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www.elsevier.com/locate/apthermeng

with hollow rectangular ﬁns

Ugur Akyol a, Kadir Bilen b,*

a

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Corlu Engineering, University of Trakya, 59860 Corlu/Tekirdag, Turkey

b

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Ataturk, 25240 Erzurum, Turkey

Available online 5 August 2005

Abstract

An experimental study was conducted to investigate the heat transfer and friction loss characteristics in a horizontal rectangular

channel having attachments of hollow rectangular proﬁle ﬁns over one of its heated surface. The Reynolds number based on the ﬂow

averaged inlet velocity and the hydraulic diameter, ranged from 3000 to 32,000. The hollow rectangular proﬁle ﬁns in 10 cm height

and a · b = 2 cm · 4 cm dimensions with a thickness of 0.2 cm were mounted on a heating surface vertically. Reynolds number, ﬁn

arrangement and ﬁn pitch in the ﬂow direction were the experimental parameters. Both in-line and staggered ﬁn arrangements were

studied for one-ﬁxed spanwise (Sx/a = 3) and four diﬀerent streamwise (Sy/b = 1.5, 1.875, 2.5 and 3.75) distances. Correlation equa-

tions for Nu, f and thermal performances were determined for ﬁn conﬁgurations and the straight channel case without ﬁns.

2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Finned surfaces; Heat transfer enhancement; Thermal performance; Hollow rectangular ﬁns; Forced convection heat transfer

for the evaluation of the net energy gain. One of the

It is well known that a straight ﬁn with a concave par- ways to evaluate the heat transfer performance is the

abolic proﬁle provides maximum heat dissipation for a comparison of the heat transfer coeﬃcients at a constant

given proﬁle area [1]. Since the concave parabolic shape pumping power [4–6].

is diﬃcult and costly to manufacture, the rectangular Many studies have been done for diﬀerent types of ﬁn

proﬁle is preferred even though it does not utilise the arrays, for example the one reported in [7], but still there

material most eﬃciently [2]. For example, in a study per- is lack of knowledge of the forced convection heat trans-

formed by Tahat et al. [3], pin ﬁns were employed on the fer from a surface with vertical hollow rectangular pro-

heating surface in a rectangular channel; and Bilen et al. ﬁle ﬁns. The array employed in the present study

[4] investigated the heat transfer and friction loss charac- consists of vertically mounted hollow rectangular proﬁle

teristics of a surface with cylindrical ﬁns arranged both ﬁns on a surface. The experiments were performed for

in-line and staggered in a channel having rectangular in-line and staggered ﬁn arrangements. Heat transfer

cross-section. The maximum amount of the heat trans- experiments without ﬁns were also conducted, for eﬃ-

fer occurred at Sy/D = 2.94. ciency comparison. Furthermore, friction loss was deter-

mined by measuring pressure drop along the test section.

*

Corresponding author. Tel.: +90 442 231 4864; fax: +90 442 236

In calculations, two diﬀerent areas, which were called

0957. the total surface area and the projected area, were em-

E-mail address: kbilen@atauni.edu.tr (K. Bilen). ployed for the average Nusselt number.

1359-4311/$ - see front matter 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2005.05.014

210 U. Akyol, K. Bilen / Applied Thermal Engineering 26 (2006) 209–216

Nomenclature

a, b ﬁn length in spanwise and streamwise direc- q air density (kg/m3)

tion, respectively

Dh hydraulic diameter of the channel (m) Subscripts

f friction factor a ﬁnned

h mean heat transfer coeﬃcient (W m2 K1) axi axial

H ﬁn and channel height (m) bac back

k thermal conductivity of air (W m1 K1) con convection

L test surface length (m) f ﬁlm

N number of ﬁn in inlet, in-line

Nu Nusselt number for ﬁnned surface loss losses

Nus Nusselt number for smooth channel net net

Q_ heat transfer rate (W) out out

Re Reynolds number pro projected

S distance between the adjacent ﬁns (m) rad radiation

T steady state temperature (K) s mean surface, smooth

V mean inlet velocity (m s1) stag staggered

W channel or test plate width (m) tot total

vol volt

Greek symbols x, y spanwise and streamwise directions, respec-

DP static pressure diﬀerence (N m2) tively

g performance eﬃciency

2. Experimental rig amount of the heat given to the test section was con-

trolled by a variac and a voltage regulator. To reduce

An experimental set up was installed to study the heat the contact resistance to heat ﬂow, a sink compound

transfer performance and friction factor of hollow rect- of high thermal conductivity was applied both between

angular proﬁle ﬁns (Fig. 1). Air was the working ﬂuid. the heater and the test surface and between the test sur-

