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MULTIFARIOUS ENDEAVOUR AGROBOT

Chapter 1:
INTRODUCTION

Agriculture is considered as the basis of life for the human species as it is the main
source of food grains and other raw materials. It plays vital role in the growth of country’s
economy. It also provides large ample employment opportunities to the people. Growth in
agricultural sector is necessary for the development of economic condition of the country.
Unfortunately, many farmers still use the traditional methods of farming which results in low
yielding of crops and fruits. But wherever automation had been implemented and human
beings had been replaced by automatic machineries, the yield has been improved. Hence
there is need to implement modern science and technology in the agriculture sector for
increasing the yield. Most of the papers signifies the use of wireless sensor network which
collects the data from different types of sensors and then send it to main server using wireless
protocol. The collected data provides the information about different environmental factors
which in turns helps to monitor the system.

Monitoring environmental factors is not enough and complete solution to improve the
yield of the crops. There are number of other factors that affect the productivity to great
extent. These factors include attack of insects and pests which can be controlled by spraying
the crop with proper insecticide and pesticides. Secondly, attack of wild animals and birds
when the crop grows up. There is also possibility of thefts when crop is at the stage of
harvesting. Even after harvesting, farmers also face problems in storage of harvested crop.
So, in order to provide solutions to all such problems, it is necessary to develop integrated
system which will take care of all factors affecting the productivity in every stages like;
cultivation, harvesting and post harvesting storage .

This project therefore proposes a system which is useful in monitoring the field data
as well as controlling the field operations which provides the flexibility. The project aims at
making agriculture smart using automation and IoT technologies. The highlighting features
of this project includes smart GPS based remote controlled robot to perform tasks like;
weeding, spraying, moisture sensing, bird and animal scaring, keeping vigilance, etc.

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Secondly, it includes smart irrigation with smart control based on real time field data.
Thirdly, smart warehouse management which includes; temperature maintenance, humidity
maintenance and theft detection in the warehouse. Controlling of all these operations will be
through any remote smart device or computer connected to Internet and the operations will
be performed by interfacing sensors, Bluetooth Module, camera and actuators with micro-
controller and raspberry pi.

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Chapter 2:

LITERATURE SURVEY
 In newer scenario improper usage of water creates scarcity which depletes the water
tables like Rivers, Tanks and concealed water.


 To vanquish the above problems, temperature and moisture sensors are used at suitable
locations for monitoring the crops.[1]

[S.R Nandurkar, V.R. Thool R.C Thool, “Design and development of precision agriculture
system using wireless sensor network”, IEEE International conference on automation,
control, energy and systems (ACES), 2014]

 Photovoltaic panels can be used as alternatives for powering the systems.





 Duplex communication links based on cellular internet interface that allows data
inspection & irrigation scheduling programmed by web page.[2]

[Joaquin Gutierrez, Juan Francisco Villa-Medina, Alejandra Nieto-Garibay, and Miguel


Angel Porta-Gándara, “Automated Irrigation System Using a Wireless Sensor Network and
GPRS Module”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND
MEASUREMENT].

 By adopting Remote sensing and Control irrigation system using Distributed wireless
sensor networks intended for Variable rate irrigation, Field sensing, Controlling of linear
move irrigation system to maximize the productivity with minimal use of water.


 The whole system was developed using 5 infield sensors stations which collects data and
send it to the base station using global positioning system(GPS).The system provides a
promising low cost wireless solutions as well as remote controlling for precision
irrigation.[4]

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[Y. kim, R.Evans & W. Iversen, “Remote sensing and control of an irrigation system using a
distributed wireless sensor Network” , IEEE Transactions on instrumentation and
Measurement, pp 1379-1387, 2008].

 Effective communication with relay nodes with sensors placed below the soil provides
very low duty cycle with increase in the lifetime of the soil monitoring.


 The system implemented uses Microcontroller interfaced to UART (Universal
Asynchronous Receiver and Transmitter) and sensors.



 The Transmission was done by hourly based sampling and Buffering the data and there
by checking the status message.[5]

[Hayes, J.; Crowley, K.; Diamond, D. Simultaneous web-based real-time temperature


monitoring using multiple wireless sensor networks. Sensors IEEE, October 30 November 3,
2005].

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Chapter 3:

OBJECTIVE

 To depreciate the extensive use of resources and there by effectively fixing the
outcome caused by miss management of resources.



 To be used in mundane task requiring more labour force & also increase in the
efficiency of the overall yield.



 To detect burglars entering to the warehouse and to trenchantly store the harvested
outturn by controlling the ambient temperature.

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Chapter 4:

METHODLOGY

The project consist of four sections; node1, node2, node3 and PC or mobile app to
control system. In the present system, every node is integration with different sensors and
devices and they are interconnected to one central server via wireless communication
modules. The server sends and receives information from user end using internet
connectivity. There are two modes of operation of the system; auto mode and manual mode.
In auto mode system takes its own decisions and controls the installed devices whereas in
manual mode user can control the operations of system using android app or PC commands.

Figure 4.0: System overview

4.1 Node 1:

Node1 is GPS based mobile robot which can be controlled remotely using computer
as well as it can be programmed so as to navigate autonomously within the boundary of field
using the co-ordinates given by GPS module

The Remote controlled robots have various sensors and devices like ultrasonic sensor, LDR
etc...Ultrasonic sensor is used to detect an object, DHT11 sensor is used to detect the
temperature and humidity in soil, LDR (light dependent register) sensor is used to switch on
the light depending on the surrounding brightness in environment.

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L293D driver is used to run dc motors, all these sensors are controlled by Arduino which
consist of ATMEGA328P microcontroller.

Figure 4.1: Node 1

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4.2 Node 2:

Node2 will be the warehouse. It consists of motion detector, light sensor, humidity
sensor, temperature sensor, room heater, cooling fan altogether interfaced with AVR
microcontroller. Motion detector will detect the motion in the room when security mode will
be ON and on detection of motion, it will send the alert signal to user via Raspberry pi and
thus providing theft detection.

Figure 4.2: Node 2

Temperature sensor and Humidity sensor senses the temperature and humidity
respectively and if the value crosses the threshold then room heater or cooling fan will be
switched ON/OFF automatically providing temperature and humidity maintenance.Node2
will also controls water pump depending upon the soil moisture data sent by node3.

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4.3 Node 3:

Node3 is a smart irrigation node with features like; Smart control of water pump
based on real time field data i.e. automatically turning on/off the pump after attaining the
required soil moisture level in auto mode, switching water pump on/off remotely via mobile
or computer in manual mode, and continuous monitoring of soil moisture.

Figure 4.3: Node 3

In node3, moisture sensor transmits the data using HT12E Encoder IC and a RF
transmitter. The transmitted data is received by node2 and there it is processed by
microcontroller in order to control the operation of water pump.

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Chapter 5:

COMPONENTS REQUIRED
5.1 Hardware Requirements:
 Arduino UNO

 AT-Mega 328P MICROCONTROLLER

 Raspberry pi 3

 Humidity and Temperature sensor-DHT11

 Moisture sensor

 Ultrasonic sensor

 Driver circuit

 DC Motor

 PIR Sensor

 Cutter

 Buzzer

 Camera

 Solar panel

 Battery

 Cooling fan

 Water pump

 Bluetooth Module

5.2 Software Requirements:

 Arduino IDE

 Raspbian pixel – OS

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5.1.1 ARDUINO UNO:

Figure 5.1.1: Arduino UNO

The Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328 (datasheet). It


has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a
16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset
button. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a
computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started.
The Uno differs from all preceding boards in that it does not use the FTDI USB-to-serial
driver chip. Instead, it features the Atmega8U2 programmed as a USB-to-serial converter.

