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Azonosító

jel:

2009. május 12.

BIOLÓGIA
ANGOL NYELVEN
EMELT SZINTŰ
ÍRÁSBELI VIZSGA
2009. május 12. 8:00

Az írásbeli vizsga időtartama: 240 perc


ÉRETTSÉGI VIZSGA

Pótlapok száma
Tisztázati
Piszkozati

OKTATÁSI ÉS KULTURÁLIS
MINISZTÉRIUM

Biológia angol nyelven emelt szint — írásbeli vizsga 0812


Biológia angol nyelven — emelt szint Azonosító
jel:

Important information
Read this information sheet before you start working.

You have 240 minutes to complete the higher level paper.

The Higher Level Exam consists of two sections.


You can achieve 80 points by answering correctly the assignments common for all
candidates (I-VIII.).
The last assignment (IX.) has two versions (version A and B). ONLY ONE OF
THESE VERSIONS SHOULD BE ANSWERED. The 20 points for the last
assignment CAN ONLY BE GIVEN FOR ONE OF THE TWO OPTIONAL VERSIONS, so
no more points will be achieved, if you have started answering both. Supposing you did
so, YOU ARE ASKED TO CROSS OUT THE UNWANTED VERSION WITH PEN before
submitting the exam. Otherwise examiners will automatically mark version „A”.

When answering multiple choice questions one or more CAPITAL LETTERS should
be written into the empty boxes. (Not numbers.) These are the codes for the right
answer(s). Make sure that your letters are unambiguous, because uncertain answers will not
be accepted.
In case of correction you are asked TO CROSS OUT the wrong letter clearly and TO WRITE
THE CODE FOR THE RIGHT ONE BESIDE IT.

A D correct A DC acceptable
BD wrong

When answering open-ended questions technical terms, short answers of 1-or-2


words, a sentence or several sentences should be created. Take care of GRAMMATICAL
CORRECTNESS. Grammatically ambiguous or unintelligible answers (e.g. uncertain subject
in a sentence) will not be accepted even if the right answer is included.

Use black or blue ink.

Don’t write into the grey-coloured


boxes!
We wish you a good work.

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Biológia angol nyelven — emelt szint Azonosító
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I. Biogenic elements 9 points


You find the chemical symbol of a biogenic element in each circle. Write the number of the
appropriate statement into the matching circle or into the intersection of the circles.

1. absorption of its ionic form from the


C P intestines is assisted by vitamin D
2. it is found in bones
3. it is a component of carbohydrates
4. its ionic form is required for blood-
clotting
5. plants fix its oxidized compound from
the atmosphere during photosynthesis
6. it is a component of nucleic acids
7. its oxidized compound plays a role in
the control of respiration in the human
body
8. it plays a role in the formation of high-
Ca
energy (macroerg) bonds
9. its ionic form is necessary for muscle
movement

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. total

II. The Life of the Termite 9 points

“Termites … feed exclusively on cellulose… The question how they fix the nitrogen from
air that they need for protein production or how they convert carbohydrates into proteins is
still open…
I have already mentioned the constant, unchanged humidity that is maintained by these
insects in their homes despite the atmosphere, which is so arid … that the merciless heat of
the tropical summer even burns out the roots of trees. This phenomenon is so unusual, that
Livingstone, who was not only a great explorer but a keen and conscientious naturalist, asked
the following question in 1871: Aren’t the members of the termite colony able to fix the
atmospheric oxygen by means of hydrogen from their plant food in an unknown process in
order to produce the water necessary for them to the extent as it evaporates? This problem has
remained unsolved, but the question is absolutely justified.”
Maurice Maeterlinck: The Life of the Termite (1926)

1. In order to obtain energy from cellulose first, the termite has to break it down into its
glucose monomers. What sort of reaction is this? Write the letter of the correct answer
into the empty box.

A. Hydrolysis
B. (Poly-)condensation/ Dehydration synthesis
C. Ester-formation
D. Oxidation
E. Reduction

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2. Nowadays we do know what Livingstone only had an idea about. In which process is
water produced from the hydrogen of the cellulose molecules and from the
atmospheric oxygen?

A. During hydrolysis
B. During glycolysis
C. During citric acid (Krebs) cycle
D. During terminal oxidation (electron transport chain)
E. During the formation of cellulose

3. In which part of the termite’s body does that process occur, during which the above-
mentioned water is produced?

A. In the (lumen of the) digestive canal


B. In the cavity of the trachea-system
C. In the cytoplasm
D. In the mitochondria
E. On the surface of ribosomes

4. For the question of Maeterlinck – “how they fix the nitrogen from air that they need for
protein production” – modern biologists already know the answer. Which organisms can
surely do this?

