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THE ACHY BREAKY HEART: TESTIMONIES OF BROKEN HEARTED

STUDENTS

By:

Alfre Jane R. Alinsonorin


Nelia M. Rom
Alvin P. Gelay
John Loid D. Omapas

March 2019

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MAA NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Maa, Davao City

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL DEPARTMENT

_______________________________________________________________

APPROVAL SHEET

This research paper entitled Factors Affecting Non Compliance of Subject-Class

Requirements in MA-A NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL is prepared and submitted by Mary

Elaine U. Bisquera & Stephanie C. Dongiapon in partial fulfillment of the requirements for

Practical Research 1 in Senior High School Department of Ma-a National High School, has

been examined and is recommended for approval and acceptance.

MORRIS JOHN I. LOBETOS Ph.D.


Subject Teacher

_______________________________________________________________

APPROVED by the panel of research examiners with a grade of PASSED.

MORRIS JOHN I. LOBETOS Ph.D. REX M. PALES


Chairman
Member

_______________________________________________________________

March 2019

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The researchers give thanks to a teacher – Abdon C. Canonoy, Jr. who had taught
them how to conduct a research through examples and techniques so that the researchers
know better. They also give their thanks to the Grade 8 Advisers such as: Elizabeth D. Policios,
Rizzie Mae G. Pañuela, Mayla T. Bandayanon, Che-che C. Ochia, Julie Mae Q. Laher, Forfirio
A. Caronan, Fardia Pawai, Mary Jane B. Bolando, and Gladys Jane D. Pardillo who have
allowed the researchers to interview the respondents who were their students in their
respective advisory. The researchers’ deepest gratitude to the students who were the
respondents and have answered the questions honestly, through them this study has
completed and successful. To the parents and guardians, they have been a great help to the
researchers through their financial and emotional supports; their care and understanding have
inspired the researchers to continue and finish this research study.
Above all, to Almighty God who is the giver of knowledge and understanding. All the
glory and honor be given back to Him for what He has done specially to complete this research
paper.

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ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to identify the Factors Affecting Non Compliance of Subject-Class
Requirements. The researchers conducted a survey study developing a questionnaire
comprising of such factors and administered it to these students of Maa National High School,
Maa Davao City. Selected grade 8 students of Maa National High School were the respondents
and out 729 there are 40 data collected. The data were analyzed and interpreted in terms of
percentage. It was concluded that different factors like electronic gadgets, being busy,
forgetfulness, laziness, playing computer games, lack of time, being tired, doing household-
chores, doing something, doesn’t understand, don’t want to pass and being uncomfortable
affect noncompliance of Subject-Class Requirements. The researchers also recommended
suggestions for the removal of those factors.

Key words:

Non Compliance

Subject-class Requirements

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

TITLE PAGE …………………………………………… i

APPROVAL SHEET ……………………………………………. ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT …………………………………………… iii

ABSTRACT ………………………………………… iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………………………… v

Chapter

I. INTRODUCTION

Purpose of the study……………………………………………………....

Research Questions …………………………………………………........

Theoretical lens ………………………………………………………….…

Importance of the Study ………………………......................................

Delimitation and Limitation of the Study …………………….……......

Definition of Terms ……………………………………………………….

Review of Related Literature……………………………………….….….

Bereavement Symptoms………………………………………………………….

Sleep Disturbances……………………………………………………………

Intrusive Thoughts and Attempts to Control Intrusive Thoughts……………

Potential Morbidity Factors……………………………………………………….

“Broken Heart” Syndrome………………………………………………………..

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Endocrine and Immune Dysfunction…………………………………………….

Romantic Breakups…………………………………………………………………

Regional Brain Activity……………………………………………………………….

fMRIs of Rejected Love are Similar to those of Romantic Love……………..

Romantic Breakups and Romantic Love also have Similar Biochemical

Profiles…………………………………………………………………………………

Potential Mechanisms Underlying Romantic Breakups, Heartbreak and

Bereavement …………………………………………………………………………

Relationships as Social Regulators…………………………………………………

Loss of Psychobiological Attunement………………………………………………

Limitations of this Research and Future Directions………………………………

Organization of the Study………………………………………………………..

II. METHODOLOGY

Research Design ………………………………………..……….……….

Research Participants……………………………………………..….........
.
Data Sources ………………………………………………………..………

Data Collection ………………………………………………………….….

Data Analysis ………………………………………………………….…….

Trustworthiness of the Study………………………………………….……

Role of the Researcher……………………………………………..……..

Ethical Considerations………………………………………………..….

III RESULTS …………………………………………………………….……

IV DISCUSSIONS……………………………………………………….…....

Implications for Educational Practice……………………………………

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Recommendation for future research………………………………….

Concluding Remarks………………………………………………….

REFERENCES ………………………………..…………………

APPENDICES …………………………………………………..……….…

Appendix A……………………………………………………….……….

Appendix B…………………………………………………………………

Appendix C…………………………………………………………..…….

Curriculum Vitae …………………………………………………..………

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Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

Humans, particularly adolescents get involved in a romantic

relationship with variety of person. However, some of the student end up of

crying because he/she was left by his/her partner and feel hurt.