Arduino is selected because it is an open-source platform, inexpensive and provides


sufficient analog/digital I/O pins for customizable applications. It operates at 5V and is
powered with Atmel’s ATmega328 micro-controller with a clock speed of 16 MHz’s It has a
flash memory of 32kB and Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) of 2kB. It has 6 analog
pins and serial ports. One of the serial ports is connected internally to Universal Serial Bus
(USB) port.

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5.1.1.1 Summary:

Microcontroller ATmega328

Operating Voltage 5V

Input Voltage (recommended) 7-9V

Input Voltage (limits) 6-20V

Digital I/O Pins 14 (of which 6 provide PWM output)

Analog Input Pins 6

DC Current per I/O Pin 40 mA

DC Current for 3.3V Pin 50 mA

Flash Memory 32 KB (ATmega328) (0.5 KB used by bootloader)

SRAM 2 KB (ATmega328)

EEPROM 1 KB (ATmega328)

Clock Speed 16 MHz

Table 5.1.1: Summary

5.1.1.2 Power:

The Arduino Uno can be powered via the USB connection or with an external power
supply. The power source is selected automatically. External (non-USB) power can come
either from an AC-to-DC adapter (wall-wart) or battery. The adapter can be connected by
plugging a 2.1mm centre-positive plug into the board's power jack. Leads from a battery can
be inserted in the Gnd and Vin pin headers of the POWER connector. The board can operate
on an external supply of 6 to 20 volts. If supplied with less than 7V, however, the 5V pin
may supply less than five volts and the board may be unstable. If using more than 12V, the
voltage regulator may overheat and damage the board. The recommended range is 7 to 12
volts.

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The power pins are as follows:

 VIN. The input voltage to the Arduino board when it's using an external power source
(as opposed to 5 volts from the USB connection or other regulated power source).
You can supply voltage through this pin, or, if supplying voltage via the power jack,
access it through this pin.


 5V. The regulated power supply used to power the microcontroller and other
components on the board. This can come either from VIN via an on-board regulator,
or be supplied by USB or another regulated 5V supply.


 3V3. A 3.3 volt supply generated by the on-board regulator. Maximum current draw
is 50 mA.


 GND. Ground pins.

5.1.1.2 Input and Output:

Each of the 14 digital pins on the Uno can be used as an input or output, using pin
Mode (), digital Write (), and digital Read () functions. They operate at 5 volts. Each pin can
provide or receive a maximum of 40 mA and has an internal pull-up resistor (disconnected
by default) of 20-50 k Ohms. In addition, some pins have specialized functions:
Serial: 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). Used to receive (RX) and transmit (TX) TTL serial data. These
pins are connected to the corresponding pins of the ATmega8U2 USB-to-TTL Serial chip.

External Interrupts: 2 and 3. These pins can be configured to trigger an interrupt on


a low value, a rising or falling edge, or a change in value. See the attach Interrupt ()
function for details.

PWM: 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, and 11. Provide 8-bit PWM output with the analog Write ()
function.

SPI: 10 (SS), 11 (MOSI), 12 (MISO), 13 (SCK). These pins support SPI


 communication using the SPI library.






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 LED: 13. There is a built-in LED connected to digital pin 13. When the pin is HIGH
value, the LED is on, when the pin is LOW, it's off.

The Uno has 6 analog inputs, labeled A0 through A5, each of which provide 10 bits of
resolution (i.e. 1024 different values). By default they measure from ground to 5 volts,
though is it possible to change the upper end of their range using the AREF pin and the
analog Reference () function. Additionally, some pins have specialized functionality:

I2C: 4 (SDA) and 5 (SCL). Support I2C (TWI) communication using the Wire library.
There are a couple of other pins on the board:

AREF. Reference voltage for the analog inputs. Used with analog Reference ().

Reset. Bring this line LOW to reset the microcontroller. Typically used to add a reset button
to shields which block the one on the board.

5.1.1.3 Communication:

The Arduino Uno has a number of facilities for communicating with a computer,
another Arduino, or other microcontrollers. The ATmega328 provides UART TTL (5V)
serial communication, which is available on digital pins 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). An ATmega8U2
on the board channels this serial communication over USB and appears as a virtual com port
to software on the computer. The '8U2 firmware uses the standard USB COM drivers, and no
external driver is needed. However, on Windows, a .inf file is required. The Arduino
software includes a serial monitor which allows simple textual data to be sent to and from the
Arduino board. The RX and TX LEDs on the board will flash when data is being transmitted
via the USB-to-serial chip and USB connection to the computer (but not for serial
communication on pins 0 and 1). A Software Serial library allows for serial communication
on any of the Uno's digital pins.

The ATmega328 also supports I2C (TWI) and SPI communication. The Arduino
software includes a Wire library to simplify use of the I2C bus; see the documentation for
details. For SPI communication, use the SPI library.

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5.1.1.4 Programming:

The Arduino Uno can be programmed with the Arduino software (download). Select
"Arduino Uno from the Tools > Board menu (according to the microcontroller on your
board). For details, see the reference and tutorials. The ATmega328 on the Arduino Uno
comes pre burned with a boot loader that allows you to upload new code to it without the use
of an external hardware programmer.

It communicates using the original STK500 protocol (reference, C header files). You
can also bypass the boot loader and program the microcontroller through the ICSP (In-Circuit
Serial Programming) header; see these instructions for details.

The ATmega8U2 firmware source code is available. The ATmega8U2 is loaded with
a DFU boot loader, which can be activated by connecting the solder jumper on the back of
the board (near the map of Italy) and then resetting the 8U2.

You can then use Atmel's FLIP software (Windows) or the DFU programmer (Mac
OS X and Linux) to load a new firmware. Or you can use the ISP header with an external
programmer (overwriting the DFU boot loader). See this user-contributed tutorial for more
information.

5.1.1.5 Automatic (software) reset:

Rather than requiring a physical press of the reset button before an upload, the
Arduino Uno is designed in a way that allows it to be reset by software running on a
connected computer. One of the hardware flow control lines (DTR) of the ATmega8U2 is
connected to the reset line of the ATmega328 via a 100 nanofarad capacitor. When this line
is asserted (taken low), the reset line drops long enough to reset the chip. The Arduino
software uses this capability to allow you to upload code by simply pressing the upload
button in the Arduino environment. This means that the bootloader can have a shorter
timeout, as the lowering of DTR can be well-coordinated with the start of the upload.

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This setup has other implications. When the Uno is connected to either a computer
running Mac OS X or Linux, it resets each time a connection is made to it from software (via
USB). For the following half-second or so, the boot loader is running on the Uno. While it is
programmed to ignore malformed data (i.e. anything besides an upload of new code), it will
intercept the first few bytes of data sent to the board after a connection is opened. If a sketch
running on the board receives one-time configuration or other data when it first starts, make
sure that the software with which it communicates waits a second after opening the
connection and before sending this data.

The Uno contains a trace that can be cut to disable the auto-reset. The pads on either
side of the trace can be soldered together to re-enable it. It's labeled "RESET-EN". You may
also be able to disable the auto-reset by connecting a 110 ohm resistor from 5V to the reset
line; see this forum thread for details.

5.1.1.6 USB Over current Protection:

The Arduino Uno has a resettable polyfuse that protects your computer's USB ports
from shorts and over current. Although most computers provide their own internal protection,
the fuse provides an extra layer of protection. If more than 500 mA is applied to the USB
port, the fuse will automatically break the connection until the short or overload is removed.