The test facility was consisted of a wooden channel set face and the ﬁns. The backsides of the heater and of the

on the suction side of a fan. The cross-section of the other walls were insulated with glasswool, in order to

channel was rectangular in each section; 10 cm in height minimize the heat losses.

and 18 cm in width with a wall thickness of 1.8 cm, total Seven copper–constantan thermocouples were in-

length of the channel was 200 cm. The test section was stalled along the test section centerline, to measure the

mounted at the bottom surface. The aluminum hollow steady state temperature of the base surface of the ﬁn

rectangular proﬁle ﬁns were placed on an aluminum array. The average of these readings was taken as aver-

plate in dimensions of 30 cm length, 18 cm width and age temperature of the test surface at steady state. Ana-

0.2 cm thickness. A plate heater with a 1500 W maxi- log signals from the experimental system were fed to the

mum power, which was approximately the same dimen- data acquisition card (HG 818 advantech), then these

sions as the aluminum plate, heated the lower horizontal signals were ampliﬁed and converted to digital signals

wall of the test section to supply a constant heat. The and both saved and displayed on the computer screen

as real temperature values. The temperatures were used

the average of ten values collected for a single thermo-

Inclined couple location in two-minute interval at steady state

manometer

Anemometer Flow

Fan Mixer Table 1

straightener

Distance between ﬁns and the number of rectangular proﬁle ﬁns for

Fin a · b = 2 · 4 cm2 and Sx/a = 3

Sy/b 1.5 1.875 2.5 3.75

Insulation Ny 5 4 3 2

Voltage Test Nx 3 3 3 3

Heater Computer

regulator surface

Ntot (in-line) 15 12 9 6

Ntot (staggered) 13 10 8 5

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of experimental apparatus.

U. Akyol, K. Bilen / Applied Thermal Engineering 26 (2006) 209–216 211

a b

Fig. 2. The arrangements of ﬁns on plate: (a) in-line array, (b) staggered array.

conditions. The inlet temperature of the air stream was surface to its surroundings, and Q_ axi is the axial conduc-

taken as the average readings of two copper–constantan tion heat loss through the channel wall, which is

thermocouples located after the ﬂow straightener. Simi- reported that this loss is less than 3.2% of the total

larly the outlet temperature of the air stream was taken power input [8], and it was assumed to be nominally

as the average reading of four copper–constantan ther- 3% for the present case due to the similarity of the sys-

mocouples located in the downstream region of the insu- tems. The conduction heat loss Q_ bac from the down wall

lated channel. Moreover, one thermocouple was used of the test section to the environment was calculated by

for the outer surface temperature of the heating section applying the natural convection correlation between

and one for the ambient temperature. The copper–con- wall and atmosphere using the related correlation [9].

stantan thermocouples were calibrated in a thermostat The radiative loss was estimated from a simpliﬁed model

within ±0.1 C deviation before being used in the experi- where the heated surface was treated as a plate surface

ments. The average velocity in the channel was deter- surrounded by a large environment. The results sug-

mined by averaging the 11 velocities in perpendicular gested that the radiative losses with an emissivity value

direction and 19 in spanwise direction to ﬂow by an ane- of 0.05 for polished aluminum were less than 1% of

mometer. The pressure drop within the test section of Q_ vol . The electric energy supplied to the test surface is

the channel was measured by using two static pressure not exactly equal to the convective energy loss from this

tapings installed on the roof of the test section, which surface. It becomes equal after subtracting the losses,

were connected to an inclined manometer. In the experi-

Q_ net ¼ Q_ con ð3Þ

ments, the duration to reach steady state conditions was

about 1–2 h, depending upon experimental conditions. The steady state rate of the convection heat transfer

The hollow rectangular proﬁle ﬁns with a cross-section from the test surface with ﬁns can be calculated by

of 2 cm (in the spanwise direction) by 4 cm (in the

streamwise direction) and 10 cm height, the same height _Qcon ¼ hAtot T s T out þ T in ð4Þ