According to Amet (as cited in Fincham & Cui,2001) “late adolescents”

is the stage where teenagers experienced how to be totally and socially

independent. This is the time for curiosity & exploration in choosing and

having a partner, and explores his kind of curiosity that somehow leads to

romantic relationship. This research is conducted to find out the effects of

having a relationship to a student. These relationships often end after one to

two years (Stanley, Rhoades & Fincham, 2011), leaving many students in

distress following the dissolution. Several factors have been thought to

influence the degree of distress, including the two that were the focus of this

study: the quality of the relationship, and the gender of the individual who

experiences the break-up. Young adults are often living separately from their

immediate families for the first time in their lives (Hendy et al, 2013). One of the

ways in which young adults explore their newfound freedom is through establishing

romantic relationships. Romantic relationships are a common developmental

experience for young adults in university ( Rhoades & Stanley, 2014). A relationship

break-up has the potential to be one of the most psychologically distressing events in

one’s life (O’Sullivan & Thompson, 2014; Sbarra, 2006). Many students

experienced some early relationship. Having relationship makes us feel good

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and better, because you are inspired of everything what we want to do.

Someone can give us happiness that we can’t feel with our family and friends.

Someone who will encourage and support you for your decision. But being in

a relationship is not that easy because both partners need to adjust their

different attitudes, need to have a long patience, need to spend time but trust

and loyalty is very important to both. Also for being an understanding person

because too much love will kill you, because once you experience love, you

will also experience pain. Our advice to the students who experience of

having a broken heart are keep moving forward. Be brave: “The things that we

dream of most are the things we are most scared of,” Welch shares. Face

your fear in order to pursue your dream relationship. It’s easier to sit on the

couch and wallow in heartache, but that doesn’t help you move on. Dating is

scary, but as the relationship author says, “Do it anyway.”

Move on: may weather once said, The best way to get over someone is

to get under someone else.” Welch quotes this eighteenth-century woman to

prove her point: The best way to move past an old heartache is to jump into a

new relationship. No matter what people say about loving yourself first,

starting up another relationship can offer the adrenaline that helps you forget

the past pain. But then it is your choice if you want to move on or forget that

person, Its your choice if you want to used someone else just to forget your

past. We always have the right to choose for what we think that is best for us.

Others may commit suicide because he/she is broken hearted but to tell you

honestly suicide is not really a solution for love problems or any problems that

you may have right now because you can live your life alone. If you really are

a strong person then live. Don’t be too foolish or stupid to think what is really

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right because there is always a time that the person hurts you, will have

his/her karma.

Purpose of the study

The purpose of this case study is to understand and to let them

know about the live experiences of broken hearted students. Mostly it

happens to the teenagers. At this stage in the research, the students who

experienced broken hearted is one of the issue that are mostly

happened in this world.

Research Questions:

1. What are the live experiences of broken hearted students?

2. What are the stories behind the broke up?

3. What are the coping mechanisms of the students when it comes to

break up?

C. Theoretical Lens

This theory proposed by Pierce, Sarason and Sarason (1991). This theory

is based upon earlier models of social support that state that people have

generalized expectations about how likely it is that other will be able or willing

to provide social support, when they are in need ( Cohen et al., 1985; Cutrona

& Russell, 1987). In terms of university students, romantic relationships may

be an important source of social support, and loss of that support following the

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dissolution of the relationship is likely to have a negative effect on students’

mental health. Pierce et al.’s theory develops this line of 35 thinking further by

proposing that not only do people have generalized expectations regarding

social support , they also have specific expectations based upon the individual

relationships in their lives. Specifically, these expectations are created from a

history of interactions that have shaped the unique view of the individual.

Based upon past interactions, expectations for social support vary greatly

from person to person within one’s social circle, and also across cultures.

Therefore, it is expected that the quality of one’s romantic relationship at Time

1 (high degree of expectation of social support) will explain the fluctuation in

mental health levels following a break-up.

Guided by Pierce (1991) theory and the existing research on the

connections between mental health, romantic relationship status, romantic

relationship quality and gender. Three specific hypotheses were tested in the

present study: 1. It was hypothesized that, after controlling for the influence of

age and preexisting mental health status, romantic relationship status would

significantly predict levels of self-reported mental health, such that individuals

who have experienced a recent dissolution of a romantic relationship would

have lower levels of mental health than people whose romantic relationship

has remained intact. 2. It was hypothesized that the association between

romantic relationship status and self-reported mental health would be

moderated by gender, such that the association is stronger in women than

men. 3. It was hypothesized that the association between romantic

relationship status and self-reported mental health would be mediated by the

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perceived quality of the 36 former relationship, with an inverse relationship

between relationship quality and mental health level.

Importance of the study

This study intends to depict the experiences of the students of

Maa National High School. This study is helpful to the students

especially to those students who are a victim of this situation. This will

provide avenues for them to conduct programs that could help mitigate

the undesirable experiences of students when it comes to the situation

of being broken hearted students. This study can also help other co-

students to continue to update themselves in learning the new lesson

that can help them in their lives. For the parents, the study may help

them in guiding and protecting their children and giving advices of what

is the right thing to do.

Delimitation and Limitation of the study

The study was delimited to the live experiences of students in Maa

National High School, Maa Davao City. This study is conducted at Maa

National High School Maa, Davao City on school year 2018- 2019. The

participants of the study are the students who experienced of being a broken

hearted and how it affects in their lives and studies.

Meanwhile, we admitted the fact that this study had some weaknesses.

Time constraints are one of the major weaknesses of the study. We the

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researchers had only limited time in observing the participants of the study.

This paper lacks generality due to small samples in the study.

Definition of Terms

For reason of clarity, the following important terms were defined

conceptually and operationally to provide common understanding of the

concepts being discussed.

