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Biológia angol nyelven emelt szint

Javítási-értékelési útmutató 1012

2011. május 11.

BIOLÓGIA
ANGOL NYELVEN

EMELT SZINTŰ ÍRÁSBELI


ÉRETTSÉGI VIZSGA

ÉRETTSÉGI VIZSGA

JAVÍTÁSI-ÉRTÉKELÉSI
ÚTMUTATÓ

NEMZETI ERŐFORRÁS
MINISZTÉRIUM
Biológia angol nyelven — emelt szint Javítási-értékelési útmutató

Instructions for marking the advanced written paper

1. Always use red ink.


2. Put a tick next to each correct answer. Each correct tick is worth one point. Half a
point is not to be given. If a question which is worth two points is answered correctly,
put two ticks.
3. If there is a correct answer to a question which is not included in the marking scheme
you can still accept it. The same principle applies to synonyms. (e. g.: platelets —
trombocytes)
4. The equally acceptable, alternative answers are separated with a backslash (/) in the
marking scheme.
5. At the end of each task add up the points in the grey boxes.
6. Mark each correct answer with a tick on the margin in the optional essay. In the
marking scheme only the most important terms and expressions are included in the
correct logical order. You can also accept the answers if they are logically built up
even if this logic is different from the one given in the marking scheme, unless it is
otherwise stated in the given task. In the end, please add up the points of the correct
answers and write them into the appropriate boxes of the summary chart.
7. In the essay, points can only be given for answers responding to the guiding questions.
8. If the candidate started answering both optional tasks (A and B) act according to the
instructions given under the heading of ‘Important Information’.
9. If the candidate is expected to formulate an answer in full sentences (e.g. reasoning
and explanations) only grammatically correct sentences can be accepted. Do not
subtract points for spelling mistakes but do not accept ambiguous sentences
either.

Good luck for your work.

írásbeli vizsga 1012 2/7 2011. május 11.


Biológia angol nyelven — emelt szint Javítási-értékelési útmutató

Instruction for marking

I After forest fire 10 points


Source of graphs:
Tamás Júlia - Csontos Péter: Dolomitterületek vizsgálata a Budai-hegységben – milyen a
növényzet erdőtűz után tíz évvel?
in: Kalapos Tibor (szerk.): Jelez a flóra és vegetáció Scientia, 2006
Each correct answer is worth 1 point.

1. antibiosis
2. B
3. it increased until year No5 and species richness decreased until year 10 (compared to year
No5).
4. The coverage in the control areas (undisturbed) have been higher all along than in the
burnt down area.
5. D
6. 5-10 % (3-15 % is still acceptable).
7. The increase in light intensity. / increase in nitrogen/potassium content of the soil /
(temporary) increase in the organic matter content of the soil.
8. Competition / antibiosis. Parasitism is acceptable if it affects the competing species
differentially.
9. the coverage of protected species is higher in the southern areas. / there is a higher
percentage of keystone/dominant species in the northern areas.
10. Controlling the spread of black pine, (because it can reduce species richness again).

II. Reproduction of plant and animals 11 points


This task is based on the following chapter of the Detailed Requirements:3.4.1., 3.4.3.,3.4.4
Figure: original
Each correct box is worth 1 point.

In angiosperm plants In animals


1. It is here that the male sperm cells are pollen tube testis
formed:

2. It is here that the egg cells are formed: plant ovary animal ovary
3. This is what a species is called in which hermaphrodite
each individual produces both sperm
and egg cells:
4. This is what a species is called in dioecious separate sexes
which an individual produces either
sperm cells or egg cells:
5. With the help of this structure the pollen tube flagellum
sperm cells reach the egg cell:

6. Bisexual/complete flower, 1 point


because the flower contains both stamen and carpel/pistil. 1 point

írásbeli vizsga 1012 3/7 2011. május 11.