A. Every autotrophic plant


B. Most of the heterotrophic organisms
C. The nitrifying bacteria
D. The nitrogen-fixing bacteria
E. No living organism can utilize it directly

5. Besides proteins, syntheses of other compounds also require nitrogen. Which are these?
Write the letters of the correct answers into the empty boxes.

A. DNA B. RNA C. Fats D. Glycogen E. Starch

Maeterlinck had already known the secret of termite’s digestion. He wrote: “ L.R. Cleveland
… stated, that (considering all formerly studied animals) the guts of tree-eating termites are
literally filled with four species of parasites: the Trichonympha, the Leydiopsis sphaerica, the
Trichomonas and the Streblomastix: none of these can be found in the guts of other animals. If
we want to remove this fauna from the termite, we should expose them to 36 ºC temperature
for 24 hours. This treatment does not influence the termite, but its intestinal parasites are
killed. If we feed the termite “cleaned” with this method on cellulose, it can survive for 10-20
days. Then it dies of hunger. However if we return its parasites before the fatal deadline, its
life continues in an undisturbed way. If the parasite is removed from its gut, it immediately
dies, even if we put it onto the top of a cellulose hill.
According Cleveland’s experiments, the presence of Trichonympha and Leydiopsis
provides an undisturbed life for the host. … If we eliminate all Trichonympha, the single
Leydiopsis will multiply greatly and will substitute the Trichonympha. Streblomastix … has
no real effect on the life of its host. Similarly to the termites, its survival also relies upon the
presence of the other parasites.”

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Biológia angol nyelven — emelt szint Azonosító
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6. According the old-fashioned terminology, Maeterlinck used the term “parasite” to


describe the intestinal protozoa of termites. What type of population interaction can you
identify between the termite and the Trichonympha in reality?

A. Competition B. Commensalism C. Symbiosis D. Antibosis

7. On the basis of this experiment, what type of population interaction can you identify
between the termite and the Streblomastix?

A. Competition B. Commensalism C. Symbiosis D. Antibiosis

8. Based on this experiment, what sort of population interaction is likely to occur between
the Trichonympha and the Leidyopsis?

A. Competition B. Commensalism C. Symbiosis D. Antibiosis

9. According to the report, the summer temperature does not exceed 30ºC in the studied
termite hills and in winter it does not fall below 27ºC. Why is keeping the upper
temperature limit important for termites?

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A termite queen with giant abdomen surrounded by workers


(from the film of David Attenborough)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. total

írásbeli vizsga 0812 5 / 20 2009. május 12.


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III. Plants as indicators 10 points


A student was eager to know the environmental conditions of different habitats. He recorded
the 5 commonest species from three habitats and in a chart he indicated the T (temperature
requirement), W (water requirement) and R (soil pH requirement) values alongside the
species.
Species habitat T W R
peach-leaved Turkey oak-
bellflower/baracklevelű Sessile oak forest/
harangvirág cseres-tölgyes 5 4 3
Turkey oak-
Sessile oak forest/
wild service tree/ barkócafa cseres-tölgyes 5 4 4
Turkey oak-
Sessile oak forest/
turkey oak/ csertölgy cseres-tölgyes 5 3 3
Turkey oak-
Sessile oak forest/
wild privet/ fagyal cseres-tölgyes 5 4 3
Turkey oak-
scentless feverfew/ Sessile oak forest/
sátoros margitvirág cseres-tölgyes 5 4 4
Beech forest/
beech/ bükk bükkös 5 5 4
slender wood violet/ Beech forest/ Beech forest
erdei ibolya bükkös 5 5 3
wood-sorrel/ Beech forest/
erdei madársóska bükkös 5 7 3
coralroot bittercress/ Beech forest/
hagymás fogasír bükkös 5 5 4
Beech forest/
woodruff/ szagos müge bükkös 5 5 3
glossy-fruited sedge/ Rocky grassland/
fényes sás sziklagyep 6 2 4
mountain germander/ Rocky grassland/
hegyi gamandor sziklagyep 6 0 5
grey cinquefoil/ Rocky grassland/
homoki pimpó sziklagyep 6 1 5
common globularia/ Rocky grassland/
közönséges gubóvirág sziklagyep 6 2 4
hoary rock-rose/ Rocky grassland/
szürke napvirág sziklagyep 6 0 5

T W R
0 wide tolerance extremely arid wide tolerance to pH
1 tundra very arid acidic
2 forest-tundra arid slightly acidic
3 taiga moderately dry nearly neutral
4 mixed forest relatively fresh slightly alkaline (calcareous)
5 deciduous forest fresh alkaline (calcareous)
6 submediterranean deciduous forest moderately wet -
7 mediterranean/ maritime evergreen forest wet -
At “T” values, the temperature requirement is characterised by the most typical climatic belt.
Numbers from 1 to7 indicate climatic belts with continuously increasing mean temperatures.

