begun to construct a 688 km wall
along the Iranian border in 2017. The first
section with a length of 144 km will be
completed this year. Turkey is cracking
down on the Kurdish terrorist organisa-
tion PKK and its Iranian branch PJAK. In
addition, the wall will cut off the logistical
routes, but Ankara also wants to stop or
curb the smuggling of people from Iran and
Afghanistan. In August 2017, Turkey, Iran
A demonstration against President Assad’s authoritarian regime in and Russia signed a trilateral agreement to
Douma near Damascus, Syria, during the "Arab Spring" establish a consortium of three partners: In
the near future, the Turkish energy com-
Photo: Kremlin

pany Unit International, the Russian energy

company Zarubejneft and the Iranian in-
vestment company Ghadir will exploit and
distribute Iranian oil and gas reserves.
In addition, the three countries have two
important objectives. Firstly, the Astana pro-
cess under Russian leadership should restore
peace in Syria. There is still a discrepancy in
the common strategy; Turkey wants a sover-
eign, stable Syria without Bashar Al-Assad,
but Russia and Iran want a controllable Syria
under the leadership of Bashar Al-Assad.
Time will tell us how it will turn out. Sec-
ondly, the three countries want to extend
their scope for action on and around the Silk
Road through cooperation.
It is in the nature of things that countries
gear their geopolitics to their own inter-
ests. As a result of Iranian-Turkish rivalries
tensions will continue to arise, but there
will also be some constructive develop-
Russia’s President Putin met with President of Iran Hassan Rouhani and ments; for instance, Iran and Turkey will
President of Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdoğan on 22 November 2017 to continue economic cooperation in defi-
discuss a peace settlement in Syria. Turkey and Iran are the main ance of the American policies. But it is in-
regional powers in the Middle East. appropriate to speak of a "Turkish-Iranian
axis". In the future, the USA will be more
not want Iran to be cornered by sanctions na, France, Great Britain, Russia, the USA supportive of Turkish interests than those
and economic embargoes, because that is + Germany) has been successful until very of Kurdish organisations, because if it
what makes Tehran erratic and aggressive. recently. Iran was allowed to buy Western were not for Turkey, US foreign policy in
Turkey has cooperated with Iran twice in aircraft and consumer goods, but with the the Middle East would come to a stand-
the past, first in May 2010, when Turkey US withdrawal from the Iran agreement still. Moreover, neither Israel nor Saudi
and Brazil signed a uranium enrichment under the Trump government, the positive Arabia can replace Turkey in the Middle
agreement with Iran, and later, as Erdoğan developments were brought to a halt. This East. Furthermore, Turkey is fully aware
mediated between Iran and the P5+1. strengthened the hardliners in Tehran, who and is also expected to adapt to a chang-
The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action now claim that good relations with the West ing security environment as NATO's most
(JCPOA) between Iran and the P5+1 (Chi- would be impossible. The developments in important partner.  

20 European Security & Defence · 5/2018


NATO Assurance Measures

in the Baltics
Tomáš Čižik

Russia’s aggressive actions against Ukraine and the annexation of the 100,000 deployable soldiers near NATO’s
eastern border (in the western military
Crimean peninsula in March 2014 have changed the European security district); it carries out massive “offensive”
architecture. These measures have surprised every state and disturbed military exercises, often involving the use
of nuclear weapons. The number of Rus-
relative security in Europe. sian air force flights into NATO airspace
has also increased significantly in recent
years. The most difficult one was the “suc-

R ussia’s aggression, however, has been

increasing gradually since 2008, as
many events showed: Vladimir Putin’s
was unable to successfully defend the ter-
ritory of its most exposed members during
this period and that NATO had very limited
cessful” simulation of a nuclear attack on
Stockholm in March 2013, and in recent
years Russia’s military capabilities have im-
speech at the Munich Security Conference opportunities to take countermeasures. proved significantly both qualitatively and
in 2007, the suspension of the implementa- Further simulations by RAND Corporation quantitatively. As Kaarel Kaas argued in
tion of the Treaty on Conventional Armed have shown that approximately seven bri- his 2014 article, “one of the strategic goals
Forces in Europe in 2007, the Russian gades, including three heavy tank brigades, of Russia’s political elites is to create forces
“peace mission” in Abkhazia, followed by can successfully prevent the rapid flood- that can, firstly, guarantee Russia’s military
Russian intervention in Abkhazia and South ing of the Baltic states. Of course, it would superiority over the entire territory of the
Ossetia in 2008, major military exercises on require adequate support from air forces, former Soviet Union and in neighbouring
Russia’s western borders near Georgia and land fires and other ground-based facilita- areas; and secondly, to project limited mili-
Ukraine, or several attacks on the air sover- tors who are prepared to fight at the start tary force on a strategic, global level. The
eignty of many NATO member states. of hostilities. In
Moreover, since NATO’s enlargement to in- addition, such an
clude Central European and Baltic states in initiative would re-
1999 and 2004, there has been little invest- quire the commit-
ment in the development of NATO infra- ment of all NATO
structure in these states. The main reason member states and
is that nobody (except Poland and the Baltic increased defence
states) perceived Russia as a direct security spending.
threat. In fact, it was Poland and the Baltic
States that demanded an increased pres- Russian
ence of the Alliance on their territory. Dur- Federation
ing this period, NATO member states tried
and Baltic
to build a “strategic partnership” with Rus-
sia, but Russia’s use of military hardware
and equipment was not conducive to this Russia is using hy-
initiative. But everything has changed with brid warfare to
the annexation of the Crimean peninsula change the Euro-
by the Russian Federation. Relative security pean security ar-
in Europe and the “strategic partnership” chitecture and the
with Russia disappeared, and NATO had entire world order.
to face the new security challenge in the Russia’s involve-
immediate vicinity of its borders. In the ment in Syria, the
summer and spring of 2015, RAND Corpo- attempted coup
ration investigated the form and probable in Montenegro in
outcome of a short-term Russian invasion 2016, interference
of the Baltic States. They noted that NATO in the US presiden-
tial elections or the
Au th o r use of chemical
nerve gas in the
Tomáš Čižik is director of the UK are clear insults.
Bratislava based think tank Centre for However, Russia
European and North Atlantic Affairs behaves differently
(CENAA). in the Baltic States.
Russia has about

5/2018 · European Security & Defence 21

Photo: NATO

in an “anti-terror narrative”. In August prices and exchange rates from 2010). The of Maritime Patrol Aircraft and Standing
2015, Russia launched an Arctic military cumulative increase in spending for the pe- Naval Forces to provide maritime situational
exercise involving more than 1,000 sol- riod 2015 to 2017 is more than US$46Bn. awareness and the execution of training
diers, 14 aircraft and 34 special forces. As However, there are only 5 NATO member and exercises across the eastern border to
one commander of the Northern Russian states that spend 2 percent or more on de- improve interoperability.
naval fleet said, “the drills aim to increase fence: the United States, Greece, the Unit- One of NATO’s first security measures for
the security of the Russian Arctic, to secure ed Kingdom, Estonia and Poland. Increased the Baltic states was air policing, which
the economic freedom of our state in this defence spending is the most important began immediately after the Baltic states
region and to protect our territory from countermeasure taken by the Alliance to joined NATO in 2004. Air policing aims to
possible military threats.” The last, largest improve its deterrence and improve its maintain the airspace integrity of the Baltic
military exercise was Zapad 2017, which territorial defence. By March 2014, most States. It is carried out as a collective 24/7
took place along the entire western border defence budgets of NATO member states task on a four-month rotational basis. Air
of Russia. In addition, this exercise exceed- were in decline. In 2009, defence spend- Policing is currently led by Portugal, which
ed the officially stated 12,700 personnel. ing by all NATO states reached a peak of has sent four F-16AM FIGHTING FALCONs
Rather, based on observations, more than 3.28 percent of GDP, in 2017 it will be only to Lithuania. Other participants are France,
100,000 servicemembers participated in 2.42 percent of GDP. Increasing defence with four MIRAGE 2000-5Fs in Estonia,
Zapad 2017. It is necessary to mention that spending was the absolutely necessary step and Spain, with six Eurofighter TYPHOONs
NATO is also conducting military exercises towards improving security in the Baltic Sea in Lithuania.
in the region. However, NATO’s military ex- region. In 2014, NATO implemented Assur- The second Assurance Measure in the
ercises always have a defensive character. ance Measures consisting of land, sea and Baltic States is the NATO Response Force
NATO’s 2018 Summit at the level of Heads of State and Government with Georgia and Ukraine at NATO’s new air activities in, on and around the eastern (NRF). Founded in 2002, the NATO Re-
headquarters in Brussels, Belgium. NATO is pursuing a dual-track approach towards Russia: meaningful Defence Spending and part of the Alliance territory. sponse Force is a highly ready and techno-
dialogue on the basis of a strong deterrence and defence posture. NATO Assurance Measures Assurance measures include AWACS em- logically advanced multinational force com-
ployment to preserve airspace integrity, posed of land, air, sea and special opera-
strengthening of Russia’s military capabili- sation there have been two main trends Air Base near the Latvian border was reo- At the NATO Summit in Wales in 2014, increased intelligence, surveillance and re- tions forces (SOF) components that can be
ties last year was made possible above all by that have shaped the Russian armed forces pened and staffed with a full-fledged Army member states pledged to increase de- connaissance activities along the eastern deployed quickly and on demand. The NRF
the higher defence spending and military in the Baltic Sea region – the strengthening Air Brigade (home of 50 of the latest attack fence spending to 2 percent of GDP. As the borders, enhanced Air Policing to supple- is based on a rotational system in which al-
reforms announced by Russian Defence of existing units and the formation of new and transport helicopters). Thirdly, in 2013 data show, NATO Europe and Canada’s de- ment national air policing capabilities, assis- lied nations deploy forces for a period of 12
Minister Anatoly Serdyukov in October units and military bases. Since 2009, the an air base was opened on the territory of fence spending increased 3.08 percent in tance to nations to refine their Special Op- months. NRF can respond quickly to all se-
2008. Russia has significantly increased in- staff of the main manoeuvring units has Belarus, hosting 24 Su-27M3 fighters. 2016 and 4.87 percent in 2017 (in terms of erations Forces capabilities, employment curity challenges from crisis management
vestment in its military since 2013, and the been doubled and three new units have Since 2007, Russia has been significantly
Russian military budget has risen by 26%. been created and stationed near the Bal- strengthening its Baltic Fleet, which was hit
In addition, Russia’s modernisation efforts tic States: First, the 25th Motorised Rifle hard by the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
have focused primarily on the Western mili- Brigade, which was set up as a completely Currently, Russia’s Baltic Fleet consists of
tary district, the Baltic Sea and the North- new unit at the Vladimir Lager military base two attack submarines and 55 warships
ern Fleet. Since the beginning of moderni- near the Estonian border. Secondly, Ostrov (including destroyers, frigates, corvettes,
guided missile corvettes, base minesweep-
Photo: Holger Ellgard

ers, landing ships and landing crafts). More-

over, Russia is strengthening its military
presence in the Arctic region. As proof, we
can mention numerous military exercises,
the modernisation of military equipment
or the reopening of old Soviet-era military
bases. In addition, Russia has already de-
ployed a brigade with special training for
an operation in the Arctic in Alakurtti near
the Finnish border (60 kilometres away).
The second brigade is to be deployed in
the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Region
behind the Urals by the end of 2016.
Russia also conducted numerous mili-
tary exercises in the Nordic-Baltic region.
In 2009, Russia and Belarus conducted a
military exercise called Zapad 09, which
included the defence scenario against an
attack by Baltic “nationalists”; Russia tried
to invade and occupy the Baltic region, with
a corridor of about 100 kilometres west of
• Vehicle systems • Mission equipment
Aurora 2017 was a three-week exercise in September 2017, in which the Russian border. Another large military
19,500 soldiers from Estonia, Lithuania, Denmark, France, Norway, the exercise called Zapad 2013 took place in • Mobile air defence systems • Simulation and training
USA and Finland simulated defence against a fictitious invasion. It was the 2013, once again a joint military exercise of • Weapons and ammunition • Surveillance systems
biggest military exercise since the end of the Cold War. At the same time, Belarus and Russia. The aim of the exercise
was to fend off an attack on Belarus. How-
• Protection systems
Russian armed forces were holding the Zapad 2017 exercise in
Belarus with (reportedly) 12,700 soldiers from both countries. ever, the Zapad 2013 scenario was couched

22 European Security & Defence · 5/2018


to collective defence. The NATO Summit AWACS surveillance aircraft as well as a is a good thing”. Nevertheless, the same
in Wales in 2014 approved the creation of wide variety of national JISR assets from studies have shown that 21 percent of Slo-
Very High Readiness Joint Task Forces, the the space, air, land and maritime domains. vaks believe “NATO is a bad thing” and
main goal of which is to enhance NATO One of the most important of NATO's As- that 31 percent of Slovaks would vote to
Response Forces and allow them to move surance Measures is Enhanced Forward leave NATO. Strengthening the resilience
rapidly and respond to potential challeng- Presence (EFP). After the annexation of of NATO member states against Russia’s in-
es and threats. VJTF will be able to deploy Crimea, NATO has enhanced its pres- terference in their domestic policies should
within a few days to respond to challenges ence in the eastern flank of the Alliance. not stop with the Baltic states. Therefore,
that arise particularly on NATO’s periphery. NATO’s Enhanced Forward Presence rep- NATO member states should also engage
VJTF consists of about 20,000 personnel resents four multinational battlegroups in campaigns to improve public knowledge
and includes a multinational land brigade situated in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and of NATO and its importance, but also to
of around 5,000 troops and air, maritime Poland. These battlegroups are led by the improve their internal resistance to disinfor-
and SOF components. Leading elements UK, Canada, Germany and the US. Their mation campaigns and conspiracy theories.
The public should be aware that it is directly
Photo: US Army

or through proxies influenced by the Krem-

lin and what instruments the Kremlin uses.
NATO member states should also improve
their national cyber-security systems to fur-
ther improve their security and the security
of all Allies.

Its aggressive actions against Ukraine and
its interference in the domestic policies of
NATO member states make Russia the big-
gest security threat to the Alliance. These
measures have also changed the European
security architecture. As shown above,
Russian behaviour is clearly offensive and
has the long-term goal of dissolving NATO
from within through hybrid warfare and
tactics. The most vulnerable members of
Estonia opened the new NATO Force Integration Unit (NFIU HQ) building NATO are the Baltic states most exposed
in Tallinn on 12 June 2016. to the Russian threat. To meet the Russian
challenge, NATO decided to improve the
will be ready to move within two to three presence sends a message that an attack security of the Baltic states through NATO
days. NRF also consists of the Initial Follow- on one ally will be considered an attack assurance measures. These measures send
On Forces Group (IFFG), which is another on the entire Alliance. EFP demonstrates a strong political message to the Krem-
high-readiness force that can be deployed the strength of the transatlantic bond, and lin: NATO stands behind all its members
quickly following the VJTF. IFFG are made it is the biggest reinforcement of NATO’s and each Member State is determined
up of two multinational brigades. Both collective defence. Based on data from Feb- to defend its allies. Collective defence is
VJTF and IFFG forces are based in their ruary 2018, the total number of all troops NATO’s most important role and one of
home countries, but they are able to be in all four battlegroups is around 4,600. the reasons for its creation. NATO’s secu-
deployed to wherever needed. NFR also As mentioned above, all NATO Assurance rity measures in the Baltic States are not
fulfil another important role – cooperation Measures have a defensive character, and offensive and their main objective is to
in education and training, increased exer- they are designed to improve the security improve the Alliance’s readiness for future
cises and better use of technology, which of the NATO’s eastern flank. Russian measures that could target the
is crucial for interoperability of Allied forces. However, such measures are perceived dif- Baltic States. The NATO Summit in Brus-
Finland and Sweden are also participating ferently by Russia. The Kremlin portrays sels in July 2018 is a crucial moment for the
in NATO exercises; both countries are not NATO as an aggressor threatening Rus- future of the North Atlantic Treaty, which
NATO member states but perceive Russia sia by moving ever closer to its territory. will determine the Alliance’s future path.
as a security threat. Such a story also appears in pro-Russian The summit will focus on six main areas:
In February 2016, the defence ministers de- disinformation media throughout Europe. strengthening deterrence and defence,
clared initial operational capability (IOC) for Many disinformation campaigns spread promoting stability and the fight against
NATO’s Joint Intelligence, Surveillance and information that NATO is moving troops terrorism, enhanced cooperation with the
Reconnaissance (JISR) initiative. This initia- to the Russian border to trigger a new con- European Union, modernising NATO, a
tive should enhance the situational aware- flict. These campaigns are often supported fairer distribution of the burden and an al-
ness of the NATO Response Force through by local politicians and extreme right-wing liance of common values and transatlantic
heightened proficiency in collecting, pro- political parties who use this story to win unity. NATO is a unique project that has
cessing and exchanging intelligence. JISR the support of their constituents and create brought peace to Europe and its impor-
assembles data and information gathered chaos in the minds of citizens. The Globsec tance remains. However, NATO cannot
through projects such as NATO’s Alliance investigations in 2018 showed that only stand still and must adapt to new security
Ground Surveillance (AGS) system of NATO 37 percent of Slovaks believe that “NATO threats and challenges.  

24 European Security & Defence · 5/2018


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Mind the Gap only according to General Hodges but also

according to leading industry players who
see interoperability as crucial to any future
Amphibious Bridging in NATO Tim Guest system. Equipment from different countries
must be able to be combined in the field so it
work together easily; during Anaconda three
Amphibious bridging capabilities among NATO members have taken countries, the US, the Netherlands and Ger-
and the Turkish AAAB from FNSS are in many interoperated effectively with their re-

Photo: UK MoD
a back seat for many years, but the Alliance is now at a critical point use predominantly by their national armies. spective pontoon bridge capabilities, and the
where its river-crossing assets must be addressed as a priority. The fact is, there is an urgent need for new British and German engineer capabilities also
thinking, standards and decisions to ensure combined and interoperated effectively to-
a future where NATO can deploy the right gether to deploy the longest ever M3 bridge. The longest M3 floating bridge ever built spanned 350 m across the
number of bridging systems capable of car- Effective interoperability was demonstrated Vistula river.

N ATO has some big rivers to cross if Yes and No rying not only the loads of today, but also more recently in the M3’s latest outing dur-

Photo: French MoD

ever a major conflict breaks out in the vehicle variants that are in the pipeline ing the June 2018 “Sabre Strike” exercise in
Europe. Whether advancing eastwards, NATO’s armies certainly have various means and likely to be fielded in the years to come. Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland. This
or withdrawing westwards, the same and capabilities to cross rivers should the involved 19 NATO nations during which Brit-
water obstacles that faced both sides in need arise. From individual vehicle capa- A Voice of Authority ish and German engineers once again de-
WWII will face any future armies at war bilities such as snorkelling, to assault craft, ployed the M3, this time in a 200 m crossing
in the European theatre. And with cur- pontoon bridging systems all the way up This state of affairs has been repeatedly scenario of the Neman river on the outskirts
rent political tensions and uncertainties to state-of-the-art amphibious ‘bridging highlighted in recent years by Lieutenant of the Lithuanian city of Kaunas. Some 150
across the continent, not least caused by and ferry’ systems. So, yes, we can cross a General Ben Hodges, Commanding Gen- vehicles and 700 troops made the crossing
Mr Putin’s curiously aggressive Russia, river, but the “no” is that we currently do eral of the US Army in Europe until Decem- assisted by more than 40 British Royal Engi-
that is no longer as farfetched an idea not have enough bridging systems to face ber last year. Before, during and after the neers and their German counterparts, who
as it was just a handful of years ago. So, every eventuality and those we do have will major NATO exercise “Operation Anacon- jointly deployed the M3.
da” in 2016, he voiced his concerns about Once again, neither the FNSS AAAB, nor
Photo: UK MoD

the effectiveness of the Alliance’s bridging the EFA system from CEFA were deployed
capabilities in the face of the threat from during Sabre Strike and, indeed, EFA and
the east. He said that heavy military equip- AAAB have not been deployed during
ment such as SP artillery and main battle NATO exercises so far. The army of France relies on the EFA system from CEFA.
tanks could not be moved fast enough
from Western Europe to the eastern flank
of NATO due to limitations that included
insufficient rail transport and bridging. On
the Baltics, Hodges said that NATO would
be unable to defend those three nations Highest Survivability and Combat Proven Technology
from Russian attack due to the time it
would take to get materiel in place, adding
all three countries would likely be overrun
within a matter of 36 hours.
It is worth noting that during Anaconda a
combined engineer unit consisting of the
German Army’s 130th Engineer Battalion
(PzPiBtl 130) and the British Army’s 23 En-
gineer Regiment, operated the longest M3
floating bridge ever built to allow NATO
GDELS’ M3 amphibious bridging and ferry system is widely used in NATO. forces to cross a 350 m span of the Vistula
river near Chełmno, Poland. The bridging
if 27 allied nations did find themselves in not be able to support future and current operation connected 34 UK and German
need of delivering troops, armour and vehicles. Investment is one of the factors M3 Amphibious Rigs together, (8 British
supplies to positions that require major behind this state of affairs. Engineering and 22 German) in only 35 minutes, and
river crossings, could they do it? Well, the capabilities like amphibious bridging have vehicles that crossed included some 200
answer is both yes and no, and the fol- taken a serious budgetary back seat for US Army vehicles such as STRYKER AFVs
lowing article tries to address that ques- many years. As a result, all too few Alli- and others. General Hodges was reported
tion in more detail by looking at current ance members have amphibious bridging as saying at the time of the Vistula record-
thinking, capabilities and equipment, as capabilities, or sufficient floating bridge breaking crossing that it was the best bridge‎
well as imminent requirements. capabilities and the organisation would be he’d ever seen and that it was a wonderful
hard pressed to deploy successful bridges example of interoperability with two allies
Au th o r in every location needed in a Europe-wide providing the capability that everybody else
conflict. The M3 amphibious bridging and in the Alliance needed. Neither the FNSS ASCOD EAGLE
Tim Guest is a defence and aero- ferry system from General Dynamics Eu- AAAB, nor the EFA system from CEFA were
space journalist and former Royal ropean Land Systems (GDELS) is currently deployed during Anaconda.
Artillery officer. the most widely adopted solution in NATO,
while the French EFA system from CEFA
The kind of interoperability demonstrated
by the M3 during Anaconda is key, not
The Transatlantic Partner for Land Defense in Europe
26 European Security & Defence · 5/2018 5/2018 · European Security & Defence 27

Rigs in Use can carry loads of up to MLC 85T/132W to erect by eight men. In the ferry mode vehicles, or above, new and clearer stand-
and can be crossed by all types of Main it can carry one heavy tank, two medium British Presence Confirmed ards are crucial. NATO countries must all
The M3 is the most widely used of three Battle Tank (MBT) including the LEOPARD tanks, or four infantry combat vehicles. Lt Gen Patrick Sanders UK Commander Field Army in Germany was reported in August be able to carry not only their own vehicles
amphibious bridging systems in NATO, the 2, M1A2 ABRAMS or the CHALLENGER 2. The Armoured Amphibious Assault Bridge last year as saying that the British were now looking to maintain and extend their am- but also the vehicles of all their NATO allies.
other two being the Turkish Armoured The M3 offers interoperability with other (AAAB) from Turkish manufacturer FNSS, phibious engineering/M3 capability, reviewing the issue until the start of 2018. He said
Amphibious Assault Bridge (AAAB), and bridging solutions such as the SRB (Stand- which is very similar to M3, though much that the ”partnership between the German First Panzer Division and the British 3UK Conclusion
the French EFA system, both latter systems ard Ribbon Bridge)/FSB (Floating Support heavier with two more axles and a lower Division remains very close with the two working on a lot of division capabilities includ-
used predominantly in isolation by their Bridge) and IRB (Improved Ribbon Bridge). MLC carrying capacity, is another bridge ing interoperability, in parallel to the fact that they are serving alongside each other in NATO must address its floating bridge
own national forces. GDELS also offers coupling devices to en- and ferry system designed specifically for the Baltics.” capabilities as a matter of urgency. While
the Turkish Armed Forces. In its capacity It now seems the review of the matter has borne positive results. In the middle of July MLC classes have evolved steadily since
Photo: Groupe CNIM

as a ferry the AAAB can carry MLC70 T 2018 the British Army announced that it is committed to supporting critical NATO assets WWII, we are now entering a next-gen-
vehicles when in a two-bay configuration. in Germany, including a combined river crossing capability and facilities to allow for joint eration phase of new ‘standard loads’ at
By deploying ramps, which are carried by training. In a statement it said that “there is a requirement to enhance support to NATO a time when NATO forces do not have
the AAAB’s hydraulic crane, three AAABs and to strengthen ties with our European allies. We are committing to a combined river enough floating bridges available to ful-
can be coupled together and from ramp to crossing capability with the German Army (Bundeswehr), known as the M3 wide-wet fil their tasks. These are what need to be
ramp MLC100 W vehicles can be transport- gap crossing capability, and associated shared facilities in Minden. We will also use the defined by NATO to ensure manufacturers
ed on inland waterways. When 12 AAAB Training Area at Sennelager and supporting infrastructure in Germany to enable live fire know which way they have to go; should
systems are coupled together from ramp training by UK and NATO forces.” Good news for all concerned. they look to MLC100/110/120 and then
to ramp, a 150 metre bridge can be cre- to a general MLC class, or to a specific
ated, capable of supporting the crossing of product-oriented MLC class? What new
MLC100 W and MLC70 T vehicles. Wider as to whether an amphibious, or pontoon main problem is that all the leading NATO vehicle variants and weights/widths/deck
spans can be crossed using more AAABs. system will be chosen as the next solution. countries are increasing the MLC classes of pressures will need to be carried by a next-
The decision may be for a mix. What is their tanks. How far vehicle upgrades can generation amphibious solution? And will
Industry Thoughts for NATO clear, while this whole matter is still in the go is something manufacturers are looking NATO opt for purely an amphibious so-
investigation phase, is that NATO countries at carefully. They have to watch which way lution, or a pontoon system, something
Most countries have two lines of thinking are aware they have to do something to the countries develop MLC classes. These completely new? Industry can only respond
regarding bridge-crossing capabilities. One increase their floating bridge capability. issues make it critical for the standards with the right system when it knows what
is to have an asset that is easy to store and That said, the M3 remains state-of-the-art groups to come up with new standards for the Alliance wants and these requirements
The CNIM Motorised Floating Bridge is also in service with the French Army. procure and that sways users towards a at this time and can carry the heaviest ve- the next 25 to 30 years, and with countries need to be identified urgently.
pontoon bridge preference. The second is a hicles currently in the NATO ORBAT. The now considering the building of MLC120 Meanwhile, over in the east…  
Photo: FNSS

need for a fast deployable solution, in which

case an amphibious answer is preferred; this
is also the preferred solution for modern
armies, which want the least manpower-
intensive system possible. And while, in the
procurement phase, amphibious bridges
are more expensive than pontoon options,
in the end, after their operational lifetime,
amphibious solutions like the M3 will end
up cheaper. Pontoon solutions are more
manpower intensive and will also need ad-
ditional equipment to aid their deployment,
including trucks and logistics vehicles are

Scan the QR code

needed to transport, deliver and deploy
them, all adding to their overall lifetime cost.
So a system like the amphibious M3 will be
more cost effective in the long run.
The Turkish Armoured Amphibious Assault Bridge produced by FNSS It seems, however, that NATO’s needs are XV INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION
not all black and white. The results of vari-
The M3 offers high mobility, availability and
seamless land to water transition. The rig
can be driven directly into a river without
sure a correct interface at any time with
different types of equipment used among
the Alliance members. The M3 was combat
ous NATO exercises and comments from
the likes of General Ben Hodges make
it very clear that NATO does not, at this
October 9-12, 2018
preparation and used as a ferry or, when a proven in Iraq by UK forces. time, have enough floating bridge capa-
number are joined together from bank to The EFA amphibious bridging and ferry bilities available. But decisions as to which
bank, as a bridge. The M3 can carry MLC85 system from French defence manufacturer to procure between pontoon or amphibi-
tracked vehicles, (in bridge or ferry configu- CEFA is a 45-tonne system that can enter a ous are really for each country to decide.
rations), and eight M3 units and 24 soldiers water obstacle once it has inflated rubber European countries to the east are still
can build a 100 m bridge in 10 minutes. The floats; it has high mobility on land and in pontoon oriented, while western nations
system can deploy on the move, in or out of the water. It can act as either as a ferry, lean more towards amphibious solutions.
water, with no on-site preparation to enter raft, or bridge, with an MLC-70 loading ca- That said, NATO forces including the Ger-
the water needed. It can be controlled from pacity. It can be used for wet and dry gap mans and British, are currently looking for General Information General Media Technical
inside the cab when ‘swimming’. It can be crossings and is operated by a two-man a follow-on system to the M3, as the M3’s Partner Partner Partner
operated by a crew of two. Used as either crew. A 100-metre bridge requires 4 EFA intended end life will be reached around
a bridge, or as a multi-bay raft, the M3 vehicles and will take around 15 minutes 2030. The choice, however, is still not clear

28 European Security & Defence · 5/2018

Ukraine, Kyiv, Brovarsky Ave, 15

Military Capabilities of of the Baltic States will be used in particular

to improve military infrastructure and fa-
cilities, increase interoperability with NATO
penses. Lithuanian leaders are confident
that the country’s military spending could
reach 2.5% of GDP by 2030.
acquisitions. About €40M of the total de-
fence expenditure will be spent on equip-
ping the Army and the National Guard.

the Baltic States soldiers and increase the contribution to

NATO activities (such as by pledging sol-
diers and funds for joint operations in areas
An Overview of Defence
Lithuanian defence expenditure will focus
on enhancing mobility and intelligence
capabilities, developing and upgrading in-
such as landmines and cyber). Estonia was frastructure, and technological capabilities
Giulia Tilenni one of the first NATO countries to meet the Each of the three states has defined the (such as C2 structures, cybersecurity and
2% objective (along with the US, the UK, programmes to be financed according to information systems).
Greece, Romania and Poland). In fact, its its military planning for the near future. Ac-
In ESD 5/2017 we discussed why and how the Baltic States were planning to upgrade their military level of military spending has been above cording to the geopolitical scenario of the The Estonian Example
the 2% threshold since 2015. In 2018, the Baltic Sea region, the three states have a
capabilities to better respond to geopolitical threats. One year later, what progress has been made? Estonian defence budget accounts for special focus on the procurement of new Estonia is probably the Baltic state with the
approximately 2.14% of GDP, reaching equipment in order to increase the efficien- most advanced military industry. In fact,
Photo: US Air Force

€523.6M compared to €479.2M of the cy of their armed forces. In Estonia, most of the country has developed highly relevant
previous year. In details, Tallin will spend the 2018 defence investments will be dedi- capabilities in the ITC domain and, con-
30% for personnel, 27% for procurement cated to the mechanisation of the Scout sequently, remarkable technical capacities
and investment, and the remaining 43% to battalion. They will include the procure- in the cyber domain. In theory, Estonian
cover other defence-related costs. Procure- ment of ammunition and weapons, as well niche capabilities are so technologically ad-
ment will mainly concern the support of ar- as communications, clothing and different vanced that they have no rivals within the
moured manoeuvring capabilities, and the forms of equipment (IT, personnel special EU. However, Estonia is still struggling to
modernisation of training conditions and equipment and personal protective find its place within the European defence
facilities (including shelters for armoured market, in which a limited number of coun-
combat support vehicles, maintenance tries control more than 80% of the whole
and training garages, barracks for Esto- marketplace. Initiatives such as PESCO and
nian and NATO troops, and communica- the growing NATO-EU cooperative ef-