5.1.1.7 Physical Characteristics:

The maximum length and width of the Uno PCB are 2.7 and 2.1 inches respectively,
with the USB connector and power jack extending beyond the former dimension. Four screw
holes allow the board to be attached to a surface or case. Note that the distance between
digital pins 7 and 8 is 160 mil (0.16"), not an even multiple of the 100 mil spacing of the
other pins.

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5.1.2 AT-MEGA 328P MICROCONTROLLER:

Figure 5.1.2.1: AT-MEGA 328P Microcontroller

5.1.2.1 Features:

 The ATmega328P is a high-performance Atmel 8-bit AVR RISC-based


microcontroller combines 32KB flash memory with read-while-write capabilities

.

 It has 1024B EEPROM, 23 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general purpose working
registers.


 It has three flexible timer/counters with compare modes, internal and external
interrupts.



 It has serial programmable, a byte-oriented 2-wire serial interface, serial port.




 It has 6-channel 10-bit A/D, programmable watchdog timer with internal oscillator.


 It has five software selectable power saving modes.




 The device operates between 1.8-5.5 volts. By executing powerful instructions in a
single clock cycle, the device achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz,
balancing power consumption and processing speed.

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 Memory: It has 8 Kb of Flash program memory (10,000 Write/Erase cycles


durability), 512 Bytes of EEPROM (100,000 Write/Erase Cycles). 1Kbyte Internal

SRAM




 I/O Ports: 23 I/ line can be obtained from three ports; namely Port B, Port C and Port
D.



 Interrupts: Two External Interrupt source, located at port D. 19 different interrupt
vectors supporting 19 events generated by internal peripherals.



 Timer/Counter: Three Internal Timers are available, two 8 bit, one 16 bit, offering
various operating modes and supporting internal or external clocking.



 SPI (Serial Peripheral interface): ATmega8 holds three communication devices
integrated. One of them is Serial Peripheral Interface. Four pins are assigned to
Atmega8 to implement this scheme of communication.



USART: One of the most powerful communication solutions is USART and
ATmega8 supports both synchronous and asynchronous data transfer schemes. It has
three pins assigned for that. In many projects, this module is extensively used for PC-
Micro controller communication.

 TWI (Two Wire Interface): Another communication device that is present in


ATmega8 is Two Wire Interface. It allows designers to set up a commutation between
two devices using just two wires along with a common ground connection, As the
TWI output is made by means of open collector outputs, thus external pull up
resistors are required to make the circuit.

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 Analog Comparator: A comparator module is integrated in the IC that provides


comparison facility between two voltages connected to the two inputs of the Analog
comparator via External pins attached to the micro controller.


 Analog to Digital Converter: Inbuilt analog to digital converter can convert an
analog input signal into digital data of 10bit resolution. For most of the low end
application this much resolution is enough.

5.1.3 RASPBERRY Pi 3:

Figure 5.1.3.1: RASPBERRY Pi 3

The Raspberry Pi is a credit-card-sized single-board computer developed in the UK


by the Raspberry Pi Foundation with the intention of promoting the teaching of
basic computer science in schools. It is manufactured in two board configurations through
licensed manufacturing deals with Newark element14 (Premier Farnell), RS Components and
Ego man. These companies sell the Raspberry Pi online. Ego man produces a version for
distribution solely in China and Taiwan, which can be distinguished from other Pi’s by their
red colouring and lack of FCC/CE marks. The hardware is the same across all manufacturers.
The Raspberry Pi has a Broadcom BCM2835 system on a chip (SoC), which includes an
ARM1176JZF-S 700 MHz processor, Video Core IV GPU, and was originally shipped

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with 256 megabytes of RAM, later upgraded to 512 MB. It does not include a built-in hard
disk or solid-state drive, but uses an SD card for booting and persistent storage.

The Foundation provides Debian and Arch Linux ARM distributions for
download. Tools are available for Python as the main programming language, with support
for BBC BASIC (via the RISC OS image or the Brandy Basic clone for
Linux), C, Java and Perl. In 2006, early concepts of the Raspberry Pi were based on
the Atmel ATmega644 microcontroller. Its schematics and PCB layout are publicly
available.

Foundation trustee Eben Upton assembled a group of teachers, academics and


computer enthusiasts to devise a computer to inspire children. The computer is inspired by
Acorn's BBC Micro of 1981. The first ARM prototype version of the computer was mounted
in a package the same size as a USB memory stick. It had a USB port on one end and an
HDMI port on the other.

Raspberry Pi is a credit card sized bargain micro Linux machine. The goal behind
creating Raspberry Pi was to create a low cost device that would improve programming skills
and hardware understanding for students. The latest model of Raspberry Pi comes sporting 1
GB of RAM, 1200 MHz quad – core ARM Cortex-A53 processor, and basic levels of
functionality that enables hobbyists, computer enthusiasts, and students to use this device for
DIY projects. Raspberry Pi is open hardware with the exception of its primary chip, the
Broadcom SoC which runs the main components of the board – CPU, graphics, memory,
USB controller etc.

This is the model version which is being implemented in this project. The use of this
model is basically due to the following features exhibited by it.

5.1.3.1 Features:

 SoC = Broadcom BCM2835



 CPU = 700 MHz ARM 1176JZF-S

 GPU = Broadcom VideoCore IV supporting OpenGL, MPEG-2, 1080P,
h.264/MPEG-4 AVC

 RAM = 512 MB RAM

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 USB = 2 - USB 2.0 ports



 Video outputs = Composite RCA and HDMI

 Audio outputs = 3.5mm and HDMI

 Onboard storage = SD/MMC/SDIO card slot (4GB recommended)

 Onboard network = 10/100 RJ-45

 Low-level peripherals = 8 × GPIO, UART, I²C bus, SPI bus with two chip selects,
+3.3 V, +5 V, ground

 Power rating = 700 mA (3.5 W)

 Power source = 5 volt via MicroUSB or GPIO header for power (1.0A recommended)

 Size = 85.60mm × 53.98mm (3.370 × 2.125 in)

 Weight = 45g (1.6oz)

5.1.3.2 Different Models of Raspberry Pi (rpi):

 The current models of the Raspberry Pi available: the Pi 2 Model B, the Pi 3 Model
B, the Pi Zero, and the Pi 1 Model B+ and A+.

 The Model A+ is the low-cost variant of the Raspberry Pi. It has 256MB RAM, one
USB port, 40 GPIO pins and no Ethernet port.

 The Model B+ is the final revision of the original Raspberry Pi. It has 512MB RAM
(twice as much as the A+), four USB ports, 40 GPIO pins, and an Ethernet port.

 The Pi 2 shares many specs with the Pi 1 B+, but it uses a 900MHz quad-core ARM
Cortex-A7 CPU and has 1GB RAM.

 The Pi 3 Model B was launched in February 2016; it uses a 1.2GHz 64-bit quad-core
ARM Cortex-A53 CPU, has 1GB RAM, integrated 802.11n wireless LAN, and
Bluetooth 4.1.

 Pi Zero is half the size of a Model A+, with a 1 GHz single-core CPU and 512MB
RAM, and mini-HDMI and USB On-The-Go ports.

 All of these Raspberry Pi Models share the following features:

 Operating Systems: Raspbian RaspBMC, Arch Linux, Rise OS, OpenELEC Pidora

 Video Output: HDMI Composite RCA

 Supported Resolutions: 640x350 to 1920x1200, including 1080p, PAL & NTSC

standards Power Source: Micro USB

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 The Raspberry Pi is a general purpose computer.



 Processor speed ranges from 700 MHz to 1.2 GHz for the Pi 3

 On-board memory ranges from 256 MB to 1 GB RAM.