2

as that of the channel, were attached on the upper sur-

face of the base plate. The ﬁn number and the distance where Tout is the outlet temperature of air ﬂow that was

between the ﬁns are given in Table 1, and the arrange- determined by averaging the temperatures measured at

ment of the ﬁns on the test section is illustrated in Fig. 2. four locations at the exit section of the test surface, Tin

is the inlet temperature of air that was determined by

averaging the temperatures at two locations at the en-

3. Calculation of the heat transfer rate and the friction trance of the test section, Ts is the average temperature

factor of seven locations in the centerline of the surface and

Atot is the total surface area. Either the projected or

The net heat transfer rate Q_ net is the heat given to the the total surface can be taken as the surface area in

ﬂow, by convection at the steady state conditions and the calculations. The total surface area, Atot, and the

can be calculated based on the following energy balance projected area, Apro, can be expressed on the following

equation: equations, respectively:

Q_ net ¼ Q_ vol Q_ loss ð1Þ Atot ¼ Apro þ 2ða þ bÞHN tot ðabÞN tot ð5Þ

Q_ loss ¼ Q_ bac þ Q_ rad þ Q_ axi ð2Þ Apro ¼ WL ð6Þ

where Q_ vol is the total power input to the test section, where a and b are the length of the ﬁns in spanwise and

Q_ bac is the conduction heat loss from the backside to streamwise directions, H is the height of the ﬁns, Ntot is

the environment, Q_ rad is radiative heat loss from the test the number of ﬁns, W is the width of the base plate and

212 U. Akyol, K. Bilen / Applied Thermal Engineering 26 (2006) 209–216

L is the length of the base plate, respectively. The aver- 4. Experimental results and discussion

age convective heat transfer coeﬃcient based on the

total heat transfer surface area (surface + ﬁns) can be 4.1. Validation of data

calculated by combining Eqs. (3) and (4),

In the literature, there have been data for diﬀerent ﬁn

Q_ net

h¼ ð7Þ and channel conﬁgurations and dimensions, therefore,

Atot T s T out2þT in to make a comparison, it is chosen the data for channel

Also, the average convective heat transfer coeﬃcient without ﬁns. The experimental results for smooth chan-

based on the projected area can be evaluated from, nel are compared with the correlation for turbulent ﬂow,

reported in the literature [9] in Fig. 4. The comparison

Q_ net validates the experimental results, although the present

hpro ¼ ð8Þ

Apro T s ðT out2þT in Þ results have some discrepancy from the correlation given

in literature. The present results are obtained for entry

The average Nusselt number deﬁnitions based on the

region, while the correlation in literature is for fully

total surface and the projected area are as the following:

developed ﬂow. Therefore it is expected that the Nusselt

hDh number for entry region is of a little higher than those

Nu ¼ ð9Þ

k for fully developed region due to the thinner thermal

hpro Dh boundary layer. Finally, the validation of the experi-

Nupro ¼ ð10Þ

k ments with respect to the correlation given in literature

The Reynolds number based on the averaged ﬂow is reasonable.

inlet velocity and the channel hydraulic diameter is given

by 4.2. Experimental results

VDh

Re ¼ ð11Þ The experiments were performed in a channel with

m hollow rectangular proﬁle ﬁns that attached either in-

The friction factor was determined from the mea- line or staggered to the plate, as well as in a channel

sured values of pressure drop, DP; across the test length without ﬁns. The rectangular proﬁle ﬁns were mounted

L = 30 cm using the equation, vertically on the test surface to give Sy/b values of 1.5,

1.875, 2.5 and 3.75 in the streamwise direction, while

DP

f ¼ 2 ð12Þ keeping Sx/a = 3 constant in the spanwise direction.