Photo: Milrem Robotics

tions associated with this infrastructure, forts in the cyber domain could
to be built in Tapa). Furthermore, as Estonia serve as basis for consolidating
is a NATO Security Investment Programme Estonian position among its al-
recipient, extra funds will be available lies and, consequently, within
in addition to the €538M base the European market. For in-
budget for 2018. stance, the Estonian
In 2016, Riga spent defence minister has
1.4% of its GDP on de- recently declared
fence. Two years later, that the country will
Latvia reached the propose, with Fin-
2% objective by rais- land and Latvia,
ing its defence spend- a joint project for
ing to €576.4M, a sig- the development
nificant increase compared of an autonomous
The BALTOPS exercise has gained in importance as a signal of the Alliance’s commitment to the countries on to 2017 – when the budget was land vehicle. This will
the eastern flank. During BALTOPS 2016, a US Air Force B-52 STRATOFORTRESS leads a formation of aircraft, in- €449.6M, 1.7% of GDP. The largest be included in the sec-
cluding two Polish F-16 FIGHTING FALCONs, four US Air Force F-16 FIGHTING FALCONs, two German Eurofighter part of the Latvian defence budget will The ond wave of PESCO pro-
TYPHOONs and four Swedish GRIPENs over the Baltic Sea on 9 June 2016. fund investments (43%), while 24% and Estonian- jects, expected in November
33% of the budget will be used, respec- manufactured 2018. Such a project will allow

A fter the crisis in Ukraine, Estonian, Lat-

vian and Lithuanian political leaders
took a closer look at the defence of their
whether the Portuguese, Greek or Belgian
governments (to give a few examples)
would accept human losses to protect Tal-
The Baltic states’ new defence plans for the
2020 timeframe have been built around
three key predicates: raising the defence
tively, to fund maintenance and personnel.
According to the Latvian ministry of de-
fence, investments will fund infrastructure,
Milrem THeMIS
Estonia to demonstrate its will to ex-
pand its defence industrial capabilities be-
yond the cyber domain, with a particular
countries. linn, Riga or Vilnius. The EU could provide budget to 2% of GDP (according to the air control and defence capabilities, addi- equipment). The National defence League interest for robotics. A growing number of
Although NATO has been responsible for similar military assistance under Article NATO request formulated in 2016), bol- tional mechanisation of their Land Force (the part of the Defence forces consisting Estonian firms have been already using the
their defence since 2014, the Baltic states 42.7. The fact that European defence ca- stering national security strategies to make Mechanised Infantry brigade, and the up- of reservists) will receive defence funding know-how developed in the ITC domain to
wondered whether NATO allies would ac- pabilities are limited and the different in- them respond to current threats, and pro- grade of armed forces and the National as well, with a particular focus on amelio- implement robotics solutions. Unmanned
tually provide them with military assistance terpretations of what the activation of this curing new military systems to boost armed Guard’s combat and response capabilities. rating land forces’ protection, rapid reac- vehicles are the core of this process, as dem-
in the event of an attack. In theory, this article really means could prevent any form forces’ efficiency. Estonia and Latvia, Lithuania has joined the tion and management capabilities. Other onstrated by the Estonian company Milrem
right is granted to all NATO members by of military support. All this considered, the exclusive club of NATO countries spending investments will fund equipment for intel- (awarded the CV90 maintenance contract
Article V. In practice, it is difficult to judge three Baltic states have been struggling Spending More, and More more than 2% of their GDP for defence. In ligence and special operations, and naval with BAE systems in April 2018). When
how long a NATO response could take and to achieve at least some form of autono- Efficiently 2018, Lithuanian defence expenditure has minehunters' life-cycle maintenance. the Milrem UGV THeMIS was presented
mous military capabilities to be able to put will reach €873M, about 2.01% of its GDP. Latvia is expected to invest in military trans- at DSEI in 2015, the firm was a newcomer
Au th o r in place limited military operations in case Riga, Tallinn and Vilnius consider it neces- This means a €149.2M or 20.6% increase port (28% of the total amount), ammuni- in the defence domain. In three years, the
of need. Although these military capacities sary to increase the defence budget not compared to 2017. In detail, 41.6% of the tion (15%), weapons (13%) and individual company has not only been able to fur-
Giulia Tilenni is an analyst would not be sufficiently strong to neu- only to better adapt their defence systems Lithuanian defence budget will be spent equipment (8%). Seventy percent of the to- ther develop THeMIS’ modularity (one of
for international affairs based tralise eventual threats, they could help to to current security threats, but also to on personnel and 13.5% on weapon and tal procurement budget will be dedicated the most relevant features of the system),
in Paris, France. provide more time while waiting for sup- strengthen their many negotiating posi- military equipment, 20.2% on investments to supporting existing programmes, while but has also established several partner-
port from the Allies. tions in NATO. Part of the defence budgets and 15.3% on maintenance and other ex- the remaining part will be used for new ships with international firms (includingST

30 European Security & Defence · 5/2018 5/2018 · European Security & Defence 31
Photo: MoD Lithuania

able surface-to-air missiles, to be delivered purchased in 2018 under a €13M seven– Moreover, Vilnius signed a €109M contract to improve its military infrastructure. The
by 2020. The contract includes an option year–long contract which also includes with Kongsberg in October 2017 for the country has also launched (May 2018) the
for the purchase of up to €100M in ad- other types of weapons (undisclosed). supply of NASAMS medium- to long-range second stage of negotiations for the pro-
ditional missiles. Thanks to this contract Moreover, the Latvian armed forces and air defence missile systems. curement of 4X4 light and medium-sized
– the third between the two parties, as National Guard are progressively receiving Lithuania is also trying to modernise its tactical vehicles. The Estonian MoD plans
Estonian forces have been using MISTRAL their new military tactical radio as a result defence system according to the “total de- to invest more than €2.4Bn between 2019
since 2009 – Estonia will be one of the first of the two contracts (one in 2016, the other fence” approach, which focuses on enhanc- and 2022. Investments will likely fund am-
countries to deploy MISTRAL 3 missiles. in 2017) signed with the US producer Har- ing Lithuanians’ resilience. Thus, the country munition, communications, brigades’ pio-
The agreement also includes the procure- ris. The aim is to reinforce command capa- is multiplying its pedagogic efforts to raise neer capabilities, as well as airborne and
ment of training missiles, simulators and bilities within the Latvian army and to ame- awareness about how Lithuanians should naval capacities. Moreover, Estonia is ex-
testing equipment. liorate interoperability with NATO allies.

Photo: US Army
In the same month, Tallinn signed an agree- Latvia is also working to modernise its aer-
ment with South Korea for the purchase of ial capabilities, thanks to US funds. While
Samsung Techwin K9 THUNDER self-pro- the small air force, 250 regular servicemen,
pelled 155mmm howitzers, to be delivered relies on two transport aircraft and fewer
between 2020-2021 and 2026. This €46M than ten transport helicopters, the Army
contract includes 12 artillery systems, train- does not have any aerial capability. Thus,
ing, maintenance and spare parts. Riga procured two AeroVironment RQ-
The “National Plan for 2022” focuses 20A PUMA UAS units for about €733,000,
On 15 December 2017, the Lithuanian Armed Forces received their first mainly on land capabilities, as this opera- with deliveries expected in 2019. The first
two VILKAS/BOXER training IFVs. tional environment is the most crucial for unmanned assets in Latvian armed forces’
the country. However, Estonia is planning inventories will provide the country with
Kinetics, Raytheon, FN Herstal, MBDA) sponse.” The 1st Infantry Brigade, located to further develop its mine warfare capa- persistent Intelligence, Surveillance, Target
for evaluating the integration of different in Tapa, will be equipped with a mix of ex- bilities as well as its aerial capabilities, es- Acquisition and Reconnaissance (ISTAR),
weapon systems on its platform. Numer- isting and new materiel. The ones already pecially in regard to the ability to perform over-the-hill and force protection capabili-
ous armed forces are currently conducting in Estonian armed forces’ inventories in- surveillance missions autonomously. ties. Riga is also working on enhancing its
tests to evaluate possible purchases of the clude JAVELIN anti-tank missiles and PASI airspace security and the efficiency of air
systems. Should Estonian firms be able to XA-180 EST armoured personnel carriers. The Most Relevant traffic surveillance, considered crucial ca-
affirm their technical capabilities in robot- New equipment will include self-propelled Procurement Programmes pabilities for Latvia, which is already using
ics, Estonia could increase its heft within artillery systems and new personnel equip- three Lockheed Martin radars – the AN/
in Latvia
the EU defence market, thus multiplying its ment, weapons and ammunition, as well as TPS-777 model. In March 2018, the coun-
chances of wielding influence in it. 44 BAE Systems HÄGGLUNDS AB CV9035 In Latvia, too, the increase in the defence try received the first (of three) Scania-based
Estonia is also trying to gain the confidence infantry combat vehicles and auxiliary ve- budget will have a positive impact on pro- Lockheed Martin TPS-77 Multi-Role Radar, Latvia just bought two RQ-20 UAS units to to increase its surveillance
of its allies through political measures. In hicles, purchased from the Netherlands in curement programmes, in particular on im- bought in 2015. capabilities.
particular, Tallinn is working to reaffirm its 2014, with deliveries between 2016 and proving the Mechanised Infantry Brigade
cooperative attitude in the defence field. 2019. These systems will be joined by an- and, more generally, on strengthening the Lithuania: Procurement handle an eventual crisis or conflict, and is pected to create its first cyber command by
Some 50 Estonian soldiers were sent to other 37 in the next years. Bought from combat capabilities of the land forces and Programmes, Urban Warfare implementing the 2015 decision (unique in 2022. Lithuania plans to spend more than
Mali to participate in the French military Norway, they need to be refitted before the National Guard. Europe) to reintroduce conscription. €2.5Bn in modernising its armed forces by
and Conscription
mission in the country. Estonia is well aware use. A bid is open to decide which firm On 12 February 2018, Riga signed a €108M Vilnius is also at the forefront of urban 2022.
that this small contingent will have no sig- will be in charge of this modernisation, and contract with EuroSpike (a Rafael joint ven- In 2018, Lithuanian investments in defence warfare training thanks to two dedicated In addition, all three are working to im-
nificant military impact on the mission. the contract could be awarded later this ture company) for the purchase of SPIKE materiel slightly declined compared to 2017 centres, used by both national and NATO prove the relationship between the mili-
However, Tallinn sees this presence as a year. The 2nd Infantry Brigade, expected anti-tank missiles, to be gradually inte- (from €156.7M to €117.8M). However, Vil- armed forces. In the next years, Lithuania tary and the civilian population in order
kind of compensation for the allies’ efforts to reach its full readiness by 2022, will be grated by 2023. SPIKE will equip the 123 nius plans to spend €2.2Bn on modernising plans to double the size of these training to strengthen the idea of “total defence”.
to protect the Baltic States. Estonia recently based in Luunja. Its equipment will include Combat Vehicle Reconnaissance (Tracked) its armed forces in the 2017-2022 period. facilities. The Pabrade training area will be- These include investments in psychologi-
signed the Letter of Intent to launch the JAVELIN anti-tank missiles, 155mm how- SCIMITARs bought in 2014 from the Unit- The three main modernisation projects will come able to host a battalion-sized group cal defence and domestic security to better
European intervention initiative promoted itzers, and the equipment and weapons ed Kingdom (€48.1M) and in delivery until concern the procurement of BOXER (to be (up to 1,200 soldiers), while the Gaiziunai support the population when necessary.
by French President Macron to facilitate needed to reach combat readiness. 2020. renamed VILKAS) armoured infantry vehi- area will be able to train servicemen up to However, the approach with which the
joint planning and establish a rapid reac- The year 2018 is an important one for the Tactical mobility, communication and per- cles (to provide the two infantry battalions battalion level. three countries are improving their de-
tion force to neutralise threats to European Estonian armed forces, as the country has sonnel equipment are considered impor- with greater mobility, force protection, and fence capabilities differs when it comes to
security. This initiative welcomes the par- concluded three main deals for the mod- tant assets to enhance Latvian armed forc- firepower), self-propelled PZH2000 how- Final Remarks the national defence industry. Latvia and
ticipation of non-EU countries, in particular ernisation of its defence capabilities – SHO- es’ capabilities. In order to make its Armed itzers (to make the artillery battalion’s fire Lithuania are highly dependent on foreign
the United Kingdom after Brexit. RAD (Short Range Air Defence), automatic forces and the National Guard more effi- support capabilities more efficient), and NA- Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are struggling procurement, due to the limited size of
rifles and howitzers. cient, Latvia procured different types of off- SAMS (which will enhance the robustness to reaffirm some autonomous defence their domestic defence industry, and Latvia
Estonia: Constant Spending In March 2018, Estonia launched a €54M road vehicles in 2018. These include three of air defence systems). Lithuania received capabilities to better adapt them to the is struggling for its place in the European
Means Better Military tender to purchase M107 howitzer pro- different models of 62 Polaris all-terrain its first two BOXER prototypes in June 2018. regional geopolitical scenario, as well as defence market. The fact that the remark-
jectiles, as well as propellant charges and vehicles (about €428M, co-financed by the The two vehicles will remain in Germany to the current political evolutions within able skills acquired in the cyber field could
others. The country is also expected to US), procured in January, and the military for qualification and test campaign for the NATO, the most effective military alliance soon be complemented by highly relevant
Estonia has been extensively working on procure new ammunition for the JAVE- version of BPR OUTLANDER MAX 650XT, whole year. During this time, Lithuania and they are part of. robotic capacities could serve as an impor-
raising its defence forces’ readiness. Ac- LINs thanks to US funds granted to Baltic procured in June (€11M contract) with de- ARTEC (the KMW-Rheinmetall consortium In the immediate future, the three countries tant driver in strengthening Estonia’s role in
cording to Estonia’s “National Plan for States to ameliorate their defence capabili- liveries to be completed by next year. responsible for the vehicle) will finalise the will continue the modernisation of their the European defence market. Indeed, re-
2022”, the country plans to enhance its ties ($170M in total). In terms of personnel equipment, the last modifications before the start of serial armed forces and territorial defence units markable robotic capabilities will be a first
defence capabilities by establishing “two In June, Estonia signed a €50M contract armed forces, National Guard and Border production. Vilnius procured 89 IFV-config- through increased investments and new in the EU and could make an important
fully manned, armed and equipped infan- with MBDA to procure additional MISTRAL Guard will progressively be provided with ured BOXERs in four different variants. Deliv- programmes. For example, Latvia plans contribution to the EU’s efforts towards
try brigades that are capable of quick re- short-range air defence missiles/man port- new Heckler & Koch G-36 assault rifles, eries are expected between 2019 and 2021. to invest about €50M per year until 2021 strategic independence.  

32 European Security & Defence · 5/2018 5/2018 · European Security & Defence 33


The Brussels Backdrop

NATO Summit Marked By Disputes The Four Thirties

To strengthen NATO’s deterrence and de-
The door has been opened for Skopje to
open accession negotiations. Once the
historic agreement on the name issue has
Aftermath: Trump and
the Future of NATO
fence, the Heads of State and Government been concluded and implemented, NATO On 16 July, four days after the NATO
Joris Verbeurgt adopted the "Readiness Initiative". Com- may invite the former Yugoslav Republic meeting, Presidents Trump and Putin met
monly known as the "Four Thirties," this is of Macedonia to become the 30th NATO in Helsinki to discuss relations between
a commitment to have 30 mechanised bat- member under its new name, the Republic NATO and the Ukraine and Georgia. On

O n Wednesday 11 and Thursday 12

July 2018, the 29th formal meeting
of NATO Heads of State and Government
cussion and discord between the Allies, no
effort was spared to prevent a repetition
of the harsh words between the US on the
resilience to chemical, biological, radiological
and nuclear-related risks, and the promotion
of the ‘women, peace and security agenda’.
talions, 30 air squadrons and 30 combat ships
operational within 30 days or fewer by 2020.
Furthermore, the Allies agreed on a new
of Northern Macedonia.
The Heads of State and Government also met
with close partners Georgia and the Ukraine
19 July, Putin warned NATO against main-
taining closer relations with these former
Soviet republics bordering Russia, say-
took place at the new NATO Headquar- one hand and the European allies on the The two organisations already intensified NATO Command Structure, including a new to discuss regional challenges, defence re- ing such a policy was irresponsible and
ters in Brussels. After a short opening other. However, the Secretary-General's cooperation in the field of maritime security, command for the Atlantic in Norfolk, Virginia, form and NATO’s continuing support. Both would have "unspecified consequences
ceremony, during which NATO Secretary passionate plea, the symbolic signs of good countering hybrid threats and fighting ter- and a command for military mobility in Eu- countries are keen to join the Western military for the Alliance". Later, in an interview
General Stoltenberg outlined the Alliance’s will and the demonstration of good inten- rorism. The exchange of real-time warnings rope in Ulm, Germany. Staffing levels of these alliance, but have seen their chances of join- with Fox News, Trump (once again) ques-
on cyber attacks is already taking place and new commands are set at 1,200 personnel. ing hampered by Russian territorial incursions. tioned NATO's purpose and the common
Photo: Presidential Office of Ukraine

NATO and the EU participate in each other's They will ensure that NATO has the right forc- Under NATO rules, countries with territorial defence obligations of Article 5. Trump
exercises and cooperate in the refugee and es in the right place at the right time. In addi- conflicts cannot join NATO. wondered why America should risk the
migrant crisis. tion, the Allies discussed NATO’s response to The summit ended with a discussion on Af- Third World War with Russia for a coun-
hybrid threats and agreed to set up a Cyber ghanistan, during which the NATO partners try like Montenegro (NATO member since
Burden Sharing and the Fight Operations Centre and new counter-hybrid decided to support the Allies. "Our presence June 5, 2017). In his election campaign,
against Terrorism support teams to help NATO members at risk. in Afghanistan is crucial to ensure that the Trump was already very critical of NATO
These actions fit in the overall plan of protect- country never again becomes a safe haven and America's commitments to allies who
Fair burden sharing has been a burning ing the Alliance and its members against “any for international terrorism," said the Secre- contribute little or nothing to the Alliance,
issue for the USA for many years. Under potential threat”, according to Stoltenberg, tary General. Heads

Photo: NATO
the Trump administration, however, it has and to bolster combat readiness by easing the of State and Govern-
become a an obsession. In May 2017, Presi- transport of troops across Europe in the event ment are expected
dent Trump openly scolded European al- of a crisis. Although Stoltenberg stressed the to extend the fi-
lies for not spending 2% of their GDP on fact that the new structure does not involve nancing of the Af-
defence, as they should do, according to an increase in the number of NATO troops, ghan armed forces
the NATO rules. Speaking ahead of the it is no secret that the new measures are in beyond 2020 and to
Brussels Summit, it was Secretary-General response to perceived increased threats from express their support
Stoltenberg who brought up the subject by Russia. for President Ghani's
saying that the Allies will deliver on fairer peace initiative and
burden sharing and that the European Al- Key Security Challenges reform efforts.
NATO’s 29th Summit took place in Belgium on 11-12 July 2018. lies and Canada are expected to spend an At the end of the
extra US$266Bn on defence between now NATO also addressed key security challeng- meeting there was
achievements in building peace and secu- tions could not conceal the deep dissension and 2024. Stoltenberg's démarche did not es with leaders from Finland and Sweden, a somewhat wrong
rity and praised the professionalism and within NATO between US President Trump prevent President Trump from insulting one as well as with the Presidents of the Euro- tone when EU Com-
dedication of the Alliance’s armed forces, and European heavyweights Jean-Claude of NATO's most important allies on the first pean Council and the European Commis- mission President
the leaders of the 29 NATO member states Juncker and Angela Merkel. day of the meeting when he scolded Ger- sion. Sweden and Finland are already very Jean-Claude Juncker
and 20 partner nations discussed pressing many for participating in the North Stream important NATO partners. Both countries was filmed at the ga-
NATO matters. Also present were repre- NATO and EU Leaders Sign pipeline project, paying billions of dollars a are enhanced opportunity partners (EOP), la dinner with wob- NATO’s heads of state walk through the agora of
sentatives from the United Nations, the a New Joint Declaration year for the supply of natural gas from Rus- participate in the NATO response force bly feet. Assisted by NATO’s new Brussels headquarters on 11 July 2018.
European Union, the World Bank and the sia. Chancellor Angela Merkel countered (NRF) and in exercises with the Alliance on the Dutch and Portu-
NATO Parliamentary Assembly. The aim On 10 July, before the official beginning that Germany is an independent country a regular basis. As liberal democracies and guese Prime Ministers, Juncker struggled to to American security or to the defence of
of the meeting was to strengthen NATO's of the meeting, NATO Secretary General that takes its own decisions. advanced industrial economies with high- keep his balance among the other world lead- American interests. President Trump has
attitude of deterrence and defence, to in- Stoltenberg, European Council President To step up NATO’s role in the fight against tech expertise and capabilities that have ers. The media immediately insinuated that been repeatedly irritated by NATO and the
tensify the fight against terrorism and to Donald Tusk and European Commission Presi- terrorism, the leaders agreed to launch a military significance, both countries are he was drunk as this was not the first time way in which the burden is shared among
achieve a fairer distribution of the burden dent Jean-Claude Juncker signed a new Joint new training mission in Iraq, with hundreds well integrated in the EU and share the core that the EU leader had tripped at a summit. the Member States. Although Trump
- in other words, the traditional issues that Declaration on Cooperation between NATO of NATO trainers. The professionalism of the political values on which NATO has been However, his spokesman categorically denied was immediately refuted by high-ranking
have been recurring at every NATO meet- and the EU. The new Declaration, two years Iraqi forces will be increased by the establish- founded. Could the renewed threat from that Juncker was drunk. According to the members of his own Republican Party and
ing for two decades. In view of the painful after the initial agreement made in Warsaw, ment of military schools, while key partners a self-confident Russia encourage Swe- spokesman, he suffered "a particularly painful the Democratic Party, this is a very danger-
experiences of the Warsaw Summit (July states that NATO and the European Union will in the Middle East and North Africa, including den and Finland to become full members sciatica attack accompanied by convulsions". ous development for Europe, because the
2016) and the Brussels Summit (May 2017), strengthen cooperation in a number of areas, Tunisia and Jordan, will receive more support of NATO like the other Nordic countries of Thus began and ended the 29th NATO sum- US can do without NATO in a multipolar
when the world witnessed criticism, dis- including military mobility, counter-terrorism, from NATO. Norway, Denmark and Iceland? mit with controversies. world but the EU cannot. 

34 European Security & Defence · 5/2018 5/2018· ·European

5/2018 EuropeanSecurity
Defence 35

Modernisation of the Stalin after 1921, all of whom had reorgan-

ised the economy and the state first before
transforming their respective militaries.

Russian Armed Forces Therefore Putin too had to achieve those

tasks before even contemplating defence
sector reform, because the scope of the lat-
Achievements, Plans, Objectives ter obliges Russia’s leader to have suitable
instruments at his disposal to execute and
support reforms, and before 2008 these
instruments were not available to Putin. Al-
Stephen Blank though they were first administrative and
economic, Putin’s reforms may well have
been intended, or at least set the stage, for
One of Vladimir Putin's most important legacies is his reform of the Russian military, but many Western the comprehensive defence reform that has
occurred in the decade since 2008.
experts do not understand what military reform in Russia means, to where it could lead and how Russia's But he also initiated a process in which eco-
future defence policy could look. nomic development should not only serve
growth itself, but be the basis for an am-
bitious global policy to maintain Russia's

Photos: MoD Russia

herefore Western observers cannot supposedly inherent superpower status and

come to terms with Putin’s defence be independent of foreign constraints. This Russia's army and military industry have shown innovative capabilities.
legacy or the threats that it poses. Without policy logically means a significant increase Here, Nikolai Pankov, Deputy Minister of Defence of the Russian Federa-
such an understanding of context, content in military expenditure and a stronger em- tion, is opening the "Start in Science" festival at the Orenburg Presiden-
and direction, they complacently argue that phasis on defence issues that are characteris- tial Cadet School.
Russia's problems, which are real, will ne- tic of Russian history. Worse still, it inevitably
gate any threat. contributes to the spread of great power imise rather than comply with MoD com- a major part of civilian industrial produc-
tensions along military lines, some of which mands and/or rent-seek. They have fewer tion, this figure hints at a return to some
The Defence Establishment are already surfacing; the US European degrees of freedom than private Western Soviet ways of thinking and doing business.
Command's call for more troops in Europe defence corporations like Boeing, but are Overall responsibility for the programme is
By situating Putin’s reform of the entire is at least partly due to an unforeseeable self-motivated to efficiently produce in ac- vested in the Ministry of Industry and Trade
defence establishment in the context of situation in Russia and there is growing will- cordance with Herbert Simon’s bounded and total funding through 2020 would be
Russian history, this essay aims to alleviate ingness in some sectors of the US military to rationality framework and William Baumol’s RUB1,067Bn – that is, over RUB200Bn an-
commonplace misreading of Putin’s ac- see Russia as a potential threat, particularly satisficing concept. This bolstered OPK initia- nually.
complishments. Defence reform, as under- with regard to nuclear weapons. tive when the MoD stopped prioritising mili- These attributes of the programme under-
stood in Russia, entails the accompanying Thus the reform of the Russian defence- tary R&D. Putin beat the odds by imposing score the ambitious targets for the renova-
or preceding overhaul of the state admin- industrial sector appears to have been de- firm discipline and containing rent seeking, tion of the defence industry. While this pro-
istration and economy to support the new liberately planned in 2001-02 as a long-term buttressed with competitive reforms and gramme was being formulated, announced,
army that emerges out of a period of major process that entailed a comprehensive re- sufficient material incentives. These policies, and in the early stages of its implementation,
change, either through revolution or “great form of the sector and of the state admin- which went largely unnoticed in Western Russia was also formulating the state arma-
reforms”. Defence reform therefore goes istration as a precondition to support the literature, provided the basis for the surge ments programme (SAP) or defence pro-
beyond the Ministry of Defence and the Putin's youth organisation "Young Army" (Junarmija) is a resumption overall transformation of the economy and we have seen in this decade and will also gramme for 2018–2027. Although the SAP
armed forces; it aims to clarify relations be- of the pioneer organisations of the Soviet era, with an emphasis on the state as a whole to support that long- provide the foundation for the targets for naturally was the object of a lot of bureau-
tween that Ministry and the General Staff, military patriotic education and Russian Orthodox values. term process. Thanks to those processes, current and 2018–27 defence programmes. cratic contention, by 2016 Putin made it clear
revise the military-industrial complex (OPK, we are now witnessing an ongoing surge Indeed, not only are the current and fu- that at some point in the in the next decade
Oboronno-Promyshlennyi Kompleks) that of his predecessors, Putin’s reform of the Russian historian S.F. Platonov described as in Russian defence production. The surge ture defence programmes ambitious, even (if not earlier) defence spending would peak
supports those forces and transform the armed forces entailed a systematic over- the pattern of Russian history, namely that in Russian weapons cannot be explained by if they are being slightly moderated, Mos- and then decline due to the economic cri-
state administration that provides the haul of the entire state administration and the collapse of a system of rule is ultimately revving up idled production lines for fourth- cow also has comparably ambitious plans ses of 2014-16: collapsing energy prices, the
money, manpower and resources needed the national economy to support a new followed by the restoration of a new form generation equipment; instead it reflects for the overall development of the OPK. devaluation of the ruble, and Western sanc-
to support a large defence establishment. kind of armed forces suitable for contem- of state power, culminating a few years modernisation of weapon characteristics, In 2016, the government approved a new tions on top of the structural impediments to
In other words, and as happened with all porary challenges. This comprehensive later with a transformed army as the true updating old production lines, building programme for the development of this growth. This commitment to make a retreat
reform also includes a fundamental reas- incarnation of that state power. modern production facilities and switching sector. This programme incorporates some in defence spending at the end of this decade
Au th o r sessment of the nature of contemporary from managerial regimes rewarding execu- earlier federally targeted programmes and or beginning of the next one remains em-
warfare and world politics, as the armed Tsar Alexander II tives for mass production rather than mili- is largely classified. But we can discern from bedded in policy. But even though Russian
Dr. Stephen Blank is a Senior Fellow forces are structured in response to the per- tary R&D. published data the scope of the transfor- officials believe Russia is now (2018) com-
at the American Foreign Policy Coun- and Lenin-Stalin
ception of current and future warfare and However, unlike Soviet arrangements, state mation Moscow wants to see. From the ing out of recession, its economic prospects
cil. He is the author of numerous international relations. Putin apparently abandoned this pattern; ownership doesn’t bar OPK enterprises or published sub-programme, we see the gov- are hardly rosy. Moreover, starting in 2016
foreign policy-related articles, white Seen in the light of Russian history, the de- by putting economic reconstruction above public–private partnerships (PPP) from com- ernment urging an increase in this sector’s high-ranking officials, possibly perceiving a
papers and monographs, specifically fence reform that began in 2008 is the cul- other considerations, he apparently tran- peting among each other. Military industrial output by 75% in 2020 compared to 2014, deteriorating international situation that has
focused on the geopolitics and geo- mination of reforms begun by Gorbachev. scended the fundamental historical tenden- firms (including holding companies) are per- labour productivity is supposed to increase only worsened since 2016, started advocat-
strategy of the former Soviet Union, Gorbachev's reforms led to the crisis of cies of Russian statecraft, which repeatedly mitted to operate on a for-profit basis. They by 137.5% and average monthly wages by ing even more mobilisation of the state and
Russia and Eurasia. He is a former the 1990s, and because of the economic sacrificed the economy to the military and to compete for state orders and export sales 77%. Civilian output of the defence indus- economy towards a wartime footing.
MacArthur Fellow at the US Army downturn there were no major reforms in great power aspirations. But actually he was (contracts) and can outsource. Shareholders try was forecast to grow by 28% by 2020 Thus the new SAP or defence plan for 2018-
War College. the state structure. The current arms build- emulating his Tsarist and Soviet predeces- and/or managers are variously incentivised compared to 2015. And since the defence 27 carries within it an unresolved ambiva-
up also suggests a repetition of what the sors, particularly Tsar Alexander II and Lenin– to profit-seek and incompletely profit-max- industry, as in Soviet times, continues to be lence if not contradiction. Reduced defence