Secure Digital (SD) cards are used to store the operating system and program
memory in either SDHC or MicroSDHC sizes.
 Types of Card

 SDSC (SD): 1MB to 2GB

 SDHC: 4GB to 32 GB

 SDXD up to 2TB

What is System on Chip?A system on a chip is an integrated circuit that
integrates all components of a computer or other electronic systems.

 System on Chip is a microchip that has all the components required to power a
computer.

 A complex IC that integrates the major functional elements into a single chip or
chipset.

 programmable processor

 on-chip memory

 accelerating function hardware (e.g. GPU)

 both hardware and software

 analog components


 Benefits of SoC

 Reduce overall system cost

 Increase performance

 Lower power consumption

 Reduce size

The Raspberry Pi is powered by a Broadcom BCM2835 System on a Chip

 SoC in Raspberry Pi: Broadcom BCM2835 SoC Multimedia processor

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 CPU

 ARM 1176JZF-S (armv6k) 700MHz

 RISC Architecture and low power draw

 Not compatible with traditional PC software

 GPU

 Broadcom Video IV

 Specialized graphical instruction sets

 RAM

 (Model B rev.2)

 General Purpose Input/output (GPIO)

General Purpose Input/output (GPIO) is a generic pin on a chip whose behavior can be
controlled by the user at run time.

 The GPIO connector has a number of different types of connection



 True GPIO (General Purpose Input Output) pins that you can use to turn LEDs on
and off etc.

 I2C interface pins that allow you to connect hardware modules with just two
control pins

 SPI interface with SPI devices, a similar concept to I2C but uses a different
standard

 Serial Rx and Tx pins for communication with serial peripherals

 GPIO pins can be used as both digital outputs and digital inputs.

 Output: turn a particular pin HIGH or LOW.

 Setting it HIGH sets it to 3.3V; setting it LOW sets it to 0V.

 Input: detect the pin being at HIGH or LOW

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 we can connect switches and simple sensors to a pin and check whether it is open
or closed (that is, activated or not)

Figure 5.1.3.2: RASPBERRY Pi 3 Pin Details


5.1.3.3 Specifications:

Broadcom BCM2387
Processor chipset.
1.2GHz Quad-Core ARM Cortex-A53
802.11 b/g/n Wireless LAN and Bluetooth 4.1 (Bluetooth
Classic and LE)
Dual Core VideoCore IV® Multimedia Co-Processor. Provides
GPU Open GL
ES 2.0, hardware-accelerated OpenVG, and 1080p30 H.264
high-profile
decode.
Capable of 1Gpixel/s, 1.5Gtexel/s or 24GFLOPs with texture
filtering and
DMA infrastructure
Memory 1GB LPDDR2
Operating System Boots from Micro SD card, running a version of the Linux

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operating system or
Windows 10 IoT
Dimensions 85 x 56 x 17mm
Micro USB socket 5V1,
Power 2.5A

Connectors:
10/100 BaseT Ethernet
Ethernet socket
Video Output HDMI (rev 1.3 & 1.4
Composite RCA (PAL and
NTSC)
Audio Output 3.5mm jack,
Audio Output HDMI
USB 4 x USB 2.0
Connector
GPIO Connector 40-pin 2.54 mm (100 mil) expansion header: 2x20 strip
Providing 27 GPIO pins as well as +3.3 V, +5 V and GND
supply lines
Camera Connector 15-pin MIPI Camera Serial Interface (CSI-2)
Display Serial Interface (DSI) 15 way flat flex cable connector
Display Connector with two data
lanes and a clock lane

Memory Card Slot Push/pull Micro SDIO

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Key Benefits • Low cost • Consistent board format

• 10x faster processing • Added connectivity

Key Applications • Low cost PC/tablet/laptop • IoT applications


• Media centre • Robotics
• Industrial/Home
automation • Server/cloud server
• Print server • Security monitoring
• Web camera • Gaming
• Wireless access point
• Environmental sensing/monitoring (e.g. weather station)

Table 5.1.3.1: Specifications Of Raspberry Pi 3

5.1.3.4 Preparing the SD card:

The SD card is important because this is where the Raspberry Pi keeps its operating
system and is also where you will store your documents and programs. The minimum size
card which is available is 4GB and this is enough to store the data required to implement this
project.

5.1.3.5 To Prepare an SD card we would require:

A 'regular' computer with a built-in SD card reader, or an add-on USB SD card


reader. The instructions here are for Windows and Mac.

Figure 5.1.3.3 To Prepare an SD card


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The steps involved are:

1. Download Fedora ARM Installer


2. This will download a zip file that you must extract. The result will be a folder called 'faii-
1.0.2-3- x32'.
3. Eject any external storage devices such as USB flash drives and backup hard disks. This
makes it easier to identify the SD card. Then insert the SD card into the slot on your
computer or into the reader.
4. Right click to run the file fedo ra-arm-installer.exe as an administrator.
5. Select the image file and device.

5.1.3.6 GPIO Setup:

One of the great things about the Raspberry Pi is that it has a GPIO connector to
which you can attach external hardware.
The GPIO connector actually has a number of different types of connection on them.
There are:
1. True GPIO (General Purpose Input Output) pins that you can use to turn LEDs on and off
etc.
2. I2C interface pins that allow you to connect hardware modules with just two control pins.
3. SPI interface with SPI devices, a similar concept to I2C but a different standard
4. Serial Rx and Tx pins for communication with serial peripherals
In addition, some of the pins can be used for PWM (pulse Width Modulation) for power
control and another type of pulse generation for controlling servo motors called PPM (Pulse
Position Modulation).

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Figure 5.1.3.4 RASPBERRY Pi GPIO

As well as supplying power (GND, 3.3V and 5V) all the GPIO pins can be used as
either digital inputs or outputs. The pins labeled SCL and SDA can be used for I2C. The pins
labeled MOSI, MISO and SCKL can be used to connect to high speed SPI devices. All the
pins have 3.3V logic levels and are not 5V-safe so the output levels are 0-3.3V and the inputs
should not be higher than 3.3V. For connecting a 5V output to a Pi input we can make use of
a level shifter.

After setting up the pi the following commands have to be run in the LX terminal window so
as to configure the GPIO pins and for updating. The commands are:

1. sudo apt-get update


2. sudo apt-get install.git
3. sudo apt-get install python-dev
4. sudo apt-get install python-rpi.gpio

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5.1.4 ULTRASONIC SENSOR:

Figure 5.1.4.1 ULTRASONIC SENSOR

The purpose of this file is to explain the HC-SR04 works. it will give an brief
explanation of how ultrasonic sensors work in general it will also explain how to wire the
sensor setup upto a microcontroller and how to take/ interpret readings. It will also discuss
some sources of errors and bad readings.
Ultrasonic sensors use sound to determine the distance between the sensor and the
closest object in its path. How do ultrasonic sensors do this? Ultrasonic sensors are
essentially sound sensors, but they operate at a frequency above human hearing.

Figure 5.1.4.2 ULTRASONIC SENSOR Waves Transfer

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The sensor sends out a sound wave at a specific frequency. It then listens for that
specific sound wave to bounce off of an object and come back (Figure 5.1.4.2). The sensor
keeps track of the time between sending the sound wave and the sound wave returning. If
you know how fast something is going and how long it is traveling you can find the distance
traveled with equation 1.

Equation 1. D = V × T (5.1.4.1)

The speed of sound can be calculated based on the variety of atmospheric conditions,
including temperature, humidity and pressure. Actually calculating the distance will be
shown later on in this document. It should be noted that ultrasonic sensors have a cone of
detection, the angle of this cone varies with distance, and Figure 5.1.4.3 show this relation. The
ability of a sensor to detect an object also depends on the objects orientation to the sensor. If
an object doesn’t present a flat surface to the sensor then it is possible the sound wave will
bounce off the object in a way that it does not return to the sensor.

