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Biológia angol nyelven emelt szint

Javítási-értékelési útmutató 0911

2010. május 12.

BIOLÓGIA
ANGOL NYELVEN

EMELT SZINTŰ ÍRÁSBELI


ÉRETTSÉGI VIZSGA

ÉRETTSÉGI VIZSGA

JAVÍTÁSI-ÉRTÉKELÉSI
ÚTMUTATÓ

OKTATÁSI ÉS KULTURÁLIS
MINISZTÉRIUM
Biológia angol nyelven — emelt szint Javítási-értékelési útmutató

Instructions for marking the advanced written paper

1. Always use red ink.


2. Put a tick next to each correct answer. Each correct tick is worth one point. Half a
point is not to be given. If a question which is worth two points is answered correctly,
put two ticks.
3. If there is a correct answer to a question which is not included in the marking scheme
you can still accept it. The same principle applies to synonyms. (e. g. :platelets—
trombocytes)
4. The equally acceptable, alternative answers are separated with a backslash (/) in the
marking scheme.
5. At the end of each task add up the points in the grey boxes.
6. Mark each correct answer with a tick on the margin in the optional essay. In the
marking scheme only the most important terms and expressions are included in the
correct logical order. You can also accept the answers if they are logically built up
even if this logic is different from the one given in the marking scheme, unless it is
otherwise stated in the given task. In the end, please add up the points of the correct
answers and write them into the appropriate boxes of the summary chart.
7. In the essay, points can only be given for answers responding to the guiding questions.
8. If the candidate started answering both optional tasks (A and B) act according to the
instructions given under the heading of ‘Important Information’.
9. If the candidate is expected to formulate an answer in full sentences (e.g. reasoning
and explanations) only grammatically correct sentences can be accepted. Do not
subtract points for spelling mistakes but do not accept ambiguous sentences
either.

Good luck for your work.

írásbeli vizsga 0911 2/8 2010. május 12.


Biológia angol nyelven — emelt szint Javítási-értékelési útmutató

I. Common toad 9 points


1. Moist/slimy skin /poison glands 1point
2. Moist/slimy / moderately keratinised epidermis makes skin breathing possible.
1 point
3. Slimy skin can only be maintained permanently in humid and wet conditions. Or:
The activity of the animal is linked to a humid, wet period of time or habitat.
1 point
4.
•Sweating is reduced.
•There are no sweat glands in the skin of the toad, therefore it is not possible
•Blood supply to the skin is reduced / blood flow is diverted from the capillaries of
the dermis to the vessels running under the heat insulating layer of fat / adipose
tissue / goose bumps appear.
• There is no heat insulating layer in the skin of the toad, therefore it is not possible.
Each correct answer and reasoning 1-1 point, a total 4 points

5. The middle ear 1 point

6. Any nature conservation method (aimed at the protection of the habitat or the
species). E.g.:
Maintaining, establishing and protecting ponds and lakes which are used as reproduction
site by the animals.
Ensuring free access to reproduction sites (like frog tunnels under highways)
Banning the use of chemicals which might harm the species. 1 point

II. Öröklődések 10 points


This task is based on the following chapters of the Detailed Requirements.6.1.2. and 6.2.1.
Each number written in the right place is 1 point.
Dominant-recessive inheritance involving one
gene

X chromosome (sex)- Inheritance linked to a


linked inheritance dominant allele

2. 1. 6.

4.
7.
8.

10.

3.
5. 9.

írásbeli vizsga 0911 3/8 2010. május 12.


Biológia angol nyelven — emelt szint Javítási-értékelési útmutató

III. Biochemical processes 10 points


This task is based on the following chapters of the Detailed Requirements.2.2.2. and 2.2.3.
Each correct answer is 1 point.
1. C
2. D
3. D
4. B
5. C
6. D
7. light / initial / first
8. water
9. hydrogen
10. NADPH (or NADPH + H+ / NADPH2)

IV. Photosynthesis and the Greenhouse Effect 10 points


This task is based on the following chapters of the Detailed Requirements.2.1.4.,2.2.2., 5.5
Figure: Both-Csorba: Források Természet-tudomány-történet Nemzeti Tankönyvkiadó, 2003

1. D 1 point
2. B, D 2 points
3. C 1 point
4. A 1 point
5. A, E 2 points
6. E 1 point
7. The amount of carbon dioxide decreased by 60 mol 1 point
The amount of oxygen increased by 60 mol. 1 point
(The results can also be given in units of mass or volume).