36 European Security & Defence · 5/2018 5/2018 · European Security & Defence 37

spending denotes the leadership’s satisfac- a mass-mobilisation army to meet 21st cen- and the defence industrial sector dates the West; on 18 January 2005, Defence around joint missions and command, while encourages leaders to take offensive meas-
tion that the basic international situation tury security threats. "There was only one back to 2001. The government decisively Minister Sergei Ivanov told the Academy of the entire command and control structure ures, because they know that the threat of
and Russian defence capabilities do not way out," Putin emphasised, “we had to determined then that, before moving to Military Sciences: “Let’s face it, there is a was reorganised culminating in the National nuclear weapons brings potential oppo-
warrant alarm and can therefore decline. build a new army." Moreover, in midsum- “a new generation” of weapons, it would war against Russia under way, and it has Defence Management Centre (NDMC), nents to a standstill.
But this spending fell by much less than mer 2000, the disaster of the Kursk subma- have to undertake a general modernisation been going on for quite a few years. No one opened in 2014. Meanwhile, existing nucle- We see this coming true in Moscow’s behav-
Western analysts imagine, because they are rine confirmed that the rot also engulfed the of the overall economy and, in this context, declared war on us. There is not one country ar weapons were modernised and new ones iour and apparent nuclear strategy. Russian
unable to fathom Russia’s highly opaque ad- navy and that the generals would not tell the means of production of new weapons that would be in a state of war with Russia. created. Both types of nuclear weapon were doctrine says that nuclear weapons deter
based on new technologies. The govern- But there are people and organisations in integral parts of the strategy and essential to local wars, namely, campaigns like those in
ment would first create the new technolo- various countries, who take part in hostilities the continuation of reform. Georgia, Ukraine, and now Syria. This is be-
gies needed to produce the new weapons against the Russian Federation.” Indeed, as Sir Richard Shirreff, NATO’s Depu- cause the document detailing that strategy
required by its assessment of contemporary More recently, Dmitri Trenin, Director of the ty SACEUR from 2011-2014, stated, “Russia and conditions for nuclear use is classified
war. Only then could mass production of Moscow office of the Carnegie Endowment, hardwires nuclear thinking and capability and its doctrinal statements are hardly re-
new weapons begin. Before comprehen- observed that, for some time, ”the Kremlin to every aspect of their defence capability.” vealing. It is hardly revealing to say that nu-
sively overhauling the armed forces, the has been de facto operating in a war mode.” Dmitry Adamsky likewise observes that, clear weapons could be used in a first strike
state economy had to be transformed to One sign of this war is that by 2007-08, that “The nuclear component is an inseparable if the survival of the state is at risk, especially
the point where it could support the huge is, a decade ago, European Security services part of Russian operational art that cannot if it is haunted by the spectre of state disin-
expense of defence reform and begin in- were reporting across the board an enor- be analysed as a stand-alone issue,” be- tegration and cannot afford to lose a war it
troducing a new generation of weapons to mous expansion in Russian espionage, both cause it abets Russian conventional threats is waging. But Russia’s “nuclear behaviour”
overcome the procurement holiday that had traditional and economic, across Europe. and aggression through the deterrence of is sufficient grounds for real anxiety.
been forced on the armed forces due to the That war is manifested in current military adversaries’ counteraction to that aggres-
collapse of the Soviet Union. Russian thought as the promotion of “col- sion. Similarly, Major Amos C. Fox (USA) Nuclear Escalation Dominance
Concurrently, something few foreign ana- our revolutions", which the Russian military writes that the strategic defence provided
lysts had noted but that was vital, the ad- regards as any insurgency against authori- by Russian nuclear weapons and the IADS Hans Kristensen and Robert Norris ob-
ministrative reform of the state after 2000 tarian regimes. In 2006, Ivanov publicly facilitate the attainment of all of Russia’s serve that, “Whatever the correct inter-
also preceded defence reform. In that con- stated that the greatest threat perceived by conventional warfare objectives: deterring pretation of Russia’s nuclear strategy is,
text and in tandem with the defence reform Russia was alleged foreign efforts (and since NATO expansion into Russia’s historic sphere Moscow seems to be administering that
that began in 2008, Putin and then Presi- domestic ones are also invariably special of influence, retaining regional hegemony in strategy more dynamically and offensively
The gradual militarisation of Russian society is exemplified by the dent Dmitry Medvedev postulated the need operations fomented by the West all such Eurasia, and demonstrating improvements than it did a decade ago. Russian officials
Yekaterinburg Suvorov Military School. for further reform of the state structure to revolutions are inherently foreign) to alter to Russian military capabilities. have made many statements about nu-
make it ready for mobilisation for strategic the constitutional order in any of the CIS
ministrative procedures. On the other hand, the truth about their situation. Indeed, he purposes already in the national security states, including Russia.
published budgetary figures show that due long since knew that the military could not strategy of 2009 and the defence doctrine These perceptions drove an asymmetric
to the rise in energy prices and despite state- reform itself before he became president. of 2010. Those documents summed up and strategy that we now see, for instance, the
ments to the contrary, spending in 2018 has The high command was torn by personality launched discussions and projects that had heavy reliance on a Russian concept of in-
actually grown from what was originally and procurement rivalries between Igor Ser- begun earlier and that have led to the crea- formation and cyber warfare. Thus Ivanov
envisaged. The upshot of all this is that – geyev and Anatoly Kvashnin, the Defence tion of a state structure that can mobilise observed in 2007 that, “the development
despite too much fatuous analysis that the Minister and Chief of the General Staff re- resources from the private sector or beyond of information technology has resulted in
defence sector is hopelessly corrupt, that the spectively. the formal defence structures for defence of information itself turning into a certain kind
economy is failing and that NATO is so much Moreover, Putin also quickly understood the realm at home, still perhaps the great- of weapon. It is a weapon that allows us to
stronger – Moscow can field the armed that neither the inherited economy nor the est security threat, and also create private carry out would-be military actions in prac-
forces it needs not only to deter NATO but state structure permitted Russia to maintain as well as paramilitary forces like the Wag- tically any theatre of war and, most impor-
to sustain its superiority in the theatre from any viable military forces in an era of accel- ner force we have seen in Syria and now in tantly, without using military power. That is
the Arctic to the Black Sea against NATO erating change in warfare and of multiply- Africa. But it also entailed the creation of a why we have to take all the necessary steps
and enhance its conventional and nuclear ing risks to Russia’s great power status. Thus vast number of other forces attached to the to develop, improve, and, if necessary – and
capabilities for some time to come. his military moves had to proceed against Ministry of Interior or local governments or it already seems to be necessary – develop
this backdrop of weakness, incompetence, funded by plutocrats, all of whom aimed new multipurpose automatic control sys-
Defence Reform to 2008 obstruction, and resistance, not to mention to defend the regime, and many of which tems, so that in the future we do not find
endemic corruption. And since Putin came were consolidated into the heavily armed ourselves left with nothing.”
Upon entering office and confronting the to power through the military and plans for National Guard of 2016. Ivanov’s statement strongly suggests that Putin has succeeded in reconnecting Russia´s military to modern
Chechen insurgency, Putin found that he war in Chechnya, the military took this op- Russia sees its cyber capabilities as giving it technological developments.
could barely cobble together 65,000 men portunity to demand access to state funds Nuclear Issues and the asymmetric or alternative ways to counter
from disparate units stationed all over Rus- that would have destroyed the economy. So Nature of Contemporary War Western challenges and threats by what are That much is obvious. But beyond that, the clear weapons that appear to go beyond
sia. As he subsequently stated, “In order Putin had to take real control over the mili- clearly militarily superior adversaries. presence of nuclear weapons is perhaps the the published doctrine, threatening to
to effectively respond to the terrorists, tary and then rebuild the state and national The reform of the defence sector began in Accordingly, the 2008 defence reform first critical component for modern hybrid potentially use them in situations that do
we needed to assemble a force of at least economy in order to restore a credible mili- 2008 and preceded the war with Georgia, aimed at creating an asymmetric force warfare. Nuclear weapons provide protec- not meet the conditions described. For
65,000 people. And in the entire army, in tary instrument that was truly subordinate to but the military performance during that war that could deter the West through nuclear tion against a massive ground response to example, officials explicitly threatened to
the combat-ready units, there were 55,000 centralised authority and not an independ- confirmed the need for reforms. Reform also parity and information war (IW), while at an incremental war; the offensive nation use nuclear weapons against ballistic mis-
people, and they were scattered across the ent bureaucratic player. entailed new nuclear weapons and procure- the same time creating sufficient conven- that possesses nuclear weapons knows that sile defence facilities, and in regional sce-
country. The army had 1.4 million people, In February 2000, he ordered the FSB to ments that probably began around 2005-06 tional post-Soviet power to ward off and the adversary is unlikely to commit large narios that do not threaten Russia’s sur-
and no one to fight. And here they sent un- monitor military units’ allegiance and be- because the nuclear weapons and defence quickly overcome NATO-backed challenges forces to a conflict for fear of the aggres- vival or involve attacks with weapons of
seasoned boys out under fire.” In his article come once again a centralised agency uni- reforms were part of a new perception of or other threats on former Soviet territory. sor employing those weapons against those mass destruction. Moreover, the fact that
in Rossiiskaya Gazeta (2012), Putin became fying counter-intelligence and the political contemporary war. Already in 2003–04, The bloated Soviet establishment was jet- ground or naval forces. This dynamic em- Russian military planners are pursuing a
even clearer. Describing the military legacy police within the army. Likewise, the stra- the the government concluded that it was tisoned, brigades replaced divisions and ar- boldens the aggressor nation. In the case broad range of existing and new versions
he inherited, Putin depicted the inability of tegic plan to rebuild Russia’s armed forces fighting a new kind of political warfare with mies and new military districts, organised of Russia, possession of nuclear weapons of nuclear weapons suggests that the real

38 European Security & Defence · 5/2018 5/2018 · European Security & Defence 39

envisions limited nuclear strikes on NATO regarded as “normal” assets on a conven- before) mobilised the civil administration, it at home by the threat of force and the in-
targets early in a conflict in a bid to frighten tional battlefield. This is the basis upon which even mobilised banks to pay soldiers in the vocation of the maxim that the fatherland
Western leaders into suing for peace on Russia regulates the level of deterrence for field and hospitals to establish field hospi- or motherland is in danger. This, of course,
terms favourable to Moscow. Even if such example in the Kaliningrad exclave. By intro- tals during those exercises, a true sign of is hardly a uniquely Russian phenomenon,
strikes are never employed, the possibility ducing the concept of pre-emptive strike to mobilising the entire state structure on be- but it does mean the systematic generation
enhances Russia’s coercive leverage in a crisis its military means, Russia is trying to enhance half of a large war where the survival of the of a war psychosis replete with demands
and to blackmail threats in peacetime.” its non-nuclear deterrence even further.” state is obviously at some risk. Likewise, the for military action and readiness along with
Given steadily deteriorating perceptions of Zapad 2017 exercise highlighted a concept high spending and allocational priority as
the external security order and growing ap- A New Stavka? of operations that correlates nuclear drills under Soviet power.
prehensions about the threat, and in view of and exercises with the mobilisation of civilian Nevertheless the Russian defence estab-
Russia’s continuing conventional inferiority And if one looks at Russia's nuclear procure- administrative authorities and institutions as lishment has developed a coherent, evolv-
to a fully mobilised NATO and US, this per- ment plan until 2025, then the fusion of in Zapad 2017 and in Kavkaz 2016. Zapad ing, and adaptable theory of contempo-
ception and strategy for nuclear weapons nuclear weapons with Russia's war strategy 2017 also pointed to an anticipation of ac- rary and future war as it moves towards
creates strong pressures for first strike use. becomes even clearer. Thus, current trends tual nuclear war fighting. Therefore contro- hypersonics, additive printing, robotics
“Honour – Duty – Motherland”: A military aviation parade at Migalovo As Kipp and Kroenig observe, “Russia’s nu- after a decade of reform and consolidation versies over the role of nuclear weapons in and artificial intelligence. It has reformed
air base near Tver on 5 June 2018 clear forces and strategy also present a num- indicate a heightened readiness and war Russian strategy and the question of wheth- and greatly improved its defence admin-
ber of weaknesses, however, that could be psychosis orchestrated by the government
doctrine goes beyond basic deterrence While such a scenario has not yet occurred subject to Western exploitation. Russia does across the media as well as in the state ad-
and towards regional war-fighting strat- and is not immediately likely, the Russian nu- not prefer dependence on nuclear weap- ministration. For example, Russian analysts
egies or even weapons aimed at bluntly clear threats show not only brazenness, but ons, but is forced to rely on them largely in told Asia Times Online that a new Stavka
causing terror.” more importantly, how nuclear scenarios are order to offset conventional disadvantages. – the central operational command organ
As Colin Gray observes, although there is intertwined with conventional wars. Indeed, This creates a number of problems, includ- under Stalin in World War II – that would
no sign of Russian discourse coming true escalation dominance is attainable only ing imposing demands for rapid escalation mobilise the entire country in wartime is
concerning the use of a nuclear weapon if Moscow can also obtain sufficient con- in the case of successful initial operations now in the making. This follows a decade
to defeat NATO in limited nuclear scenar- ventional superiority in the theatre to win by opposing forces. In addition, leaders in of organisational reform. Already, the 2009
ios, Moscow talks as if it can achieve this in the initial phase of the war before NATO Moscow must confront the prospect that National Security Strategy insisted upon
outcome. He writes that Putin and others or anyone can react. Arguably a seamless limited nuclear warfare might be conducted an overhaul of the state administration to
have decided to explicitly introduce ruthless web leads from conventional scenarios up across the depths of Russia’s homeland if make it more effective and usable in war-
threats, including nuclear ones, into Russia's to and including these supposedly limited NATO honours commitments to the Baltic time. Since then, defence reform abolished
argumentation about acute international nuclear war scenarios, perhaps using tactical States and the conflict escalates to the nu- most army divisions and corps, replacing
crises. They hypothesize about the high po- nuclear weapons for which the West as yet clear level.” them with brigades that are increasingly
litical value that would accrue as a result of has found no response. Or, as Finnish LTC Pertti Forsstrom argues, capable of complex joint operations, and it
nuclear use on a limited scale. The hoop, ap- Thus Jacob Kipp and Matthew Kroenig ob- “In this way the content of the concept of introduced new military districts congruent
parently, is that the NATO enemy, certainly serve that, “In the past decade and a half, traditional strategic deterrence is broadened with civilian administrative structures, such
the less robust members, at least, would be Russia has come to rely more on nuclear to cover both Russian nuclear and conven- as the joint Arctic Strategic command in Putin is emulating his Tsarist predecessors, particularly Tsar Alexander
outgunned either by the actuality, or more weapons as a means of deterrence and for tional assets. On the other hand, the abol- 2014 and the 1st Guards Tank Army, which II: Festive Easter Liturgy at a joint exercise of Russian and Belarusian
likely only by the credible threat of nuclear war fighting to manage local wars. The pos- ishment of the restrictions for the use of nu- augmented some brigades facing Ukraine Airborne Forces in Brest on 13 April 2018
use, especially in a first-strike mode. sibility of a local war against NATO remains clear weapons means that the dividing line where the danger of war is most acute, and
Not surprisingly, and in conformity with Moscow’s highest priority security threat. between waging war with conventional or defence reform also created the NDMC. er or not Russia has a high or low thresh- istration and force quality as well as the
our argument above, Gray concludes that Russia relies on the early resort to nuclear with nuclear weapons is vanishing. When The NDMC will presumably function as that old for nuclear use remain unresolved. But ability of its defence industry to service
Russia seeks escalation dominance. Gray use in part to offset its aggregate conven- the principle of surprise is connected to this Stavka, given its ability to monitor develop- the reform of conventional forces that has those forces. Its capacity for sustained
continues: “In the language of now-classic tional inferiority vis-à-vis NATO. Moscow’s idea, it seems that Russia wants to indicate ments across the entire country, coordinate created a formidable Anti-Access Area De- force projection has been validated, and
strategic theory from a past generation of concept of “de-escalatory” nuclear strikes that non-strategic nuclear weapons could be regional and civilian administrations with nial (A2AD) combined naval and air defence may be expanding through the innova-
theorists, the Russians currently are talking the military and mobilise the state and civil capability and great striking power, along tive use of “private” forces, like Wagner
with apparent seriousness about nuclear institutions. Putin has also created dozens of with heightened exercises, and unmistak- or those raised by oligarchs in conjunction
escalation dominance. Russian theorists private military forces, including the Wagner able superiority in electronic warfare – even with Ukraine and Russia’s campaign for
claim, perhaps expect, they could win a force, paramilitaries of all sorts, and then – in if surface ships are inferior – has given Russia naval bases throughout the Middle East
war wherein Russia employs nuclear weap- 2016 – the National Guard, whose two main a truly formidable military force. There is little and the Mediterranean. It is building, de-
ons on a very modest scale. This expec- functions are the suppression of civil unrest doubt that such a force can achieve rapid spite punishing sanctions, truly formidable
tation follows from a Russian belief that and the conduct of military operations that strategic objectives along its frontiers in the conventional, nuclear and unconventional
Moscow’s employment of a few nuclear the Army would prefer not to handle or that initial stages of conflict, although protracted informational – and possibly biological and
weapons would give them a decisive co- would slow down its operations, or drain conflicts are another matter entirely. chemical – weapons for future conflicts.
ercive edge in the diplomacy that should the state budget, or complicate strategic in- The Russian government and media have Meanwhile it has also greatly strength-
follow. Russian authors have advised us terests and decision-making. The creation clearly highlighted moves that suggest the ened its administrative control over the
ironically that the use of these weapons of the National Guard and the use of such likelihood of a major war with the West entire country, should mass mobilisation
would prove to be a decisive de-escala- formations, including Cossacks, to suppress and the return of this contingency to centre become necessary. Indeed, to date Russia
tory move – de-escalatory because NATO unrest as the latter did in May 2018 is also a stage in military planning. While there is no has won all of its wars since 2000, while
would be expected to capitulate. The high process that began over a decade ago and discernible serious Western military threat the US record is hardly brilliant in this re-
determination shown unmistakably by the continues to evolve. – notwithstanding blaring Russian propa- gard. Therefore the complacency that too
fact of Russian nuclear use would surprise, We also see preparations for mobilisations in ganda to that effect – it is also possible that many Western “experts” and observers
even shock, audiences politically around Russian exercises, many of which, if not all, this lurch towards structural militarisation – a still express concerning Russia’s military
the world. Thus with unmatched boldness also have a nuclear component or accompa- term coined by the late Vitaly Shlykov – de- prospects is therefore not only unwar-
Russia should achieve a considerable politi- nying exercise. In the Kavkaz 2016 exercises, notes as well a comprehensive movement ranted and misguided, but also exceed-
cal, perhaps even military, victory.” Russia's military moves back into the middle of society. Russia not only once again (having done so directed towards stifling any public protest ingly dangerous.  

40 European Security & Defence · 5/2018 5/2018 · European Security & Defence 41

“The Navy is on the right course”

Photo: PZM
and equally of responding to international
crises and resolving of conflict. It does not
work the other way round. But back to the
MKS 180. For the first time, and as a direct
consequence of the armaments agenda,
we are already pursuing new courses even
Interview with Vice Admiral with the invitation to tender. This is not
Andreas Krause, only Europe-wide, but also conjectured
as an iterative process. The aim is mini-
Chief of the German Navy misation of risk. Better that the invitation
to tender takes more time, but leads to
a satisfactory construction contract, with
ESD: In the past three years the Navy has part needs to be produced in an elaborate realisation risks which can be overcome at
been stretched to its limits in terms of per- and time-intensive manner. But here too the same time, rather than suddenly be-
sonnel and materiel by the large number the right steps are being taken. With the ing confronted in the construction phase
of deployments, running in parallel, in second set of submarines, we have also with problems which cost us not only time
response to crises and conflicts. Has this initiated the procurement of a spare parts but money too. There can be no question,
situation eased, or is it still going on? package for all the boats, and we have also then, of the present invitation to tender
Krause: In the past we have been se- concluded a framework maintenance and process being interrupted. On the con-
verely stressed with regard to personnel repair contract with the industry concerned. trary, everything is going to plan, and is
and materiel in respect of capacity for Both measures are aimed at cutting down going to continue to do so. The executive
deployment, But, despite that, we, the dockyard times, and making things easier to of the BMVg is holding to the previous
German Navy, have been in a position to plan. That is in any event what I am antici- course. I am anticipating the launch of the

Photo: Bundeswehr
fulfil the orders and tasks assigned to us, pating, and expecting. A particular focus of first MKS 180 by the end of 2025 or the
every time and any time. This is thanks attention for me, as well as this challenge, is beginning of 2026.
not least to the high commitment of the the issue of the Navy addressing the certifi- As well as the MKS180 project, we are
men and women who serve in the Navy, cation of our submarine crews as a top pri- also working intensively on the German- The Class 130 corvettes will receive a UAV capability.
at every level. In this context, I adopt the Vice Admiral Andreas Krause, ority, so as to get this weapons system back Norwegian submarine cooperation under-
principle that anything which does not di- Chief of the German Navy in full operational readiness once again. taking, the successor to the Sea-Lynx, the country and the Alliance. This defence of the future Baltic Maritime Component
rectly contribute to effectiveness in or for extending of amphibious capabilities, and a the country and Alliance in context is what Command in Rostock, the strong position
deployment, or to the defence of the Alli- and how should the inadequate state be ESD: The process of shrinking the fleet has UAV for the K130 corvette. Double-hulled dictates the structure and capability. For of the German Navy in international inter-
ance and the country, is consistently to be overcome? come to an end. The time has come for it tankers, and successors to the units of sea this reason, it is correct and important that action will be emphasised still further. All
regarded as of secondary concern. Things Krause: I am now glad to say, with regard to start to grow again, and for new vessels mine defence capacity, are all intended to the entire spectrum of possible tasks is in- in all, the Navy is on the right course to
will definitely ease in the middle term with to the situation involving submarines, that to be laid down. What shape is the Navy build up the German Navy of the future. corporated in the development of capabili- sustain its success in the future.
regard to the readiness for action, both by the end of the year we will be able to use procurements programme taking, and The bilateral agreement which I signed in ties, with concentration on high-end capa-
for personnel and materiel. A precondi- three submarines again, and perhaps actu- which units and weapons systems need December last year with my Norwegian bilities. We need the flexibility and stamina ESD: What are the greatest challenges
tion for the course which has been set ally four. U31 has in the interim successfully to be replaced or produced as new? counterpart will among other things result to be able to be deployed on anything from facing the Navy in the years to come?
does however entail all the planning being passed its performance trials, and is regularly Krause: The shrinking of the fleet, which in the procurement of two further sub- police actions in the crisis management Krause: The greatest challenges lie in the
backed financially, and that we have our going to sea. This is where the economies went on for years, is happily now behind marines as from the middle of the next context through to high-intensive, three- realisation of planned new units, and in
sights set jointly on our targets. necessarily incurred from the peace dividend us. Even if this is still in the planning, over decade. As well as that, the contract for dimensional warfare. upholding the availability of existing ves-
have at last caught up with us. Because for the next 10 years the Navy should be re- the second set of five corvettes was al- This position is being constantly broad- sels, at a high level. In this context, the
ESD: The state with regard to materiel reasons of costs we have been obliged, ceiving every year at least one seaborne ready signed in September 2017, before ened in response to the wishes of the part- effort must also be sustained to have the
(readiness for action of weapons systems) among other things, to do without spare or airborne weapons system. One special the Bundestag elections. ner nations to intensify the cooperation, in right men and women on board. To do
of the Federal Armed Forces is at the pre- parts packages on the scale required, we are project in this respect is without doubt To round off this question, I would like to order to master together the challenges of this, it will also be necessary to achieve the
sent time inadequate. This also relates faced today with the situation that we rapid- the MKS180 multipurpose warship. This make one further point. Despite an essen- our times. What is clear is that no nation inner positive attitude, the “mind-set”, of
to the Navy, for example, with regard to ly reach the limits of our capacities, especially is a vessel which will be equipped with a tially positive assessment for the years ahead, can achieve this alone. If we take a look every single member of personnel, men
submarines. What are the causes of this, with unforeseen events arising. Every spare unique range of capabilities, such as the I must say that the procurement process at our partners in the EU, this has mani- and women, to embark on new courses
Navy has never seen before. The MKS 180 needs to be overall faster, more flexible, and festly been recognised, and is reflected in as well. Thanks to the winds of change in
Graphic: MTG

cannot be replaced by a K130 corvette, more committed to its aims. In many areas the Permanent structured Cooperation, personnel, materiel, and finances, we are
or indeed any other seagoing combat re- procurement is still simply taking too long. PESCO for short. PESCO is strengthening at the start of the upswing, and the most
source. This applies, incidentally, to all the military cooperation in Europe. comprehensive modernisation of the Navy
ships, boats, and aircraft of the Fleet: Eve- ESD: In view of the resurgence of defence We, as the German Navy, can justly and since it was founded. This will be a cam-
ry seagoing weapons platform is unique, for the country and for the Alliance, the rightly contend that we are already ahead paign involving everyone. It will be a chal-
with its specific capabilities, and it is only Baltic has once again become a geostra- of our time. The German-Norwegian co- lenge for all of us. We may perhaps also
as a composite, in joint effect, that the tegic focus for NATO. What stance is the operation in the submarine sector is also have to consider taking a step back, and
Fleet is in a position, as a whole or in ap- German Navy adopting to the situation, as to be seen as a beacon project in line with then making another run-up. Achieving all
propriate mixed formations, to conduct the largest navy in the Baltic region? PESCO, even without Norway being a this will demand a lot from us, one way or
war at sea in three dimensions. This is why Krause: If we consider the geostrategic lo- member of the EU. another. But it will be worth it. We are in
I always speak of the “balanced” Fleet, cation of Germany on its own and within But also close-knit cooperation and in- the process of creating a Navy which will
which we need to direct with its full range NATO, the German areas of maritime inter- tegration with the Dutch Navy, and the be even more ready for action, and more
of capabilities to achieve high intensity of ests extend from the northern flank to the interaction in the context of the “Baltic attractive to serve in as well.
effect. Only then can we, with one and Mediterranean. But they also extend into Commanders Conference”, are ongoing
the same Fleet, be confident of the de- the Indopacific region. In this situation, the proof that the Navy is very well placed to The questions were posed by
In late 2025, the German Navy will receive its first MKS 180 multirole frigate. fence of the nation and of the Alliance paramount focus is on the defence of the face the future. With the building up of Dieter Stockfisch.

42 European Security & Defence · 5/2018 5/2018 · European Security & Defence 43

Deadly US Navy Accidents Reveal centred while the two propellers operated
with different thrust settings, causing the
MCCAIN to deviate from its course and

Need to Reform Training cross into the ALNIC’s path. The bridge
watch, focused on trying to regain steering
control, initially remained ignorant of this
deviation. Full control of steering and thrust
Sidney E. Dean were regained within two minutes, but the
distraction caused the bridge to lose situ-
ational awareness until seconds before be-
Between June and August last year, two destroyers of the 7th Fleet of the US Navy were rammed laterally by ing rammed by the tanker.
merchant ships, with seventeen servicemembers killed. Both warships were severely damaged. There was
Disciplinary Action and On the evening of the accident, the USS FITZGERALD bridge crew only
no personal injury or significant damage to property on the merchant ships, whose displacement was three Courts Martial looked out to port, although the radar showed several hits on star-
board. The approaching container ship CRYSTAL was visually detected
to four times greater than that of the destroyers.
Between the FITZGERALD and the MC- only three minutes before the collision.
CAIN, a total of 18 crew members of all
ranks, including the commanding and

Photos: US Navy

he US Navy’s Japan-based 7th Fleet or danger signal or to notify the CO even executive officers of both ships, were dis-
experienced four major ship accidents after the danger was recognised; became ciplined over the collision. At this time,
in 2017, including two deadly collisions in confused and issued contradictory orders; several officers still face courts martial on
June and August, with a total of 17 service- and failed to sound the collision alarm. The charges of negligent dereliction of duty re-
members killed. The two latter collisions report also faulted personnel of the Com- sulting in death and hazarding a vessel, but
also caused hundreds of millions of dollars bat Information Center (CIC) for “failing to charges of negligent homicide have been
in damage to the two destroyers, while comprehend the complexity of the operat- dropped.
the commercial vessels (each of which had ing environment” (by misinterpreting radar Special attention has been paid to the ac-
three to four times the destroyers’ displace- data) and not communicating effectively tions of the junior officers of the deck (en-
ment) experienced no casualties and only with the bridge regarding potential threats. sign through lieutenant). On the FITZGER-
superficial damage. With regard to the collision between ALD in particular, junior officers were
Navy investigations determined that, in USS JOHN S. MCCAIN (DDG 56) and the charged with the primary responsibility
three of the four incidents, faulty shiphan- tanker ALNIC MC on 21 August in the for the accident, as they were the rank-
dling by the military crew was to blame. A heavily trafficked Straits of Singapore, the ing personnel on the bridge and in the
report released on 1 November 2017 fol- Navy cited two major contributory factors: CIC when the collision occurred. The dis-
lowing the review of the two fatal collisions “MCCAIN's commanding officer disre- ciplinary hearings for these junior officers
cited failures and violation of operational garded recommendations from his execu- confirmed the findings of the November
rules by watchstanders, as well as leader- tive officer, navigator and senior watch of- report, namely that several lieutenants had
ship inattention to crew compliance with ficer to set sea and anchor watch teams demonstrated gross incompetence, igno-
standard operating procedures, to be the in a timely fashion to ensure the safe and rance of basic operating procedures and/or
primary cause of the accidents. “Both of effective operation of the ship. With re- negligence during the incidents. Defence Bridge simulator at the Surface Warfare Officers School in Newport,
these accidents were preventable,” said gard to procedures, no one on the bridge attorneys and witnesses presented mitigat- Rhode Island
Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) Admiral watch team, to include the commanding ing circumstances. The Fitzgerald’s OOD’s
John Richardson following release of the officer and executive officer, were prop- inability to properly calculate the course of sleep daily; caffeine and energy drinks were es, shared the results with fleet and ship
report. “We must do better.” Admiral Philip Davidson is erly trained on how to correctly operate the oncoming CRYSTAL was due – at least reportedly consumed in high quantities. Fa- commanders on 4 June; the results were
currently Commander, US Pacific the ship control console during a steering in part – to the radar having been set to tigue was exacerbated by watch schedules made public on 6 June.
Report Faults Watchstanders Command. casualty.” This was partially because sev- the wrong frequency (by whom remains which did not correspond to a normal cir- Admiral Brown described the findings as
eral members of the bridge watch had only unclear). Additionally, the radar and other cadian rhythm. “sobering”. Only 17% of the tested OODs
Specifically regarding the 17 June colli- by the CO’s standing orders); maintained recently transferred from a cruiser; while vital equipment aboard the FITZGERALD demonstrated a full mastery of navigational
sion between USS FITZGERALD (DDG 62) too high a speed in a sea lane with moder- these sailors were inadequately trained on was known to be in poor operating con- 83% of Junior OODs Display skills, bridge technology, and proper op-
and the container ship ACX CRYSTAL 100 ately heavy traffic; repeatedly failed to cal- the MCCAIN's bridge systems, they were dition. A post-accident comparison found Competency Gaps erating procedures. Eighteen percent sig-
kilometres southwest of Yokosuka, Japan, culate course and speed of vessels within entrusted with steering controls. The of- that the CRYSTAL’s radar had registered 30 nificant deficits, while the majority dem-
the report found that the bridge watch’s 5,000 metres proximity; repeatedly crossed ficer responsible for training standards was radar contacts in the same timeframe that Between January and March 2018 the Navy onstrated “some cause for concern” in a
Officer of the Deck (OOD), responsible for the bow of ships (in one case within 600 himself deficient in vital aspects of the con- the FITZGERALD registered five. While the conducted random fleetwide evaluations few areas. Two primary areas of concern
the safe navigation of the vessel, repeated- metres proximity) rather than astern as pre- trol system. prosecution faulted the junior officers for of junior officers to determine whether the were noted: operating and interpreting the
ly failed to notify the commanding officer scribed by the international nautical rules of In the minutes leading up to the collision, not taking initiative to correct these condi- performance issues observed aboard the navigation radar, and mastering the nauti-
when the FITZGERALD approached within the road); attempted to calculate the course the MCCAIN's helmsman demonstrated tions, the FITZGERALD’s former weapons FITZGERALD and MCCAIN were aberra- cal rules of the road. With regard to the
5,000 metres of other vessels (as required of the CRYSTAL by radar, but miscalculated difficulty handling both steering and officer testified that she had warned the tions or represented a widespread prob- latter, 91% of evaluated officers passed
by 1,400 metres (it is unclear whether the thrust control. This prompted the captain commanding officer – only months before lem. A total of 164 junior officers – all of the written test, but more than half had
Au th o r officer was even tracking the correct ves- to order thrust control transferred to the the accident – that the ship was not safe them rated qualified as OOD – were tested. difficulty applying the rules of the road dur-
sel); ignored warnings by the Junior Officer lee helm station (immediately to the right for sea duty. Fatigue was also presented The evaluation included an experience sur- ing the bridge simulation, especially when
Sidney E. Dean is President of the Deck that the CRYSTAL was on a of the helm station). Inadvertently, steer- as a mitigating circumstance. Already in vey, a written test of their knowledge of the degraded visibility was added to the sce-
of Transatlantic Euro-American potential collision course and ignored sug- ing control was also transferred, prompt- early 2017, an internal Navy study found nautical rules of the road, and a 35-minute nario. Finally, the survey noted inadequate
Multimedia LLC. and a regular gestions to alter speed and course until col- ing the helmsman to declare emergency the average work week aboard 7th Fleet bridge simulation set in light to moderately preparation for dealing with near-miss and
contributor to ESD. lision was imminent; made no attempt to loss of steering. Secondary to this loss of warships exceeded 100 hours, with junior heavy ship traffic. Vice Admiral Richard other emergency situations. “While most
communicate with the CRYSTAL by radio control, the rudder had been automatically officers citing an average of four hours' Brown, Commander of Naval Surface Forc- of the 164 officers assessed were able to

44 European Security & Defence · 5/2018 5/2018 · European Security & Defence 45

avoid near collision situations, those that tions and adding high-density traffic. Near-
found themselves in extremis were often collision scenarios and shipboard emergen-
ill-equipped to take immediate action to cies will be included in simulator training,
avoid collision,” Admiral Brown stated in so that OODs will not be psychologically
his 4 June message. overwhelmed during real-world naviga-
tional crises. Maritime skills training centres
Current Training System (MSTCs) will be established in Norfolk and
Inadequate San Diego to support high-fidelity individ-
ual and team training for fleet personnel.
Many former officers fault training sys- These shore-based facilities will be aug-
tem “reforms” instituted over the past mented by improved shipboard simulators
two decades in order to reduce costs for enhanced training of personnel at sea.
and, purportedly, increase efficiency. Un- Finally, it must be underscored that training
til 2003, junior officers went through a deficits were not the sole reason for the
Navigation watch on an ARLEIGH BURKE class destroyer 12-14-month intensive training cycle at the tragic mistakes made aboard the FITZGE-
Surface Weapons Officers School (SWOS) RALD and MCCAIN. Vice Admiral Joseph
before reporting for their first sea duty. In Aucoin, who was forced to retire from his
2003, as the US military began to concen- position as 7th Fleet commander because
trate its resources on counterinsurgency of the accidents, cites chronic understaff-
operations, this training was scrubbed Damage to the port side is visible, as the destroyer USS JOHN S. MCCAIN ing aboard ships as a contributing factor.
completely; junior officers were given a set steers towards Changi Naval Base, Singapore, on 21 August 2017 follow- In combination with the high operational
of training diskettes which they were ex- ing a collision with the merchant vessel ALNIC MC. Significant damage tempo which forced the fleet to defer in-
pected to master on their own while at sea. to the hull resulted in flooding to nearby compartments, including crew dividual and group training as well as vital
When this approach proved disastrous, a berthing, machinery, and communications rooms. Damage control ef- maintenance, manpower problems led to
shortened SWOS phase was reintroduced. forts by the crew halted further flooding. overworked and fatigued crews. The Navy
However, this nine-week Basic Division
Officer Course (BDOC) includes very little
preparation in navigation and shiphandling
and focuses primarily on introducing the
various ship departments. Junior officers
are still expected to receive most of their
shiphandling training at sea from the ships’
more experienced officers. This approach
ignores the reality that an extremely high
operational tempo, combined with a gen-
eral reduction of crew size over the past
A total of seven crew members of the USS FITZGERALD were killed; two decades, leaves mid-grade and senior
among the injured was the captain, whose cabin was directly affected officers very little time for training and test-
by the impact. ing junior officers.