A. Broken Hearted- Someone who overcome by grief or despair;

extremely unhappy about the failure or end of something. (Merriam

Webster Dictionary). In this study it refers to individuals who are broken

hearted.

B. Teachers - a person who teaches, especially in a school (Merriam

Webster Dictionary). In this study it refers to individuals with teaching

degree that provide educational services to high school students.

C. Students – a person who is studying at a university or other place

of higher education.(Oxford Dictionaries). In this study the students are

the participants of being a broken hearted.

D. Romantic Relationship- A romance is a relationship between two

people who are in love with each other but who are not married to each

other. (Collins English Dictionary)

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Review of Related Literature

In this section, the researcher presents his readings from the articles and

studies previously conducted that are related to the current study.

This literature review suggests that romantic breakups may lead to

bereavement symptoms including intrusive thoughts and attempts to suppress

them and insomnia as well as morbidity factors including broken heart

syndrome and immune dysfunction. Although the broken heart syndrome has

mimicked real heart attacks, angiograms revealed no clogged arteries or

permanent heart damage. Compromised immune function may result from

reduced vagal activity and increased cortisol and catecholamines leading to

increased inflammatory cytokines and decreased natural killer cell activity.

The model proposed here is that romantic breakups result in the loss of a

person as a regulator of stimulation and arousal modulation that can then lead

to these physiological and biochemical effects. These data highlight the

complexity of romantic breakups, heartbreak and bereavement and the need

for multi-variable research on these systems both before and after the

breakups occur. Romantic breakups can be followed by symptoms of

heartbreak and bereavement (Prigerson & Jacobs, 2001; Raphael, Minkov, &

Dobson, 2001; Davis, Shaver, & Vernon, 2003), typically, these symptoms

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have been associated with a loss from death, although they can also occur

following other losses like divorce and romantic breakups (Prigerson &

Jacobs, 2001; Davis et al., 2003).

This review of research from these different literatures suggests that

romantic breakups, like the losses following death or divorce, can lead to

bereavement symptoms including intrusive thoughts, difficulty controlling

intrusive thoughts and insomnia as well as heartbreak syndrome and

compromised immune function. Studies on bereavement symptoms,

heartbreak syndrome and immune dysfunction are followed by a summary of

research on romantic breakups and their symptoms. A potential underlying

mechanism model is then presented, suggesting that it is the loss of the

person as a regulator of stimulation and arousal modulation that can result in

physiological and biochemical dysregulation including reduced vagal activity,

increased cortisol and catecholamines and compromised immune function.

Limitations of this literature are then suggested as well as future research

including multi-variable studies that could assess these systems both before

and after the breakups occur.

Bereavement Symptoms

Bereavement symptoms have varied cross-culturally, with more

symptoms reported for non-Western cultures (Kleinman & Good, 1985), and

the symptoms have differed even within religions. For example, Egyptian

Muslims show intense grief, while Muslims in Bali do not (Wikan, 1988).

Contradictory data include an international study that reported very similar

symptoms across diverse cultures (Simon, VonKorff, Piccinelli, Fullerton, &

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Ormei, 1999). In that large sample study, sleep disturbances were among the

most frequently reported symptoms across cultures (Simon et al., 1999).

Sleep Disturbances

Sleep disturbances have been reported by as many as 43% of

bereaved subjects in one sample (Bisconti, Bergeman, & Boker, 2004), and

poor sleep has been noted in bereavement-related depression (McDermott,

Prigerson, Reynolds, Houck, Dew, Hall et al., 1997; Hardison, Neimeyer, &

Lichstein, 2005). In a study on college students, for example, insomnia was

greater in bereaved versus non-bereaved groups (22% versus 17%)

(Hardison et al., 2005), with sleep onset insomnia being related to nighttime

ruminations about the loss, and sleep maintenance insomnia being related to

dreaming about the lost person. Elevated cortisol has also contributed to poor

sleep including more REM sleep and less delta wave activity (Reynolds,

Hoch, Buysse, Houck, Schlernitzauer, Pasternak et al., 1992), although it is

not clear whether those EEG sleep changes preceded or followed the

depression.

Intrusive Thoughts and Attempts to Control Intrusive Thoughts

Intrusive images and attempts to control them are thought to contribute

to the insomnia associated with bereavement. Insomnia, based on actigraphic

recordings, for example, has resulted from unpleasant images (Nelson &

Harvey, 2002). And, unpleasant images have been correlated with sleep onset

la- * This research was supported by a merit Award (MH46586), NIH grants

(AT00370 and HD056036) and Senior Research Scientist Awards (MH0033

and AT0011585) and a March of Dimes Grant (12-FY03-48) to Tiffany Field

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and funding from Johnson and Johnson Pediatric Institute to the Touch

Research Institute. T. FIELD 383 tency, with more of those images related to

intimate relationships. Pre-sleep images have also been rated as less

controllable than pre-sleep verbal thoughts, although more disengagement

has been noted from images than verbal thoughts (Nelson & Harvey, 2003).

Negative images have also been associated with higher heart rate, which is

surprising given that negative verbal thoughts typically elicit greater

cardiovascular responses than negative verbal images (Vrana, Cuthbert, &

Lang, 1986). Attempts to suppress the images and thoughts often lead to

dreams. In one study, participants were asked to think about a romantic

“crush” or a “non-crush” (Wegner, Wenzlaff, & Kozak, 2004). Although there

was no greater dreaming about the romantic “crush,” suppression enhanced

eroticism of the “crush”. Thus, the increased accessibility of intrusive thoughts

resulting from thought suppression transferred even to dreams.