L

Dh

q V2 Reynolds number was ranging from 3000 to 32,000

based on the channel hydraulic diameter and the aver-

In Eqs. (11) and (12) V is the averaged velocity in the en- age velocity at the entrance of the test section. From

trance of the test section and DP measured by using the the experimental results, variation of Nusselt numbers

inclined manometer is the static pressure diﬀerence and pressure losses with Reynolds number and diﬀerent

along the top wall of the test section, and Dh is the ﬁn distances were presented graphically for both in-line

hydraulic diameter of the channel. The values of and staggered ﬁn arrangements in this section.

the thermophysical properties of air were evaluated at The results correlated with Nusselt number and fric-

the averaged ﬂuid temperature, Tf = (Tin + Tout)/2. tion factor for smooth channel are as follows,

The maximum air velocity was changed in a range respectively:

from 0.5 m/s to 4 m/s for the smooth channel. The

experiments were conducted at a nominal power of Nus ¼ 0.419 Re0s .565 ð13Þ

50 ± 0.6 W (Q_ vol ). By using the estimation method of f ¼ 0.002 Re0.4

s s ð14Þ

Moﬀat [10], the maximum uncertainties of the investi-

gated non-dimensional parameters are found to be as The mean deviations of the predicted Nusselt number

follows: Re, 8.3%; Nu, 6.1%; f, 8.7% for the channels and friction factor are 3.2% and 11.7%, respectively.

with ﬁns and Nus, 12.3%; fs, 16.4% for the channel with- Nusselt number for the surface with ﬁns calculated on

out ﬁns. The maximum uncertainties of Nu, and f are of the basis of projected area represents the eﬀect of the

acceptable values for the channel with ﬁns. The value of variation in the surface area, as well as that of distur-

fs, is only a little high for the channel without ﬁns, while bances in the ﬂow due to the ﬁns on the heat transfer

Nus, is also of acceptable value. When the average value enhancement. However, Nusselt number based on the

of fs is taken for all Reynolds numbers, it is found to be total surface area represents only the eﬀect of distur-

11.5%. The individual contribution to these uncertain- bances in the ﬂow. Fig. 3 indicates the variation of the

ties is pressure drop (DP), 2.7%; (DP)s, 5.2%, mean average Nusselt number based on the total surface area

stream temperature (T), 0.2 C hydraulic diameter of with Reynolds number for various pitch values in

channel (Dh), 1.2%. streamwise direction for both in-line (Fig. 3a) and stag-

U. Akyol, K. Bilen / Applied Thermal Engineering 26 (2006) 209–216 213

in-line staggered

160 Sy/b 160 Sy/b

1.5 1.5

1.875 1.875

120 120

2.5 2.5

Nu

Nu

3.75 3.75

80 80

40 40

0 0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

a Re×10-3 b Re×10-3

Fig. 3. Variation of Nusselt number based on the total surface area with Reynolds number: (a) for the in-line array, (b) for the staggered array, Sx/

a = 3.

gered arrays (Fig. 3b). The average Nusselt number in- Fig. 4a and b illustrate also the smooth channel case for

creases with ﬁn pitch value in streamwise direction and a comparison.

has a maximum value at Sy/b ﬃ 3.75 that corresponds The correlations for the Nusselt number and the fric-

to the largest pitch value for both arrangements. On tion factor are as the follows:

the other hand, the variation of the average Nusselt For the in-line array based on the total surface area,

number with Sy/b is quite small for the staggered ﬁn 0.31

Nu ¼ 1.116Re0.45 ðS y =bÞ ð15Þ

array (Fig. 3b). This situation can be explained by the

occurrence of insuﬃcient ﬂow mixing between the ﬁns Based on the projected area,

for the in-line array. For the staggered arrangement,

Nu ¼ 6.32Re0.44 ðS =bÞ0.32

pro y ð16Þ

Nusselt number is higher for all ﬁn pitch values in com-

parison to the in-line one. This enhancement may be Friction factor for the in-line array,

originated from the increasing intensity of the turbu- 0.45

f ¼ 0.703Re0.09 ðS y =bÞ ð17Þ

lence and better mixing.