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Biológia angol nyelven — emelt szint Azonosító
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1. Fill in the table below. For the calculation use the data recorded by the student.
(3 points)
type of habitat Mean value for T Mean value for W Mean value for R
A Beech forest

B Turkey oak-
Sessile oak forest

C Rocky grassland

Write the letters of the habitats (A, B or C) into the empty cells after the following statements.
(5 points)
2. The pH of its soil is nearly neutral or slightly alkaline (calcareous)
3. The habitat has a very arid climate
4. Its flora also contains species that prefer fresh soil
5. Most of the species indicate a relatively fresh habitat
6. The temperature of this habitat is in accordance with the submediterranean forest
climate

7. Complete the following bar graph by drawing the missing columns into the figure.
Always use the appropriate graphic pattern (empty, streaked, filled). (2 points)

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Biológia angol nyelven — emelt szint Azonosító
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IV. “They carry the eternal current” 12 points

Compare arterial and venal circulation. Put the letters of the correct answers in the boxes.

A. Arteries B. Veins C. Both of them D. None of them

1. They always carry oxygenated (=almost saturated with oxygen) blood


2. They transport blood towards the heart
3. Exchange of materials between tissues and blood occur through their walls
4. Pulse wave runs along their walls

5. Choose the effect that usually acts against the blood flow in the venal system of the
human limbs. The letter for the correct answer should be written in the empty box.

A. Blood vessels must carry blood away from the abdominal cavity against the gravitational
force.
B. Blood flows from the place of lower pressure to the place of higher pressure in them.
C. Blood flows into the opposite direction during the contraction of the right atrium.
D. More blood has to be transported in veins than in arteries.
E. The CO2-content of the blood is higher in veins than in arteries.

6. Choose the effects that help venal blood of limbs to flow into the correct direction. Letters for the
correct answers should be written in the empty boxes.

A. The pumping effect of muscle movement


B. The osmotic sucking force
C. The sucking force due to inhalation (inspiration)
D. The pocket valves that stop backflow
E. The flapped valves that stop backflow

The work of venal valves in a healthy person is shown on Figure 1. In the position “A” valves
are open.

Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3.

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7. In a healthy person, which direction do these valves allow blood to flow?

A. They allow blood to stream upward in any position of the limb.


B. They allow blood to stream towards the heart.
C. Depending on which stage the cardiac cycle is in, they allow blood to flow alternately
towards the heart and then back.
D. They allow blood to flow from the capillary system to the direction of the
larger veins.
E. They allow blood to flow downward in arms and upward in legs.

8. Figure 2. represents the development of a varicose vein. Choose those effects from the
following list which are likely to contribute to the development of varicose veins.

A. Too much movement with skeletal muscles


B. Pregnancy
C. Weakness of the connective tissue that surrounds the blood vessels
D. Standing or sedentary job
E. High blood pressure (hypertension)

9. The part indicated with letter “C” on Figure 3. shows another severe disorder. Name this
disorder and describe it briefly. (2 points)

……………………………………………………………………………………………..
………………………………………………………………………………………………

10. Part “D” is a broken fragment of “C” that is swept away by the bloodstream.
Supposing that this embolus (D) starts from the deep veins of the leg, name the organ in
which it can first block the blood flow in its small arterioles.

A. Heart
B. Brain
C. Spleen
D. Liver
E. Lungs

11. Name three faults in someone’s way of life that may lead to the development of the
disorder shown on the Figure 3. (1 point)

…………………………………………………………………………………………
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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. total

írásbeli vizsga 0812 9 / 20 2009. május 12.


Biológia angol nyelven — emelt szint Azonosító
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V. Tissues 10 points
Write the letters for tissues into the empty cells under the appropriate microscopic photo and into the
cells following the statements.

A. stratified, cornified epithelium


B. nervous tissue
C. striated muscle tissue (skeletal muscle tissue)
D. hyaline cartilage
E. bone tissue (osseous tissue)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. It is a structural material in the integument (skin) of Reptiles.