Potential Morbidity Factors

Morbidity factors have also been associated with bereavement. And,

romantic breakups may be a risk factor for the more serious complications

associated with bereavement including broken heart syndrome (Wittstein,

Thiemann, Lima, Baughman, Schulman, Gerstenblith et al., 2005) and

endocrine and immune dysfunction (Frazier, Strauss, & Steinhauer, 2004).

“Broken Heart” Syndrome

The “broken heart” or heartbreak syndrome has been described as

physical pain in the heart or chest after losing someone. Although the

heartache mimics symptoms of a real heart attack, those with broken heart

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syndrome typically recover faster (Wittstein et al., 2005). This condition has

also been called stress cardiomyopathy or “takotsubo cardiomyopathy,”

takotsubo being a fishing pot with a narrow neck and a wide base that is used

to trap octopus in Japan, a shape that is similar to that of the left ventricle.

Cardiac contractile abnormalities and heart failure have been recorded by

several investigators, although angiograms have revealed no clogged arteries

in heartbreak, unlike real heart attacks (Kawai, Suzuki, Yamaguchi et al.,

2000; Kurisu, Sato, Kawagoe, Masaharu, Yuji, Kenji et al., 2002; Villareal,

Achari, Wilansky, & Wilson, 2001). Norepinephrine and epinephrine levels

have also been elevated (7 - 34 times the normal levels) in individuals with

broken heart syndrome, but cardiac enzymes typically released from

damaged heart muscle during real heart attacks were not noted (Wittstein et

al., 2005). Echocardiograms suggested that although the left ventricle was

contracting normally, there appeared to be a weakened contraction in the

middle and upper portions of the heart muscle, and inverted T waves and

prolonged Q-T intervals which are often associated with stress were noted.

Magnetic resonance imaging scans suggested that none of the broken heart

syndrome patients suffered irreversible heart damage, and their recovery

rates were faster (typically two months) than after real heart attacks (Akashi,

Nakazawa, Sakakibara, Miyake, Koike, & Sasaka, 2003; Nyui, Yamanaka,

Nakayama, Sawano, & Kawai, 2000). Potential underlying mechanisms

offered for these effects include: 1) increased catecholamines causing

spasms in the coronary arteries (Wittstein et al., 2005); 2) multiple

simultaneous spasms of the coronary arteries that would cause enough loss

of blood flow to lead to the transient stunning of the heart (Kurisu et al., 2002);

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and 3) a failure of the arteries to provide adequate oxygen to the heart (Kawai

et al., 2000). Most of these researchers have suggested, however, that all of

these factors may be operating. Unfortunately, many of these studies were

based on small samples, and although there are strong associations between

increased heart rate and the release of catecholamines and the resultant

cardiomyopathy, the relationships are only suggestive. The elevated

catecholamines may simply be an epiphenomenon or a secondary response

in the patients with the stress cardiomyopathy rather than an original cause.

Nonetheless, elevated catechalomines are typically indicative of elevated

stress and when prolonged can lead to endocrine and immune dysfunction.

Endocrine and Immune Dysfunction

Decreased vagal activity and increased skin conductance have been

associated with elevated stress (Frazier et al., 2004), and increased heart rate

and blood pressure have been accompanied by increased cortisol and

norepinephrine levels, which when prolonged can have negative effects on

the immune system (Uchino, Kiecolt-Glaser, & Glaser, 2000). This initial “fight-

or-flight” mechanism is adaptive in mobilizing energy stores leading to

increased inflammatory cytokines which ultimately mobilize antibodies as a

defense against infection (Black, 2002). In this way, immune activity is initially

enhanced, but, over time, elevated stress hormones and cytokine activity can

result in impaired immune function (Kiecolt-Glaser, McGuire, Robles, &

Glaser, 2002). Compromised immune function occurs via the necrotic effects

of stress hormones on the immune organs. Examples have been given of

elevated inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-2, IL-6 and PNF-alpha)

accompanying the depressed state (Leonard, 2006), as well as higher

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antibody titres to the Epstein-Barr virus and lower than normal natural killer

cell activity (noted to kill bacterial, viral and cancer cells) following divorce

(Powell, Lovallo, Matthews, Meyer, Midgley, Baum et al., 2002). Bereaved

individuals have had profiles of high anxiety and depression scores, elevated

cortisol and decreased natural killer cell activity which in some individuals

lasted for as long as six months (Gerra, Monti, Panerai, Sacerdote, Anderlini,

& Avanzini, 2003). These physiological and biochemical changes may

contribute to the greater incidence of physical illnesses (following “betrayal”)

(Freyd, Klest, & Allard, 2005) and heart disease (related to “broken hearts”)

(Johnson & Grippo, 2006) in bereaved individuals.

Romantic Breakups

Although most adults are resilient following romantic breakups, some

experience symptoms similar to those of bereavement including intrusive

thoughts, insomnia and depression. In a study conducted by our group,

university students who experienced romantic breakups had elevated scores

on intrusive thoughts, difficulty controlling intrusive thoughts and insomnia

scales (Field, Diego, Pelaez, Deeds, & Delgado, 2009) (see Table 1). In a

regression on these data, scores on these scales contributed to 34% of the

variance on breakup distress which was experienced by 58% of the students

following romantic breakups (see Table 2). Similarly, in a survey of more than

5000 internet respon- dents, romantic breakups were associated with more

extreme physical and emotional distress including exaggerated attempts to re-

establish the relationship, angry and vengeful behavior, drugs and alcohol use

(Taylor & Bryant, 2007). Laboratory studies have also been conducted to

assess physiological and biochemical changes associated with bereavement

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and romantic breakups including regional brain and neurotransmitter activity.