Change of Nusselt number based on the projected For the staggered array based on the total surface

area, with respect to the Reynolds number is given in area,

Fig. 4a and b. The averaged Nusselt number decreases 0.05

Nu ¼ 1.717Re0.44 ðS y =bÞ ð18Þ

with increasing ﬁn pitch values in streamwise direction

and has a maximum value at Sy/b ﬃ 1.5. The sequence Based on the projected area,

of ﬁn pitch values for Nusselt number based on the pro- 0.58

Nu ¼ 8.791Re0.43 ðS =bÞ

pro y ð19Þ

jected area is reversed according to that based on the

total surface area. Since the Nusselt number based on Friction factor for staggered array,

the total surface area is independent of the changes in

f ¼ 3.782Re0.04 ðS y =bÞ1.53 ð20Þ

the heat transfer surface area, it may increase due to

only the increasing intensity of the turbulence. However, The variation of the friction factors, with respect to

the enhancement in Nusselt number based on the pro- the ﬁn spacing and Reynolds number, calculated from

jected area includes the increase of the turbulence as well the measured pressure drop values, is presented in

as that of the surface area related to the ﬁn number. The Fig. 5a and b, for in-line and staggered arrangements.

600 1.5 600 1.5

1.875 1.875

2.5 2.5

450 450 3.75

3.75

Nupro

Nupro

Smooth Smooth

300 Nusselt [9] 300 Nusselt [9]

Nu=0.036Re (Dh/L) Nu=0.036Re (Dh/L)

150 Eq. (13) 150 Eq. (13)

0 0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

-3 -3

a Re×10 b Re×10

Fig. 4. Variation of Nusselt number based on the projected surface area with Reynolds number, and comparison of data with correlation for smooth

channel: (a) for the in-line array, (b) for the staggered array, Sx/a = 3.

214 U. Akyol, K. Bilen / Applied Thermal Engineering 26 (2006) 209–216

10 10 staggered

in-line Sy/b

Sy/b

1 1 1.5

1.5

1.875

1.875

0.1 0.1 2.5

f

2.5

3.75

3.75

0.01 Smooth

0.01 Smooth

Eq. (14)

Eq. (14)

0.001 0.001

1e-4 1e-4

4 10 16 22 28 4 10 16 22 28

-3 -3

a Rex10 b Rex10

Fig. 5. Variation of friction factor with Reynolds number and the various distances between ﬁns: (a) for the in-line array, (b) for the staggered array,

Sx/a = 3.

Since the pressure drop increases with decreasing of the where ha and hs are the convective heat transfer coeﬃ-

ﬁn spacing, the corresponding value of the friction fac- cients with and without ﬁns, respectively, and index P

tor increases. It is considered that this behavior can be denotes pumping power.

originated from increasing of the blockage eﬀect of ﬁns Using Eqs. (14), (17), (20), and (22) the Reynolds

with ﬁn number. Pressure drop values or the friction fac- number for the smooth surface (Res) can be written as

tors for the in-line array were always less than those for a function of the Reynolds number for in-line and stag-

the staggered one. gered arrays (Rea).

For the in-line array

4.3. Performance criteria 0.132

Res ¼ 5.675Rea0.885 ðS y =bÞ ð24Þ

For a constant pumping power, it is useful to deter- For the staggered array

mine the eﬀectiveness of heat transfer enhancement of 0.45

Re ¼ 9.308Re0.894 ðS =bÞ

s y ð25Þ

a heat transfer promoter in comparison with smooth a

surface such that [11] Using Eqs. (13), (15), and (24) the heat transfer

enhancement eﬃciency based on the total surface area

V_ s DP s ¼ V_ a DP a ð21Þ

for the in-line array can be written as

where V_ s and V_ a are the volumetric ﬂow rates over the 0.385

plate, and DPa and DPs are the pressure drops with g ¼ ðh =h Þ ¼ 0.995Re0.05 ðS =bÞ

in a s P ð26Þ

a y

and without ﬁns, respectively. Using the Darcy equation In the same way, the following expression based on

(Eq. (12)) and Reynolds number for each conﬁguration, the total surface area is obtained for the staggered array

Eq. (21) may be written as from Eqs. (13), (18) and (25):

fs Re3s ¼ fa Re3a 0.304

ð22Þ gstag ¼ ðha =hs ÞP ¼ 1.162Rea0.065 ðS y =bÞ ð27Þ

The heat transfer enhancement eﬃciency for a con- Similarly, the heat transfer enhancement eﬃciency

stant pumping power may be expressed as follows based on the projected area can be determined for both

[7,11,12]: in-line and staggered ﬁn arrays. For the in-line array, the

g ¼ ðha =hs ÞP ð23Þ expression based on the projected area,

1.25 1.25

1.00 1.00

η

Sy/b Sy/b

0.50 1.5 0.50 1.5

1.875 1.875

0.25 2.5 0.25 2.5

3.75 3.75

0.00 0.00

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

-3

a Rex10 b Rex10 -3

Fig. 6. Variation of g with Reynolds number based on the total area: (a) for the in-line array, (b) for the staggered array, Sx/a = 3.