Biológia angol nyelven — emelt szint Javítási-értékelési útmutató

III. Behaviour of birds 11 points


This task is based on the following chapter of the Detailed Requirements:3.4.4., 4.8.2. and
5.1.2. Source of figures: Etológia kislexikon. Natura, 1985.
Keve András: Madarak – Csépe Magdolna rajza Móra, 1975
1. C 1 point
2. D 1 point
3. C, D 2 points
4. a) The birds are blindfolded while flying / flying takes place in a dark room 1 point
b) (a small) magnet is attached to the bird / flying takes place in an artificial magnetic
field 1 point
5. 15 1 point
6. 16 1 point
7. E 1 point
8. A, D 2 points

IV. Vitamin C 9 points


This task is based on the following chapter of the Detailed Requirements:4.4.., 4.4.4. és 4.4.5
1. C, D 2 points
2. C 1 point
3. The information is not necessarily wrong because the difference between the two
figures might be due to the fact that not the total amount of vitamin C taken in is built
into the reserves / it breaks down before it could be built in. (or any other articulate
answer which refers to the incomplete incorporation of the vitamin) 1 point
4. C 1 point
5. During pregnancy the vitamin C requirement is higher (exceeding the average
100-500 mg) 1 point
but extreme doses (1000 mg or more) are detrimental 1 point
6.
100 g fresh potato contains 30 mg vitamin C
100 g potato in January contains 0.730 mg = 21 mg vitamin C
100 g cooked potato in January yields 0.730 ⋅ 0.8 mg = 16.8 mg vitamin C
xg 500 mg vitamin C
x= 100⋅100 / 16.8 = 595.2 g (kb. 0.6 kg) 2 points
A theoretically correct calculation with a numerical error can get 1 point.

V. Cell division 12 points


This task is based on the following chapter of the Detailed Requirements:2.3.4. és 6.2.1
Source of figures: W. D. Stansfield: Genetika. Panem, 1997.
1. meiosis/reducion cell division 1 point
2. E, B, A, C, D, F if the order is correct: 2 points
At least 4 letters are in the correct boxes: 1 point
3. A, B 2 points
4. 42 pieces 1 point
5. C, D 2 points
6. B, E 2 points
7. DE, De, dE, de Only together: 1 point
8. „A” or „a” Only together: 1 point

írásbeli vizsga 1012 4/7 2011. május 11.


Biológia angol nyelven — emelt szint Javítási-értékelési útmutató

VI. Excretion 7 points


This task is based on the following chapter of the Detailed Requirements: 4.7. and 4.8.4.
Source of figures: en.wikibooks.org

1. B, C 2 points
2. glomerulus / (knot of) capillaries 1 point
3. (The Malpighian body cannot be accepted because it includes ‘D’ as well.)
4. B, D 2 points
5. >,> 2 points

VII. Regulation 7 points


This task is based on the following chapter of the Detailed Requirements: 4.7.2.

1. active 1 point
2. increased 1 point
3. increased 1 point
4. adrenal cortex 1 point
5. vasopressin / ADH 1 point
6. hypothalamus 1 point
7. reduced 1 point

VIII. Blood groups 13 points


This task is based on the following chapter of the Detailed Requirements: 4.8.5. and 6.2.1

1. A 1 point
2. E 1 point
3. IA1> IA2 > IA3 = IB > i Each correctly placed symbol is 1 point, total: 4 points

4. II/5 1 point
Genotype: IA1IA2, Phenotype: A1 Together: 1 point

5.
The genotype of parent III/1: IA3i
The genotype of the parent of blood group A1B: IA1IB 1 point
The possible genotypes of their offspring:

IA3 i For writing up the genotypes of the offspring 1point

IA1 IA1IA3 IA1i The phenotypic ratio of the offspring


50% A1, 25% A3B, 25% B 1 point

IB IA3IB IBi

6. Only from a person of blood group 0 1 point


7. E 1 point
Using the symbols A1, A2, A3, B, 0 instead of the symbols IA1, IA2, IA3, IB, i in the
calculation is acceptable as long as the symbols are used consistently.