Regional Brain Activity

Bereavement and romantic breakups have been assessed for regional

brain activity by positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic

resonance imaging (fMRI). In a paper entitled “Craving love? Enduring grief

activates brain reward center”, PET showed reduced cerebral blood flow to

the hippocampus in individuals with bereavement symptoms (O’Connor,

Wellisch, Stanton, Eisenberger, Irwin, & Lieberman, 2008). The more severe

the symptoms, the less blood flow to this region. In contrast, increased blood

flow has been noted for the cingulate cortex in fMRI studies. This was shown

in bereaved women, for example, in a paradigm in which grief was elicited by

photographs of the lost person (Gündel, O’Connor, Littrell, Fort, & Lane,

2003), and in women who were grieving the loss of a romantic relationship

(Najib, Lorberbaum, Kose, Bohning, & George, 2004). Involvement of the

cingulate cortex is consistent with brain activity associated with rejection and

the mixed emotional state of sadness, anger and anxiety, suggesting that

rejection may be a key factor in romantic breakups (Eisenberger, Lieberman,

& Williams, 2003).

fMRIs of Rejected Love are Similar to Those of Romantic Love

Paradoxically, the same brain areas that light up in those experiencing

romantic breakups also light up in individuals in long-term love relationships.

In a recent study, women who were still very much in love but had been

rejected by their romantic partner alternately viewed a photograph of their

abandoning loved one and a photograph of a familiar individual (Fisher, Aron,

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& Brown, 2006). These researchers then compared their data on rejected

lovers with the results from a study on happily-in-love individuals (Aron,

Fisher, Mashek, Strong, Li, & Brown, 2005).The data showed that activity in

regions associated with physical pain increased during both love and

rejection. The PET and fMRI data are difficult to interpret, and it is not clear

that they would lead to any implications for treatment, especially since similar

areas appear to be activated both during romantic relationships and after

romantic breakups. However, these findings are noteworthy inasmuch as they

are consistent with data showing that biochemical profiles are also similar for

both romantic love and romantic rejection.

Romantic Breakups and Romantic LoveAlso Have Similar Biochemical

Profiles

The brain also releases similar chemicals for both romantic breakups

and romantic love including pheromones, dopamine, norepinephrine,

epinephrine and serotonin. As dopamine and norepinephrine levels increased,

serotonin levels decreased, and these changes were associated with

increased heartrate, trembling, flushing, pupil dilation, sleeplessness and loss

of appetite (Fisher, 2006). These data are understandable given that these

physiological and biochemical responses have generally been noted during

stressful situations (Luciana, Collins, & Depue, 1998; Griffin & Taylor, 1995).

Potential Mechanisms Underlying Romantic Breakups, Heartbreak and

Bereavement

Potential underlying mechanisms have been explored for romantic

breakups, heartbreak and bereavement. These include loss of regulation

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models labeled “relationships as social regulators” and “psychobiological

attunement”.

Relationships as Social Regulators

In the social regulators model of bereavement, the loss of a significant

other represents the loss of major social time cues ((Ehlers, Frank, & Kupfer,

1988). In seminal papers on “Relationships as Regulators”, Hofer outlined a

model for the loss of a relationship as being the loss of a regulator (Hofer,

1984, 1996). He suggested that losing an attachment figure means “losing

regulatory control of stable daily patterns, of tasks, attention, concentration,

sleep, food intake and mood, such that they become fragmented, and the

individual has a sense of in- T. FIELD 385 ternal disorganization”.

Relationships can help maintain psychological and physiological equilibrium,

as each person is associated with a state of psychological security and

physiological calm for the other and serves to up- or down-regulate the

partner’s psychophysiological arousal (Hofer, 1984, 1996; Depue & Morrone-

Strupinsky, 2005; Sbarra & Hazan, 2009). This co-regulation is considered a

property of the relationship (not a property of either individual alone), and, it

can occur through several senses (e.g. touch, smell, eye contact) and is

thought to regulate and synchronize body rhythms. In the absence of the “co-

regulator,” the psychological and physiological rhythms can become

dysregulated, leading to dysphoria, restlessness/agitation, sleep disturbances,

changes in appetite and decreased vagal tone (Sbarra & Hazan, 2008).

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Dysregulation can happen when a partner is absent, for example, during

business trips and military deployments, as sleep disturbances have been

noted during the travel period, and the individuals then return to a regulated

state following reunion (Diamond, Hicks, & Otter-Henderson, 2008). It can

also happen during threat conditions that can be alleviated by holding the

hand of one’s partner versus the hand of a stranger (Coan, Schaefer, &

Davidson, 2006). The authors of the handholding study suggested that the

threatened person “borrowed emotional and physiological stability from the

partner”. Some have noted that even mental representations of one’s partner

can be dysregulating following a breakup or loss, leading to intrusive thoughts

and disturbing dreams (Uvnäs-Moberg, 1998). Most of the examples given

have involved the partner decreasing arousal levels rather than helping find a

balance between under- and over-arousal. Under-arousal could be equally

disturbing as, for example, the sensory deprivation experienced by individuals

who are in military combat and confined to light and sound-proof chambers

(Hofer, 1984).