V. Resourceful Microbes 12 points


This task is based on the following chapters of the Detailed Requirements2.1.6., 3.2.1.,
6.1.1.and 6.1.2.

1. C, D 2 points
2. The missing parts can be replaced based on the other copy of the genomic DNA / the two
copies of the DNA molecules are not likely to become damaged on the same locus.
Other explanations with the same meaning are also acceptable. 1 point
3.
A T A G C T T C T G T C C A
T A T C G A A G A C A G G T

1 point 1 point 1 point


4.
1. name of amino acid: tyrosine 1 point
2. name of amino acid: arginine 1 point
3. name of amino acid: arginine 1 point
5. C (gly, tre,lys, ile, ser) 1 point
6. B, E 2 points

írásbeli vizsga 0911 4/8 2010. május 12.


Biológia angol nyelven — emelt szint Javítási-értékelési útmutató

VI. Potato Crisps 11 points


This task is based on the following chapters of the Detailed Requirements 2.1.3., 4.4.4. and
4.4.5.

1. F 1 point
2. T 1 point
3. 2218kJ*5=11090kJ is the yearly energy intake. The daily energy requirement is
11090:0.0025:365=12153kJ 1 point
Other ways of calculations are also acceptable. 1 point
4. F 1 point
5. F 1 point
6. T 1 point
7. T 1 point
8. The figure shown is an average number. A particular person can consume a lot more,
which can result in him getting fat.
(Alternative wording is also acceptable as long as the difference between the average
and the individual energy input is emphasised.) 1 point

9. T 1 point
10. We would need to know whether the proportion of fat people among the English is
higher than among the Hungarians. / or: if the proportion of fat people is the same, it
would be important to know whether their life styles and physical activities are the
same. 1 point

Alternative wording is also acceptable.

VII. The Structure and Function of the Eye 12 points


This task is based on the following chapters of the Detailed Requirements:4.8.1..
Source of figure: www.prosing.hu

1. I, ciliary muscle/body 1 point


2. M, anterior and/or posterior chamber or anterior cavity 1 point
3. E, yellow body/fovea/site of sharp vision 1 point
4. X, none 1 point
5. C, choroid 1 point
6. L, pupil 1 point
7. B 1 point
8.
(We cover our left eye) and keep looking at the star with our right eye while moving the
figure towards and away from our eye. 1 point
At a certain distance/point the dot disappears because the image formed falls on the blind
spot. 1 point

9. focal length 1 point


10. image distance 1 point
11. the focal length/the curvature of the lens 1 point

írásbeli vizsga 0911 5/8 2010. május 12.


Biológia angol nyelven — emelt szint Javítási-értékelési útmutató

VIII. Forestation 6 points


This task is based on the following chapters of the Detailed Requirements:5.2.1.
Figure:
Pásztor Erzsébet – Oborny Beáta (szerk): Ökológia
Nemzeti Tankönyvkiadó, 2007
Each correct answer is 1 point.

1. (Secondary) succession
2. The r strategists are present in higher proportions at the beginning, while the K strategists
become dominant at the end.
3. These species are not good at withstanding strong competition (e.g. shading, roots of other
species taking up and competing for nutrients in the soil.)
4. They shade or in other ways suppress other light-preferring species dominant in earlier
stages of succession.
5. The species reproducing vegetatively/asexually by means of stolons/runners remain in
touch with the mother plant (one genet, many, connected ramet)
6. At the beginning of the succession, plants with small, light and easily dispersible seeds
were dominant. They also maintain their germination ability for a long time. Uniform/
homogenous appearance is shown.
During the course of the process plant species with heavier and less readily dispersible seeds
gained dominance (group-like appearance)
Other explanations are also acceptable as long as they refer to the different reproductive
strategies.