Navy Introducing Training

System Reforms
Navy leadership has been aware of this
problem for some time. Following the
FITZGERALD and MCCAIN tragedies, more
than 100 proposals for improving readiness
have been evaluated. Several measures to
reform the junior officer training system are
being implemented or are in the pipeline. The USS JOHN S. MCCAIN is loaded onto the heavy lift transport MV TREASURE at Changi, Singapore, on
As an immediate step, BDOC’s naviga- 11 October 2017. TREASURE transported JOHN S. MCCAIN to Yokosuka for repairs.
tional radar training was extended from a
scant two hours to eleven hours. Admiral Officers Course (ADOC) prior to beginning positions or transferring to a new ship class. has, in the meantime, acknowledged the
Brown proposes to increase this to a full their second sea tour. ADOC will also be Admiral Brown emphasised that simply fatigue factor, and it has mandated a re-
two weeks and to elevate the navigational augmented by an additional three week extending training is not sufficient; quality vised duty plan that should provide all crew
training standard to that of the US Coast course dedicated to leadership, team buil- and applicability must be improved as well. members six hours of sleep daily and return
Guard. Beginning in 2019, BDOC will be ding, and operational planning. The course Subjects such as operational risk manage- watch schedules to a standard 24-hour cy-
augmented by a six-week course dedicated will prepare junior officers for the responsi- ment are to be incorporated at every train- cle to match the human circadian rhythm.
to watchstanding procedures; the curricu- bilities of duty as senior Officer of the Deck ing milestone. Team building and effective A new oversight body has also been estab-
The VALIANT class harbour tugboat MENOMINEE (YT 807) assists the AR- lum for this course will be guided by the in- on the bridge and in the CIC. Follow-up communications will be given high priority. lished within the 7th Fleet; it will exercise
LEIGH BURKE class guided-missile destroyer USS FITZGERALD on 11 July ternational STCW convention (Standards of testing will be conducted one year after Hands-on training in yard patrol craft will oversight of technical and crew readiness
2017 as it moves to Dry Dock 4 at Fleet Activities Yokosuka to continue Training, Certification and Watchstanding). course completion. In addition, officers of augment theoretical and simulator train- and prevent ships from deploying if major
repairs and assess damage sustained from its collision with a merchant Since 2014, junior officers have been at- all ranks will receive refresher training or ing. Simulator scenarios will be made more deficiencies are found, even if this means
vessel. tending a three-week Advanced Division testing before assuming new leadership realistic by varying environmental condi- cancelling planned missions.  

46 European Security & Defence · 5/2018 5/2018 · European Security & Defence 47

UK Armoured Vehicle Programmes vention was both rapid and decisive, which
is what the British Government hoped to
achieve in these missions. Unfortunately
then came Afghanistan and Iraq, major mis-
David Saw sions that were neither rapid nor decisive.
Major involvement in Iraq (Operation Telic)
lasted from 2003 until 2009, while Opera-
For almost 44 years the primary mission of the British Army was to be prepared to fight a high-intensity tion Herrick in Afghanistan lasted from 2001
to December 2014. The negative impact of
mechanised conflict on the North German Plain. For some 40 of those years, that mission would be Afghanistan and Iraq on the British Army
conducted under the auspices of NATO. Then the world changed. cannot be underestimated, and the effects
are still being felt today.

Politics and Personnel

T he end of the Cold War and German
reunification marked the end of the
primacy of the British Army of the Rhine
In many respects, the British Army was in
a good position as far as armour was con-
cerned. At the start of the 1990s, the CHAL-
the FV432, although old, had demonstrated
that, whilst it might not be the greatest ar-
moured vehicle in the world, there were
Between 1990 and 2015 the British Gov-
ernment embarked on a number of de-
(BAOR) in British Army operational thought. LENGER 1 had proven itself to be a very ef- plenty of missions it could perform for the fence reviews, the first of which was ‘Op-
The consequences of this massive change fective tank in combat in the Middle East. British Army. tions for Change’ in 1990, followed by
were that the British Army would need to Furthermore, as it had only been in service The evolution of British armour after the ‘Front Line First’ in 1994, both of which
reinvent itself to remain relevant in the face for some eight years by the early 1990s, it end of Operation Granby in February 1991 were force reduction and cost cutting ex-
of new security realities. had plenty of potential for upgrade and ser- has proven to be a saga of complexity, im- ercises. The Labour government that came In 2010/2011, BAE Systems were awarded a contract to modernise CVR(T)
mense frustration and failure. Indeed, some to power in 1997 had their first review, armoured vehicles to the CVR(T) Mk 2 configuration, as illustrated by this
Photos: UK MoD

27 years after Granby, the British Army still ‘Strategic Defence Review (SDR)’, in 1998, SCIMITAR Mk 2 vehicle on operations in Afghanistan.
operates the WARRIOR, the CVR(T) family which continued the trend of force reduc-
and the FV432 along with its numerous vari- tion, cuts and restructuring. Post 9/11, the by another review ‘Delivering Security in a After that came the ’Defence Industrial
ants. It must be noted that, as of 2018, the security situation had changed and this led Changing World’ in 2003, unsurprisingly Strategy (DIS)’ of 2005, the aim here was to
WARRIOR has been in service for 31 years, to an addition to the SDR known as ‘SDR more restructuring and more cuts were on come up with a strategy that would give the
the CVR(T) first entered service 45 years ago Next Chapter’ in 2002. This was followed the agenda. military the equipment that they needed,
and FV432 entered service 55 years ago.
There are numerous factors that have con-
tributed to the British failure to effectively
modernise their armoured vehicle fleet. Ob-
viously one of the primary factors was poli- Visit us:
tics in the post-Cold War world; the British September 4 –7, 2018
Hall E-46
Government, like many other European gov- RENK. EMPOWERING FORCES. Kielce | Poland
ernments, looked to reduce defence spend-
ing to obtain a ‘peace dividend’ that could
be spent on more politically useful purposes.
Consequently both military budgets and
the size of the military shrank. With no clear
national defence strategy having emerged
Our key contribution: HSWL 256
to reflect conditions in the post-Cold War
world, defence matters were left to drift. experience. powershift
The CHALLENGER 2 LEP aims to modernise the tank to provide a preci- Events in the Balkans in the 1990s would
sion direct fire manoeuvre capability, but doubts exist that all tanks will find the British Army involved. Operation
go through the LEP. Grapple saw major British deployments to
Bosnia initially as part of the United Nations
Although the Cold War might have ended, vice life extension. Yet, the CHALLENGER Protection Force (UNPROFOR) and later as
the British Army that was built to fight the 1 began to be withdrawn from service in part of the NATO Intervention Force (IFOR).

Cold War found itself deploying to the Mid- 1996, with its replacement being the CHAL- Deployments to Bosnia commenced in Oc- Powerpack
dle East in 1990/91 in what was known to the LENGER 2. The first batch order consisted of tober 1992 and continued throughout the ESM 350
British as Operation Granby. This meant the 127 tanks and 13 Driver Training Tanks DTT. 1990s. Later, in 1999, British troops de- for T type
deployment of two armoured brigades and A second batch order in June 1994, covered ployed to Kosovo for peacekeeping missions combat tanks
the HQ of the 1st (UK) Armoured Division; 259 tanks and nine DTT. The first CHAL- as part of the NATO Kosovo Force (KFOR).
221 CHALLENGER 1 tanks and thousands of LENGER 2 tanks were delivered in 1998, Both Bosnia and Kosovo were major troop
In opting for our highly developed transmission technology requirements in the field of mobility like those seen in
other vehicles were employed. Apart from with deliveries completed in 2002. deployments and asset intensive.
you get something extra and very special: over 50 years of ex­ the latest generation of vehicles, we have played a key
the CHALLENGER 1, which entered service The WARRIOR had also performed ex- The arrival of Tony Blair as Prime Minister in
perience in tracked vehicle transmissions. From the develop­ role in shaping the evolution of armored tracked vehi­
in 1983, in terms of armour there was the tremely well in Granby and would remain in 1997 saw the British Government embrace a
WARRIOR IFV in multiple variants, this had production until 1995, with the British Army policy of liberal interventionism. Britain was ment of the hydrostatic­hydromechanical drive, steering, and cles. Reasons why customers in over 30 countries trust
entered service in 1987, the CVR(T) family of acquiring 789 vehicles, although the original committed to peacekeeping/peacemaking braking function for tracked vehicles to mastering extreme in RENK propulsion technology.
vehicles, which entered service in 1973, and requirement actually called for 1,053 vehi- missions; Kosovo was an example of this,
the FV432 family of vehicles that entered cles. The CVR(T) vehicle family had contin- as was Operation Palliser in Sierra Leone in
service in 1963. ued to demonstrate how useful it was, while May 2000. The Sierra Leone military inter-

48 European Security & Defence · 5/2018 5/2018 · European Security & Defence 49

European Security & Defence
Issue 5/2018 · August 2018
when they needed it and at best value for money. Key to this was official MoD statement at the end of March, the decision to “re-
ISSN 1617-7983 · the domestic defence industry that was to sustain capability in join the BOXER programme and explore options to equip the
key technology areas. In 2010, a Conservative/Liberal Democrat army with the 8x8 troop carriers to modernise its vehicle fleet and
Published by coalition government came to power, and their first review, the meet the army's Mechanised Infantry Vehicle requirement.” The
Mittler Report Verlag GmbH ‘Strategic Defence and Security Review (SDSR)’, of 2010 con- statement added that: “The MoD is now taking forward nego-
A company of the Tamm tained more force reductions. By this point, an overspend of tiations with the Organisation for Joint Armament Cooperation
Media Group some £38Bn by the UK MoD had become a major political is-
sue, further increasing the pressure for more cuts in defence
(OCCAR) and Artec. Looking forward to the Assessment Phase
concluding in 2019, this will consider the comparable benefits of
Editor-in-Chief: Dr. Peter Bossdorf (pb) expenditure. The most recent SDSR was in 2015 and called for manufacturing locations and different supply chains for BOXER,
Managing Editor (Magazine): Stephen Barnard (sb) the British Army to have a regular force of 82,000 trained troops as well as value-for-money. Any deal will be subject to commercial
Managing Editor (Newsletter): Dorothee Frank (df) and 35,000 reservists. negotiation and assessment in 2019, and the aim is to have the
Industrial Editors: Rolf Clement (rc), Waldemar Geiger (wg), Gerhard Heiming (gwh), To provide some context, in 2015, the British Army had 87,060 first vehicles in service with the army in 2023.”
Jürgen Hensel (jh) , Christina Langer (cl) regular troops, 2,870 Gurkhas, 25,880 volunteer reservists and
Sub-Editors: Christopher Ellaway-Barnard (cb), Christian Kanig (ck) 4,680 other personnel. By 1 April 2018, there were 81,120 regular
Correspondents: Rolf Hilmes (Army Technology), Peter Preylowski (Airborne Systems) Survival
troops, 3,150 Gurkhas, 29,100 reservists and 4,410 other per-
Regional Correspondents: Tamir Eshel (Israel), Tim Guest (UK), Jaime Karremann (The
Netherlands), Beka Kiria (Georgia), Shinichi Kiyotani (Japan), Yury Laskin (Russia),
sonnel. However, according to the ’UK Armed Forces Quarterly As previously discussed, there are four major British Army ar-
J. Bo Leimand (Denmark), Jay Menon (India), Chet Nagle (USA), Korhan Özkilinc (Tur- Service Personnel Statistics' as of 1 April 2018, published by the moured vehicle programmes: CHALLENGER 2 LEP, WARRIOR CSP,
key), Luca Peruzzi (Italy), David Saw (France), Joris Verbeurgt (Belgium/EU/NATO), MoD on 17 May 2018, British Army Full-Time Trained Strength AJAX and MIV. All of which appear, at least on the surface, to
Esteban Villarejo (Spain) (FTTS) personnel numbers as of 1 April 2017 were 82,650 and be highly logical and just the sort of armour capabilities that the
as of 1 April 2018 were 81,160, with these numbers including British Army needs. The downside is that the army is still under
Layout: mobilised reservists and Gurkhas. This indicates that the British strength, retention and recruitment are still problematic and the
Army is under strength; the FTTS personnel numbers are the key procurement system is still plagued with issues. While there is talk
Production: measure of usable troop numbers. Furthermore, retention of in certain political circles of the need to increase defence expendi- 1:1 scale
Lehmann Offsetdruck GmbH trained personnel is proving difficult and recruiting is not provid- ture, very few actually expect more money to be made available.
22848 Norderstedt, Germany ing the bodies necessary to meet requirements. Indeed the pressure is on to save money; programmes that are
To summarise, the British Army has suffered from years of over- not going according to plan or are becoming difficult to justify for
Office address:
Mittler Report Verlag GmbH commitment and underinvestment, added to which the procure- other reasons will become increasingly vulnerable to cancellation.
Baunscheidtstraße 11, 53113 Bonn, Germany ment system has proven to be unfit for the purpose on far too Of the four armour programmes, only two can be regarded as
Phone.: +49 228 3500870, Fax: +49 228 3500871 many occasions. On the positive side, there are now a number safe and secure at this point. The first of these is the AJAX, this is STIM210 is a small, lightweight Three Axis
Email:, of procurement programmes in action that will see the acquisi- a family of vehicles with 589 being acquired under a £4.5Bn con-
tion of new armoured vehicle capabilities, either through the tract and the vehicle entering service in 2020. The AJAX contract Gyro Module for accurate pointing and
Director of Marketing
Jürgen Hensel (jh)
upgrade of existing systems or the acquisition of new equipment. covers six variants: 245 AJAX reconnaissance vehicles, 93 ARES stabilization, flight control and guidance
However, these programmes are not without their problems, and reconnaissance support vehicles, 112 ATHENA command vehicles,
Baunscheidtstraße 11, 53113 Bonn, Germany
Phone: +49 228 3500876, Fax: +49 228 3500871 there are doubts whether the army, in its current anaemic state, 50 APOLLO support repair vehicles, 51 ARGUS engineer recon- applications.
Email: can absorb or even actually needs all of these promised new naissance vehicles and 38 ATLAS recovery vehicles. Even if the
armour systems. MoD wanted to, it would prove very difficult to modify the AJAX
Advertising Representatives: A recent report by the House of Commons Defence Committee contract in any significant way at this point. • ITAR free
UK/Ireland/Eastern Europe/Israel/Turkey: ’Beyond 2%: A preliminary report on the Modernising Defence The other secure programme is MIV, the decision to rejoin the • Small size, low weight, power and cost
Stephen Barnard, c/o Mittler Report Verlag GmbH Programme (MDP)’ issued on 12 June 2018, noted that: “there BOXER programme to meet the MIV requirement is somewhat • Insensitive to magnetic fields
Phone: +49 228 35 00 886, Email: are serious deficiencies in the quantities of armour, armoured ve- ironic. Back in March 1998, Britain had its Multi-Role Armoured
• Low gyro bias instability (0.3°/h)
hicles and artillery available to the British Army.” The report stated Vehicle (MRAV) requirement; it was participating in the multina-
USA/Canada: that after the 2010 SDSR, the number of CHALLENGER 2 tanks tional BOXER programme to meet that requirement and intended • Low gyro noise (0.15°/√h)
Susan Spilman-Gardner • Excellent performance under vibration and shock
was reduced by 40% and the number of heavy artillery systems to purchase 775 vehicles. Then, in July 2003 Britain cancelled
Phone: +1 817-751-5888
by 35%. Currently, the British Army has 227 CHALLENGER 2 MRAV, after spending some £57M on the programme. Now, • Available in 1, 2 or 3 axes
tanks; in 2010 they had 316. some 15 years later, Britain is back into the BOXER programme • Fully calibrated and customer configurable to the
Russia & CIS: The Defence Committee report mentioned the CHALLENGER 2 and intends to order some 800 vehicles initially and perhaps more
Laguk Co., Yury Laskin, General Director
specific application
Life-Extension Programme (LEP) and also referenced the WAR- subsequently. Admittedly, there is still much work to be done on
Krasnokholmskaya Nab., 11/15, 132, RF-109172 Moskau, Russian Federation RIOR life-extension, a programme with an estimated cost of the BOXER programme in terms of both costs and contracts, but • Weight 55 grams, volume <, power 1.5 W
Phone: 007-495-911-1340, Fax: 007-495-912-1260, Email: £1.3Bn. The report then stated that: “Reports emerging from at this point, unless something absolutely calamitous emerges, this
Subscription/Reader Service: the National Security Capability Review (NSCR)suggested that the should be a guaranteed programme. STIM210 is field proven in Missile systems, Target
PressUp GmbH, Postfach 70 13 11, number of WARRIORs due to be upgraded would be substan- acquisition systems, Airborne surveillance, DIRCM,
22013 Hamburg, Germany tially reduced.” In addition, it was noted that: “The army is procur- Uncertainty Remote Weapon Systems, Launch vehicles, Military
Phone: +49 40 38 66 66-319, Fax: +49 38 66 66-299 ing the next generation of Mechanised Infantry Vehicle (MIV), a
Email: Land navigators and Satellites.
procurement taking place outside of the MDP. We took evidence The WARRIOR CSP programme got underway in June 2009, at
European Security & Defence on this in April (2018) and, at that time, the MoD was not in a which point the aim was to upgrade in excess of 550 vehicles.
© 2018 Mittler Report Verlag GmbH position to provide detailed figures on how much each vehicle Originally, Britain acquired 489 Infantry Section Vehicles (FV510),
would cost. A failure to manage costs could put further strain on 84 Command Vehicles (FV511), 52 Artillery Observation Vehicles
The views expressed are not necessarily those of the editor or publisher. an equipment programme already under enormous pressure.” (FV514), 19 Battery Command Vehicles (FV515), 39 Recovery Vehi-
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced without prior
Rectifying the serious deficiencies in quantities of armour and cles (FV513) and 105 Repair Vehicles (FV512). The current declared
written permission of the publisher in Bonn.
armoured vehicles available to the British Army, as noted above, fleet is 336 FV510/511, 44 FV514, 20 FV513 and 56 FV512. The When size, performance and robustness matter

Cover Photos: US Army, UK MoD, Eurofighter Jagdflugzeuge would appear to be a work in progress. Evidence includes the WARRIOR CSP was awarded to Lockheed Martin in 2011 and up
CHALLENGER 2 LEP, the WARRIOR Capability Sustainment Pro- to 380 vehicles (in five variants) are to be upgraded. •
Annual subscription rate (8 issues):
gramme (CSP), the 589 AJAX armoured vehicles order from The problem with the WARRIOR CSP is that the programme has
€49.80 incl. postage
General Dynamics Land Systems-UK and, as explained in the been running late and over budget. Added to which, structural de-

50 European Security & Defence · 5/2018 5/2018 · European Security & Defence 51

ing to need the firepower and protection both soft-kill and hard-kill formats in the
provided by a tank and for that reason the UK for both tanks and other armoured
LEP programme is vital. It should also be vehicles. In the MEDUSA Technical Assess-
noted that the CHALLENGER 2 LEP will on- ment Programme (TAP), the Defence Sci-
ly be an interim capability and that a new ence and Technology Laboratory (Dstl), is
tank system will be needed from the mid- investigating a number of APS options. As
2030s. This explains British interest in the a part of this, Dstl has awarded QinetiQ a
Franco-German Main Ground Combat Sys- contract to evaluate an APS for armoured
tem (MGCS), but here politics comes into vehicles; this will use the Hensoldt MUSS
play: attempting to join a European tank (Multifunctional Self-Protection System), a
programme might not be an astute politi- soft-kill APS system as used on the Ger-
cal move in domestic British terms at this man Army PUMA IFV. Other industrial
point. Equally, there has been little enthusi- partners in this assessment programme
asm in Paris and Berlin for British participa- include Textron and Frazer-Nash.
tion in the major Franco-German defence Dstl also acquired the Rheinmetall ROSY
programmes that have emerged recently. rapid obscuring system and have tested
Potentially, this could mean that Britain has it on a CHALLENGER 2. They have also
to look for other partners to meet a future acquired elements of the IMI IRON FIST
tank requirement. hard-kill APS for testing on CHALLENGER
Prior to the CHALLENGER 2 LEP, there had 2 as well. In September 2017, Dstl placed
been numerous failed tank upgrade pro- a contract with Leonardo to participate in A German Army BOXER armoured vehicle participating in an anti-tank
The AJAX armoured vehicle prototype on display near the future vehicle grammes in Britain, including the CHAL- the Icarus Technical Demonstration Pro- exercise in Lithuania
assembly site in Merthyr Tydfil, Wales. AJAX will replace the CVR(T). LENGER Lethality Improvement Programme gramme (TDP) to develop a Modular Inte-
(CLIP) and the CHALLENGER 2 Capability grated Protection System (MIPS). Leonardo breed’ commercial off-the-shelf APS sen- Martin UK, Ultra Electronics, Frazer-Nash,
Sustainment Programme (C2 CSP). How- will be responsible for the development of sors and countermeasures to be selected, Vetronics Research Centre, Abstract Solu-
ever, the LEP became a reality, with five an MIPS Electronic Architecture (EA). Ac- integrated and deployed to defeat a wide tions, Roke Manor Research and SCISYS.
teams bidding for the programme that was cording to Dstl, the MIPS EA will: “provide a range of current and future battlefield Dstl is also working on a number of other
aimed at providing what the MoD called a common infrastructure that will deliver UK threats.” Leonardo has listed their industrial APS developments with both domestic and
“precision direct fire manoeuvre capability operational sovereignty and enable ‘best of team for Icarus as: BAE Systems, Lockheed foreign partners.  
across a broad spectrum of operations.”
In December 2016, competitive Assessment
Phase (AP) contracts for the CHALLENGER
2 LEP were awarded to BAE Systems and
Rheinmetall Landsysteme GmbH. Each com-
petitor was provided with two tanks; one of
which was in operational condition, while
19 - 20 SEPTEMBER 2018
the other was to be used for subsystem in-
tegration and testing. The plan is that the
two teams will complete the AP contracts in
December 2018. By that time, industry will
have responded to the invitation to tender
for the Demonstration, Manufacture and In-
DVD2018 will offer the opportunity to join in
service support (DMI) contract, with the DMI
proposals to be evaluated after the AP of- with discussions, engagement and insight at
ferings have been received. After which, by
WARRIOR (FV510) Infantry Section Vehicles with additional protection mid-2019, the CHALLENGER 2 LEP contract THE event for Land Equipment:
provided by the TES(H) configuration in Helmand Province, Afghanistan, should have been awarded.
in 2013. Original planning for the CHALLENGER • Demonstrations of technology
2 LEP called for the programme to cover
ficiencies are reportedly being identified in unit cost per vehicle rising as numbers are re- all 227 remaining CHALLENGER 2 tanks. • Insight into Strike, Specialised Infantry
some WARRIOR vehicles, and this will cause duced. As of November 2017 the MoD had Whether all of these tanks will actually
Group, RLN, Deep operations & C4I systems
further problems. All of this makes the pro- spent £381M on WARRIOR CSP, the possi- go through the LEP process is becoming
gramme vulnerable. WARRIOR CSP is one bility of the MoD deciding to cut its losses on increasingly doubtful. Potentially only 170 • Discussions on 21st Century Manoeuvre
of a number of British programmes whose this programme cannot be ruled out. or even fewer tanks could be upgraded.
size and cost were predicated on the Brit- The other major armour programme is the What the current, accident-prone British • Feedback on equipment to inform future
ish Army adopting a particular operational/ CHALLENGER 2 LEP, and this is also poten- Government will be keen to avoid is an-
organisational structure. The problem is that tially vulnerable on a number of different other procurement-related scandal, and innovation
structure is changeable and not set in stone. fronts; there are those who feel that a tank this is something that should preserve the • Engagement with Year of Engineering and
As a result, the number of systems that is too big and too heavy, and that the Brit- LEP programme, although it cannot pro-
are necessary also changes and usually the ish Army should be a medium-weight and tect the number of tanks to be upgraded. STEM development initiatives
number goes down. In the context of WAR- therefore more easily deployable force. The Outside of these armour programmes,
RIOR CSP, you have a delayed programme opposing view is that, if the British Army there are a number of studies taking place
that still has risk, and the possibility of the is to confront a ‘peer’ competitor, it is go- within Active Protection Systems (APS), in For further information visit

52 European Security & Defence · 5/2018 5/2018 · European Security & Defence 53

Eurofighter TYPHOON –
Who is Next to Join?
Esteban Villarejo Ceballos

With campaigns in Belgium, Malaysia, Poland and Colombia ongoing F-35 LIGHTNING II the "new European
and with Qatar (2017) and Kuwait (2016) having joined Europe's largest fighter".
On 14 February, the UK submitted its fi-
defence programme, Eurofighter may expect additional customers or nal offer to Belgium, in a proposal com-
prising 34 Eurofighter TYPHOON aircraft
new procurement efforts in Germany, Spain and/or Saudi Arabia.
and support services, the British Ministry
of Defence (MoD) announced. The aim
of the competition announced by the

A fter a confident year in 2017 with the

announcement of a new contract with
Qatar and the delivery of the first aircraft to
UK (33%), and Leonardo in Italy (21%) also
rely on old customers. These include the
Royal Saudi Air Force, which recently placed
Belgian Ministry of Defence is to replace
its fleet of 54 F-16AM/F-16BM in the
mid-2020s. Belgium wants deliveries of
the Royal Air Force of Oman, more positive a new order, while opportunities to update successor aircraft to begin by the end of
news for the Eurofighter TYPHOON con- the fleets of German PANAVIA TORNADO 2022 and to be fully operational by 2029.
sortium, whose order backlog has grown and Spanish F-18 aircraft at short notice also The cost of the Belgian programme is es-
to 623 aircraft in nine countries, may come presented themselves. timated at around €3.7Bn.
“It’s an offer that is all about Europe first

Photo: Bundeswehr
rather than America first. We recognise
that it is a straightforward competition
between ourselves and F-35 - a European
versus US solution - and we believe our
advantage lies in being the European so-
lution,” said Anthony Gregory, campaign
director for Belgium at BAE Systems.
In a way, it is paradoxical that the British
BAE system defends the "Euro solution"
in the uncertain times of the Brexit nego-
tiations. For this reason, the British state-
ment underlined: "The proposal has the
full support of the governments of the
four Eurofighter nations Germany, Italy,
Spain and the UK as partners in Europe's
largest joint military aircraft programme.
The new aircraft - whether the Eu-
rofighter TYPHOON or the F-35 - will be
purchased under an intergovernmental
agreement and the Belgian government
EUROFIGHTER pilots of Tactical Air Force Wing 31 "Boelcke" test the Guid- might announce its decision in July, pos-
ed Bomb Unit 48 (GBU-48) at the military training area in Vidsel, Sweden sibly during the NATO summit in Brussels,
on 6 September 2017. Eurofighter sources told ESD.
Along the way, the Boeing F/A-18 SUPER
this year. According to sources close to Here are the main market opportunities HORNET and SAAB GRIPEN decided to
Eurofighter's export campaigns, there are for Eurofighter TYPHOON to sell more air- retire from the tender, while Dassault’s
five or six countries in which the TYPHOON craft in 2018: RAFALE was not mentioned in the last
could be successful in the coming years and statement of the Belgian MoD.
there is a real possibility of adding a new Belgium: the Mother of The proposal from BAE Systems includes
customer in 2018. Belgium, Poland, Ma- All Battles 34 Eurofighter TYPHOON aircraft and
laysia, Canada, Colombia or even Switzer- the associated weapons package, under-
land are the main “battlefields” where the If there is one country where the combat- pinned by the offer of a comprehensive
Eurofighter TYPHOON jet will have to face proven Eurofighter TYPHOON is fight- strategic, defence and industrial partner-
old (F-18, F-16 and RAFALE) and not-so-old ing hard for a deal, it is Belgium. It is a ship between the governments of Bel-
competitors (F-35). country in which the European defence gium and the UK.
In addition to these new markets, Eurofight- and aviation sector is risking its reputa- The UK also offers Belgium the possibil-
er partner companies Airbus DS in Germany tion, while the Trumpist "Make America ity of establishing a National Network
(33%) and Spain (13%), BAE Systems in the great again" is betting on making the Cyber Centre, a Cyber Innovation Centre

54 European Security & Defence · 5/2018

When you absolutely have to get there

Enemy aircraft in
restricted airspace:
The EJ200 engine provides so
much thrust that it can get the
Typhoon from ‘brakes off ‘ to
40,000 feet in under 90 secs.
When it matters most, the EJ200
delivers. The engine‘s advanced
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that can be relied on time and
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Visit us at