Loss of Psychobiological Attunement

A model called “psychobiological attunement” or “being on the same

wavelength”, accommodates both the need for optimal stimulation and for

arousal modulation (Field, 1985, 1996). In this model, each partner provides

meaningful stimulation for the other and has a modulating influence on the

other’s arousal level. Both over-stimulation and under-stimulation are

aversive, and stimulation that brings or keeps an individual within an optimal

arousal zone is considered reinforcing. Thus, the loss of a significant other

means the loss of both activating and calming stimulation. The individual

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experiencing the loss would be expected to fluctuate between one end of the

continuum of under-stimulation and the other end of over-stimulation and not

be able to modulate these levels to experience optimal arousal levels. Other

terms used to describe this phenomenon were synchrony and sharing

rhythms (Field, 1985, 1996). Synchrony is a term that is usually applied to the

matching of physiological or physical activity rhythms by individuals in a close

relationship. Examples of this can be seen in partners who are extremely

close tending to coordinate their physical movements and expressions while

talking, as well as their cortisol cycles tending to be synchronized on

weekends when they are together (Field, 1985, 1996). Thus, attunement or

“being on the same wavelength” happens for both behavioral and

physiological rhythms in adults who have a close relationship. Seemingly, the

only way this could happen is if each partner of the dyad is sensitive and

responsive to each other’s stimulation and arousal-modulation needs, as in a

feedback loop, and each accordingly adjusts his or her behavior to facilitate

the behavioral and physiological synchrony of the couple. If and when the

partner is not there to meet the needs for different types and degrees of

stimulation, dysregulation may occur including physiological disorganization

such as decreased vagal activity (Frazier et al., 2004; Diego, Field, &

Hernandez-Reif, 2007), and in some cases changes in immune function such

as increased inflammatory cytokines (Leonard, 2006) and decreased natural

killer cell activity (Powell et al., 2002). In our model, the loss of a loved one

may result in this dysregulation simply because the source of stimulation and

arousal modulation is no longer present (Field, 1985, 1996). Physical intimacy

can enhance attunement (Fisher, 2004). Via touching, individuals can learn

25
each other’s stimulation and arousal modulation needs. Although it is possible

to self-regulate in the absence of an intimate partner, it may not be as easy or

effective. When a partner is no longer there and touch stimulation, for

example, is missing, it may become necessary to find that type of stimulation

from other activities until a new partner is found. Massage, yoga, and other

forms of exercise, for example, may help avoid the physiological dysregulation

and immune problems that can result from touch deprivation (Field, 2009).

Limitations of This Research and Future Directions

The intent of this review was to summarize the limited literature on

romantic breakup symptoms that are similar to those of the bereavement

syndrome including intrusive thoughts, attempting to control intrusive thoughts

and insomnia and more serious complications including heartbreak syndrome

and immune dysfunction. Much of the discussion regarding romantic

breakups, however, is mere speculation based on the bereavement and

heartbreak syndrome literature. And, the bereavement and heartbreak

syndrome literature has the problem that the data are derived primarily from

loss related to death and divorce. These likely have commonalities with

romantic breakups, but also major differences, as in divorce not only involving

betrayal and rejection but also having to continue the relationship for family

reasons and death involving a permanent loss. Even within the loss by

divorce and the loss by death literatures, comparisons across studies are

problematic given the different measures, the different intervals from the time

of loss to the time of assessment, and the different age, ethnic and cultural

groups assessed (among other potentially confounding variables). Other

nuisance factors are the small sample sizes and the measurement of only one

26
or two variables. This is particularly problematic when the results appear

paradoxical such as the fMRI data showing that the same region of the brain

is activated by romantic breakup and by romantic love and the same

biochemical profile emerging (albeit from different studies). Without

converging variables such as behavioral data, these findings are difficult to

interpret. And, as already mentioned, they are not perhaps useful for informing

potential treatment 386 T. FIELD options. In brief, in any of these research

areas, multi-variable studies would be more informative. Combining self-

report, behavioral, physiological and biochemical measures in the same

sample of individuals experiencing loss from the same cause would be

optimal. Perhaps the greatest weakness of these literatures is that it is not

clear what is happening in relationships that are then missing when the loss

occurs, whether by death, divorce or romantic breakups. Reviewing the

“social regulators” and the “psychobiological attunement” models in this paper

was meant to highlight how little we know about what changes occur from

before to after the loss or what was critical about the relationship that was

then missing after the loss occurred. This, of course, is always difficult given

the longitudinal nature of the problem. However, convenience samples could

be researched such as university students whose relationships tend to be

short-lived, affording the opportunity to collect behavioral, physiological and

biochemical data during the relationship and after the breakups. To address

these questions, we are currently designing research to videotape interactions

of university student couples during their relationships and after their break-

ups as well as recording their heart rate and assaying saliva samples for

cortisol levels. Relationships between older couples, for example couples in

27
assisted living, could also provide the opportunity for studies of long-term

relationships that are “snuffed out” by the death of one partner. These are

potential challenges for the very important problem of determining how to

alleviate the significant social pain of loss, be it by death, divorce or romantic

breakups. In a sense, each of these, no matter the cause, are romantic

breakups that can be chronically painful and therapeutically costly.

Organization of the study

Chapter 1 of our study presents a substantial body of evidence to

support the testimonies of the students who experienced heart breaks: From

the lens of public school teachers. The second chapter demonstrated the

method utilized in this study which include the research design, participants of

the study, data sources, collection procedure, trustworthiness of the study,

role of the researcher, ethical considerations. Chapter 3 presents the results

of the study and chapter 4 gives the discussion, conclusions, implications for

practice and recommendation for future research.