Optional Tasks

IX.A At the Beginning of Our Life 20 points


This task is based on the following chaptes of the Detailed Curriculum: 4.8.2-3, 4.8.5, 4.9.1-2.
and 6.2.2

Sex cells 8 points


the human egg cells the human sperm cells
exact site of production (the In the follicle of the ovary In the wall of the seminiferous
organ and part of the organ) tubules

manner of locomotion The ciliated epithelium of the Active movement /by flagellum
oviduct / contraction of the
oviduct wall / unable to move
actively

the route taken through the From the ovary to the uterus Through the vagina / uterus into
female reproductive organ the oviduct
(from where to where they
move)

the number and types of 23 23


chromosomes in them (22 autosomal and 1 sex: X) (22 autosomal and 1 sex:
(autosomal and sex X or Y)
chromosomes)
Each cell correctly filled in is worth 1 point. ’Uterus’ and ’Testes’ alone is not acceptable. In
case of male sex cells the X and Y chromosomes have to be mentioned.

írásbeli vizsga 0911 6/8 2010. május 12.


Biológia angol nyelven — emelt szint Javítási-értékelési útmutató

Life Before Birth 12 points

• Fertilisation tends to take place in the oviduct.


• During the first day/hours following ovulation / on the 14-15-16th day of the cycle.
2 points
• The embryo is nourished through the placenta
• and the umbilical cord by the mother.
• In case of an Rh- mother with an Rh+ foetus, the foetal blood can leak into the
mother’s blood stream during delivery and the cell surface antigens of the red blood
cells can activate the mother’s immune system.
• This can result in potential problems if the next baby is Rh+ because the antibodies
produced against the Rh + antigens can cross the placenta (type IgG) 4 points

• Alcohol, drugs and some viruses (e.g. HIV) can pass through the placenta (two good
examples) 1 point

• The embryonic membrane(s) has/have an important role to play in developing the


placenta / secreting the amniotic fluid / protects and surrounds/encloses/separates the
embryo
• The amniotic fluid provides protection against mechanical damage and temperature
fluctuation / it is in the amniotic fluid that the embryo is moving about, floating and
sensing its surrounding. Or other correct functions mentioned. 2 points

• Unlike in the newborn baby, there is no pulmonary circulation and the lungs do not
work in the fetus / the fetus obtains its nutrients through the umbilical cord, whereas
the baby from its alimentary canal (one example)
• In the foetal heart the arterial and venal blood mixes in the atria, whereas in the baby
the opening is closed (or other correct differences mentioned) 2 points

• The heartbeat sound of the mother and other auditory stimuli the foetus was exposed
to in the uterus have a calming effect on the newborn baby, too. (or other good
example) 1 point

B) Reproduction and Postembryonic Development of Plants 20 points


This task is based on the following chapters of the Detailed Requirements: 3.3.3., 3.4.1. and
3.4.3.
Source of figure: www.science-art.com

Alternation of generation 7 points

1. D 1 point
2. B 1 point
3. C 1 point
4. B, D 1 point
5. (A), C, E, B, D 1 point
6. E 1 point
7. Gymnosperms 1 point

írásbeli vizsga 0911 7/8 2010. május 12.


Biológia angol nyelven — emelt szint Javítási-értékelési útmutató

Double fertilisation (essay) 13 points

• The pollen lands on the stigma (of the carpel)


• The tube nucleus governs the formation of the pollen tube
• in which the two male nuclei/sex cells migrate (behind the tube nucleus)

• each having a haploid chromosome set 4 points

• One of the male nuclei/sex cells fertilises the haploid egg cell,
• while the other one fertilises the diploid nucleus (formed by the fusion of the two polar
nuclei). 2 points

• The fertilised egg cell develops into the embryo


• The fertilised diploid cell gives rise to endosperm/food store of the seed
• The outer wall/integumentum of the ovule gives rise to the seed coat/testa
• while the wall of the ovary becomes the fruit/pericarp 4 points

• The shape of the fruit can aid in the seed being dispersed by wind.
• The clingy/sticky outer surface
• as well as the appetising fleshy/succulent furit/pericarp can be of assistance in
dispersal by animals 3 points

The description of other ways of seed dispersal, specifying the exact way of dispersal with the
adaptation of the fruit which makes it possible.

írásbeli vizsga 0911 8/8 2010. május 12.