Photo: Crown Copyright

and a Cyber Research Partnership, all un- Canada: a Last Movement Switzerland: the Return of an the innovative CAPTOR-E E-SCAN radar.
derpinned by a partnership between the from Airbus Old Opportunity for Airbus Oman: In June 2017, the Sultanate re-
British and Belgian governments. ceived its first Eurofighter TYPHOON. The
Eurofighter also believes that its proposal The Royal Canadian Air Force seeks to In a press talk last December, Fernando contract was signed in 2012 for BAE Sys-
will create between 6,000 and 8,000 new replace its fleet of 77 CF-18 aircraft de- Alonso (Airbus DS) also mentioned Swit- tems to supply 12 TYPHOON for £2.5Bn.
and highly skilled jobs in Belgium over livered between 1982 and 1988. Canada zerland as a novel prospective customer Saudi Arabia: In June 2017, BAE Systems
the life of a 30-year programme. “Over has a strong partnership with the Lock- for the Eurofighter TYPHOON. In May delivered the 72nd and last Eurofighter
25 years, the Eurofighter proposal could heed Martin F-35 programme taking part 2014, Swiss voters had rejected in a refer- TYPHOON to Saudi Arabia. An additional
deliver €19Bn into the Belgian economy, in the Concept Demonstration Phase endum a CHF3.1Bn (€2.8Bn) order for 22 procurement from the Saudi Air Force is
with an additional €6.2Bn from wider (US$10M) and the System Development

Photo: U.S.M.C.
economic multipliers,” said Eurofighter. Phase (US$150M). Eventually, however,
On the other hand, Lockheed Martin is it did not acquire any F-35 LIGHTNING II
offering 35 F-35s for US$6.5Bn: “Lock- aircraft to replace its version of the F-18.
heed Martin and the Belgian military and A recent change in the aerospace industry
industry have a long-standing working has brought the Eurofighter consortium
relationship, partnering on programmes back to the table: Airbus and the Canadian
such as the C-130 HERCULES and F-16 manufacturer Bombardier Aerospace have
FIGHTING FALCON since the 1970s,” said joined forces to build CSeries civil aircraft.
Lockheed Martin. Some military experts see this as an oppor-
The UK, Germany, Italy, Spain and Austria tunity for Airbus to sell the jet fighter. Boe-
are already customers of the Eurofighter ing could also participate in the programme
TYPHOON jet in Europe. At the same with the new F-18: The American company
time, the UK, Italy, The Netherlands, Den- has informed the Canadian government
mark and Norway are the F-35 custom- that it is interested in a new order to supply
ers on the old continent. Interoperability 88 new fighters.
with allies will be another key factor in
the final decision of the Belgian Ministry A Royal Air Force TYPHOON performing an air display at RAF Coningsby. Colombia: a Buy or a Second
of Defence. The TYPHOON provides the RAF with a multirole combat aircraft, capa- Hand Option?
ble of being deployed across the full spectrum of air operations, from
Poland: 50 Soviet-Era Aircraft air policing and to peace support, through to high-intensity conflict. The Colombian Air Force needs to replace
to be Replaced its 19 Israeli-built multirole combat aircraft
€94,3M per unit may be prohibitive for the The Ministry of Defence of Malaysia wants KFIR C-10/C-12/TC-12 in service since 1989.
The Eurofighter consortium declared last Polish MoD; and the Eurofighter TYPHOON, to replace its 18 MiG-29N - nearly half of Bogota has studied different options, includ-
September that Poland should consider the with Italian Leonardo leading the bid. which are grounded. Dassault's RAFALE ing the GRIPEN NG and the F-16 Block 50.
Eurofighter TYPHOON to replace its fleet of Other contenders could be Boeing’s and the Eurofighter TYPHOON offered by The Eurofighter TYPHOON consortium has
32 MiG-29 FULCRUM (air-to-air role) and F/A-18 SUPER HORNET, SAAB’s GRIPEN or BAE Systems are considered the only options also offered its aircraft in a campaign led A Eurofighter TYPHOON with the Spanish Air Force based out of Morón
18 Su-22 FITTER (air-to-ground missions) the cheaper solution of second-hand F-16s. when the Malaysian government finally de- by Airbus in Spain. led by Airbus in Spain. Air Base, Spain, refuels from a KC-130J HERCULES on 13 August 2016.
aircraft, which have been in service for 30 And finally, there is the possibility that the cides to purchase the new fighter aircraft. Fernando Alonso, head of military aircraft
years. “Eurofighter TYPHOON augments "Harpia Programme" may be postponed, BAE Systems will give Malaysia a UK gov- at Airbus DS, said in a recent meeting with GRIPEN fighter jets; 53.4% of the voters always on the table. But nothing is for
existing capabilities and further comple- taking into account other priorities of the ernment-backed financing deal if Malaysia specialised journalists, ESD included, that opposed the contract. Still, the Swiss gov- certain in the Kingdom, especially after
ments a powerful deterrence against any Polish Ministry of Defence, such as new decides to replace its fleet of combat jets Colombia was a potential export customer ernment intends to replace the 30 F/A-18 the recent political changes.
potential threat to Poland’s borders. The submarines, missile artillery systems or with the Eurofighter TYPHOON, a senior for the Eurofighter. At the last Expode- fighter jets; Swiss Defence Minister Guy Austria: The new government will recon-
TYPHOON with the F-16 Block 52+ will be multi-purpose helicopters. “Joining the Eu- company official told Reuters last month. fensa 2017 in December, Airbus displayed Parmelin said he would see no alterna- sider the previous government's decision
a perfect combination,” Raffael Klaschka, rofighter programme would bring new and The competition, worth over US$2Bn, is one the flight simulator for the Eurofighter TY- tive to buying new jets. Airbus (Eurofighter to terminate a €2Bn Eurofighter Jet pro-
head of marketing at Eurofighter GmbH, additional pportunities to Poland – both of the largest fighter aircraft bids in Asia, PHOON in Bogota. TYPHOON), Boeing (F-18), Dassault (RA- gramme prematurely, said new Defence
commented at the MSPO defence exhibi- from a military and economic perspective, although a decision has been delayed due to The choice of a new fighter aircraft was one FALE), Lockheed Martin (F-35) and SAAB Minister Mario Kunasek recently. His prede-
tion in Kielce, Poland. The Polish Ministry of with a number of possible options in scope, the forthcoming national elections in June of the main subjects of debate. (GRIPEN) are again the known options. cessor Hans Peter Doskozil started an un-
Defence announced two months later the from assembly and manufacturing to sup- and a shift in focus on improving air surveil- “However there is an intermediate option,” The decision should be taken in 2020 and precedented legal dispute with Airbus and
launch of the “Harpia programme” to pro- port and maintenance. And, of course, lance capacity in Malaysia. “We have an of- a Colombian military source told ESD, “the the new fleet of fighters should be fully the consortium a year ago, accusing them of
cure a new multirole combat aircraft. Poland would play a role in the definition fer on the table. It’s competitively priced and second-hand Eurofighter option.” This deal operational in 2030. fraud and malicious deception in connection
The operational requirement for this pro- of any future development of the aircraft, we have offered UK government financing would involve the Spanish Air Force, which with a US$2Bn Eurofighter order in 2003. It
gramme is defined as “enhancing the ca- which will continue to be in service well so the Malaysian government can spread could sell Eurofighter Tranche 2 to their Brief Comments on … seems that Airbus and Austria are approach-
pability to carry out missions within the beyond 2050. We take Polonisation needs the payment over a longer period,” said Colombian colleagues in a government-to- ing an understanding of the matter.
framework of offensive and defensive com- seriously, and would make it a guideline for Alan Garwood, the Group Business Devel- government agreement. Qatar: Last December, Qatar and BAE Sys- Spain and Germany: Airbus CEO Tom
bat against the enemy air power, as well as our engagement,” the head of marketing opment Director for BAE Systems, in an in- “The deal could include logistic and training tems signed a contract for the supply Enders said on 15 February that further
missions to support land, naval and special at Eurofighter said. terview with Reuters in Kuala Lumpur. “We support, some weapons and the integration of 24 Eurofighter TYPHOON aircraft in a Eurofighter orders, both from new export
operations Multi-Role Combat Aircraft and can offer training, local partnership and lots of the METEOR air-to-air missile,” the same £6Bn deal, making Qatar the ninth customers and "repeat orders” may be
Airborne Electronic Jamming Capabilities”. of jobs,” he added. sources said. customer. Deliveries are expected to begin available soon. It is known that the German
Malaysia: a Great Oppor-
Still in a primary phase of “market analysis”, Financing would be provided via the UK Ex- This deal would allow the Spanish govern- in late 2022. and Spanish air forces will have to replace
the Polish MoD sees three main options to
tunity in Asia-Pacific port Finance export credit agency. ment to order new Eurofighter aircraft Kuwait: Last year, production started on their 88 Panavia TORNADO and 85 F-18s
replace its Soviet-era aircrafts: the F-16V After setbacks in India and South Korea, Malaysia is also a customer of the Eu- (Tranche 3). A package of 14 units was can- the Eurofighter TYPHOON for Kuwait. The in the next 3-5 years. "The Eurofighter
(Lockheed Martin) which includes an active the Eurofighter lacks a customer base in ropean aeronautic industry, with four celled by the Spanish government in 2013 due contract for €8Bn between Leonardo and (Tranche 3) is the most likely choice to re-
electronically scanned array (AESA) radar; the Asia-Pacific region, but Malaysia offers Airbus A400M transport aircraft already to budgetary constraints. Perhaps it would be Kuwait was signed in 2016 to supply 28 Eu- place these old fighters," the Spanish Min-
the F-35 LIGHTNING II although the cost of a great opportunity to win back customers. delivered. an opportunity to resume this initiative. rofighter TYPHOONs; this version will have istry of Defense disclosed to ESD.  L

56 European Security & Defence · 5/2018 5/2018 · European Security & Defence 57

Combat Aircraft Cockpit

Photos: Saab
the event of hostile jamming, and is part of
the NIFC-CA (Naval Integrated Fire Control
– Counter-Air) system. All data provided by

Developments Gain Momentum different sensors and networks are pooled

together, presented, managed and distrib-
uted by the crew through the highly in-
tegrated Advanced Cockpit System (ACS).
Luca Peruzzi Developed by Boeing, the completely re-
designed cockpit architecture is based on
a new Elbit Systems of America 10x19-inch
The amount of information and situational awareness needed in today's air combat operations, as well touchscreen high-definition large area dis-
as the energy requirements and data processing capabilities imposed by the new generation of sensors play (LAD), which replaces the existing mul-
tifunction displays alongside a new low-
and mission systems, require new cockpit architectures and core mission subsystems. profile HUD and the Joint Helmet Mounted
Cueing System (JHMCS) supplied by Rock-
well Collins ESA Vision Systems (RCEVS), a

T o improve the human–machine inter-

face (HMI) and reduce pilot workload
while facilitating target search and en-
are looking into new cockpit architectures,
including large area displays (LAD) and hel-
met displays (HMD) with or without new
US Platforms
The US Navy’s latest Block III F/A-18 E/F
joint venture between Rockwell Collins and
Elbit Systems of America. The ACS provides
increased situational awareness, 3D target
gagement cycle, both upgrades and new low-profile head-up displays (HUDs), which SUPER HORNET and upgrade programme tracking for the effective coordination of
production combat aircraft programmes further improve flight safety. for Boeing aircraft currently in service will long-range attacks, fault tolerance/built-in Cockpits of a Saab GRIPEN E (left) and the new GRIPEN E/F.
incorporate new sensors and networks to redundancy and scope for future growth.
Photo: UK MoD

operate together with the Lockheed Martin The first version of the Block III will go into maiden flight birthday and will receive new the latest mission requirements as the US
F-35 LIGHTNING II stealth platform. Work- series production delivery in early 2021, capabilities. US and foreign customers of is upgrading its USAF and Air National
ing in unison with the E-2D ADVANCED while the modernisation of in-service Block the EAGLE and STRIKE EAGLE versions F-15C and F-15E fleets to keep the platform
HAWKEYE early warning, command and II will begin in 2022. The deployment of have sought to improve the capabilities and in service until 2040 and beyond. The lat-
control and Boeing EA-18G GROWLER EW Block III aircraft is planned for 2022, and extend the service life of these platforms. est mission system update is based on the
aircraft platforms, the latest Block III version production will run until 2025. Boeing has worked in both directions to advanced Suite 9 hardware and software
will be able to engage both airborne and The Boeing F-15 is approaching its 50th introduce new onboard systems to meet package including the new Advanced Dis-
ground targets spotted by stealthy F-35Cs
scouting ahead into hostile airspace. In ad-
dition to structural improvements to extend
its service life to 9,000 hours, conformal
fuel tanks to increase its range, speed and
available wing hardpoints (for additional
ordnance), as well as a reduced aircraft ra-
dar signature, the Block III version will fea-
ture a new mission system centred on the
Distributed Targeting Processor-Network
(DTP-N) computer, the Rockwell Collins-
provided Tactical Targeting Network Tech-
Panoramic display in the cockpit of an F-35 II LIGHTNING nology (TTNT) and the Advanced Cockpit
System (ACS), in addition to new sensors
Photo: RCVES

and updated satellite communications.

Together with Raytheon’s APG-79 AESA
radar and an improved defensive coun-
termeasures system based on Raytheon’s
ALR-67(V)3 RWR and BAE Systems’ ALQ-
214(V)3 Integrated Defensive Electronic
Countermeasures suite, the Block III will
be equipped with Lockheed Martin’s Infra-
Red Search and Tracking Block II, enabling


passive triangulated airborne engagement
through the new onboard mission system.
By boosting the computing capability of the
current SUPER HORNET mission computer
(Block II) seventeenfold and processing all EXCELLENT PERFORMANCE
data on board the aircraft using an open
architecture that is amenable to future up-
grades, the DTP-N receives, processes and As a partner to the Eurofighter Typhoon, Diehl Aviation provides cutting-edge technology.
distributes data over the TTNT network,
which is also used on the EA-18G and E-2D • Multifunctional Head Down Display • Stick Sensor & Interface Control Assembly
The F-35 Gen III HMD system allows the pilot to “see through the plane” platforms. The TTNT enables the fast trans- • Flight Control Computer • Landing Gear Computer
by providing a 360° view. mission of large amounts of data, even in • Enhanced Lighting Controller • Fuel Computer

58 European Security & Defence · 5/2018


Photo: BAE Systems

with operational needs. Qatar is the first new panoramic cockpit display will have
customer for this option; Qatar will receive the same dimensions as the current Large
its F-15QAs (QATAR ADVANCED) together Area Avionics Display (LAAD) provided by
with an extended weapon package. L3; the display will have a size of 20x18
The 5th-generation F-35 LIGHTNING II be- inches overall, divided electronically into
came the first combat aircraft to feature two 10x8-inch side-by-side screen ele-
a cockpit layout centred on a 20x8-inch ments, said Lockheed Martin, which plans
LAD produced by L3 Aviation Products to finalise the display design in late 2018.
and a Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) Harris will provide the new Aircraft Mem-
system produced by RCEVS. These two ory System (AMS) and Panoramic Cockpit
systems provide all the mission and flight Display Electronic Unit (PCD EU), which
Photo: BAE Systems

information, which is a huge advantage are based on an open architecture and

compared to previous generation cockpits commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technol-
based on multiple multifunction displays ogy. The solid-state mass storage AMS is
and HUDs. By using Northrop Grumman’s an essential element of the F-35 avionics
In addition to providing flexible weapons cueing during both night and electro-optical Distributed Aperture Sys- suite, as it is the repository for avionics op-
day, BAE Systems’ new STRIKER II digital day/night binocular HMD pro- tem (DAS) integrated into the skin of the erational flight programmes, mission and
vides target tracking and 3D audio. stealth platform, the RCEVS F-35 Gen theatre data, prognostics and health data,
III HMD system allows the pilot to “see audio, display video, and aircraft paramet-
Photo:: Dassault Aviation

through the plane” by providing a 360° ric data. The PCD EU provides processing
view. This advanced interface features for the new panoramic head-down dis-
a biocular 40x30° field-of-view, high- play in the cockpit. The current technol- BAE Systems’ wide-field-of-view LiteHUD in a TYPHOON cockpit
brightness and high-resolution display, ogy development phase will be followed
with integrated night digital vision, pro- by a system qualification phase in early Elbit Systems’ Brazilian subsidiary, the avion- partner nations, a rash of sales in the Mid-
viding the pilot with accurate and readable 2019 and a subsequent 5-year production ics specialist AEL Sistemas, as partner in the dle East to Oman, Kuwait and Qatar, and
information in the virtual HUD and signifi- contract phase. technology transfer agreement to provide Saudi Arabia’s commitment for additional
cantly expanding situational awareness. the Wide Area Display (WAD), Head-Up aircraft, the Eurofighter TYPHOON pro-
Combined with low latency, the F-35 Gen European Platforms Display (HUD) and the TARGO HMD, which gramme is regaining momentum. Among
III HMDS delivers mission critical informa- will be integrated into the GRIPEN NG (as the consortium’s partner customers, the
tion through its intelligent pilot interface. Sweden and Brazil have contracted Saab Brazil calls the new platform) as part of the UK is today leading the aircraft’s evolu-
However, the development of threats to to develop and deliver the latest version Brazilian F-X2 programme. Being the core tion with the national “Project Centuri-
be faced by 2025 and beyond requires the of the GRIPEN multirole fighter (GRIPEN element of the cockpit arrangement, the on” which is based on the four partners’
US MoD and Lockheed Martin to intro- E/F), the airframe, systems and avionics Wide Area Display is a single intelligent platform evolution roadmap and on in-
duce capability improvements, including suite of which are completely new. The and fully redundant, full-colour,large (19x8 crementally phased enhancements (PE)
the integration of additional weapons next generation GRIPEN programme aims inches) multipurpose display system, with to which the aircraft is subjected and
and upgrades to the electronic warfare to build a long-term strategic relation- continuous image presentation and cutting- which respond to customer and poten-
system, datalink systems, radar and other ship between the two nations, industries edge touch-screen controls. It is the primary tial user requirements. The UK's “Project
sensors. An essential element of the F-35 and air forces, with technology transfer source of all flight and mission information Centurion” will allow the retirement of the
avionics upgrade is the Technical Refresh agreements, local co-design, develop- in the cockpit. While the WAD and its HMI TORNADO in 2018, and it provides the
The new RAFALE has a well-thought-through cockpit with a modern HMI 3 (TR3) hardware upgrade programme. ment and assembly, which includes the represent a huge enhancement in cockpit TYPHOON with a number of enhance-
and larger side touchscreens. Being developed to fully support Block 3F Brazilian avionics specialists AEL Sistemas and mission management, with all the rel- ments including the integration of MBDA’s
functionality and to allow incorporation to supply the cockpit’s main interaction evant information provided in a single large STORM SHADOW stand-off cruise missile
play Core Processor (ADCP) II computer, es a completely new Advanced Crew Sta- of all Block 4 capabilities documented in technologies. The latter are centred on screen, the HUD and HMD are contributing and the METEOR beyond-visual-range air-
which is claimed to be the fastest flight tion (ACS), features even more advanced the System Requirements Document LAD and have become cockpit options to achieving safety, immediate situational to-air missile (BVRAAM) (under P2E inter-
mission system available; it is capable of innovations, such as a Digital EW System (SRD), TR3 hardware redesign is required for potential customers of the Gripen E/F. awareness and combat capabilities. The national efforts), in addition to MBDA’s
processing up to 87 billion instructions per (DEWS), Lockheed Martin’s SNIPER pod, to support the required fourfold increase The new aircraft’s avionics suite is based new TARGO HMD will provide night cue- Dual-Mode Seeker (DMS) BRIMSTONE
second. The new suite opens up advanced IRST, the digital Joint Helmet Mounted in processing power, based on current es- on an innovative, scalable and hard- ing and display capabilities. The Swedish Air (under the follow-on international phase
capabilities that will be common to both Cueing System (JHMCS), a digital fly-by- timates for all 3F capabilities. It features ware-independent architecture concept Force’s future GRIPEN E aircraft are currently 3E). The UK MoD and other TYPHOON
EAGLE versions, including the EAGLE Pas- wire and two additional hardpoints. A key an improved integrated core processor, an known as DIMA (Distributed Integrated configured for a three-screen display system operators are also working to ensure that
sive/Active Warning and Survivability Sys- option for the ADVANCED EAGLE is the improved panoramic cockpit display, and Modular Avionics) which segregates while having selected AEL Sistemas, TARGO the TYPHOON can operate in conjunction
tem (EPAWSS) upgrade, which will allow new ACS with a Large Area Display (LAD), a a more capable aircraft memory system. flight-critical functions from non-critical HMD. The GRIPEN E is equipped with Leon- with the F-35 to maximise the benefits of
the platform to cooperate closely with the low-profile HUD and the ADCP II. Centred In June 2017, Lockheed Martin Aeronaut- applications. The new architecture, certi- ardo’s sensors suite including the Raven ES both platforms. Both the Eurofighter and
F-22 and the F-35. The upgrade package on a decoupled LAD for the front and rear ics contracted Elbit Systems of America to fied to commercial standards, not only AESA radar, which features an innovative the Euroradar consortiums are committed
also includes AESA radars, conformal fuel cockpits and developed by Elbit Systems develop a panoramic cockpit display unit enables Saab to speed up the pace of roll-repositionable AESA antenna offer- to provide TYPHOON with the E-Scan or
tanks (National Guard), Lockheed Martin’s as part of what was previously known as to replace the fighter’s current L3 Avia- initial development, but also shortens the ing superior situational awareness, a SKY- the Captor-E active-electronically scanned
IRST21-equipped LEGION pod to operate CockpitNG (Next Generation), the LAD re- tion Products cockpit display. In the same time required for new capabilities and WARD-G IRST passive sensor and a phased array (AESA) radar, which will see initial ca-
in radar-denied environments and poten- places the previous multifunction displays month, Lockheed Martin contracted Har- weapon integration. array IFF system, integrated with Saab's pability phase-in on Kuwait’s TYPHOONs
tially a new gateway system (Talon HATE) with a single, large, touchscreen, high-def- ris to improve the F-35’s data storage, dis- The GRIPEN E introduced a new generation new-generation MFS-EW (Multi Functional manufactured on Leonardo’s assembly
for communications between the EAGLE inition, colour display, which provides the play processing and throughput capabili- cockpit architecture which, together with System) suite, which is based on the AREXIS line from 2020 on. All these enhance-
and 5th-generation aircraft, in addition to crew with the primary flight information ties. The TR3 avionics upgrade is part of a new set of state-of-the-art sensors and EW product family and a communication ments require new software and HMI
new weapons systems, such as the Small and sensor data. According to Boeing, the the F-35 Block 4 enhancing package. It will weapon systems, significantly enhances the package. The latter includes both Link 16 developments. According to Eurofighter,
Diameter Bomb II. The ADVANCED EAGLE LAD uses latest-generation smartphone be added during the Block 4.2 increment situational awareness and net-centric and or a customer-specified data link and Saab's the TYPHOON is at the forefront of sensor
programme for the export market, which is technology and allows the pilot to select in order to incorporate a number of up- combat capabilities of the new multirole intra-formation data exchange system. fusion and decision-making technology,
based on the US upgrade but also introduc- and expand the display information to cope graded sensors and other capabilities. The fighter. The Swedish company has selected With the renewed commitment of the with the cockpit centred around large,

60 European Security & Defence · 5/2018 5/2018 · European Security & Defence 61

colour multifunction displays, wide field- investigating potential enhancements such supplement the current Link 16 in addition
of-view HUDs, BAE Systems’ STRIKER in- as a new cockpit layout and an enhanced to a modified avionics system, and civilian
tegrated helmet-mounted display, HOTAS avionics structure. At DSEI 2017, BAE Systems and SYRACUSE IV military SATCOM.
and direct voice input (DVI). The current declared that they are studying a series of TY- The RBE2 AESA radar will benefit from
cockpit configuration has so far proven PHOON cockpit upgrade concepts centred new air-to-ground modes and the Thales/
itself under combat and operational con- on a large-area touchscreen display and ex- MBDA SPECTRA EW suite will feature ex-
ditions and can handle the current and ploring the potential of augmented reality us- tended frequency band coverage and im-
planned short-term enhancements with ing its STRIKER II HMD. Replacing the current proved emitter geolocation capabilities.
further refinements. Over time, however, three-multifunction-display (MFD) cockpit Both systems will also be equipped with
the existing cockpit configuration will reach with a single large touchscreen would greatly gallium nitride (GaN) technology, while the
its limits in terms of the amount of informa- facilitate the necessary sensor fusion with the RAFALE Front Sector Optronics (FSO) will
tion a pilot can handle. new sensor such as the AESA radar and the receive a new generation of IRST optimised
new generation of targeting pods that will for air-to-air engagements. Due to the well
Photo: UK MoD
be introduced on the aircraft and whose ad- thought-out and balanced environment
ditional data will be available to the pilot. and the modern HMI, the cockpit is expect-
Moreover, the LADs are significantly cheap- ed to receive new, larger side touchscreens
er to produce, maintain and lighter than and see various other adjustments.
current MFDs. BAE Systems has already set The innovation is to close an operational
up a TYPHOON cockpit demonstrator with gap by introducing HMD. It has been re-
a LAD, and Airbus is pursuing a similar ef- ported that the specifications for the new
fort. In the cockpit configuration envisaged devices are compatible with the systems of
by BAE Systems, the company’s STRIKER various providers. In January 2017, routes
II HMD system would augment the LAD. were flown with an HMD on export air-
BAE Systems is also developing a portable craft, similar to the Elbit Systems TARGO
cockpit technology based on the STRIKER II system, but no official explanation was
II HMD, which projects augmented and vir- published. Meanwhile, in March 2018, the
tual reality interactive cockpit displays and French MoD officially launched the "Man-
controls directly in front of the pilot's eye, re- Machine-Teaming" preliminary advanced
placing the current physical cockpit layouts. study programme (PEA MMT) for the devel-
BAE Systems has also successfully devel- opment of artificial intelligence technologies
oped a new HUD family, which has been for combat aircraft after 2025.
already selected for the Turkish HURKUS B The PEA MMT was awarded in December
trainer, the SCORPION light attack aircraft, 2017 to Dassault Aviation as the leading
the AC-130J gunship and BAE Systems’ AD- company for the air combat system and
VANCED HAWK concept demonstrator, in Thales as a co-contractor with regard to
addition to three other undisclosed plat- the man-machine interface and sensor
forms. The LiteHUD is a small and compact and aims, among other things, to develop
HUD that offers space and weight advan- artificial intelligence technologies in the
tages combined with the latest digital dis- following areas: definition of an intelligent
Cockpit of an RAF TYPHOON play technology, revolutionary waveguide cockpit and HMI, introduction of a "virtual
optics and highly reliable electronics. assistant", application of innovative tech-
The Eurofighter consortium is working with In March 2017, the French MoD approved nologies in the field of human/machine
the partner nations to complete a Phase 4 En- the start of development of the new Das- teaming within the cognitive air system,
hancement (P4E) and to prepare the subse- sault Aviation RAFALE F4 standard. Con- in particular with regard to decision au-
quent P5E packages. Potential candidates are tinuous development processes are to draft tonomy and machine learning, and the
new weapons and dual-carriage common standards to adapt the aircraft to new re- development of technologies for smart/
weapon launchers, conformal fuel tanks, a quirements; the F4 standard series RAFALEs learning sensors in addition to mainte-
new laser targeting pod, an E-Scan radar, are to enter into service from 2025, but nance and logistical support.
satellite communications, enhanced data some standard equipment or capabilities With a budget of €30M, around 30% of
links suite and BAE Systems’ new-generation are expected to be added to the inventory these funds will be earmarked for the crea-
STRIKER II digital day/night HMD. The latter in advance thanks to a building block ap- tion of an ecosystem of some 200 French
builds on the success of the original STRIKER proach based on software upgrades. The start-ups, SMEs and research centres spe-
helmet, which is in service in eight nations F4 standard is based on new-generation cialising in artificial intelligence, robotics and
with decades of proven combat experience. networking equipment and capabilities, human-machine interfaces. Dassault and
The fully digital colour day/night binocular sensors and weapon system enhancement Thales have already defined the research
STRIKER II HMD system provides enhanced or new versions, cockpit evolution and pre- topics and will award R&D contracts for
situational awareness, target tracking and 3D dictive support/availability. 12–18 months until about October, which
audio, in addition to flexible weapons cue- The F4 standard provides for the integra- will be repeated over the same period in
ing night and day, thanks to an integrated tion of new Thales CONTACT software- 2019 as part of a three-year overall pro-
night vision camera which removes perfor- defined radios, which are to be tested for gramme. It is expected that the PEA MMT
mance and pilot ejection limitations with RAFALE as early as in 2020, as well as a will influence the successor of RAFALE to
existing night vision goggles. What is more, new point-to-point, directional, discrete F4 standards and may be retrofitted for the
Eurofighter is looking beyond the P5E with data link for communication and data con- fighter aircraft, in addition to new combat
the long-term evolution (LTE) initiative study, nection only between RAFALEs, which will aviation programmes.  L

62 European Security & Defence · 5/2018


“Our goal is clear: To protect our

territories, people and forces.”