28
Chapter 2

METHODOLOGY

This chapter discusses the methodology of the study. It covers the

following components: research design, research participants, data sources,

data collection, data analysis, trustworthiness of the study, role of the

researcher, and ethical considerations of the study.

Research Design

In this research, we employed the qualitative case study because it is

based on an in-depth investigation of a single individual, group, or event.

Moreover, this research investigated a contemporary caution within the real-

life situation ( Creswell,2007) and gathered pertinent information from the

selected participants using observations, interviews, and documents (Yin,

2003).

The advantage of the case study is that you can focus on specific and

interesting cases. This research should be thorough and note taking should

be meticulous and systematic. The first foundation of the case study is the

subject and relevance. In a case study, we are deliberately trying to isolate a small

study group, one individual case or one particular population.

29
Research Participants

The participants of the study are the 20 junior high school students of

Maa National High School, Maa Davao City Coming from different grade

levels. Five grade 7 students, five grade 8 students, five grade 9 students and

five grade 10 students are the level of student’s participants.

Data Sources

The participants of the study are the 20 junior high school students of

Maa National High School, Maa Davao City Coming from different grade

levels. Five grade 7 students, five grade 8 students, five grade 9 students and

five grade 10 students are the level of student’s participants.

Data Collection

Our study focused only to twenty students coming from different level.

Observation and full interview were the main sources of collecting the needed

information for this study.

After identifying twenty students, we immediately call their attentions

and give them a consent letter or an invitation letter. Before the full interview,

we had a one-on-one orientation with the participant as to the purpose of the

study. The participants were given three days to return the consent form by

30
affixing only their pseudonym. One-on-one in depth interview followed after an

agreed date was set.

Before the gathering of information, we followed a thorough process of

selecting the possible participants. We conducted an observation of the

students in their classroom and interview some students that can give us an

idea regarding the possible participants of the study. After determining the

possible participants, We gave a letter of invitation to them to participate in the

study. The participants were given three days to return the consent form

affixing their signature to participate the study. After determining the

participants who agreed to participate in the study is the one-on-one interview

with them. The participants were given three questions to answer. We are

able to interview twenty participants and gather their responses to the

questions.

Data Analysis

A combination of inductive and deductive coding was used. The coding

structures for inductive analysis were based on the topics covered by the

interview schedules which map onto the domains of the main study. The

questions asked of the participants were framed by technology in the

classroom from the lens of public school teacher. Each question is analyzed

by open coding. Thematic analysis entailed the examination of data to deduce

patterns in participants‟ responses, which were coded as emerging themes.

Trustworthiness of the study

31
Fenton and Mazuwelicz (2008) as cited by San Jose (2012) averred

that there are four things to be considered in order for the gathered

information in a qualitative research reliable. These are credibility,

transferability, dependability, and confirmability. On his side, Yin (2003)

conveyed that incorporating necessary operational measures are of

importance in meeting credibility standards of a qualitative research. Thus,

credibility is realized in this study by ensuring that materials I used in

collecting the information needed were presented to the authorities and the

participants.

Confirmability according to Shenton (2003) concerns with the

objectivity of the findings-that is whether the findings are the experiences and

ideas of participants rather than the researcher’s preferences and

characteristics. To address this issue in the study. The reference codes were

seen in every citation of the transcripts as articulated by the participants.

Lincoln and Guba (1985) suggested that audit trail should be done by

‘someone not related to the study’. Thus, the raw information was given to the

auditor for his impressions, comments and suggestions.

Moreover, credibility of this study established through making the

description of the research steps acquired from the very start to the process of

developing and reporting and analyzing of findings available. All materials

used and transcriptions of this study were kept and could accessed in case of

further debriefing.

Role of the Researcher

32
Our role in this study is three folds. First we became an observer. As an

observer we are very strong to determine the possible participants of the

study. We entered different classrooms and to observe the natural behavior of

the students. Secondly, we took the role of an interviewer. As an interviewer,

we prepared the necessary materials needed for the interview. Interview

procedure was observed. Prior to the interview proper, the participants were

given one-on-one interview as to the purpose of the activity. Thirdly, we

served as the transcriptionist of the information gathered from the interview.

Ethical considerations

Responsible researchers should always keep the privacy of the

participants of the study ( Creswell, 1998). Privacy of participants in this study

was given ultimate consideration. Initially before the formal conduct of the

study, we approach the participants and ask their permission if its okay to

them to have an interview. Further, their conformation does not indicate their

real names rather pseudonyms. Their identity is left in confidentiality to protect

their privacy. They are given a free choice to withdraw any moment in the time

of study. The participants are given the time to review the results of the study

for counter checking purposes of their responses.

33
Chapter 3

RESULTS

This chapter presents the results of the study. Raw data from the

responses of the participants in the questions during the one-on-one interview

are being coded. Open coding is used to reduce the responses of the

participants into coherent themes then group into categories.

Question # 1 What are your experiences as a public school teacher in


adapting new technology in the classroom?”
“Inconvenient “I’m unable to Sometimes you I don’t have
and hassle to follow the will be hanging if knowledge in
use for me instructions in there will be no using computers
because you are using the electricity at the before, but then I
going to bring software. time you need it. have tried to
gadget. adapt
The problem
sometimes is
how to attach the
wires.
hassle to use unable to follow no electricity insufficient
instructions knowledge
Inconvenience No power Lack of
supply expertise

34
The responses of the participants in question number two are the following.

Question # 2 How do teachers cope in adapting technology for


instruction?
I ask the assistance of my co-teacher who I hire somebody to do the job
is expert in using the computer softwares for me
I let others to tutor me in using the
softwares”
Asking help from co-teachers
I let other teachers guide me”
I attend hands-on seminars and ask
assistance from experts
Ask Technical Assistance Hire somebody

35
Chapter 4

DISCUSSION

This chapter presents the discussions of the results of the study.