7. It causes the active movement of Insects.
8. A group of its cells produces oxytocin.
9. It covers the (articulating) ends of bones.
10. Calcium-phosphate is the inorganic salt of its matrix.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. total

írásbeli vizsga 0812 10 / 20 2009. május 12.


Biológia angol nyelven — emelt szint Azonosító
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VI. The skull 9 points

You can see the human skull in two different views on this figure.

1. Name the bones indicated by the following numbers. (3 points)

2 ………………………………… 3 …………………………………………
9 …………………………………
Compare the following two bones. Write the letters for correct answers into the empty boxes
after the statements. Each correct answer: 1 point.

A. True for the bone 1.


B. True for the bone 8.
C. True for both
D. True for none

2. It is part of the facial bones of the skull.


3. It is connected to the temporal bone by a joint.
4. Its opening is called foramen magnum.
5. Roots of 32 teeth may become fixed to it.
6. It is connected to the vertebral column.

7. During a cranial surgery, which bone has to be trepanised (=cut a hole) in order to reach
the primary sensory cortex responsible for somatic sensations? (Use the appropriate
number of the figure in your answer (empty box) and name this bone on the dotted line.)

……………………………………………… (1 point)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. total

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Biológia angol nyelven — emelt szint Azonosító
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VII. Drug alert 11 points

Amphetamines and cocaine influence the release and retake of certain synaptic
neurotransmitters such as dopamine and noradrenalin.
A synapse is shown on this figure. The symbol “+” means stimulation, while “-“ means
inhibition. (szinapszis= synapse, amfetamin= amphetamine, kokain= cocaine, ingerület= nerve impulse)

1. Name cell organelle “B” that contains


the neurotransmitter. (1 point)

………………………………
2. Name molecule “D” to which the
transmitter binds. (1 point)

………………………………

3. Complete the following sentences with the adequate terms. (3 points)

Amphetamines …………………. the release of dopamine and noradrenalin, cocaine


……………. the retake of them. As a result of this, the excitatory state of cell “E” ….........…

4. Molecule “C” is responsible for the retake of neurotransmitters. What kind of chemical
substance is molecule “C”? (1 point)
…………………………………….
5. Some of the effects of cocaine are: increased heart rate and blood pressure, dilation of
pupils, hyperthermia (increased body temperature). Name that part of the vegetative
(autonomic) nervous system whose excitation results in similar effects. (1 point)

…………………………………..
6. Name the specific part of an endocrine organ, whose hormones have similar effects.
……………………………………. (1 point)
7. Name one short-term effect (besides the above mentioned) of amphetamines and cocaine.
(1 point)
……………………………
8. Name two long-term effects of cocaine and amphetamines. (2 points)
…………………………………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………………………..
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. total

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VIII. Kernels (Grains of maize) 10 points


Geneticists have investigated the inheritance of the colour and the shape of kernels of maize.
Its colour (the colour of the endosperm) can be yellow or colourless. Its shape can be smooth
(non-shrunken) or wrinkled (shrunken). Both of the traits are determined by 2 alleles of two
different genes. First, scientists crossed maize of homozygous yellow and wrinkled kernels
with colourless and smooth ones. They obtained individuals having only yellow and smooth
kernels.
1. Give the genotypes of the members of the F1 generation using appropriate notation.
Describe precisely the meaning of the letters you have chosen. (1 point)

2. In the next experiment, a test cross was made: individuals of the F1 generation were
pollinated by the pollens originating from homozygous, recessive individuals. Assuming
that all Mendel’s Laws are true in this case, give the expected genotypes, phenotypes and
ratios (probabilities) of the offspring. (4 points)

Phenotype

Genotype

Expected %

The real result is shown on Figure 1. (The yellow seeds are dark grey
Y on this photo, while the wrinkled ones are narrow, concave (with a
groove in the centre)

3. Give the genotypes of the kernels indicated by “X” and “Y” on


this photo. (1 point)

X X: ……………………….. Y: …………………………….

4. Outline how the final result differed from the expected one. How
can you explain the experienced outcome?
(2 points)

………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………

Figure 1.

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In a different experiment, the same procedure was repeated with maize from a different
source. The results obtained for the F1 generation were identical with the previous one. The
result of the test cross, however, was different: its photo is shown on Figure 2.

Figure 2.

5. Explain the result of this experiment (Fig.2.). Describe the experienced result and give the
genotypes of the gametes produced by the F1 plants in this case. (2 points)

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. total

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Biológia angol nyelven — emelt szint Azonosító
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IX. Optional assignments


A. Controlled processes in plants 20 points

The regulation of flowering 7 points

1. Name the plant group (phylum) in which the flower first appeared in the course of
evolution. (1 point)
………………………………………………..