U. Akyol, K. Bilen / Applied Thermal Engineering 26 (2006) 209–216 215

3.5 3.5

3.0 3.0

2.5 2.5

η

η Sy/b Sy/b

1.875 1.875

1.0 2.5 1.0 2.5

3.75 3.75

0.5 0.5

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

-3

a Re×10-3 b Re×10

Fig. 7. Variation of g with Reynolds number based on the projected area: (a) for the in-line array, (b) for the staggered array, Sx/a = 3.

0.245

gin ¼ ðha =hs ÞP ¼ 5.657Rea0.06 ðS y =bÞ ð28Þ • A slightly better heat transfer was achieved for the

staggered array than for the in-line arrangement on

and for the staggered array based on the projected the basis of total surface area due to the increase of

area, the turbulence and better mixing of the ﬂow. How-

gstag ¼ ðha =hs ÞP ¼ 5.95Re0.075 ðS =bÞ0.326 ð29Þ ever for staggered arrangement, increase in Reynolds

a y

number increased the pressure drop and correspond-

can be written. Fig. 6a and b illustrate the change of ing friction factor, because the staggered arrangement

heat transfer performance based on the total surface has much more blockage eﬀect in ﬂuid ﬂow.

area with respect to the Reynolds number for various • For the staggered array, the dependence of the varia-

spaces in streamwise direction between ﬁns, for in-line tion of Nu number with ﬁn spacing was smaller than

and staggered ﬁn arrays. As seen from Fig. 6a, g based the in-line arrangement on the basis of total surface

on the total area is greater than 1 (g P 1) only for in-line area, because more space between ﬁns was needed

arrangement of Sy/b = 3.75. Heat transfer eﬃciency is to provide a better mixing of the ﬂow for in-line

less for lower ﬁn spacing values. The performance coef- arrangement.

ﬁcient decreases with increasing Reynolds number for • For the in-line array, the dependence of the variation

all ﬁn spaces. The variation of heat transfer performance of f with ﬁn spacing was smaller than the staggered

based on the projected area with increasing Reynolds arrangement, due to the decrease of the blockage

number and at various spaces in streamwise direction eﬀect of ﬁns.

between ﬁns, for in-line and staggered ﬁn arrays are also • In the calculation of performance eﬃciency based on

presented in Fig. 7. It is seen that, g is greater than 1 the total surface area, g was greater than unity only at

(g P 1) for both ﬁn arrangements and all Reynolds Sy/b = 3.75 for the in-line array, and the values of g

number values. were less than 1 for the remaining ratios and both

arrangements.

• For both in-line and staggered arrangements based

5. Conclusion on the projected area, the performance eﬃciency g

was greater than 1 for all ﬁn spacings and Reynolds

An experimental investigation of heat transfer numbers. It is recommended to use these types of

enhancement has been studied for four streamwise dis- ﬁn arrangements based on the projected area.

tances of ﬁns and two ﬁn arrangements (in-line and stag-

gered) and various Reynolds numbers. According to the In order to gain more information about the heat

experimental data obtained for the surface equipped transfer mechanism for this type of the ﬁnned system,

with hollow rectangular proﬁle ﬁns, the conclusions it is suggested that heat transfer enhancement with re-

can be summarized as follows: spect to various cross-sections of the ﬁn, diﬀerent ﬁn dis-

tances in spanwise directions, and the gap eﬀect between

• Both in-line and staggered ﬁn arrangements signiﬁ- the ﬁn top and the upper surface of the channel should

cantly enhanced the heat transfer in comparison to be studied in future.

the surface without ﬁns.

• Nu number increased with increasing Re number

both on the basis of the total surface area and the Acknowledgements

projected area for in-line and staggered arrange-

ments, since increasing Reynolds number decreases This work was funded by the Ataturk University

the boundary layer over the surface. Research Foundation under 1997/43.

216 U. Akyol, K. Bilen / Applied Thermal Engineering 26 (2006) 209–216

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