Interview with Yunus Emre Karaosmanoğlu,

Deputy Undersecretary of the Ministry of National Defense,
Republic of Turkey

gone through important changes in recent 2018, a key phase was completed. As a con-
years. Particularly since 2014, we have been sequence, another 2,000 square kilometres
facing unprecedented challenges from were cleared of these terrorists. Both opera-
many directions. These challenges emerge tions created a 500-kilometre-long terror-
in different forms and sometimes reach free border line between Turkey and Syria.
the level of risk or threat. Whether con- Despite these national operational engage-
Photo: MoD Turkey

ventional, asymmetric or hybrid, these risks ments, Turkey spares no effort to contrib-
and threats need to be properly addressed. ute to various NATO, UN, and EU opera-
Our goal is clear: To protect our territories, tions and missions. In this regard, to name
people and forces. but a few, Turkey takes part in NATO’s
Therefore, improved readiness and respon- missions in Afghanistan and Kosovo (RSM
ESD: In many Western countries, the siveness, both at national level as well as and KFOR), maritime operations (NATO’s
changed security situation in Europe has in NATO, are key to overcome the current Operation Sea Guardian and Counterpiracy
prompted governments to provide ad- challenges. We are now working nationally Operation CTF-151), EU’s operation in Bos-
ditional resources for defence and arma- and with our Allies to bolster our defences nia and Herzegovina (Operation ALTHEA),
ments. To what extent and in what way has to deter potential aggressors and protect and the UN's UNIFIL Mission in Lebanon.
this trend affected things in your country? our people from the threats emanating Due to the unstable international and re-
Karaosmanoğlu: We are located in a from multiple sources and directions. gional security environment briefly depict-
unique geographical region which is full of All these factors necessitate increased ed above, Turkey had already increased its
difficult challenges. These challenges are defence expenditure and sufficient capa- defence spending in recent years. Turkey
not only limited to various terrorist threats bilities. Back in 2014, Allied leaders com- allocated 1.46% and 1.56% of its GDP to
originating from Syria and Iraq but also mitted themselves to the Defence Invest- defence expenditures, respectively in 2016
include other challenges such as irregular ment Pledge at NATO’s Wales Summit, and 2017. In comparison to 2017, the 2018
mass migration, foreign terrorist fighters, and work is now underway to fulfil the Budget of the Ministry of National Defence
drug trafficking and a great number of in- commitments. increased at a rate of around 40%. Con-
ternally displaced people who are in need In fact, the security environment around sequently, the expected share of defence
of humanitarian assistance. Turkey had already compelled us to take expenditures in GDP for 2018 has risen to
I would like to stress the undisputable fact necessary measures at the national level. In- 1.77%. These figures reaffirm Turkey’s de-
that these terrorist organisations, against stability and conflicts in Syria and Iraq have termination to meet the 2% criterion by
which Turkey has been fighting for several had direct implications for our security and 2024. In the meantime, Turkey has already
decades, also pose a clear and significant prosperity, in the form of increased terror- been well above the 20% threshold of
threat to the security of many other coun- ist threat as well as more than 3.5 million spending in the major equipment systems
tries in Europe. refugees. In fact, Turkey is the Ally who has at a ratio of 31.55% in 2018.
As such and unlike any other European suffered most from the scourge of terrorism. Turkey’s determination to protect her
country, Turkey is a NATO ally that shares In response, last year we successfully con- people and territories remains firm. Thus,
land and sea borders with the crisis regions. ducted the Operation Euphrates Shield we will continue to invest more in our
The Turkish Armed Forces are responsible (OES) against Daesh and cleared an area of defences to accomplish this clearly stated
for securing and controlling the borders in over 2,000 square kilometres from Daesh goal.
this volatile region which affects the secu- terrorists. More than 2,600 terrorists were
rity of Europe as well. neutralised. Unfortunately, Daesh is not the ESD: What are the most important arma-
Against this backdrop, Turkey has been only terrorist organisation along NATO’s ment programmes in your country, both
increasing funds devoted to defence and southeastern borders. PKK/PYD/YPG ter- current and forthcoming?
armaments in order to tackle the afore- rorist elements were also intensifying their Karaosmanoğlu: We attach great impor-
mentioned challenges. In this regard, attacks against Turkey. Therefore, in Janu- tance to the design, development and man-
some taxes and levies have already been in- ary 2018, Turkey launched Operation Olive ufacture of indigenous defence systems.
creased. Additional spending is planned to Branch (OOB) against both PKK/PYD/YPG Through a strong defence industry, Turkey
be allocated for major equipment systems, and Daesh in Syria in accordance with inter- has embarked upon a number of projects
including modernisation and ammunition. national law and our right to self-defence. and programmes. Here below are some
The international security environment has With the liberation of Afrin city on 18 March examples:

5/2018 · European Security & Defence 63


• ATAK Helicopter Gunship, taken with the UK. Furthermore, Turkey of Turkey's critical role. Turkey’s role in
• ALTAY Main Battle Tank, is taking part in multinational initiatives Europe, therefore, cannot be overstated.
• Heavy Lift Helicopter, with our Allies, such as A400M and F-35 This reality needs to be recognised, in-
• MPT-76 indigenous modern infantry rifle, JSF projects as well. Hence our Allies are cluding in the context of the EU’s efforts
• SAMUR mobile amphibious assault playing a key role in our capability devel- to contribute to European security and
bridge, opment efforts. Taking this opportunity, defence.
• Multi-Purpose Amphibious Assault Ship I would like to express our gratitude to The EU should engage Turkey as a non-
(LHD), all Allies that are in close and effective EU NATO Ally in its security and defence-
• "İ" class Frigate, cooperation with Turkey in supporting related efforts, including EDF and PESCO.
• TF-2000 class Anti Air Warfare Destroyer, our capability development efforts. So far, the EU’s efforts have been carried
• F-35 JSF, forward in a largely closed manner that
• TFX Fighter Jet, ESD: In what way do you intend to con- excludes non-EU Allies. Some of these
• A-400M, sider the PESCO concept? initiatives are still at an early stage, but
• Stand-Off Munitions (SOM), Karaosmanoğlu: Turkey’s defence and they must not become new barriers to us.
• ANKA MALE Class UAV, security is directly linked to that of Eu- An inclusive and transparent approach
• Tactical and mini UAVs. rope. Our support to the EU’s Common is needed. Pursuing such an approach
Security and Defence Policy from the would also be consistent with and under-
ESD: Which of these are carried out in very outset is an expression of this real- pin the large-scale defence cooperation
international partnerships, and who are ity. Whether some EU members deny it or projects underway between Turkey and
your partners? not, Turkey is an integral part of Europe’s several allies which are also EU-member
Karaosmanoğlu: We are cooperat- security and defence both by virtue of our countries.
ing with our Allies in many projects. geostrategic position and our advanced We would like to see that the EU’s efforts
To name just a few, on air and missile capabilities. are carried forward in a complementary
defence systems we are working with Turkey's efforts to combat terrorism, our manner with NATO. The EU should avoid
France and Italy. Discussions are under- efforts to prevent foreign terrorists, our duplicating the efforts of NATO, which
way with the US for the PATRIOT system. role as a country that prevents the addi- are essential for overall security and de-
On the Multi-Purpose Amphibious As- tional influx of migrants into Europe, and fence in the whole Euro-Atlantic region.
sault Ship Project cooperation contin- our flanking position in the face of the
ues with Spain. On the TFX Fighter Jet many challenges posed by state and non- The interview was conducted by
Project many important steps have been state actors need no further explanation Peter Boßdorf



64 European Security & Defence · 5/2018


After India's Withdrawal:

What is Happening with the Su-57?
Georg Mader

Alongside the US and China, only post-Soviet Russia has succeeded in developing a stealth-optimised
fifth-generation fighter aircraft. However, the T-50 project launched in 2010 – now called Su-57 –
has recently suffered a major setback.

Photo: Sukhoi

or the time being, India is obviously

withdrawing from the programme, in-
cluding its billions of programme share. In
ten years, India fears, the aircraft will not
yet be technically mature and there will be
too many unfinished subsystems, excessive
costs for too few "Made in India" prod-
ucts and – in view of 12 missing squad-
rons – probably too low a sales volume.
But Su-57 is far from being completed and
the programme needs Indian resources to
get there. The question now arises as to
whether Russia will be able to carry out
such a large programme on its own, both
technologically and financially, and thus be
prepared for significant series production,
even if only at a frozen standard.
In April, the local Indian IHS Jane's corre-
spondent R. Behdi wrote that India as a
long-term programme partner will with-
draw from the FGFA (Fifth Generation Fourth prototype of the Su-57
Fighter Aircraft) programme, as the Na-
tional Security Advisor Ajit Doval and De- launched LCA TEJAS Mk.1A whose carrier cross-section (RCS) or the degree of cam-
fence Secretary Sanjay Mitra already com- version was rejected as inadequate by the ouflage in the general design of the Su-
municated in February to a Russian delega- Indian Navy has been under development 57 no longer meets current requirements.
tion. After 11 years of cooperation, India, for about 30 years. The same holds true for New findings in the areas of materials, de-
which has a development share of €330M, the BAE HAWK: 22 years passed before the sign, manufacturing techniques, tracking
does not want to invest more money in the beginning of local production. technologies and computing power are
unfinished system, even if Russia provides creating new solutions that must be con-
another billion dollars. Russia has been re- Technically Unfeasible stantly integrated, because otherwise the
fusing to share blueprints and source codes formerly intended effect would be greatly
indispensable for the production in India. Nevertheless, Indian sources claim that diminished, as history has shown for all
With these resources, India would be bet- the production version of the ‘super- weapons. In view of all this, it would be
ter off developing its own stealth jet AM- cruise’ (supersonic without afterburner) surprising if the Russians could manage the
CA. This may be the case, but this is where engine AGGREGATE 30 had not made its development on their own. Conceptually,
the question has to be asked: By when? maiden flight until last December, or that the Indians had no say in the basic design
After all, Indian development or procure- the three-part AESA radar located in the anyway, since their 40 or 50 changes from
ment processes can certainly be called aircraft nose (X-band) and leading edge T-50 to FGFA would have mostly affected
‘Byzantine’, and they may take decades. structures (L-band) is not expected before subsystems, communication/data link,
Here are just two examples: The recently 2020. Over the years, India cut the num- software or weapons. At least that was the
ber of jets ordered from 214 down to 127, state of knowledge at the end of 2016,
Au th o r as the IAF’s repeated demand of a two- when the press releases conveyed consider-
seater for complex missions was “more or ably more optimism. For example, Mikhail
Georg Mader is a defence corre- less ignored by the Russians”, an Indian Pogosjan, the former head of Sukhoi and
spondent and freelance aerospace Navy test pilot said. India does not need a OAK, stated publicly that 800 aircraft
journalist based in Vienna, Austria, PAK FA (Перспективный авиационный would be a realistic production number for
and a regular contributor to ESD. комплекс фронтовой авиации) nor the both countries plus exports. Meanwhile,
F-22 and F-35. What is worse, the radar there are also enough new reasons, such

5/2018 · European Security & Defence 65


as concerns about the US Government's With regard to the achievable RCS, it was The Indians obviously agree. A few years sian fighter industry in the 1990s. Today, it mobile parts and a fully electronic FADEC No Unlimited Funds
sanctions against Russian arms suppliers, rumoured early on in India that the Russian ago, the author was a keynote speaker at is obvious that India is buying its weapon control. Furthermore, Sergei Bogdan men-
which have convinced decision-makers at side – similar to the Chinese J-20, whose the Aero India Seminar in Bangalore, at- systems increasingly in the US, as indicated tioned very innovative solutions, like the Unlike China, Russia has limited funding
several levels. relatively rapid development is closely ob- tended by HAL and the IAF. In the course by India’s recent purchase of the C-17, P-8, new modular avionics network ИМА БК opportunities for several simultaneous ar-
served by India – prefers a low detectability of this seminar, he realised that the Indians AH-64 or C-130J. However, India's with- with a code of four million lines, multi-core maments programmes (submarines, battle
India’s Loophole to high-frequency radars (3 to 30 GHz) at much prefer a stealth approach that cov- drawal from the FGFA programme does not multiprocessors and fibre-optic capacities tanks, nuclear weapons, space travel). The
the front. ers the entire plane, since the Indians want automatically mean that the only alterna- of 8 Gbps versus 100 Mbps of its predeces- question therefore arises as to what priori-
In regard to the FGFA programme, India The defence doctrine for own airspace or to carry out an offensive attack within de- tive would be an Indian F-35 JSF. When it sor BAGAT launched in 2004 and devel- ties the Russian Air Force VKS sets and what
wants to keep a loophole, at least for the bases against air attackers – especially the fended enemy (mostly Chinese or Pakistani) comes to combat aircraft, India’s MoD and oped for the Su-35. Last year, an intelligent proportion of the funding the project will re-
foreseeable future. In order to save both F-22 with the BVR dual K-77/AIM-120D mis- airspace in order to destroy priority targets the IAF want full-scale modernisation and monitoring system was launched, which, ceive. It is worth mentioning once again that
sides' faces, the Indian partner confirmed in sile – considers the low detectibility in front on the ground. At least at this point, there adaptation authority over the entire lifespan like a ‘living organism’, is designed by the the Su-57 was not designed to stay above
its announcement that India would recon- as a priority, because in this way – with is a difference between the Indian and Rus- of the product, and this would mean getting structure-connecting fibre-optic mycelium enemy airspace for hours, as the Western
sider its withdrawal if the Russian industry calculated loss – the opponent is forced to sian basic orientation for the FGFA aircraft, access to the F-35’s EW systems and their to govern neuronal dynamics and to react air forces have done for years in mostly un-
could prove that it has overcome all techni- the classical fight within sight. In this way, which is already reflected in the plans. threat libraries. And this is where it all ends: in real time to mechanical influences and protected airspaces of developing nations.
cal difficulties and can deliver a ready-built the German EUROFIGHTERs have already Among other things, this different orienta- The US Government or Lockheed Martin changed statuses. Even in a system like today's Russia, there
5th generation fighter in a reasonable time. defeated the F-22. But the super manoeu- tion has led to the decision to withdraw. would never grant India access to the F-35’s In light of such remarkable achievements, are additional factors, such as the influence
India’s ambassador in Moscow, Pankaj Sa- vrability through thrust vector control, key IT systems, even if India were to pay crude propaganda coups like the two Su- of important persons in the Russian power
ran, confirmed this statement in early June: which the Russians always hold so dear, Made in India? US$7Bn. In addition, India would have to 57 prototypes deployed to Syria for a few structure. As long as former Sukhoj boss
“Discussions on the FGFA continue, which would then take effect, said LII-Gromov's share sensitive data with the US. Moreover, days in February are not really necessary. Michajl Pogosyan was managing director
Another point of contention was the pre- as already reported from Dubai with respect But perhaps the Indian withdrawal was al- of the OAK consortium, the Su-57 seemed
Photo: Georg Mader

vailing industrial philosophy "Made in to the Emirates, the US military leadership ready known at that time, and those videos to have absolute priority. ROSTEC manag-
India", proclaimed by the government of would not allow F-35 technology to oper- in which one or two Kh-59 air-to-ground ers may see things differently. At the be-
the Indian Prime Minister Modi. Under this ate next to opponent (Russian) systems. As cruise missiles were "successfully launched ginning of the programme in 2010, it was
dogma, it was the Indians' wish that the the two nations might fight each other in against Islamists" were shown as a publicity said that the first 10 test aircraft would be
FGFA be produced as far as possible in In- cases of conflict, they certainly will not ex- stunt. But the weapons in the video were available in 2012 and 150 aircraft would
dia and partly assembled at HAL. But to change data packages. This is a similar situ- completely red, as is usual for new Russian enter service in 2016.
implement the 40 to 50 national changes ation to Turkey, which bought the Russian ordnance, which rather indicates a first regu- At the end of 2014, there were only 55,
mentioned, it would have been necessary S-400 air defence system and then wanted lar test within the two internal weapon bays. and these were to be delivered from 2020.
for Suchoj or OAK – that is, ultimately the to buy 100 American F-35s. So far only Israel Some weapons associated with the Su-57 And in 2015, Deputy Defence Minister
Russian Government – to hand all drafts, is allowed to modify the architecture of the on posters and brochures have so far only Yuri Borisov said that production planning
CAD drawings and, above all, the software F-35I (”ADIR”) to adapt, modify and fill its been known as mock-ups exhibited at the would initially be reduced to 12 examples
source codes of the flight control and mis- onboard systems nationally. Russian MAKS Air Show at the stand of to buy more 4.5 generation Su-30SM,
sion systems to India. This is why the AMCA is once again in Russian missile manufacturer TMC. As the Su-34 and Su-35. In the same year, VKS
For a long time this was not an issue, neither demand in India; the Advanced Medium author has observed, there has been a simi- Commander Viktor Bondarew said that
when India contributed around US$300M Combat Aircraft is to become a stealth lar situation with the AESA fire control radar production would start in 2017 after
to the launch of the programme, nor when twin engine in the 20- to 25-tonne class. developed by Tikhomirov and its suppliers, completion of all tests. In this context, we
the two sides agreed years later on an The design definition phase is completed, which was exhibited at several MAKS shows. are now waiting for the integration and
equivalent financing of around US$3.7Bn and a prototype will be exhibited at HAL In general, as far as the high-tech sec- verification of the new 'Unit 30' engines.
for production readiness. These figures in 2019, possibly with the help of Saab, tor of the Russian defence industry is VKS acceptance tests will now begin in
are, of course, given without procurement since Ulf Nilsson is the head of their avia- concerned, grand designs do not always Aktyubinsk in 2019. Mr. Borisov confirmed
costs, which have been estimated at up tion division. lead to big production. This also has to in the spring that "Su-57 is part of the
First image of the SATURN (Изделие) 30 turbofan nozzle engine for the to US$30Bn for the 250 Russian and 144 do with the availability of key parts and state armament programme 2018–2025.
Su-57. According to the Indian authorities, the Изделие 30 integrated in Indian aircraft planned to date. In view of Will Russia Carry on with the machines. For semiconductors, Russian An exact number cannot be given today."
the second prototype made its maiden flight last December. these amounts, the Indians were dissatis- Project? industry is still dependent on microchips This shows that the Su-57’s obvious descent
fied with Russian secrecy. from Taiwan and South Korea, which are on Russia's priority list could also have in-
will help to better understand each other's boss and hero test pilot P. Vlasov during a There was also no agreement on the use To avoid misunderstandings: PAK FA / T-50 not always reliable. fluenced the Indians. The descent coincides
priorities and plans for the future.” And MiG-29M2 flight, and he continued: “This of Indian test pilots in flights, which was or Su-57 is a remarkable design, with an The continuing weakness of modern manu- with the advent of Russia’s new hypersonic
indeed, the Russian side has not officially would empty the American's stealth purse confirmed to the author by the Su-57 RCS about 30 times smaller than a standard facturing capacity for real mass production weapon recently praised by President Pu-
commented on or confirmed the Indian quickly – and then he will die. Especially main programme test pilot Sergei Bog- Su-27. Despite popular comparisons drawn coincides with another crucial aspect: Over tin, ISKANDER's sibling Kh-47M2 KINZHAL
withdrawal. Only some bloggers and fo- the F-35." dan. Indian technicians also had no ac- between the RCS of the F-35 and that of a the next two years, Russia's defence budget which flew over Red Square attached to
rum users are happy to "finally get rid of No wonder the Americans and British dis- cess to the 6th prototype damaged in an bird, it should be noted that these are only will continue to decline as a percentage of two MiG-31Ks on 9 May. It offers increased
the annoying Indians", but now that Su- agree on this point. Any Lockheed man- engine fire in 2014. And finally, the Rus- laboratory values from so-called anechoic GDP (RUB83Tr or €119Bn in 2017), due to attack potential of up to 2,000 km with-
57 has to make progress without Indian ager or F-35 test pilot will tell you how sian partner has demanded up to US$7Bn chambers that have never been tested dur- slow economic growth and Western sanc- out risking valuable aircraft. Although two
money, they also have no solution as to unlikely this result would be in view of for the complete technology transfer, ing a real operation. tions due to the Ukraine/Crimea crisis. The of the nine existing Su-57 prototypes were
how to proceed. the immense sensory overview of West- which was considered too much by the Last December, the second prototype Duma Defence Committee estimates that also shown, stealth takes significantly lower
ern "network warriors". Something would Indian side, taking into account all the ”No. 52“ with the Cyrillic letters LL for security spending will fall by 0.1% of GDP to priority in Russia, as the country has excel-
What Kind of Stealth? have gone fundamentally wrong if you had difficulties and problems. “Letajushaya Laboratoriya” made a first 2.7% in 2019 and by a further 0.1% to 2.5% lent Su-35, Su-30SM2/3 and soon MiG-35
been forced into a visual battle with Su- flight with the promising SATURN engine in 2020. The defence budget for 2017 has aircraft immediately available in large num-
Even before the contract for the joint de- 57s or J-20s. This question would require An F-35 for India? Изделие 30 (“Unit 30”). Compared to the been estimated at RUB2.84Tr. That would bers. When looking at these figures, the fol-
velopment of the then PMF (Perspective a separate article on eastern cyber warfare AL-41F1 engine (resp. 117S) in the Su-35, have been about 10% less than in 2016. lowing can be predicted: If the remarkable
Multirole Fighter) as a Stealth Fighter was against western networks. But Western For decades, Russia was the main supplier the maximum thrust once again increased Moreover, the military budget had already Su-57 survives as a flagship project, it will
signed in 2010 by HAL (Hindustan Aero- experts swear that it is impossible to com- of weapon systems for India’s Air Force. The from 147 kN to its current 186 kN and will fallen slightly from RUB3.16Tr to RUB3.15Tr, barely reach the 300 units sold on the F-35
nautics Ltd.) and Sukhoi, joint working promise the air force's networks and that 272 Indian Su-30MKIs (220 delivered up to provide enough power for supercruising, after spending had steadily increased since that Lockheed Martin recently announced
groups discussed the design in great detail. pilots are fully trained in this philosophy. the present) may have even saved the Rus- in contrast to the Chinese J-20. It has fewer the beginning of Vladimir Putin's era. as delivered.  

66 European Security & Defence · 5/2018 5/2018 · European Security & Defence 67

Military CBRN Decontamination tion the unskilled labour it might appear

to be to outsiders. This poses the issue to
militaries of who actually will do all of the
these burdens mean that military planning
for decontamination is difficult. Although
decontamination in a civil setting, after acts
Some militaries place great reliance on Con-
tamination Avoidance in order to have to
place less emphasis on post-attack decon-
Problems and Issues required decontamination operations. Even
at the height of the Cold War, few armies
of terrorism, poses some interesting chal-
lenges as well, these 5 burdens are generally
tamination, in particular the British Army.
Contamination Avoidance can basically be
adequately staffed decontamination units, applicable as well. An important point to described as a collection of measures and
preferring to rely on mobilisation of reserv- make here is that technology and new prod- technologies to improve situational aware-
Dan Kaszeta ists or conscripts. In many modern NATO ucts may help address these burdens, none ness so that military forces avoid becoming
armies, for example, there is an absolute of them are problems that are amenable to contaminated in the first place. Detection
deficit of decontamination force structure easy technical solutions. For example, the and identification instruments detect the
The threat of use of chemical, biological, radiological, and/or nuclear (CBRN) weapons poses many tacti- and, if, for example, the British Army had finest decontamination equipment is great, presence of hazards. Reconnaissance vehi-
to decontaminate a tank battalion, there is but if there are no soldiers to operate it and cles and teams conduct surveys to identify
cal, strategic, and technical problems. By any realistic measure, one of the most serious aspects of CBRN some question as to where the forces to do the tanks that need to be decontaminated areas affected by contamination. Model-
defence is the prospect of short-term or long-term contamination of people, equipment of every size and it exist in the table of organisation. cannot be pulled out of battle, then the ling, whether by manual or computerised
The fifth burden is resources, both generic technology has not solved the problem. As means, predicts the extent of hazard areas.
shape, and terrain. and specific. Decontamination needs equip- well as, and perhaps because of, these five Warning and reporting systems spread this
ment. It also needs raw materials, usually burdens, decontamination has competitors. information throughout deployed forces,
decontamination solutions and often lots so that everyone knows which areas should

Photo: Dan Kaszeta

ndeed, given that technology allows for of water. As a young CBRN officer in the “Contamination Avoidance” be avoided. However, even if everything
protection of military personnel from in- US Army, I quickly learned that the greatest is a Valid CBRN Discipline works properly, the best contamination
juries due to chemical attack, on the mod- problem in planning decontamination op- avoidance measures will only reduce, not
ern battlefield it is the prospect of serious erations in arid climates was supply of water. The colossal difficulties posed by large de- eliminate, the need for decontamination.
contamination that can sometimes pose a During the first Gulf War (Operation Desert contamination operations have long been Contamination Avoidance is, in many ways,
greater risk to military operations than im- Shield/Desert Storm) the water logistics be- understood by military staffs. It is not surpris- cheaper than decontamination. But it can-
mediate casualties. Contamination of ports hind decontamination planning were daunt- ing that an entire strain of military thought not and should not be a substitute for the
and airfields can slow the deployment of ing, given the dry environment and lack of that roughly says “if decontamination is adequate provision of equipment and per-
military forces. Contamination of armoured suitable local water supplies. Any kind of such an operational pain, then we need to sonnel decontamination.
vehicles and artillery pieces will force sol- large-scale decontamination operation re- do whatever we can to avoid having to do Incidentally, from a market and products
diers to operate in a protected posture, de- quires a complex supply chain to keep oper- it” has evolved. This is the CBRN defence dis- perspective, Contamination Avoidance
grading their performance and increasing ating. These resources cost money. All five of cipline called “Contamination Avoidance.” causes an interesting internal conflict
stress. Contamination of roads, bridges,
and other key terrain features can reduce
the mobility of military forces and constrain
a commander’s courses of action.

Neutralising Contamination
Decontamination, which is the art and sci-
ence of removing or neutralising contami-
nation, is often the least glamorous aspect AVIATION AND SPACE SALON

of the CBRN defence disciplines. It is also,
from a products and technologies stand- An Italian decontamination suite for military vehicle and personnel
point, a relatively static element of the decontamination
market space, particularly compared to
some of the more high-tech disciplines like defence needs to understand, and this tamination needs to occur at some defined
computer modelling and detection/iden- article attempts to highlight these areas place on the map, preferably where it poses
tification. This correspondent surveyed of concern. no threat to others, but close enough that
products, procurement programmes, and it can be supplied by logistical channels and
major manufacturers in the decontamina- Decontamination is a that contaminated platoons or companies

tion space for this journal in 2016. Radical Burdensome Task do not need to travel far. The third burden
changes and major breakthroughs have is time; decontamination is time consum-
not occurred since that issue was pub- CBRN decontamination is a thoroughly ing. A single aircraft or tank may take hours
lished, so the overview provided in 2016 unpleasant and intensive business that to decontaminate, depending on the type
is still largely valid today. However, there has tremendous operational and logistical and extent of contamination and the meth-
are a number of vital technical and doc- impacts on military personnel and units. od of decontamination.
trinal issues in decontamination that any-
one who is seriously interested in CBRN
Decontamination operations, whether
formal or improvised, impose a number
The fourth burden is labour. Decontamina-
tion of military vehicles can require a lot of October
of important burdens, which need to be personnel. Since the personnel conducting
Au th o r understood by commanders and planners. the decontamination operate while wear-
The first burden is operational displace- ing protective clothing, they cannot work
Dan Kaszeta is Managing Director at ment. Soldiers, equipment, and units that non-stop, particularly in warm climates. It
Strongpoint Security Ltd. and a regu- are undergoing decontamination are out of can, therefore, take a large group of soldiers
lar contributor to ESD. the battle until they are decontaminated.
The second burden is geography. Decon-
to decontaminate a company of tanks or
mechanised infantry. Nor is decontamina-
I n t e r n a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n Ce n t re
Ukraine, Kyiv, Brovarsky Ave, 15,
“Livoberezhna” underground station
68 European Security & Defence · 5/2018 tel./fax: +38 044 201 11 63, 201 11 64 5/2018 · European Security & Defence 69
e -mail:,

competed with generic alternatives. Many than a bucket of water and some soap. It Decontamination on a large scale is still such a labour, are likely to be needed to
types of decontamination chemicals are might be twice as effective in some circum- widely treated as too hard to contem- conduct wide area decontamination, and
commercially available, but few of them are stances, and 20% more effective in others. plate. In military CBRN training, it is often countries serious about this as a require-
cheap. Some are prohibitively expensive, if It might ease the logistical burdens and re- given only token consideration in publica- ment need to look into how to provide
a country were to want to use them for quire less water. But it still costs 200 times tions and training. It is rarely exercised. the necessary resources.
extensive operations and maintain a viable the generic alternative. This is a conundrum While notional processes and procedures
stockpile. for both militaries and industry. tend to exist in manuals, they call for Conclusions
For all the sophistication of the CBRN amounts of time, labour, and materials

Photo: US Air Force

threat, one fundamental truth continues Sensitive Item that are stunning in their magnitude. If It is clear that decontamination poses
to surface through all kinds of trials and Decontamination CBRN warfare threats are to be taken se- many complex issues, both in practical
testing. For the large majority of threats, riously, this gap in capability needs to be operational and logistical terms and in
soapy water is actually not a bad way to de- One area where products and technolo- addressed. This is an area where indus- terms of technology. The CBRN segment
A US airman processes through a decontamination area while two other contaminate things, whether it be exposed gies can make a clear impact is the decon- try, if sufficiently motivated by govern- of the defence industry has long sought
airmen wash contaminants off his level-A hazmat suit during hazmat skin or the side of a tank. Decontamination tamination of sensitive and fragile items. ment requirements, could really do some to provide technology and products to
decontamination training. All three airmen are with the 380th Expedi- is about both removal and neutralisation. The warm soapy water than may be fully interesting work if adequate resources solve the problems of CBRN defence.
tionary Civil Engineer Squadron Readiness and Emergency Management Soapy water, or even in absence of soap, adequate for the exterior of a tank is not were committed to it. Products and tech- However, some of the intractable issues
Flight. The flight performs chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear just water, actually is not a bad decontami- going to be very pleasant for sensitive nologies are largely absent in this area. of decontamination are only mitigated,
(CBRN) detection and decontamination operations. nating agent. For example, all of the nerve avionics, communications equipment, or Furthermore, non-technical resources, not solved, by current technologies. 
agents react with water. Anthrax spores, computers. Neutralising or removing con-
within the CBRN industry. One segment credibility to a “fight through it, continue once they are wet, do not pose wide area taminants from expensive and highly use-
of the industry is devoted to making sure the battle, and some of the problem will respiratory hazards. Radioactive fallout is ful pieces of equipment in a non-destruc-
that you do not need so much of another go away on its own” approach. Obviously, generally dust, and it reacts just as non- tive matter is one of the few areas in CBRN
segment. Because detection and identifica- the details are scenario-specific. However, radioactive dust – it washes off. decontamination that is moving forward NATIONAL TRAINING AND SIMULATION ASSOCIATION
tion is an area where much new innovation companies seeking to develop solutions Manufacturers of specialty decontami- at a reasonable pace. While this article is THE WORLD’S LARGEST MODELING & SIMULATION EVENT
has occurred and the products are more and sell products in this sector need to un- nation equipment and specialised deter- not a survey of manufacturers, this is an
interesting and dramatic, it is possible that derstand the mindsets they might encoun- gents and solutions have a much harder area where companies like Cristanini (It- Aerospace Simulation & Training
Aircrew Trainers
decontamination producers have lost out a ter. In effect, decontamination competes burden than makers of detection equip- aly) and Steris (USA) are doing interesting Applied R&D
bit to companies who sell Contamination with individual and protective collection ment or medical countermeasures. The work, particularly with decontamination Applied Systems Engineering
Avoidance solutions. My own direct expe- technology for expenditure of scarce budg- generic equivalent to a nerve agent detec- processes that fumigate contaminated AR/VR INTERSERVICE/INDUSTRY TRAINING,
rience is that this is more theoretical than etary resources. tor doesn’t really exist. The alternative to items and areas, or use specialty sorbents
Big Data
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integration in the industry. Generic Alternatives But the alternative to a bucket of specialty effective products and technologies are Computer Hardware
chemicals that might cost €100 could be a available here, they are not by any means Construction / Mining
An inherent feature of the CBRN decon- bucket of free water and 50 cents of soap. cheap. For sensitive item decontamination Consultancy/Project Management
Is it Needed? Cyber
tamination market is that expensive de- However, there is no bucket of specialty to become a full component in military Disaster Relief/Planning Simulations
A different philosophy to Contamination contamination equipment and specialty chemicals that a manufacturer can sell to CBRN defence operations, it will need to Distance Learning
Distributed Simulation and Learning
Avoidance bears no discrete name, but decontamination chemicals have always a military that is 200 times more effective become more economical. Educational Products & Services
can be summed up as “we are not going Electronic Components
Photo: Courtesy of Cristanini spa

to let contamination stop us from fight- Electronic Training/Synthetic

Wide Area Decontamination: Engineering/Damage Control
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and collective protection systems mean Exercise Management
Flight Simulation & Training
that modern fighting forces can prevent The vast majority of decontamination Gaming
injury and death and continue to operate doctrine, technology, and equipment in- Homeland Security Simulation &
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Instructional Systems Design
contaminated environments. Furthermore, like tanks or people or aircraft. Buildings LVC (Live, Virtual, Constructive)
many CBRN threats go away over time any- and land are not moveable. Persistent Manufacturing
Medical Simulation & Training
way. Some radioactive isotopes are short- chemical agents or radiological particu-
Mission Planning/Mission Rehearsal
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Most biological pathogens do not survive terrain, like road junctions, bridges, ports, Oil, Gas, Energy
Operational & Maintenance Services
lengthy exposure to direct sunlight. This or runways. Likewise, buildings can be Operator/Driver Trainers
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Research & Development
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weapons, thus possibly reducing their likeli- systems such as SCUD missiles to use Simulation Security
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hood of use. This is the “well, why should persistent agents to contaminate ports Simulation Toolkits
we bother with chemical weapons because and airfields that the USA was likely to Small Arms Training
they aren’t going to stop the enemy from use to reinforce continental Europe, as Small Business
Staffing/Logistics Support
attacking or make them retreat; they’ll still well as contaminate large stockpiles of STEM
fight us hard so we might as well use weap- vehicles stored by the US Army for use
Why I/IaTttendees
Tactics Trainers
Trade Publication / Media
ons that destroy tanks and not just make in wartime scenarios. Contamination of
Training Products
them dirty” approach, and it is a valid one. runways with persistent agents like VX Training Services u 16,200
h ibitors
Although one of the alleged axioms of mili- The SX 34 sensitive equipment decontamination kit, produced by or so-called NOVICHOKs could place a Transportation u 485 ex ibit hall
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Weapon Systems Trainers &
70 European Security & Defence · 5/2018

W W W. I I T S E C . O R G u N O V E M B E R 2 6 - 3 0 , 2 0 1 8 u O R L A N D O, F L O R I D A

Poland’s Defence Industry Base ist to radically lay-off shipyard employees.