Figure 5.1.4.3 ULTRASONIC SENSOR Waves Transfer with Object

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5.1.4.1 Specifications:

The sensor chosen for the Firefighting Drone Project was the HC-SR04. This section
contains the specifications and why they are important to the sensor module. The sensor
modules requirements are as follows.

 Cost


 Weight


 Community of hobbyists and support


 Accuracy of object detection


 Probability of working in a smoky environment


 Ease of use

The HC-SR04 Specifications are listed below. These specifications are from the Cytron
Technologies HC-SR04 User’s Manual (source 1).

 Power Supply: +5V DC





 Quiescent Current: <2mA



 Working current: 15mA



 Effectual Angle: <15º

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 Ranging Distance: 2-400 cm





 esolution: 0.3 cm



 Measuring Angle: 30º



 Trigger Input Pulse width: 10uS



 Dimension: 45mm x 20mm x 15mm



 Weight: approx. 10 g

The HC-SR04’s best selling point is its price; It can be purchased at around $2 per unit.

5.1.4.2 Timing and Pin Explanation:


The HC­SR04 has four pins, VCC, GND, TRIG and ECHO; These pins all have
different functions. The VCC and GND pins are the simplest -- they power the HC-SR04.
These pins need to be attached to a +5 volt source and ground respectively. There is a single
control pin: the TRIG pin. The TRIG pin is responsible for sending the ultrasonic burst. This
pin should be set to HIGH for 10 μs, at which point the HC­SR04 will send out an eight cycle

sonic burst at 40 kHz. After a sonic burst has been sent the ECHO pin will go HIGH. The
ECHO pin is the data pin -- it is used in taking distance measurements. After an ultrasonic
burst is sent the pin will go HIGH, it will stay high until an ultrasonic burst is detected back,
at which point it will go LOW.

5.1.4.3 Taking Distance Measurment:

The HC-SR04 can be triggered to send out an ultrasonic burst by setting the TRIG pin to
HIGH. Once the burst is sent the ECHO pin will automatically go HIGH. This pin will

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remain HIGH until the burst hits the sensor again. You can calculate the distance to the
object by keeping track of how long the ECHO pin stays HIGH. The time ECHO stays HIGH
is the time the burst spent traveling. Using this measurement in equation 1 along with the
speed of sound will yield the distance travelled. A summary of this is listed below, along
with a visual representation in Figure 2.

a. Set TRIG to HIGH

b. Set a timer when ECHO goes to HIGH

c. Keep the timer running until ECHO goes to LOW

d. Save that time

Use equation 1 to determine the distance travelled

Figure 5.1.4.4 ULTRASONIC SENSOR Waves Timing Diagram

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5.1.5 DC MOTORS:
Whenever a robotics hobbyist talk about making a robot, the first thing comes to his
mind is making the robot move on the ground. And there are always two options in front of
the designer whether to use a DC motor or a stepper motor. When it comes to speed, weight,
size, cost... DC motors are always preferred over stepper motors. There are many things
which you can do with your DC motor when interfaced with a microcontroller. For example
you can control the speed of motor; you can control the direction of rotation. Rather of being
cheap, they only increase the size of the design b ard, which camisole time is not required so
using a small 16 pin IC is preferred for this purpose.
In this part of tutorial we will learn to interface and control of a DC motor with a
microcontroller. Usually H‐bridge is preferred way of interfacing a DC motor. These days
many IC manufacturers have H‐bridge motor driver available in the market like L293D is st
used H‐ Bridge driver IC. H‐bridge can also be made with the help of transistors and
MOSFETs etc.

5.1.5.1 DC Motor with Gear:

The DC motors don’t have enough torque to drive a robot directly by connecting
wheels in it.
Gears are used to increase the torque of dc motor on the expense of its speed.

Mathematical interpretation:
Rotational power (Pr) is given by:
Pr =Torque (T) * Rotational Speed (ω)

Thus
Note:
 In toy car, there a gear box that contains several combinations of gears.

 Geared motor has gears box at its front.

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Figure 5.1.5.1 DC Motor with Gear

Figure 5.1.5.2 DC Motor Current Flow

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As you can see in the figure above there are four switching elements named as "High
side left", "High side right", "Low side right", "Low side left". When these switches are
turned on in pairs motor changes its direction accordingly. Like, if we switch on High side
left and Low side right then motor rotate in forward direction, as current flows from P\power
supply through the motor coil goes to ground via switch low side right. This is shown in the
figure below.

Similarly, when you switch on low side left and high side right, the current flows in
pposite direction and motor rotates in backward direction. This is the basic working of H‐
Bridge. We can also make a small truth table according to the switching of H‐Bridge
explained above.

5.1.5.2 Truth Table Of DC Motor:

High Left High Right Low Left Low Right Description

On Off Off On Motor runs clockwise

Off On On Off Motor runs anti‐clockwise

On On Off Off Motor stops or decelerates

Off Off On On Motor stops or decelerates

Table 5.1.5.1: Truth Table of DC Motor


As already said, H‐bridge can be made with the help of transistors as well as
MOSFETs; the only thing is the power handling capacity of the circuit. If motors are needed
to run with high current then lot of dissipation is there. So head sinks are needed to cool the
circuit. Now you might be thinking why I did not discuss the cases like High side left on and
Low side left on or high side right on and low side right on. Clearly seen in the diagram, you
don't want to burn your power supply by shorting them. So that is why those combinations
are not discussed in the truth table. So we have seen that using simple switching elements we
can make our own H‐Bridge, ther option we have is using an IC based H‐bridge driver.

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5.1.6 MOTOR DRIVER:

Figure 5.1.6.1 Driver Circuit IC L293D

L293D a dual H‐Bridge motor Vision Robot driver, so with one IC we can interface
two DC motors which can be controlled in both clockwise and counter clockwise direction
and if you have motor with fix direction of motion. You can make use of all the four I/Os to
connect up to four DC motors. L293D has output current of 600mA and peak output current
of 1.2A per channel. Moreover for protection of circuit from back EMF output diodes are
included within the IC the output supply (VCC2) has a wide range from 4.5V to 36V, which
has made L293D a best choice for DC motor driver.

Whenever a robotics hobbyist talk about making a robot, the first thing comes to his
mind is making the robot move on the ground. And there are always two options in front of
the designer whether to use a DC motor or a stepper motor. When it comes to speed, weight,
size, cost...

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DC motors are always preferred over stepper motors. There are many things which
you can do with your DC motor when interfaced with a microcontroller. For example you
can control the speed of motor; you can control the direction of rotation. Rather of being
cheap, they only increase the size of the design b ard, which camisole times not required so
using a small 16 pin IC is preferred for this purpose. In this part of tutorial we will learn to
interface and control of a DC m t r with a microcontroller. Usually H‐bridge is preferred way
of interfacing a DC motor. These days many IC manufacturers have H‐bridge motor driver
available in the market like L293D is used H‐ Bridge driver IC. H‐bridge can also be made
with the help of transistors and MOSFETs etc.