írásbeli vizsga 1012 5/7 2011. május 11.


Biológia angol nyelven — emelt szint Javítási-értékelési útmutató

IX.
A) Stomata 20 points
This task is based on the following chapter of the Detailed Requirements: 3.4. 3
Analysis of experiment 7 points
1. chlorophyll (chlorophyll a / chlorophyll b), xanthophyll, carotene.
The names of two pigments are required: 2 points
2. iodine 1 point
3. blue 1 point
4. A 1 point
5. E 1 point
6. So that the starch made earlier won’t disturb the investigation / so that the starch will
have enough time to leave the leaves / so that the starch content of the leaf can break
down 1 point

The structure and function of stomata - essay 13 points

• The stomata are made up of guard cells


• which are the cells of the dermal tissue
• The guard cells (most of the time) have the shape of a bean / differ in shape
from the other epidermal/dermal cells.
• The guard cells contain chloroplasts and
• enclose a pore / opening 5 points
• If there is a lot of water available for the plant the stoma opens up /if there is
little water available the stoma closes
• because with sufficient water supply the turgor pressure of the guard cells is
high, whereas with poor water supply the turgor pressure is low.
• As the turgor pressure increases the guard cells do not expand towards the
pore / they expand towards their thinner outer wall.
• As the turgor pressure decreases the guard cells collapse / their thicker inner
walls lining the pore/opening close up. 4 points
• When exposed to light the stomata (usually) open
• because light causes the ion or osmotic concentration / osmotic activity of
the guard cells to increase *
• while the osmotic concentration of the surrounding cells does not change
(because they do not contain chloroplasts).
• As a result, water enters the guard cells osmotically (and that is what causes
the turgor pressure to increase)
*Detailed discussion of the process e.g. accumulation of glucose or pumping of 4 points
potassium ions into the guard cells is not acceptable unless it refers clearly to an
increase in osmotic concentrations.
Alternative wording and correct logical answers are also acceptable,

írásbeli vizsga 1012 6/7 2011. május 11.


Biológia angol nyelven — emelt szint Javítási-értékelési útmutató

IX. B.
Vision 20 points
Analysis of experiment 4 points
This task is based on the following chapter of the Detailed Requirements: 4.8.1
Source of figure, Ádám György: Érzékelés, tudat, emlékezés Gondolat, 1969

1. fovea 1 point
2. there are only cones in it 1 point
3. A and E 2 points

Conditions of vision - essay 16 points


This task is based on the following chapter of the Detailed Requirements: 4.8.1
Light refractory media of the eye:
• The cornea / (aqueous humor)
• The (aqueous humor) /lens
• The image falling onto the retina is a small, inverted image 3 points
• The stimulus of the pupil reflex is an increase in the amount of light.
• The effector organ(s): (the muscles of) the iris.
• Function: to control the amount of light entering the eye. 3 points
• The stimulus of the eyelid reflex is the drying out of the cornea /
mechanical stimuli / approaching object
• The effector organ(s): (the muscles of ) the eyelid
• Function: to protect, clean (tear) / warm the cornea
3 points
• The accommodation reflex is elicited by a change in the distance of the
object from the eye.
• Effector organ(s): ciliary muscle(s)
• When the ciliary muscles relax the curvature of the lens decreases / its
focal distance increases and, as a result, the image of a distant object
falls sharply on the retina.

(Or
• When the ciliary muscles contract
• the curvature of the lens increases / its focal distance decreases
• as a result, we can focus on object close-by.)
3 points
• Glaucoma is the result of the diseased accumulation of the aqueous
humor
• symptoms: colourful rings around the objects viewed / headache /
blurred vision (especially on the peripheral part of the field of vision) /
after a while blindness
• Old age farsightedness results from a decreased flexibility of the lens
• It can be corrected by convex lenses
4 points

írásbeli vizsga 1012 7/7 2011. május 11.