Nevertheless, certain personnel adjustments
will be made.” Cierzan did not elaborate any
dustry. A harmonised approach is also im-
portant in cooperation between PGZ and
external partners from the EU and the US.
companies within the group. The code
would also introduce a coherent commu-
nications and exports strategy to promote
further on the company’s human resources. The PGZ’s code puts down several measures the group on export markets and increase
Eugene Kogan The idea of uniting the Polish defence in- to enhance cooperation within the group: PGZ’s share group in those markets. In the
dustry under one roof seems to have been Seven domain bureaus are to be created future, PGZ intends to present its offers
abandoned. The management structure of within PGZ which are to coordinate the uniformly within a coordinated and real-
The country’s defence sector is currently in a process of rapid struc- 2017, exports account for 15% of the Pol- the PGZ Group is therefore still subject to implementation of the major programmes istic strategy. It should also be noted that
ish defence industry’s turnover, with the considerable changes. In November 2017, in the areas assigned. For instance, Land the agreements concluded between the
tural change, facing major challenges from increased competition. Middle Eastern and developing countries for example, PGZ introduced the so-called Performs Directorate is to coordinate the PGZ Group and the individual companies
Like other industrial sectors, the defence industry is required to deliver being the main export hubs. In 2017 PGZ Code, which lays down the rules for MBT, IFV and APC programmes, as well should make it possible to define the rules
the PGZ achieved sales worth PLN798M cooperation between the group’s compa- as programmes concerning the vehicles for for cooperation, as there is no holding law/
increased efficiency in order to provide value for money. (US$228M). This was a 40% increase over nies. According to the code, the companies the special operations component. regulation in Poland.
2016 sales worth about PLN560M (about of the group are to complement each other According to an e-mail to the author from The Polish defence sector, although for-
US$150M). Compared with the neighbour- in order to avoid internal competition and PGZ’s Communication and Marketing De- mally consolidated, needs more integration

I n January 2017, it was reported that the

Polish Armaments Group (known under
its Polish acronym PGZ Group), which is
nies are the WB Group based in Ozarow
Mazowiecki, followed by Gdynia Shipyard
Remontowa Shipbuilding. Decisions on
ing Czech Republic, which in 2016 achieved
sales worth CZK20Bn (or about US$910M),
Polish arms exports are not just too low
may involve external companies in poten-
tial tenders in order to make the customer
a more attractive and cost-effective offer. If
partment, in addition to the Land Performs
Directorate, directorates for Naval Plat-
forms, Aviation Platforms, Firearms and
and cooperation. The gradual introduction
of the PGZ Code is the opportunity to
achieve integration. At the same time, if the
under the authority of the MoND, would what to do remain unclear. but also lagging behind. Thus, something carried out correctly, the code can be a step Ammo, Ground Based Air-Defence and country’s defence spending successfully in-
change its status. It was planned to change Even though a new Strategic Defence Re- substantial needs to be done in order for towards consolidating the Polish defence Missile Defence and Barrel and Rocket Artil- creases in the coming years, the defence
the management structure and procure- view (SDR) was completed by the govern- the PGZ Group to achieve better results. industry within the PGZ Group, as the new lery are currently under construction. There industry would have to produce military
ment mechanisms. Not all of Poland’s de- ment in May 2017, a revised version has The PGZ’s Code, which is to be discussed rules can be an effective means of integrat- are also directorates that are working on products for the country’s armed forces. To
later, may help the group to become bet- ing the defence sector in Poland. interdisciplinary projects such as C4ISR sys- take advantage of this unique opportunity,

Photo: Kubsson
ter integrated, better coordinated and per- The division of labour between the individ- tems, EW, cyber security and R&D projects. the consolidation of the defence industry
haps more successful on global markets. ual companies to create competences that The directorates will also distribute compe- must be completed and PGZ must become
Whether or not the whole process of fur- complement each other in a system is the tencies among the companies and plan the a successful defence company. In addition
ther integration, coordination and, as a re- key to success. Otherwise, billions of Polish further development of capabilities offered to PGZ’s WB Group and other companies
sult, achieving success on the arms market zloty to be spent on modernisation would within the respective domain. The aim is listed below, the following companies are
can be accomplished remains to be seen. not bring technological progress in the in- to develop focused and purpose-oriented also part of the defence sector.

PGZ Group as the Country’s

National Champion
PGZ consists of 60 companies with 17,500
employees and has three major sharehold-
ers: the MoND with 37.13%, PHD with
33.51% and ARP with 29.36%. PGZ Presi-
dent Jakub Skiba said on 20 May 2018 that
“Huta Stalowa Wola (HSW) [in particular]
is probably the best facility among PGZ
Group’s subsidiaries. All contracts assigned
to this entity are being executed in a proper
manner.” Skiba’s statement is supported by
the HSW revenue achieved in 2017, which
exceeded PLN500M (or about US$140M)
out of a total PLN798M. HSW informs that
in 2018 planned consolidated revenues are
expected to amount to PLN1Bn.
In addition to the 60 companies under its
umbrella, PGZ took control of the Polish Na-
PGZ Group, headquartered in Radom, is Poland’s largest defence val Shipyard Company (Stocznia Marynarki
company. Wojennej, SMW) headquartered in Gdynia
on 20 December 2017. The SMW was bank-
fence industry is state-owned; there are not yet led to a restructuring of the de- rupt at the time and PGZ had to overhaul the
also several large, privately owned defence fence industry. What is evident, however, shipyard’s finances and restructure the com-
companies or subsidiaries of foreign com- is that the defence industry cannot expect pany. According to an e-mail to the author
panies. The largest private defence compa- to continue receiving state subsidies indefi- from PGZ’s Communication and Marketing
nitely. State support has made the industry Department, PGZ is currently in the process
Au th o r less efficient; sluggish arms export results of restructuring the SMW. No further infor-
are a sign that the defence industry has mation on the issue was provided as of 2
Eugene Kogan is a defence become inward-looking and lost some of July 2018. In spite of the Naval Shipyard’s
and security expert based in Tbilisi, its competitive edge. According to a report financial losses, Cezary Cierzan, the PGZ
Georgia. prepared by the Polish Strategic Defence representative said at the Maritime Security
Intelligence (SDI) and published in March Forum in January 2018 that: “No plans ex-

72 European Security & Defence · 5/2018


unmanned systems, which have been and Sdn Bhd officially signed the offset contract building, said in February 2018: “For many commitment in Poland. Leonardo produces
are accompanying the Polish forces dur- for technology transfer (ToT) with the Ma- years the Remontowa Shipbuilding facil- AW149 helicopters at its Polish subsidiary
ing foreign deployments. Based on experi- laysian MoD and the Malaysian DRB-Hicom ity has been carrying out complex work. PZL Swidnik, while Lockheed Martin’s Polish
ence gathered during those missions and Deftech Sdn Bhd. It not only provides jobs for its own staff, subsidiary PZL Mielec produces the S-70i ex-
by our foreign customers, we know that WB America was founded in January 2018 as the shipyard also creates jobs for more port version of the BLACK HAWK helicopter.
these systems performed greatly in armed with the aim of marketing and distributing than 2,000 employees of its cooperation However, the additional workload for the
conflicts.” In November 2017, the MoND WB Group products in North and South partners. Although Remontowa Shipbuild- subsidiaries depends on the international
signed a breakthrough agreement with America; the new company will offer a ing is a private company, it maintains close tenders in Poland and other countries.
WB Group to purchase 1,000 WARMATE wide range of products in the areas of spe- cooperation with state industrial plants and Secondly, Rheinmetall Defence Polska is a
UAVs manufactured by the company. De- cial electronics, communication systems research centres. This was proven by the subsidiary of Rheinmetall Landsysteme Gm-
signed by the Military Institute of Arma- and UAVs. One of Fonet’s products has construction of the KORMORAN II MCMV. bH. The company was founded in Poland in
ment Technology under the aegis of the already been integrated into the US Army When the first Polish minehunter was built, August 2016. The company is a partner of
MoND, WARMATE might be equipped Stryker and Joint Light Tactical Vehicles Remontowa Shipbuilding worked closely the local defence industry and supports the
Photo: WB Group

with warheads manufactured by the PGZ Polish armed forces in technical and logistical
subsidiary Belma; the cooperation could support and in the development of logistics
open up an area of collaboration between Forcepol concepts with a focus on the modernisation
the WB Group and the PGZ Group. (sb) Forcepol sp. z o.o. is a trading company headquartered in Warsaw, Poland, and programme for the Polish LEOPARD 2 MBT
Engineers of WB Group, Poland’s largest private company in the defence Wojciechowski further clarified company with offices in Brno in the Czech Republic. Their mission is to deliver products for both fleet. Rheinmetall Defence Polska is also the
sector, observing the first military exercise with the company’s WAR- relations with the PGZ Group by saying defence and civil industries, according to specific requirements in Poland, the Czech Polish hub for all Rheinmetall Defence com-
MATE system on 31 May 2018. that: “We are a part of numerous consor- Republic and throughout Europe. panies and acts as a central contact point
tia, enjoying equal rights with befriended Deliveries are mainly to the Armed Forces (Armies, Air Forces and Navies) of the region, for the Polish government, the military and
WB Group – a Success Story Piotr Wojciechowski, President of WB entities of the PGZ Group. We are support- with specific, highly-specialised demands from paramilitary and Special Forces, and also Polish companies.
of the Polish Private Sector Group’s Management Board, said in Sep- ing our colleagues from PGZ companies first Responder and Police forces, and other pro-security and pro-defence organisations, Rheinmetall Defence Polska is repre-
tember 2017 that “We at the WB Group with all of our expertise, to the best of our being met, reliably and regularly. sented at two locations: A liaison office
The private WB Group was founded in deal with development of comprehensive abilities. Our colleagues working at PGZ Within the complex and highly competitive Polish market Forcepol also represents a was set up in Warsaw to be close to the
1997 and currently employs 800 peo- UAV systems, creating operational con- are working with us, within the scope of number of US, European and other companies: “Our reputation and highly ethical and authorities, and in order to optimally sup-
ple. Of crucial importance for PGZ is cepts and concepts for conducting joint the process of the implementation of chal- effective support for both our industrial as well as our political and military customers port Zaklady Mechaniczne Bumar-Labedy
the fact that WB Group has created operations with other systems: command, lenging and technically complex military ensure a strong, sustainable level of success for everyone involved” says Agnieszka (ZMBL, member of the PGZ Group) in the
a branch known to all customers and reconnaissance, artillery or fire-mission projects. Cooperation in areas where joint Ulasiuk, CEO. modernisation of Polish LEOPARD 2 MBTs
manufacturers of defence systems, systems. Within that scope the user is effort takes place is very good, at all levels.” Forcepol generally works with acclaimed, established, world-class companies and or- and to offer services around the LEOP-
which everyone knows is a brand from trained, and we gather knowledge pro- In addition to its success on the domestic ganisations that operate around the world: the company cooperates with the defence ARD 2, a second location was established
Poland. The Polish Development Fund vided by the customers, on the require- market, WB Group has also expanded its and security industries, as well as with universities, laboratories and research centres. in Gliwice.
(PFR) paid PLN128M in November ments that need to be met to enhance presence to Malaysia and the USA; its sub- New products are continually being introduced into their portfolio and the list of their The further consolidation of PGZ Group
2017 for the acquisition of 24% of WB our systems [performance] and make sidiary WBE Technologies Sdn Bhd is based suppliers and partners is both extensive and growing in order to provide access to spe- and the expansion of WB Group beyond
Group’s shares, demonstrating confi- them more universal. Our UAVs have been in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and focuses on cific products individually requested by their clients. Poland underline the current trend in
dence in the UAV technologies devel- used in combat during the last 15 years. warranty services, spare parts supply and lo- “Together with our clients and partners, we develop, refine, and deliver best-performing the Polish defence industry. To be on
oped by the company and the possible In Poland, we remain the sole exporter gistical support for WB Group programmes products and systems to meet the most exacting requirements with the highest level safe ground, both the development of
opening of the domestic market for the and manufacturer of UAV systems. We in Southeast Asia. On 18 April 2018, WB of precision and complete satisfaction”, said Ulasiuk. “We are focussed on reliable and the armed forces’ domestic procurement
company for further UAV orders. are also the sole Polish manufacturer of Group represented by WBE Technologies well-established business partners who share our totally ethical and professional ap- contracts and the expansion of foreign
proach to business cooperation.” exports should go hand in hand. The ex-
Photo: ZMBL

A cross-selection of Forcepol partners includes: PROTOTYPA-ZM (Czech Republic), port portfolio of the PGZ Group is still
EDH Doppler (South Africa),Fireco (Italy), Scandinavian Avionics Group (Denmark), IKEY too small for such a large state-owned
(USA), NSI (Germany), Vital Seating & Systems (UK), Coastal Environmental Systems company. The future looks promising,
(USA), NISSENS (Denmark), Avalex (USA), Scanfiber Composites (Denmark), VarTech but in the real world competition for
Systems (USA), among many others. market share is becoming tougher and
ToT is a must. Whether PGZ Group is pre-
pared to do this remains to be seen. WB
(JLTVs). For the years 2016-17, no financial with CTM and the Technical University of Group has expanded its activities beyond
data were provided to the author. Gdansk. The institution cooperates with Poland. Regarding the company’s finan-
In addition to the WB Group, the Polish research institutions under the patronage cial results, the author did not receive a
shipyard Remontowa Shipbuilding, a sub- of the Polish MoND, including the Warsaw- response from the WB Group, although
sidiary of Remontowa Holding Capital based Military Institute of Chemistry and he had contacted the Group’s Communi-
Group must be mentioned. Radiometry and the Zielonka-based Mili- cations and Advertising Department. The
A contract for the delivery of two more tary Institute of Armament Technology. cooperation between PGZ and WB Group
modern minehunters was signed in War- The company’s net sales in 2015 (the only and Remontowa Shipbuilding should be
saw on 27 December, 2017. The new KOR- data available) amounted to €285M, while continued, as it leads to positive results
MORAN II MCMVs will be built by a consor- net profit amounted to €8,5M. and all parties involved benefit from the
tium led by Remontowa Shipbuilding. The cooperation. The role of foreign subsidi-
other two companies in the consortium are Foreign Subsidiaries aries in Poland is rather limited, but it
the Centre for Maritime Technology (CTM, gives foreign companies an advantage in
also known as OBR CTM) and PGZ SMW, On the one hand, Leonardo’s Augusta the country and thus plays an important
both based in Gdynia. Westland and Lockheed Martin acquired role in Poland’s arms procurement and
The Armour Factory Bumar-Łabędy (ZMBL), a subsidiary of PGZ Group, is cooperating with Rheinmetall to Bartlomiej Pomierski, Vice President of the local subsidiaries, making them the only modernisation programmes for the next
modernise Poland’s fleet of LEOPARD II MBTs. Board of Directors of Remontowa Ship- foreign companies to establish a long-term decade.  

74 European Security & Defence · 5/2018 5/2018 · European Security & Defence 75

ASCOD and PANDUR – Vienna Calling! was also subject to a separate presenta-
tion by Alessandro Tognetti, Leonardo's
Capture and Development Manager.
Both vehicles were also the subjects of
Jürgen Hensel dynamic displays at the company's out-
door area.

A t the end of May 2018, General Dyna-

mics European Land Systems
(GDELS) invited a group of journalists
2. "Membership" of GD's global supply

New business development through
With the latest development status imple-
mented, the vehicle can handle slopes up
to 60%, slide slopes (tilt) of 40%, can cross
PANDUR 6x6 EVO (Evolution)
In the scope of an ongoing procurement ASCOD MMBT (left) and the new ASCOD IFV with the UT30MK2 turret
to their GDELS-Steyr facilities in Vienna, technology partnerships between local ditches and trenches up to 2.5 metres, effort, GDELS has been tasked to deliver on display at the outdoor area of GDELS-Steyr in Vienna, Austria
Austria, to draw attention to a number SMEs and GD ford in waters up to 1.5 metres deep and 34 PANDUR vehicles in APC configuration
of new developments to be presented 4. GD's global leverage to obtain busi- step-climb obstacles of up to 1.1 metres in (Austrian designation: MTPz - Mannschaft- tract with the Austrian MoD includes an battle tank (heavy) fleet, particularly in such
first at this year's Eurosatory exhibition ness from other industry partners in height. Based on advanced suspension and stransportpanzer) to the Austrian Army. option for a follow-on order to be exercised countries where defence procurement is
and with a focus on the new ASCOD IFV the country. driveline technology, the vehicle platform The vehicle which – according to Florian by the end of 2019. also seen as a measure to strengthen the
and MMBT (Medium Main Battle Tank) features reduced weight, noise, vibration Bernhard, GDELS-Steyr's Deputy Head of local defence industrial base.
variants. ASCOD and roll/swing characteristics and provides Engineering – has been designed "with Perspectives The ASCOD IFV, on the other hand, is a con-
Thomas Kauffmann, GDELS' VP Inter- for optimum shoot-on-the-move capabili- tracked vehicle experience", features a 8.9 L tender in the scope of the BMP-2 replace-
national Business and Services, was the José M. Lineros, GDELS' Vice President En- ties due to improved vehicle stability. The Cummins engine with 6-speed ZF ECOMAT Obviously, the decision to invest money in ment programme in the Czech Republic and
first presenter with a briefing on the gineering, briefed the group on the two vehicle's APC version can be airlifted with automatic transmission, a power pack that the development of the ASCOD MMBT is thus facing competition with BAE Systems'
General Dynamics Group's portfolio and combat vehicle variants to be presented A400M, C-17 (2) or IL-76 respectively (tur- is also in use with the 8x8 version of the ve- based on the assumption that the changed CV90, PSM's PUMA, Rheinmetall's LYNX
capabilities as well as GDELS' particular first at Eurosatory, namely the ASCOD IFV reted options to be confirmed). hicle. In response to a requirement from the European security environment with a new and possibly others. While all serious con-
approach to industrial cooperation on and MMBT. A special contribution to Austrian military, the vehicle has a C-130 priority alignment on territorial defence tenders will probably be in a position to of-
export markets. Both versions crew survivability is made roll-on, roll-off (RoRo) capability and can will stimulate the international market for fer vehicle designs that can respond to the
are based on Design study of with the vehicle's floating accommodate up to 11 personnel. Deliver- armoured combat vehicles. As such, the requirements from a technical point of view,
Portfolio and Offset Strategy the common the new PANDUR floor, which has replaced ies are to commence in September, with 5 idea of offering a lighter-than-usual main the level of industrialisation that can be of-
platform prin- 6x6 EVO for the the conventional footrests. vehicles to be delivered in 2018, 21 in 2019 battle tank (gross vehicle weight 42 t) will fered as part of the respective proposals may
With 98,600 employees and ten busi- ciple and de- Austrian Army The modular design of the and the remaining 8 in 2020. Some 190 certainly find its way into the consideration become a decisive factor. In this context,
ness units in four operating groups, GD signed with an vehicle allows for inter- Austrian subcontractors and suppliers are of all those whose budgets do not allow for GDELS' offset strategy as described above
generates a turnover of US$31Bn (2017). open architec- changeable mine protec- participating in the programme. The con- the acquisition of a latest-generation main is certainly worth noting.  
Of that, the business unit European Land ture to provide tion and add-on armour,
Systems (GDELS) has a share of US$6Bn the optimal turret solutions range from

Photos: GDELS
with 2,200 people and customers in 44 combination 25 to 120mm calibres with
countries around the globe. In accordance an additional anti-tank

17-19 October 2018

with the group's decentralised company guided missile as an op-
strategy GDELS has manufacturing facili- tion.
ties in Austria, the Czech The IFV variant presented

PRAGUE, Czech Republic

Republic, Denmark, in Vienna was equipped
Germany, Romania, with the UT30 MK2 un-
Spain (European HQ) manned turret from Elbit
and Switzerland. and the ATK MK 44 ABM
In essence, the com- 30mm gun. The turret, a
pany's capability port- downgraded version of the
folio comprises ground 120mm MERKAVA MK 4  Future Forces EXHIBITION  NATO Integration of the Exoskeleton in the Battlefield
combat platforms (in- turret, was subject to a  Future Forces Individual Systems Congress Workshop
cluding light tactical separate briefing by Mai-
vehicles), wheeled ar- mon Ifergan, Elbit's VP Inter-  World CBRN & Medical Congress  NATO MILMED COE CD&E Workshop
moured vehicles, tracked national Land Programs, who
vehicles, bridging systems, also used the opportunity to  Multi-domain Advanced Robotic Systems Conference  Logistics Capability Conference
artillery systems and ammu- draw attention to the IRON VISION  Future of Cyber Conference
nition, and integrated logistic head-mounted display that provides
 MESAS 2018 – NATO M&S COE Modelling & Simulation
support (ILS). In the case of IFVs and 360° situational awareness even if used for Autonomous Systems Conference  Biometrics Conference
APCs, the design philosophy centres on a of tactical mobility, manoeuvrability and in a closed-hatched armoured vehicle. The
common base platform – mainly the lower fightability. Lineros emphasised that the turret, a co-development with the Israeli  WAMS 2018 – Workshop on Applied Modelling & Simulation  NATO; EDA working groups’ sessions
vehicle hull – for a variety of different ve- two new vehicle variants were the result of Defence Forces (IDF), allows for the integra-
 Geospatial, Hydrometeorological and GNSS Conference  and more R EG
O W !
hicle variants. consistent development efforts and invest- tion of an ATGW – as currently is the plan
In response to increasing offset and com- ments in a common vehicle platform that with SPIKE in Croatia with tests ongoing
pensation requirements in the scope of ex- was first implemented with the two early in Spain – and can be upgraded to carry a
port programmes, the company has devel- ASCOD (Austrian-Spanish Cooperative De- 40mm gun.
oped an offset strategy for the involvement velopment) variants, namely PIZARRO in The MMBT (Medium Main Battle Tank)
of local industries that is supported by four Spain and ULAN in Austria, followed by the version on display is based on the proven
main pillars: DONAR SP artillery system and the repair/ ASCOD running gear and was equipped
1. Direct participation in the programme recovery versions through to the British with a HITFACT 120mm turret from
as a partner, subcontractor or supplier; AJAX variants. Leonardo (formerly Oto Melara), which

76 European Security & Defence · 5/2018


“We have been a supplier to the The Training & Simulation

segment is made up by both
pyrotechnic products for the
namely, the Portable
Explosive Mine-
field Breach-

Bundeswehr and international realistic presentation of

weapon and battlefield
effects, as well as elec-
ing System
(PEMBS) and
the ManPADS

customers for more than 60 years.” tronic launchers for the se-
cure handling of these devices
in military training operations.
simulator. What is it
that customers of these
two products take par-
The mine breaching segment is charac- ticular advantage of?
After a change of name in October 2017, the Bremerhaven-based pyrotechnics company that was formerly terised by ergonomic and low-weight ap- Hellwege: Despite fre-
plications for the quick engagement of Applications of quent condemnation the
known as Chemring and Drew Defense is today called WesCom Signal & Rescue Germany GmbH. ESD spoke mines, obstacles and IEDs. For both our the Portable Explosive mine threat is still present.
with the company's Managing Director, Jan-Dirk Hellwege. civilian and military products we rely on Minefield Breaching System Besides, the neutralisation of
an above-average level of automated pro- (PEMBS) include the neutralisation IEDs is an imminent require-
duction. This provides for comprehensive of anti-personnel mines, IEDs and ment. As a means that can be deployed

Photos: WesCom
production safety, a high quality level and man-made obstacles. quickly the PEMBS offers a sustainable
increased competitiveness. The technical response. In pilot training, the reaction
expertise necessary for automation in an Hellwege: In FY2017 we generated around to threats imposed by man-portable air
explosive-processing environment is main- 20% of our sales in the defence business. defence systems (ManPADS) has again
tained and preserved internally. For more This year, FY2018, we have noticed increas- gained in importance. The pyrotechnic
than 60 years we have been supplying the ing interest in mine breaching systems, bat- ManPADS M 176 simulator presents an
Bundeswehr, several NATO states and in- tlefield illumination and pyrotechnic simula- extremely realistic signature of such a
ternational customers from Bremerhaven. tion of ground-to-air missiles. We are cur- missile at launch. In addition, it has the
rently developing tailor-made solutions for advantage that it has a total self-con-
ESD: What were the reasons for the name rotechnic sea rescue means for profession- ESD: What is the ratio between your mili- these programmes in particular. We make sumption effect, which also contributes
change? Who owns the company? al shipping applications, WesCom is the tary and civilian business? What are your more than 90% of our turnover in export. to the attractiveness of this training tool.
Hellwege: The name change had become world market leader with its brands Comet current programmes in the defence arena?
obligatory for legal reasons. Our former and Pains Wessex. Our defence business What share of your total turnover is gener- ESD: From our point of view there are two The questions were asked by
parent company Drew Marine was sold. comprises the segments of Signal & Illu- ated by exports? products that require special attention: Jürgen Hensel.
The new owner insisted on retaining the mination, Training & Simulation, as well as
exclusive rights to the name, so there was portable minefield breaching devices.
no alternative to changing the name. The In essence, the Signal & Illumination seg-
name WesCom is to be a reminiscence to ment includes sophisticated parachute sig-
our core brands Pains Wessex and Comet. ESD: What are the core capabilities of the nal cartridges as well as handheld signals
WesCom Signal & Rescue Germany is still company? Where are your markets? in the white light and IR spectrum, several SMi Group proudly presents the 4th annual conference on...
owned by The Jordan Company, L.P. in the Hellwege: WesCom develops, builds and signal cartridges of different calibres, and
United States. sells pyrotechnics. In the area of civilian py- ground signal devices.

Future Armoured 13th-15th

Vehicles Survivability nov 2018
Copthorne Tara Hotel, London, UK

Maximising Force Protection for Mounted Personnel


Gold Sponsor:

Mr. Tom Newbery, Principal Engineer Land Survivability, DSTL, UK MoD

New speakers include:

Major Luke Wilson, Royal Engineers, DTECH, DE&S, UK MoD

Sponsored by:
Senior Representative, APS Integration Lead, Israeli MoD

Mr. Wayne Beutler, Associate Director Ground Vehicle Survivability and Protection, TARDEC, US Army

Mr. Ulrich Faxel, Director of Engineering, BAAINBw, German MoD

Lieutenant Colonel (ret) Kerim Serkan Simais, Specialist Land Platforms, SSM, Turkish MoD
Lieutenant Colonel Daniel Ramos, Product Manager Vehicle Protection Systems, Stryker Brigade
Combat Team, US Army
Smoke signature of the ManPADS M 176 simulator. The right-hand picture shows (left) the product and (right)
the WESS

78 European Security & Defence · 5/2018
Register online or fax your registration to +44 (0) 870 9090 712 or call +44 (0) 870 9090 711

European Training Equipment troop movements are recorded during exer-

cises, plus the audio within each vehicle. At
the moment these data are not kept – but in

Conference 2018 the future they should be, he said, to be able

to show long-term trends. Turning to Cyber
training, he mentioned the Persistent Cyber
Training Environment (PCTE); this is a closed
Readiness, Cyber and Training were the main topics at ITEC 2018. system, because live cyber training risks ex-
posure of classified techniques and data.
On medical training, he mentioned the new
William Carter Defence Health Agency (DHA) for which
PEO STRI is the coordinator on behalf of the

Photos: Ian Carter

DoD. Training manikins are becoming more

T he 2018 European International Train-

ing Equipment Conference and Exhibi-
tion (ITEC) was held at the Messe Stuttgart
out-of-the-box thinking is required, he said,
particularly in the cyber area. He also men-
tioned an increase in the use of drones, for
and Instrumentation (STRI), headquartered
in Orlando, Florida. His theme was "Readi-
ness 2025", an integral part of the US "Force
realistic, with simulated blood, body move-
ments, sounds and even simulated death,
and the so-called "Star Wars" training
Exhibition Centre, conveniently located on which more training is required to control, 25" concept, and the head of the US Army, facility at Fort Polk now includes medical Keynote address by US Army Brigadier General William Cole, Principal
the north side of Stuttgart airport. Before deter and counter them. General Mark Milley, had recently stated manikins as well as other training devices. Executive Officer (PEO) for Simulation, Training and Instrumentation (STRI)
the main exhibition opened, there was the Rear Admiral Simon Williams of Clarion that "Readiness is our Number One prior- A recent development is the Warrior Injury
usual day of presentations by members of Defence recalled that ITEC started in ity". On Live, Virtual and Constructive (LVC) Assessment Manikin (WIAM), a specially- systems, we need simple tablet-based sys- night imagery and so forth. Displays varied
the international Simulation Interoperabil- 1990, the year that Saddam Hussein in- training, General Cole said that in exercises, instrumented dummy for training in injuries tems for individual training, right up to high- from domes, screens of various shapes, flat
ity Standards Organisation, the so-called vaded Kuwait. Since then there has been we need to link the L, V and C domains. As from blast or mines. fidelity systems with built-in Augmented displays large and small, to Head Mount-
"SISO day". Subjects included NATO Stand- constant change in the training world well as Virtual simulation, the Constructive Turning to multinational training, he men- and Virtual Reality (AR/VR). In training the ed systems in which the visual scene can
ardisation of Modelling and Simulation by and the challenge is how to keep ahead. element is most valuable for battle staffs tioned standards for laser-based systems young, we have to realise that they don’t be seen wherever you look. Some of the
within NATO. Because many European na- like reading manuals, he said, but they often smaller simulator motion systems were on
tions have different laser coding systems have good knowledge of computing and IT show, but the large hexapods used in Full
compared to the US, so called "bilingual" systems, and future training systems should Flight Simulators are too big and expensive
laser systems have been developed and are take this into account. to bring for just a few days.
being used in increasing numbers, for in-
stance at the US Army European training Conference Presentations Summary and Conclusions
complex at Grafenwoehr, NE of Nurem-
burg. Another recent example of a multi- In several conference rooms next to the The exhibition gave a good feel for progress
national exercise was in April at Fort Bragg, exhibition there was a good programme in modelling, simulation and training. The
North Carolina, where the British Army of presentations. Subjects included, in presentations covered a large range of activ-
participated in battle command exercises. alphabetical order, Blockchain Technol- ity from the general to the highly specialised,
This shows that pre-planned variable lev- ogy, the Cloud, Cyber Training, Disruptive and that by US Army Brigadier General Cole
els of security can be used, in which, he Technologies, Distributed systems, Low- was particularly significant because of the
ITEC 2018 was held in Stuttgart, Germany. said "we are better but not perfect", and cost Simulation, Management of Training, crucial role of his STRI organisation in US and
the key words are "pre-planned" for dif- Medical Training, Modelling & Simulation NATO simulation and training.
Agatino Mursia of Leonardo, Distributed In- Defence capability, he said, is the sum and commanders, and we still do "quite a ferent security levels for multinational ex- as-a-Service (MSaaS), Multi-domain Train- The Stuttgart venue is very convenient, be-
formation Systems (DIS) by Patrice Leydour of manpower, equipment and training. bit" of live training. He quoted French Gen- ercises. Finally, although there is an enor- ing, and Threat Simulation. This was in cause the exhibition centre is on the north
of Thales, Cross-domain Security by Wing Looking at manpower, he used figures eral Foch as saying in 1917 that "it takes mous number of Procurement Regulations, addition to the presentations mentioned side of the airport. There are hotels at the
Commander Colin Palmer and Squadron from World Mapper to show that world about 15,000 casualties to train a major there is also an Other Transaction Authority earlier on SISO day. Presenters came from airport and more in Echterdingen, one
Leader Rebecca Collis of the Royal Air population in most regions is due to rise general," but General Cole was pleased to (OTA) system for quick action for new and 14 countries, including the following from stop on the S-bahn towards the centre
Force, and the latest version of the Real- steadily, particularly in the Middle and Far be able to say that, today, these "casualties" prototype systems. outside Europe: Australia, Canada, Ghana, of Stuttgart and a half-hour walk to the
time Platform Reference Federation Object East, but that of Russia is forecast to fall, are now in computer exercises. As an exam- The final keynoter was Jürgen Michel, Pakistan, and the USA. Conference Centre. ITEC has also been to
Model (RPR FOM V3) by Bjorn Möller of with important implications for the fu- ple of current training, at Fort Riley the "Big head of international sales at Rheinmetall Amsterdam, Brussels, Cologne, Lausanne,
Pitch Technologies. Other subjects included ture balance of power. High-tech warfare Red One" Division with some 4,500 soldiers, Defence Electronics (RDE), headquartered The Exhibition Lille, London, Prague, Rome, Rotterdam
Medical Simulation, Metadata and Open uses modern weapons and includes the has one battalion in field training, another in in Bremen. Training needs to be available and Stockholm. All have good exhibition
Standards, M&S as a Service (MSaaS), and cyber domain, he said, but we must also simulators and another in constructive train- where units are located rather than just on The exhibition occupied about two-thirds of facilities, but they are some distance from
Urban Combat Training. These are signifi- consider the use of "crude" weapons by ing. The significant point is that the colo- ranges, he said, and training for the overall Halle 9, the number of halls illustrating the the airport, and some need a double jour-
cant subjects, and it was disappointing that insurgents. We therefore need to train for nel, who is coordinating the results, often mission should be recognised as more im- enormous size of the Stuttgart Airport Exhi- ney, first to the city and then to the Exhibi-
there were only about 60 attendees – per- both the high- and low-tech areas. Strat- cannot tell the difference between which portant than training for individual weap- bition Centre. 93 companies were listed as tion Centre. The ITEC exhibition is small
haps in future years the SISO event could egy, he suggested, should take into ac- of the LVC elements is being used. The L, ons. For mission training, modern systems exhibiting, led by the USA with 23, followed compared to the equivalent US event, in
be integrated more closely with the main count both intelligence and force which V and C elements originally were different such as Artificial Intelligence (AI) and "Big by the UK (19), Germany (17), France (10), both numbers of attendees and company
conference so that more people have the he characterised as "David and Goliath", areas of operation, but we have now inte- Data" should be used, and he noted that Canada and Italy with 4 each, Sweden and booths. In the US, numbers increased sig-
opportunity to attend. and we need to allow for Artificial Intelli- grated them, he said. Larger LVC exercises Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) systems Switzerland with 3, then 7 other countries. nificantly once I/ITSEC stabilised its loca-
gence (AI) and the so-called "Super Intel- take place up to army level, although some reduced both procurement time and cost. Overall attendance was about 2,500, similar tion in 1996 at the Orange County Exhibi-
Keynote Addresses ligent" systems of the future. The world work is needed to standardise the interfaces With threats varying from individual terror- to last year in Rotterdam, and people came tion Centre in Orlando, Florida, at which it
is changing, and we must change with it, between the three elements. In some exer- ists, through insurgency to full conflict, the from about 40 different countries. will be from 26-29 November 2018. Look-
Introducing the keynote addresses on 15 he concluded. cises, Automated Forces (AF) are inserted, future is unpredictable, he said, and Training Displays at the exhibition booths showed ing to next year, ITEC is in Sweden from
May, conference chair Udo Keuter of Airbus The next address was from US Army Briga- where a few operatives control thousands of and Simulation systems need to be designed that simulator visuals continue to improve 14-16 May at the Stockholmsmässan at
Defence emphasised the theme of "Readi- dier General William Cole, Principal Execu- automated personnel and vehicles in the ex- to be flexible so that they can keep up with in fidelity and in real-world effects such Älvsjö on the south side of Stockholm, last
ness". With current and future threats, tive Officer (PEO) for Simulation, Training ercise. He also pointed out that vehicle and changes. Looking at the variety of training as weapon, weather and special effects, visited by ITEC in 2008.  