5.1.6.1 Pin Description:

Pin
Function Name
No
1 Enable pin for Motor 1; active high Enable 1,2
2 Input 1 for Motor 1 Input 1
3 Output 1 for Motor 1 Output 1
4 Ground (0V) Ground
5 Ground (0V) Ground
6 Output 2 for Motor 1 Output 2
7 Input 2 for Motor 1 Input 2
8 Supply voltage for Motors; 9-12V (up to 36V) Vcc 2
9 Enable pin for Motor 2; active high Enable 3,4
10 Input 1 for Motor 1 Input 3
11 Output 1 for Motor 1 Output 3
12 Ground (0V) Ground
13 Ground (0V) Ground
14 Output 2 for Motor 1 Output 4
15 Input2 for Motor 1 Input 4
16 Supply voltage; 5V (up to 36V) Vcc 1
Table 5.1.6.1: Pin Description

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A simple schematic for interfacing a DC motor using L293D is shown below.

Figure 5.1.6.2 Driver Circuit Description

As you can see in the circuit, three pins are needed for interfacing a DC motor (A, B,
Enable). If you want the o/p to be enabled completely then you can connect Enable to VCC
and only 2 pins needed from controller to make the motor work. As per the truth mentioned
in the image above it’s fairly simple to program the microcontroller. It’s also clear from the
truth table of BJT circuit and L293D the programming will be same for both of them, just
keeping in mind the allowed combinations of A and B.

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5.1.7 PASSIVE INFRARED DETECTOR:

Figure 5.1.7.1 Passive Infrared Detector

PIR sensors allow you to sense motion, almost always used to detect whether a
human has moved in or out of the sensors range. They are small, inexpensive, low-power,
easy to use and don't wear out. For that reason they are commonly found in appliances and
gadgets used in homes or businesses. They are often referred to as PIR, "Passive Infrared",
"Pyroelectric", or "IR motion" sensors. PIRs are basically made of a pyroelectric sensor
(which you can see below as the round metal can with a rectangular crystal in the center),
which can detect levels of infrared radiation. Everything emits some low level radiation, and
the hotter something is, the more radiation is emitted. The sensor in a motion detector is
actually split in two halves. The reason for that is that we are looking to detect motion
(change) not average IR levels. The two halves are wired up so that they cancel each other
out. If one half sees more or less IR radiation than the other, the output will swing high or
low.

Chip takes the output of the sensor and does some minor processing on it to emit
a digital output pulse from the analog sensor.

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Our older PIRs looked like this:

Figure 5.1.7.2 Old PIR sensor

Our new PIRs have more adjustable settings and have a header installed in
the 3-pin ground/out/power pads

Figure 5.1.7.3 Newer PIR sensor


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For many basic projects or products that need to detect when a person has left or
entered the area, or has approached, PIR sensors are great. They are low power and low cost,
pretty rugged, have a wide lens range, and are easy to interface with. Note that PIRs won't
tell you how many people are around or how close they are to the sensor, the lens is often
fixed to a certain sweep and distance (although it can be hacked somewhere) and they are
also sometimes set off by house pets. Experimentation is key!

5.1.7.1 How PIR Works:


PIR sensors are more complicated than many of the other sensors explained in these
tutorials (like photocells, FSRs and tilt switches) because there are multiple variables that
affect the sensors input and output. To begin explaining how a basic sensor works, we'll use
this rather nice diagram

The PIR sensor itself has two slots in it, each slot is made of a special material that is
sensitive to IR. The lens used here is not really doing much and so we see that the two slots
can 'see' out past some distance (basically the sensitivity of the sensor). When the sensor is
idle, both slots detect the same amount of IR, the ambient amount radiated from the room or
walls or outdoors. When a warm body like a human or animal passes by, it first intercepts
one half of the PIR sensor, which causes a positive differential change between the two
halves. When the warm body leaves the sensing area, the reverse happens, whereby the
sensor generates a negative differential change. These change pulses are what is detected.

Figure 5.1.7.4 PIR Working

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The IR sensor itself is housed in a hermetically sealed metal can to improve


noise/temperature/humidity immunity. There is a window made of IR- transmissive material
(typically coated silicon since that is very easy to come by) that protects the sensing element.
Behind the window are the two balanced sensors.

Figure 5.1.7.5 PIR Transmitting Material

Figure 5.1.7.6 PIR Internal Schematic

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5.1.8 HUMIDITY & TEMPERATURE SENSOR (DHT11):

Figure 5.1.8.1 Humidity & Temperature sensor (DHT11)

The DHT11 is a basic, low-cost digital temperature and humidity sensor. It uses a
capacitive humidity sensor and a thermistor to measure the surrounding air, and spits out a
digital signal on the data pin (no analog input pins needed). It’s fairly simple to use, but
requires careful timing to grab data. The only real downside of this sensor is you can only get
new data from it once every 2 seconds.

This sensor includes a resistive-type humidity measurement component and an NTC


temperature measurement component, and connects to a high-performance 8-bit
microcontroller, offering excellent quality, fast response, anti-interference ability and cost-
effectiveness. Each DHT11 element is strictly calibrated in the laboratory that is extremely
accurate on humidity calibration. The calibration coefficients are stored as programmers in
the OTP memory, which are used by the sensor’s internal signal detecting process. The
single-wire serial interface makes system integration quick and easy. Its small size, low
power consumption and up-to-20 meter signal transmission making it the best choice for
various applications, including those most demanding ones. The component is 4-pin single
row pin package.

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5.1.8.1 Features:

 Full range temperature compensated



 Relative humidity and temperature measurement

 Calibrated digital signal

 Outstanding long-term stability

 Extra components not needed

 Long transmission distance

 Low power consumption

 4 pins packaged and fully interchangeable

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5.1.8.2 Specifications:

Figure 5.1.8.2 DHT11 Sensor Specification

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5.1.8.3 Communication Interface (Single-Wire Two Way):


The interesting thing in this module is the protocol that uses to transfer data. All the
sensor readings are sent using a single wire bus which reduces the cost and extends the
distance. In order to send data over a bus you have to describe the way the data will be
transferred, so that transmitter and receiver can understand what says each other. This is what
a protocol does. It describes the way the data are transmitted. On DHT-11 the 1-wire data bus
is pulled up with a resistor to VCC. So if nothing is occurred the voltage on the bus is equal
to VCC.

 Request: To make the DHT-11 to send you the sensor readings you have to send it a
request. The request is, to pull down the bus for more than 18ms in order to give
DHT time to understand it and then pull it up for 40uS.



 Response: What comes after the request is the DHT-11 response. This is an
automatic reply from DHT which indicates that DHT received your request. The
response is ~54uS low and 80uS high.



 Data Reading: What will come after the response is the sensor data. The data will be
packed in a packet of 5 segments of 8-bits each. Totally 5×8 =40bits.

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5.1.9 MOISTURE SENSOR:

Figure 5.1.9.1 Moisture Sensor

This Moisture Sensor uses Immersion Gold which protects the nickel from oxidation.
Electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) has several advantages over more conventional
(and cheaper) surface plating such as HASL (solder), including excellent surface planarity
(particularly helpful for PCB's with large BGA packages), good oxidation resistance, and
usability for untreated contact surfaces such as membrane switches and contact points. This
Moisture Sensor can read the amount of moisture present in the soil surrounding it. It's a low
tech sensor, but ideal for monitoring an urban garden, or your pet plant's water level. This is
a must have tool for a connected garden!

This Moisture Sensor can be used to detect the moisture of soil or judge if there is
water around the sensor, let the plants in your garden reach out for human help. They can be
very to use, just insert it into the soil and then read it. With help of this sensor, it will be
realizable to make the plant remind you: Hey, I am thirsty now, please give me some water.
This Moisture Sensor uses the two probes to pass current through the soil, and then it reads
that resistance to get the moisture level. More water makes the soil conduct electricity more
easily (less resistance), while dry soil conducts electricity poorly (more resistance).