The effect of the duration of light exposure on the start of flowering in sugar-beet and tobacco
plant was investigated in an experiment. The two plants were exposed to different durations of
light in three separate experiments. (On the figure below, the white bars show the duration of
light exposure within a 24 hours period) Within the dark period of the third experiment, the
plants were exposed to white light for a short time. Symbol “+” shows the start of flowering,
while “-“ if no flowering occurred.

hour

sugar-beet tobacco plant

– +

+ –

+ –
(kritikus sötét periódus= critical dark period , fehér zavaró fény = white, disturbing light)

Write the letter for your answer into the empty boxes next to the statements. Every correct
answer: 1 point.
A. sugar-beet
B. tobacco plant
C. both of them
D. none of them

2. It is a long-day plant

3. Its flowering is influenced by the duration and timing of light.


4. According to this experiment, it will flower only if the duration of
light is longer than 12 hours.
5. It will flower only if it is exposed to a disturbing light during the
dark period.
6. It will flower only if it is kept in darkness for more than 14 hours
continuously.

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7. On the basis of the experiment, what condition is needed a for long-day plant to start
flowering? Write the letter of the correct answer into the empty box. (1 point)

A. The daily light exposure should be longer than about 12 hours.


B. The uninterrupted darkness cannot be longer than 12 hours.
C. The daily uninterrupted darkness should be longer than about 10 hours.
D. The presence of white, disturbing light in darkness.
E. No light effect is allowed during the dark period (regardless of its length).

The regulation of water-balance in plants — Essay (13 points)

Write an essay (composition) on the water-balance of Angiosperms. Use the following


guidelines in your answer:

• The sites for uptake and release of water in plants (by naming the organs and parts of
organs)
• The method of water uptake, its driving forces and energy requirements
• The location of water transport in the stem and its physical driving forces (pulling forces)
• The regulation of water-loss among arid and humid climatic conditions and its anatomic
explanation.

Write your essay on the pages 18. and 19.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Essay total

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IX. Optional assignment


B. “ In the hot wells of your ardent kidneys” 20 points
Problem-solving assignment 9 points
1. On average 0.67 dm3 of blood plasma runs through our kidneys every minute.
Approximately 20% of the blood plasma is forced through the glomerular walls. Calculate the
daily amount of filtrate produced from these data. (2 points)

2. Which letter indicates the site where the


D A filtrate is produced? (1 point)

B The proportion of the cellular components of blood is


44%.
3. Calculate the amount of blood running through our
kidneys in a minute. (2 points)
C

We produce on average 1.5 dm3 of urine every day.


4. Calculate what percentage of the filtrate’s volume is
reabsorbed in the nephron on average. (2 points)

5. Which letter of this figure indicates the site where reabsorption begins? (1 point)
6. Which part (indicated by a letter) of this figure has direct connection to the renal
pelvis? (1 point)

The route of water in the nephron — Essay 11 points


Describe the route of water from the blood plasma to the urine. Use the following guidelines
in your answer. Mind the accurate composition of your essay.
• Outline the movement of water as it flows across the nephron by answering the following
questions: From/to where does it flow? How does it flow? (What transport processes
occur?)
• Name the structures that produce ADH (vasopressin hormone) and release it into the
bloodstream. Outline how this hormone works and which part of the nephron is influenced
by this hormone.
• Describe the effect of thirsting on ADH production and how it alters the quantity and the
concentration of urine.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Essay total

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• Essay (You can write the essay part of assignment IX.A or IX.B here.)

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Biológia angol nyelven — emelt szint Azonosító
jel:

Maximum Achieved
score score
I. Biogenic elements 9
II. The Life of the Termite 9
III. Plants as indicators 10
IV. “They carry the eternal current” 12
V. Tissues 10
VI. The skull 9
VII. Drug alert 11
VIII. Kernels (Grains of maize) 10
IX. Optional essay or problem-solving assignment
A. Controlled processes in plants
20
B. “In the hot wells of your ardent kidneys”
Total score for the written part of the exam 100

Correcting teacher

Date: …………………………………..
__________________________________________________________________________
programba
beírt
elért
pontszám/
pontszám/
score
achieved
written into
score
the
programme
Feladatsor / Assignments

Választható esszé vagy problémafeladat/


Optional essay or problem-solving
assignment

javító tanár/ jegyző/ registrar of the Board of


correcting teacher Examiners

Dátum/ Date: ………………………………….. Dátum/ Date: …………………………………..

írásbeli vizsga 0812 20 / 20 2009. május 12.