80 European Security & Defence · 5/2018 5/2018 · European Security & Defence 81
Firms & Faces

“Proven reliability and durability ”

Photo: Safran Vectronix AG

Introducing New Capabilities on a New Team for NATO BMD
Combat-Proven Fighter Command and Control
Photos: Geroh

(df) Aero, the biggest Czech aircraft man- (df) Lockheed Martin and ThalesRaytheon-
ufacturer, and Israeli Aerospace Indus- Systems are joining forces to provide NATO
As a specialist in mobile telescopic masts, the German company tries (IAI) introduced their cost-effective, with a territorial Ballistic Missile Defence
GEROH has been an exhibitor at several MSPO exhibitions. combat proven fighter attack aircraft at

Photo: US Navy
Farnborough. The F/A-259 STRIKER is a
To mark this year's MSPO in Kielce, Poland, ESD had the opportu- multirole aircraft for close air support,
nity to speak to GEROH's new Managing Director Markus Kopp. counter-insurgency operations and bor-
der patrolling with interception capabili-
ties. “The F/A-259 STRIKER combines the
robustness and effectiveness of its suc-
mast such a great product. Our experienced cessful predecessor, the L-159 ALCA, with ing System (THIS) programme. MOSKITO
and highly skilled design team customises the latest advances in avionics and aircraft TI is a lightweight combination of several
our solutions to any specific requirement. systems technology,” the companies an- high performance sensors and modules
In addition to that WILLBURT, ITS and MAD nounced. “Powered by the same ‘best in including uncooled thermal imager, high
products allows us to always offer the per- its class’ Honeywell F124 engine and using (BMD) command and control capability. grade direct view optics (DVO), Low Light
fect mast for any application, having the benefits of a wet wing, F/A-259 STRIKER This teaming agreement, signed in the TV (LLTV) channel, a laser rangefinder
best price-performance ratio. The latest provides superior performance, great ma- presence of Raytheon and Thales, estab- (LRF), a digital magnetic compass (DMC)
innovation in the 100-year history of the noeuvrability, and a high range.” “The lishes a transatlantic team that combines and a GPS receiver. These features can be
WILLBURT company is the patented Remote F/A-259 is able to operate from unpaved the decades of expertise from Lockheed used for day and night observation, target
Locking System for pneumatic masts. It sig- runways and has seven hard points for any Martin and Raytheon with Thales’ Europe- acquisition, artillery and fire correction, for-
ESD: How long have you been in your cur- nificantly increases the safety of the mast combination of fuel, weapons, or mission an air command and control capabilities. ward observer and Joint Tactical Air Con-
rent position as Geroh's Managing Director? operator and is unique in the world. We can ThalesRaytheonSystems will be prime con- troller. MOSKITO TI can work in all-weather

Photo: IAI
What is your personal background? Are you clearly say the WILL-BURT group is the mar- tractor and system integrator for the de- environments. The delivered systems will
a shareholder of the company? ket leader in mobile telescopic masts. fence solution, which will combine opera- be used by the Dutch Armed and Special
Kopp: My adventure started in July 2018 tional experience and components coming Forces.
and I have known the company and some ESD: How much of GEROH's business is from different partners. Lockheed Martin
of the employees for many years. I am proud generated from military programmes? What developed the ballistic missile defence MBDA’s New Facility in Bolton
to be a member of this great team. GEROH are your best practice references with the planning capability through its Defence De- (df) MBDA’s new high-tech manufacturing
is part of the WILLBURT group, the world's Bundeswehr and other forces? sign System. Additionally, both Lockheed facility in Bolton has been officially opened
premier manufacturer of mobile telescopic Martin and Raytheon bring in expertise by Gavin Williamson MP, UK Secretary of
mast and tower solutions and pan and tilt The 4.5 m Spindle Mast is a fully and experience as prime contractors for State for Defence. The new facility houses
positioners. Before I started to work with integrated solution including an the United States’ ballistic missile defence some 670 design, engineering and manu-
GEROH, I was the General Manager of auto-stow and cable management. capability. The focus of the programme is facturing employees and is to be used for
ECCO SAFETY GROUP GERMANY (ESG) lo- equipment, allowing smart weapons inte- the upgrade, test and integration of NA- the production of inert missile equipment
cated in Ulm. ESG produces beacons, light service and maintenance concept, COTS gration and standoff weapon capabilities. TO’s command and control (C2) systems and systems. An opening ceremony con-
bars and backup alarms for vehicle-based or if needed tailored to our customers’ re- As an optional upgrade, the F/A-259 can and underlying communication network ducted by the Secretary of State marked
applications. quirements. An excellent example is our first be equipped by EASA radar and helmet to enable effective information exchanges

Photo: MBDA
spindle mast series which has been in use in mounted display. Another optional up- between various NATO and national missile
ESD: What is GEROH's portfolio of capa- Thailand since the early ‘90s. We are also grade is air-to-air refuelling, increasing the defence systems. With the ever-increasing
bilities? In which areas do you consider the very proud to be a long-standing partner of aircraft’s range and endurance,” said Ben- threat of proliferation of ballistic missile
company to be a market leader? Bundeswehr with projects like the FENNEK jamin Cohen, General Manager of IAI’s technology and weapons of mass destruc-
Kopp: We are specialised in mast systems or the RMB system based on the FUCHS Lahav Division. “With advanced 4th gen- tion, NATO is redoubling its effort to deal
and trailer solutions mainly for military appli- APC or YAK and many more. eration avionics the F/A-259 STRIKER has with this threat and to protect European
cations and we constantly increase our mar- an open architecture concept, allowing fu- populaces and territories, which, accord-
ket share in the commercial market. After 72 ESD: We understand that GEROH is going to ture updates based on customers’ require- ing to Western leaders, is a key element of
years, more than 40,000 GEROH masts and exhibit at this year's MSPO in Kielce. Is this the ments and use of Real Time Data Link, NATO’s collective defence. This integrated
hundreds of special purpose trailers are in first time that you participate in this exhibi- supporting a high situational awareness system-of-systems architecture will provide
use all over the world – partly under extreme tion? What are the highlights of your exhibit? capability. The advanced digital cockpit is NATO forces with the capability to defend the completion of five years of develop-
environmental conditions. GEROH MIL-STD Kopp: Together with our partner SUNDOOR equipped with two large multifunctional NATO territories. ment and £50M of investment by MBDA.
masts with proven reliability and durability we have been an exhibitor at MSPO for many displays, electronic flight instrument sys- The new Bolton site is where a number of
offer highest precision even under difficult years. On our joint stand we will present our tem, and other features.” Giuseppe Gior- Safran Wins THIS Contract key missiles are being produced for the UK
wind conditions and payload capacities for Geroh’s brand new patented bestsellers for commercial and military ap- do, President and CEO of Aero, added: (cl) The Defense Material Organization Armed Forces, delivering operational sov-
heavy antennas, radars or optical systems Remote Locking System for Pneu- plications, i.e. the crank mast series KVR and “Nowadays, national air forces are looking (DMO) of the Netherlands awarded Safran ereignty and freedom of action to the UK.
with weights up to 300 kg and more, which matic Masts allows safe operation a high precision spindle mast SPM as well as for a solution how to fulfill a great variety Vectronix AG, a subsidiary of Safran Elec- These systems include BRIMSTONE, AS-
clearly is the main criterion for a MIL-STD from a distance. WILLBURT´s lightweight carbon fibre compos- of missions in an affordable way, while tronics & Defense providing state-of-the- RAAM, CAMM (SEA CEPTOR and LAND
mast. Our most recent development is a ite STILETTO mast. SUNDOOR and GEROH keeping high survivability of the aircraft art optronic equipment, systems and sen- CEPTOR), SPEAR, and METEOR, for which
spindle mast with a nested height of only Kopp: Traditionally the majority of our busi- have had a relationship for more than 20 years. and its crew. Aero and IAI are introducing sors, a contract to deliver more than 1,000 final assembly for all six European partner
0.8 m which extends to a height of 3.3 m. ness is done in the scope of military pro- a multirole fighter, F/A-259 STRIKER, with units of the next-generation MOSKITO TI nations is carried out at MBDA Bolton. The
The combination of precision, payload ca- grammes, as we offer highest precision The interview was conducted by a wide range of combat capabilities that thermal imaging and targeting systems in site will also play a key role in exports, un-
pacity and long service life makes a GEROH and longest possible lifetimes and a great Jürgen Hensel meet those needs of air forces.” the frame of the Thermal Handheld Imag- derpinning the UK Government’s Prosper-

82 European Security & Defence · 5/2018 5/2018 · European Security & Defence 83
Firms & Faces

Photo: Diehl
ity Agenda. “This £50M factory supports successful and have taught us a lot about observer and passed to the gun crew via information gathered from airborne plat- Systems and German Naval Yards Kiel will
700 jobs in Bolton, showing how central the possibilities of such systems and sen- a joint fires cell or similar element – to be forms and automatically classifying and ef- cooperate to submit their BAFO. A final
a strong British defence industry is to our sors; the ability to operate in Belgian’s digitally transferred into an artillery fire- ficiently displaying them. The information decision in the award procedure is not ex-
national prosperity,” said Williamson at confined airspace; opportunities for the control system (FCS), where the ballistic is then shared in real–time with the ground pected before 2019.
the ceremony. “MBDA’s investment has domain of coastal security; and prospects calculations are made. Even though it segments of the Task Force such as the C2
created more than 100 new jobs, and this for further developments,” said the officer has a high level of automation there will centre and ground intervention vehicles, Thailand Procures IRIS-T Missiles
has been supported by a £400M contract in charge of the Belgian Navy’s Maritime always be operator verification before the and enables all operating teams to share a (ck) Diehl Defence has signed a contract
from the Government, helping to create a Tactical UAS (MTUAS) Project Team, LtCdr mission is carried out, the company said. unified situational awareness picture. for the supply of short range air-to-air IRIS-
further 100 roles within the company. You D. Biermans. “Given the complexity of in- “The threat posed by counter-battery fire T (Infra-Red Imaging System - Tail/Thrust
can’t have prosperity without security. MB- troducing a MTUAS within the Navy and on the modern battlefield necessitates the Damen and SAAB to Cooperate on Vector Controlled) missiles to Thailand. As their GRIPEN and later also their F-16 fight-
DA in Bolton is keeping Britain safe while its impact on the concepts of operation ability for artillery systems to ‘shoot-and- Brazilian Corvette early as 2011, the Royal Thai Air Force opted er aircraft. In addition, integration of the
creating highly-skilled jobs and opportuni- and tactics, this was a first informative step scoot’ while maintaining accurate target- (ck) In order to meet the needs of the Bra- for the European short-range missile to arm missile into the F-5 fleet is planned as part
ties, demonstrating our commitment to the and will be part of a series of tests and ting,” explained Hans Jørgen Bohlbro, Sys- zilian Navy, Damen Schelde Naval Ship-
people of Bolton and the North West.” experiments with a variety of vehicles and tematic’s Vice President, Defence Product building and Saab will cooper-
sensors. “These flights were the first S-100 Management, “One of the benefits of the ate to deliver the project that
Raytheon Wins Laser customer demonstrations with the recently new function is the ability for artillery sys- will supply four TAMANDARÉ
Development Contract integrated PT-8 OCEANWATCH payload. tems to quickly conduct fire missions and class corvettes. The companies
(df) Raytheon has won a US$10M US Army This wide-area maritime search capability redeploy before they can be engaged by are world-leading references in
High Energy Laser Tactical Vehicle Dem- offers a powerful naval patrol capacity and enemy fire.” the development of naval solu-
onstration (HEL TVD) programme con- thus solves the challenge of searching for tions: Damen will be responsible
tract. Within this contract the company small objects over vast areas. The employed SANDCAT With Mission for supplying the SIGMA 10514,
will develop a 100kW class laser weapon combination of two payloads proved to be Management System a proven platform that will be
system preliminary design, for integration an ideal solution for the tested scenarios. (ck) Israeli companies Plasan and BIRD Aer- adapted to meet the demands
onboard the family of medium tactical “With its small footprint, exceptional ca- osystems have teamed up to offer a SAND- of the client. SAAB will provide
vehicles (FMTV). Upon HEL TVD Program pability and state-of-the-art payloads, the CAT armoured vehicle equipped with a its 9LV combat management
Option Two completion, one supplier will CAMCOPTER S-100 is the perfect platform mission management system. The special system, used by navies from
be awarded a system development and for maritime and land-based SAR mis- intervention vehicle was displayed for the several countries; the system is
demonstration contract by the Army to sions,” said Hans Georg Schiebel, Chair- first time at Eurosatory 2018. The protected known for its flexibility and easy
build and integrate a weapon system on man of the Schiebel Group. SANDCAT, Plasan’s family of 4x4 armoured integration of third-party mod-
the FMTV. A system, development and vehicles, offers flexibility and robustness ules. In addition to supplying the
demonstration contract decision, valued at Fire Support for Danish Army’s corvettes, SAAB and Damen are
Photo: Plasan

nearly $130M, is expected in early 2019. New Artillery Systems proposing a technology transfer
“The beauty of this system is that it‘s self- (df) Systematic has been contracted by the programme for much of the pro-
contained,” said Roy Azevedo, Vice Presi- Danish Defence Acquisition and Logistics ject, which will benefit Brazil's
dent of Intelligence, Reconnaissance and Organisation (DALO) to deliver a new fire national defence industry.
Surveillance Systems at Raytheon’s Space
Photo: US Army

and Airborne Systems business unit. “Multi- Cooperation in MKS 180

spectral targetting sensors, fibre-combined Tender
lasers, power and thermal sub-systems are (ck) thyssenkrupp Marine Sys-
incorporated in a single package. This sys- while maintaining manoeuvrability and tems und German Naval Yards
tem is being designed to knock out rockets, agility, even when equipped with surveil- Kiel have entered into a coop-
artillery or mortar fire, or small drones.” lance and communications systems. The eration agreement for the fur-
SANDCAT has been designed to support ther bidding process in the MKS
Camcopter Successfully Demon- various missions including law enforce- 180 multi-role combat ship pro-
strated to the Belgian Navy ment, Special Forces, homeland security, curement project for the Ger-
(df) Schiebel successfully demonstrated the border patrol and armed conflict. SAND- man Navy. German Naval Yards
search and rescue as well as maritime sur- support capability for the Danish Army’s CATs are also used to transport troops or Kiel is participating in the MKS
veillance capabilities of the CAMCOPTER latest artillery systems. Under the contract, as command posts. More than 600 vehicles 180 award procedure as a gen-
S-100 Unmanned Air System (UAS) from Systematic will deliver a fieldable solution in have been sold worldwide. Equipped with eral contractor: if German Naval
June 21 to July 1, 2018 to the Belgian Navy. the 2020 timeframe, with integration and BIRD Aerosystems' MSIS, the SANDCAT Yards were to win the contract
“The trials with the S-100 have been very firing trials scheduled for 2019. This new armoured vehicle can participate and lead thyssenkrupp Marine Systems
capability will be deployed on the Danish task force ground missions while communi- would perform a substantial
Photo: Schiebel

Army’s new CAESAR self-propelled howit- cating in real time with the other task force share of the required develop-
zers and CARDOM 10 mortars, which will segments, whether aircraft, helicopters, or ment and engineering work as
be integrated on PIRANHA V armoured ground sensors. BIRD's Multi-Sensor Inte- a subcontractor. The German
vehicles. The new function builds on the gration System (MSIS) manages the mission defence procurement agency
Fire Support Module developed for Sys- profile and ensures that all operating teams BAAINBw will be sending the
tematic’s SitaWare Headquarters solution share a unified, real-time situational aware- bidders in the MKS 180 award
and will significantly shorten the sensor-to- ness. The MSIS is part of BIRD’s Airborne procedure a precise specifica-
shooter engagement cycle, among other Surveillance, Intelligence and Observation tion for the vessels and request
benefits. The new capability enables fire (ASIO) solution. The system allows collect- a best and final offer (BAFO). On
mission data – first generated by a forward ing and processing of large amounts of this basis thyssenkrupp Marine

84 European Security & Defence · 5/2018

Firms & Faces

of the new procurement, so that IRIS-T will pellers, propulsion systems, handling sys- counter fire, and two firing modes: lock tion to the Turkish customer’s preferences
now also become the standard weapon Designed To Survive: Peli Launches Video Competition tems and ship design. Kongsberg thus takes on before launch (LOBL) and lock on after and future business opportunities in Turkey.
in the Thai Air Force. IRIS-T is one of the (ck) Peli, a manufacturer of protective cases, has announced a video contest. Under over the marine products, systems and af- launch (LOAL). MMP has a dual mode seeker Peli Products operate on markets including
world's most modern short-range air-to- the hashtag #DesignedToSurvive the company is looking for creative fans who want to termarket services businesses supplied by (uncooled infrared and visible colour chan- fire fighters, police, defence, aerospace, en-
air missiles. In addition to defeating enemy show what their Peli Case can do. The company's marketing message reads: "We want Rolls-Royce’s subsidiaries but not Bergen nels) and fibre-optic data link which mini- tertainment, industrial and consumer.
fighter aircraft, a self defence capability fun, we want atypical, we want your best adventures in a video!" Professionals and Engines nor Rolls-Royce’s Naval Business. mises collateral damage. With its remote op-
against attacking air-to-air or ground-to-air amateurs are invited to send videos that show the challenges their Peli cases face. The Thanks to the complementarity of the two eration, it can be adapted to the UGV. It also Terma and MASS to Deliver EWLS
missiles is provided by IRIS-T. Even attacks best video will receive a prize of €1.000,- in Peli Products, the second prize is €750,- and firms this acquisition enables Kongsberg to provides an Intelligence, Surveillance, Target Solution
from behind can be successfully fended off the third prize is €500,- at Peli Products. Peli's video competition is open to submissions improve its market position in the global Acquisition & Reconnaissance (ISTAR) capa- (cl) Terma and MASS will cooperate to provide
by the pilot with IRIS-T, without having to from Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Applicants are asked to shoot a video story maritime industry and especially enables bility and, through direct integration with a a global Electronic Warfare Lifecycle Support
change the course of the aircraft. IRIS-T of a Peli case in action and then upload the video to Instagram using the hashtag #De- the company to provide solutions for the C4I network delivers battlefield intelligence. (EWLS) solution which will be able to sup-
was developed and procured by Germany, signedToSurvive. The competition runs from 20 August to 20 September 2018 and the industry’s key drivers: technologisation and IMPACT is a 250kg motorised turret carry- port any fleet. The two partners complement
Greece, Italy, Norway, Spain, and Sweden winning videos will be selected by an internal Peli jury and announced on Peli Facebook digitalisation. Even though the activity level ing the day/night sensors of the MMP fire each other’s capabilities: Terma Group is a
as the successor to ageing SIDEWINDER and Instagram by the end of September. Detailed information on the competition rules, of the Commercial Marine has seen some control, additionally to two read-to-fire mis- Danish Aerospace, Defence & Security Group
missiles. Series production began in 2005 the award ceremony and the evaluation procedure can be found at reductions, this fusion will strengthen the siles and a 7.62 mm self-protection machine providing control and integration of any
and other user countries include Austria, global position of Kongsberg as Rolls-Royce gun and its ammunition. The commands combination of sensors and countermeas-
Saudi Arabia, South Africa and Thailand. is represented in 34 countries. The compa- are displayed in the vehicle cab to keep the ure systems. MASS, a Cohort plc company,
As a multi-purpose weapon, IRIS-T is also nies, jointly, have equipment and deliveries crew out of danger. MMP will be combined employs experts in Electronic Warfare data
used as a surface-to-air missile in a ground- associated with around 30,000 vessels. Af- with TheMis UGV, a fully modular diesel-

Photo: Terma Group

based air defense role. ter clearance by regulatory authorities, the electric UGV. It has a top speed of 22km/h
acquisition process is expected to be com- and can carry a payload of 750kg. TheMis
New CEO for IAI pleted in the first quarter of 2019. The final can be operated line of sight, via cameras
(ck) Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) has purchase price depends on Commercial and equipped with an autonomy kit even
named Brigadier General (Res.) Nimrod Marine’s cash, debt and working capital at operates autonomously. The UGV aims to
Sheffer, IAI’s VP of Strategy and R&D, the time of completion of the transaction. exchange humans whose heat signature can
as IAI’s new easily be detected for robots on the battle-
Photo: IAI

CEO. Sheffer MBDA and Milrem Robotics to field in order to assure soldier’s safety.
will replace Develop Anti-Tank Unmanned
Joseph Weiss, Ground Vehicle Peli Products Announces its
who is step- (cl) The European missile systems designer Expansion in Turkey
ping down on and producer MBDA and the Estonian un- (cl) Peli Products, a design and manufactur-
reaching retire- manned vehicles manufacturer Milrem ing company of high performance protective management. The company is experienced in
ment age. The Robotics decided to cooperate to develop cases and advanced portable lighting sys- threat vulnerability analysis and countermeas-
nomination is the first unmanned ground vehicle (UGV), tems, continues its expansion since its foun- ure development. The service of the future
now pending Cybersecurity Training the student’s responses. The system is also designed for anti-tank purposes. The new dation in Barcelona in 1997 and opens new EWLS solution will comprise countermeasure
the approval of (cl) In cooperation with the Carlos III Uni- able to evaluate the student’s performance product will be a combination of MBDA’S offices in Ankara. Since then, the enterprise development, mission data generation and
the State Com- versity of Madrid, Minsait, Indra’s digital and provide aid proactively. In addition, it Integrated MMP Precision Attack Combat has expanded in the European, Middle East flight data replay and debrief. It will also of-
panies Authority and the Defence and Fi- transformation business unit, will provide will have tools to automatically compose Turret (IMPACT) system and Milrem Robot- & African (EMEA) region and is represented fer control and exploitation of proprietary
nance ministers. This is the first time that personalised training programmes on its new exercises based on a catalogue of prior ics’ TheMis unmanned ground vehicle. MMP in 140 countries. Additionally to the increase Electronic Warfare data and information as
IAI has named a CEO who is not an IAI CYBER RANGE platform due to grow- knowledge and the professional’s person- is an anti-tank guided land combat missile, of the production in Europe, Peli Products well as expert advice and consultancy that
alumnus. Sheffer joined IAI recently from ing demand for cyber experts to protect alised needs. As a consequence, it will be but may also be used against personnel and now strengthens its presence in Turkey supports the development, maintenance and
the highest ranks of military command; he advanced societies against cyber attacks. able to meet the specific needs of organisa- infrastructure. It has been developed for which was built up since 2011. The central full exploitation of EW equipment capability.
retired from the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) The platform has been designed to sup- tions and companies by taking into account mounted and dismounted applications. As position in Ankara will enable the firm to es- Moreover, the EWLS solution shall be cost-
two years ago. In his most recent role, he port individual and group training in tech- the desired level of training, the type of or- a “fire-and-forget” missile, it has a 4km+ tablish new relationships to local customers effective and shall minimise the time taken in
headed the planning division of the IDF’s niques related to cyberdefence, cyber at- ganisation and the area of attack, without range that reaches further than the enemy’s and thereby facilitate the company’s adapta- providing support.
General Staff where he was responsible tacks and forensic analysis. The system will losing the practical aspect of mass training.
for drafting and executing the IDF’s work adapt to each student in an autonomous Minsait offers security guarantees to pro-
plan, including the shaping of long term way and in real time. Instructor interven- tect classified content; it has a private cloud
strategic processes and managing the tion is no longer needed, which minimises equipped with technical security measures. European Security & Defence
army’s resources. Among others, Sheffer the required resources. The adversary’s ac- The platform has been tested by more than
has led the talks with the Israeli govern- tion, as defender as well as attacker, will 1,000 cybersecurity professionals from fifty
Now available in e-paper format!
ment on the defence budget, the IDF’s be automated by the system, reacting to countries.
streamlining processes, renewal and tech- Enjoy reading European Security & Defence as e-paper for
Photo: Indra

nological development projects and the Kongsberg to Acquire Rolls-Royce your tablet computer or smartphone.
external relations of the military. In his pre- Commercial Marine
vious roles, Sheffer served as deputy com- (cl) Kongsberg Gruppen ASA (Kongsberg), App available in Axel
mander of Israel's air force and headed an a company operating in automation, navi- Springer AG’s iKiosk
aerial division. Combat pilot by training, gation and control systems, has signed an
Sheffer holds a degree in geophysics from agreement worth GBP500M with Rolls- ro
Tel Aviv University and a master’s degree Royce to acquire the latter’s Commercial
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86 European Security & Defence · 5/2018
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Fax: +49 (0) 228 35 00 871 · ·
Firms & Faces

TERRIFFIC Project to Counter ECL. R&D partners can supply leading Thales and Microsoft Develop
CBRNe Incidents edge technologies and SMEs already op- Defence Cloud
(cl) To fight the increasing threat of radio- erating in military or first responder mar- (cl) To accompany the digitalisation of armed
logical dispersal devices (RDD) combining kets develop key innovative components. forces, Thales and Microsoft announce to
radioactive components and convention- TERRIFFIC is a research and innovation cooperate in the development of a common
al explosives, the TERRIFFIC project is a project funded under the European Com- Defence Cloud solution for modern armed
cooperation of ten European organisa- mission’s Horizon 2020 programme. The forces. This new cloud will be based on the
tions which will develop Tools for early research is based on results from prior Microsoft Azure Stack platform which will
and Effective Reconnaissance in cbRne European projects in this sector. It fo- be cyber-secured by Thales by integrating
(Chemical, Biological Radiological or Nu- cuses on enhancing the effectiveness of its end-to-end cybersecurity and encryption
clear explosives) Incidents providing First first responders during the first hours of solutions. The two companies combine their
responders Faster Information and ena- radiological or nuclear explosive events, knowledge in IT and cybersecurity to meet
bling better management of the Control but also treats the applicability on inci- the demand of armed forces to keep clas-
dents with chemical and biological weap- sified data inside their own infrastructures,

ons, in order to minimise response times, but to use the capacities of clouds to store
health and safety risks for the response and communicate data. The combination
teams and human intervention in general of Microsoft’s Azure Stack and Guavus Re-
by employing automated processes, mo- flex analytics platform will enable soldiers to
bile detection capabilities and technolo- analyse big amount of data in real time, to
gies like detectors, algorithms, drones, use military Internet-of-things (IoT) applica-
robots, dispersion models, information tions or exchange data with mobile applica-
management software and decision sup- tions. This cloud will be useable in national
port systems. For example, mixed reality command centres and individual theatres
technology will provide continuously up- of operations; the interoperability will be
zone (TERRIFFIC). The ten partners, espe- dated information during operations to reinforced. To ensure its operability even in
cially SMEs and practitioners, are ARKTIS first responders. Furthermore, the devel- remote locations and theatres of operations,
Radiation Detectors, NEXTER Robotics, oped components will be standardised. each integrated system will have a level of
AERACCESS, Bruhn NewTech, ARTTIC, Like this, they are adaptable to existing autonomy and be capable of working with-
ISEMI, TL & Associates, LIST, CEA and and future solutions. out connection.

Preview ESD 6/2018 · Septem

ber 2018

• Energy Security
• Swiss Army
• Ukrainian Air Force
• 20 Years of OCCAR
• Italian Special Forces
• Naval Radars
• Amphibious Warfare
• Mine Protected Vehicles
• Air-to-Air Missile Developments
• Blue Water Naval Ships
• SP Artillery
• UAS Detection and Countermeasures
• Country Focus:
South Africa

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Phone: +49 228 35008 70 · ·

88 European Security & Defence · 5/2018


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