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It will be helpful to remind you to water your indoor plants or to monitor the soil
moisture in your garden. The IO Expansion Shield is the perfect shield to connect this senor
to Arduino. This item has low power consumption, and high sensitivity, which are the
biggest characteristics of this mdoule. This item can be compatible with Arduino UNO、
Arduino mega2560、Arduino ADK etc.

5.1.9.1 Features:
 Working voltage: 5V


 Working Current: <20ma




 Interface: Analog


 Depth of detection: 37mm



 Working Temperature: 10℃~30℃



 Weight: 3g



 Size: 63×20×8mm



 Arduino compatible interface



 Low power consumption



 High sensitivity



 Output voltage signal: 0~4.2V
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5.1.9.2 Pin Definition:

Figure 5.1.9.3 Moisture Sensor Pin Definition

 "S" stand for signal input





 "+" stand for power supply



 "-" stand for GND

5.1.9.2 Connecting Diagram:

Figure 5.1.9.4 Connecting Diagram


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5.1.9.1 Characteristics:

 Wi-Fi Direct (P2P), soft-AP






 Built-in TCP / IP protocol stack


 Built-in TR switch, balun, LNA, power amplifier and matching network




 Built-in PLL, voltage regulator and power management components


 802.11b mode + 19.5dBm output power




 Built-in temperature sensor


 Support antenna diversity




 off leakage current is less than 10uA Built-in low-power 32-bit CPU: can double
as an application processor SDIO 2.0, SPI, UART


 STBC, 1x1 MIMO, 2x1 MIMO A-MPDU, A-MSDU aggregation and the 0.4
Within wake 2ms, connect and transfer data packets




 standby power consumption of less than 1.0mW (DTIM3)

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5.1.10 BUZZER:

Figure 5.1.10.1 Buzzer

A buzzer or beeper is an audio signaling device, which may be mechanical,


electromechanical, or piezoelectric. Typical uses of buzzers and beepers include alarm
devices, timers and confirmation of user input such as a mouse click or keystroke. Buzzer is
an integrated structure of electronic transducers, DC power supply, widely used in
computers, printers, copiers, alarms, electronic toys, automotive electronic equipment,
telephones, timers and other electronic products for sound devices. Active buzzer 5V Rated
power can be directly connected to a continuous sound, this section dedicated sensor
expansion module and the board in combination, can complete a simple circuit design, to
"plug and play."An active buzzer sensor module has a built-in oscillation circuit, thus the
sound frequency is fixed. It is able to generate the sound itself. So, you can simply turn it on
and off with an Arduino pin, just like the way of turning on and off a Led which is connected
to Arduino board. Besides, this sensor starts beeping when it is being supplied with DC
power supply.

5.1.10.1 Specifications:

 Operating voltage: 3.3V to 5V



 Active low sensor module

 Driver transistor: S8550

 Size: 3.2cm x 1.3cm

Figure 5.1.10.2 Buzzer Pin Description

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5.1.11 BLUETOOTH MODULE:

Figure 5.1.11.1 Bluetooth Module

HC-05 module is an easy to use Bluetooth SPP (Serial Port Protocol) module, designed for
transparent wireless serial connection setup. Serial port Bluetooth module is fully qualified
Bluetooth V2.0+EDR (Enhanced Data Rate) 3Mbps Modulation with complete 2.4GHz radio
transceiver and baseband. It uses CSR Bluecore 04-External single chip Bluetooth system
with CMOS technology and with AFH(Adaptive Frequency Hopping Feature). It has the
footprint as small as 12.7mmx27mm. Hope it will simplify your overall design/development
cycle

5.1.11.1 Specifications:
Hardware features


 Typical -80dBm sensitivity

 Up to +4dBm RF transmit power

 Low Power 1.8V Operation, 1.8 to 3.6V I/O

 PIO control

 UART interface with programmable baud rate

 With integrated antenna

With edge connector

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Software features


Default Baud rate: 38400, Data bits:8, Stop bit:1,Parity:No parity, Data control: has. 


 Supported baud rate: 9600,19200,38400,57600,115200,230400,460800.







Given a rising pulse in PIO0, device will be disconnected.




Status instruction port PIO1: low-disconnected, high-connected;




PIO10 and PIO11 can be connected to red and blue led separately. When master
 and slave are paired, red and blue led blinks 1time/2s in interval, while
disconnected only blue led blinks 2times/s.


Auto-connect to the last device on power as default.


Permit pairing device to connect as default.



Auto-pairing PINCODE:”0000” as default




Auto-reconnect in 30 min when disconnected as a result of beyond the range of
connection.

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5.1.11.2 HARDWARE:

Figure 5.1.11.7 Bluetooth Module Hardware

5.2 Software Requirements:


5.2.1 ARDUINO IDE:

The Arduino Integrated Development Environment - or Arduino Software


(IDE) - contains a text editor for writing code, a message area, a text console, a
toolbar with buttons for common functions and a series of menus. It connects to the
Arduino and Genuino hardware to upload programs and communicate with them.
The steps involved in ARDUINO software are:

Verify
Checks your code
for errors compiling
it.
Upload
Compiles your code and uploads it to the configured board. See

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uploading below for details.

Note: If you are using an external programmer with your board, you can
hold down the "shift" key on your computer when using this icon. The
text will change to "Upload using Programmer"
New
Creates a new sketch.
Open
Presents a menu of all the sketches in your sketchbook. Clicking one
will open it within the current window overwriting its content.

Note: due to a bug in Java, this menu doesn't scroll; if you need to open
a sketch late in the list, use the File | Sketchbook menu instead.
Save
Saves your sketch.
Serial Monitor
Opens the serial monitor.

5.2.1.1 File:

 New

Creates a new instance of the editor, with the bare minimum structure of a sketch
already in place.

 Open

Allows loading a sketch file browsing through the computer drives and folders.

 OpenRecent

Provides a short list of the most recent sketches, ready to be opened.

 Sketchbook

Shows the current sketches within the sketchbook folder structure; clicking on any
name opens the corresponding sketch in a new editor instance.

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 Examples

Any example provided by the Arduino Software (IDE) or library shows up in this
menu item. All the examples are structured in a tree that allows easy access by topic
or library.

 Close

Closes the instance of the Arduino Software from which it is clicked.

 Save

Saves the sketch with the current name. If the file hasn't been named before, a name
will be provided in a "Save as...” window.

 Saveas...

Allows saving the current sketch with a different name.

 PageSetup

It shows the Page Setup window for printing.

 Print

Sends the current sketch to the printer according to the settings defined in Page Setup.

 Preferences

Opens the Preferences window where some settings of the IDE may be customized,
as the language of the IDE interface.

 Quit

Closes all IDE windows. The same sketches open when Quit was chosen will be
automatically reopened the next time you start the IDE.

5.2.1.2 Edit:
 Undo/Redo

Goes back of one or more steps you did while editing; when you go back, you may go
forward with Redo.

 Cut

Removes the selected text from the editor and places it into the clipboard.

 Copy

Duplicates the selected text in the editor and places it into the clipboard.

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 CopyforForum

Copies the code of your sketch to the clipboard in a form suitable for posting to the
forum, complete with syntax coloring.

 CopyasHTML

Copies the code of your sketch to the clipboard as HTML, suitable for embedding in
web pages.

 Paste

Puts the contents of the clipboard at the cursor position, in the editor.

 SelectAll

Selects and highlights the whole content of the editor.

 Comment/Uncomment

Puts or removes the // comment marker at the beginning of each selected line.

 Increase/DecreaseIndent

Adds or subtracts a space at the beginning of each selected line, moving the text one
space on the right or eliminating a space at the beginning.

 Find

Opens the Find and Replace window where you can specify text to search inside the
current sketch according to several options.

 FindNext

Highlights the next occurrence - if any - of the string specified as the search item in
the Find window, relative to the cursor position.

 FindPrevious

Highlights the previous occurrence - if any - of the string specified as the search item
in the Find window relative to the cursor position.
4.2.1.3 Sketch:
 Verify/Compile

Checks your sketch for errors compiling it; it will report memory usage for code and
variables in the console area.

 Upload

Compiles and loads the binary file onto the configured board through the configured
Port.

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 UploadUsingProgrammer

This will overwrite the bootloader on the board; you will need to use Tools > Burn
Boot loader to restore it and be able to Upload to USB serial port again. However, it
allows you to use the full capacity of the Flash memory for your sketch. Please note
that this command will NOT burn the fuses. To do so a Tools -> Burn Boot loader
command must be executed.

 ExportCompiledBinary

Saves a .hex file that may be kept as archive or sent to the board using other tools.

 ShowSketchFolder

Opens the current sketch folder.

 IncludeLibrary

Adds a library to your sketch by inserting #include statements at the start of your
code. For more details, see libraries below. Additionally, from this menu item you
can access the Library Manager and import new libraries from .zip files.

 AddFile...

Adds a source file to the sketch (it will be copied from its current location). The new
file appears in a new tab in the sketch window. Files can be removed from the sketch
using the tab menu accessible clicking on the small triangle icon below the serial
monitor one on the right side o the toolbar.

5.2.1.4 Tools:
 AutoFormat

This formats your code nicely: i.e. indents it so that opening and closing curly braces
line up, and that the statements inside curly braces are indented more.

 ArchiveSketch

Archives a copy of the current sketch in .zip format. The archive is placed in the same
directory as the sketch.

 FixEncoding&Reload

Fixes possible discrepancies between the editor char map encoding and other
operating systems char maps.

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 SerialMonitor

Opens the serial monitor window and initiates the exchange of data with any
connected board on the currently selected Port. This usually resets the board, if the
board supports Reset over serial port opening.

 Board

Select the board that you're using. See below for descriptions of the various boards.

 Port

This menu contains all the serial devices (real or virtual) on your machine. It should
automatically refresh every time you open the top-level tools menu.

 Programmer

For selecting a hardware programmer when programming a board or chip and not
using the onboard USB-serial connection. Normally you won't need this, but if you're
burning a boot loader to a new microcontroller, you will use this.

 BurnBootloader

The items in this menu allow you to burn a boot loader onto the microcontroller on an
Arduino board. This is not required for normal use of an Arduino or Genuino board
but is useful if you purchase a new ATmega microcontroller (which normally comes
without a boot loader). Ensure that you've selected the correct board from the Boards
menu before burning the boot loader on the target board. This command also set the
right fuses.

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5.2.2 RASPBIAN PIXEL OS:

Raspbian is a Debian-based computer operating system for Raspberry Pi. There are several
versions of Raspbian including Raspbian Stretch and Raspbian Jessie. Since 2015 it has been
officially provided by the Raspberry Pi Foundation as the primary operating system for the
family of Raspberry Pi single-board computers.Raspbian was created by Mike Thompson
and Peter Green as an independent project. The initial build was completed in June 2012. The
operating system is still under active development. Raspbian is highly optimized for the
Raspberry Pi line's low-performance ARM CPUs.

Raspbian uses PIXEL, Pi Improved Xwindows Environment, Lightweight as its main


desktop environment as of the latest update. It is composed of a modified LXDE desktop
environment and the Openbox stacking window manager with a new theme and few other
changes. The distribution is shipped with a copy of computer algebra program Mathematical
and a version of Mine craft called Mine craft Pi as well as a lightweight version of
Chromium as of the latest version.

Raspbian is a free operating system based on Debian optimized for the Raspberry Pi
hardware. An operating system is the set of basic programs and utilities that make your
Raspberry Pi run. However, Raspbian provides more than a pure OS: it comes with over
35,000 packages, pre-compiled software bundled in a nice format for easy installation on
your Raspberry Pi.

The initial build of over 35,000 Raspbian packages, optimized for best performance on the
Raspberry Pi, was completed in June of 2012. However, Raspbian is still under active
development with an emphasis on improving the stability and performance of as many
Debian packages as possible.

Note: Raspbian is not affiliated with the Raspberry Pi Foundation. Raspbian was created by a
small, dedicated team of developers that are fans of the Raspberry Pi hardware, the
educational goals of the Raspberry Pi Foundation and, of course, the Debian Project.

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CHAPTER 6:

COST ESTIMATION

Serial no. Components details Cost in Rs


1 Raspberry Pi 3000

2 Camera Rpi 1200

3 Aruino UNO 1340

4 Node MCU 450

5 Robot Chassis 2000

6 L293D 150

7 Hc-05 400

8 Ultrasonic sensor 200

9 Motor 260

10 LDR 400

11 DNT 11 300

12 Soil Moisture Sensor 800

13 Power Supply Board 85

14 Light 30

15 4-Channel Relay 720

16 Fan 200

17 Water Pump Motor 400

18 Berg Connector 400

19 SD Card 650

20 Connectors, adaptors & USB 4000


cables, Misc
Total cost 16985

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Chapter 7:

APPLICATIONS
7.1 CROP MONITORING:

7.2 CROP WEEDING:

7.3 CROP SPRAYING:

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7.4 CROP PRUNING:

7.5 CROP IRRIGATION:

7.6 PREVENTING ANIMALS AND BIRD DAMAGE ON CROPS:

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7.7 PROTECT FROM PESTS:

7.8 PROBLEM SOLVING WITH WAREHOUSE MANAGEMENT:

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Chapter 8:

ADVANTAGES

 Shorter cycle times.




 Decreases production costs.


 Better floor utilisation.


 Reduced wastes.


 More savings.


 Eco-friendly due to use of solar panels.


 Easily spot fragile soil contents.

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Chapter 9:

CONCLUSION

To depreciate the extensive use of resources and there by effectively fixing the outcome
caused by miss management of resources. To be used in mundane task requiring more labour
force & also increase in the efficiency of the overall yield. To detect burglars entering to the
warehouse and to trenchantly store the harvested outturn by controlling the ambient
temperature.

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Chapter 10:

RESULT
 The temperature values are updated to the thing speak cloud through Wi-Fi module

Figure 10.1 Temperature

 The humidity values measured by the DHT11 sensor are updated to the thing speak
cloud

Figure 10.2 Humidity

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 The light intensity values are measured by LDR sensor and updated to the thingspeak
cloud through wifi module

Figure 10.3 Light Intensity

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Chapter 11:

REFERENCES

 S.R Nandurkar, V.R. Thool R.C Thool, “Design and development of precision
agriculture system using wireless sensor network”, IEEE International conference on
automation, control, energy and systems (ACES), 2014. [1]




 Joaquin Gutierrez, Juan Francisco Villa-Medina, Alejandra Nieto-Garibay, and
Miguel Angel Porta-Gándara, “Automated Irrigation System Using a Wireless Sensor
Network and GPRS Module”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION
AND MEASUREMENT. [2]




 Y. kim, R.Evans & W. Iversen, “Remote sensing and control of an irrigation system
using a distributed wireless sensor Network” , IEEE Transactions on instrumentation
and Measurement, pp 1379-1387, 2008[4]




 Hayes, J.; Crowley, K.; Diamond, D. Simultaneous web-based real-time temperature
monitoring using multiple wireless sensor networks. Sensors IEEE, October
30November 3, 2005.[5]

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