The discussion is sequence according to the order of the research questions.

In question number which is “what are your experiences as a public

school teacher in adapting new technology in the classroom?”. The

prevalent themes are inconvenience, no power supply and lack of expertise.

In inconvenience, some of the participants are not really good in using

computers and other teaching devices. The participants find it more laborious

and time consuming on their part. . Participant one stated that

“Inconvenient and hassle to use for me because you are going to

bring gadget. Sometimes you will be hanging if there will be no

electricity at the time you need it.”

Some participants are used already in using manila paper and

cartolinas as teaching aide. For them it is more convenient because they can

use it even during brownouts. This research finding was also supported

by George (2000) who indicated that the primary obstacle in incorporating

technology in the teaching/learning process is the lack of expertise, time, and

funds. The theory of planned behavior by Ajzen (1991) provides the

framework to focus participant responses on their attitudes toward using

technology. In this theory, Ajzen postulates that attitudes, whether positive or

negative, come from our beliefs and experiences. Therefore, a teacher’s belief

about technology can be difficult to change because these beliefs are based

on past experience.

36
On the theme lack of expertise, majority of the participants have a hard

time in following the commands of the computer. It seems that they cannot

absorb the instructions when using the computer. Participant two stated that

“I don’t comprehend the instructions and computer commands”.

Some of them have fear that they might damage the computer and

projector. One of the participant says that he is afraid especially in attaching

the cables and find it tiresome also on his part.This theme is supported by

Cognitive Constructivism theorybased on the work of JeanPiaget.Learning is

an active process where direct experience, making errors, and looking for

solutions is vital for the assimilation and accommodation of information. Byron

(1995) listed several shortcomings related to teacher effectiveness when

using technology in instruction. These shortcomings included the lack of

faculty training on the use in instructional technology, classrooms that were

not designed to support the use of technology, teachers' doubts about

whether technology would improve their performance, and teachers' concerns

about whether technology enhances or detracts from teaching and learning.

The last question “How do teachers cope in technology for

instruction?” the themes are attend trainings, ask assistance and hire

someone. Majority of the participants wanted to go to a training especially in

ICT. They are hoping that the government will be given training and hands-

on workshop in using computer technology. The lack of technological devices

also is one of the reason why many of the teachers failed to adapt. Many of

the devices inside the classroom are finance through the initiative of the

teacher. If the teacher is not willing to invest on technology that can aide him

37
in his teaching career, he will be lagging behind with the other teachers. "If the

integration of technology in the classroom in the next ten years is to look any

different from the last ten …," the educational community " … must focus time,

money, and resources in the areas that can have the greatest impact for our

students, our teachers" ( Fabry & Higgs, 1997 , p. 393).To cope up with

technological gap some teachers just asked the assistance of other teachers

to help them in encoding grades and making powerpoint presentation.

Through constant mentoring they are able to utilize partially the softwares.

Other participants that are really hesitant in adapting to computer technology

hire someone to do the job for them. One of the participant stated that:

“I hire somebody to do the job for me”.

They hire an encoder in making their grades and also in making

presentations. It seems that they don’t want to exert any effort anymore in

adapting to technology to avoid technological anxiety.

Implications for Educational Practice

The use of technology inside the classroom nowadays are one of the

major innovations in the field of education. Utilizing these devices greatly

helps in the teacher’s job and gives him more effectivity especially in doing

paper works. It is a great advantage on the part of the teacher to have

technical knowledge of this devices and softwares for his convenience and

edge among other teacher. The Department of Education ICT integration plan

is one of the programs made to strengthen the knowledge of teacher is using

technology inside the classroom. Many of the teachers in public school are

not well prepared to adapt in ICT integration in the classroom. Training

38
programs for ICT orientation should be enhanced so that those senior

teachers can benefit from it and will lessen the technological gap. By having

these programs in the public school system, the teachers will be more

encouraged to apply technology in their teaching activities. The morale of the

teacher will be high and it will also lighten the burden of paper works and

especially in preparing visual aids.

The support from the heads of the Department of Education in

providing new technologies and innovation to the teachers can really help a

lot on the part of the teacher and it also makes learning more meaningful and

lasting on the art of the students.

Recommendation for future research

The limitations of the study set constraints in deepening more the study.

So additional research will surely bring more meaning and insights about the

experiences of public school teachers in adapting to technology. Further study

of the research is encouraged to supplement this study.

Concluding remarks

In my experience, the teachers in public school really needs the

support of the government when it comes to technological innovations.

Financial constraints are one of the major reason why teachers do not have

ICT integration inside the classroom because they are the one who will

provide this technology through their initiative. Lack of support from the

government creates a sense of demoralization among the teachers especially

39
in adapting to computers. Some administrators also are not supportive to the

demands of the teachers when it comes to purchasing computers, projector

and other devices. The training of the teachers is inadequate and the

programs of the government in ICT integration are not implemented well.

References

Ajzen, I. (2006). Constructing a TpB questionnaire: Conceptual and


methodologicalconsiderations. Retrieved from
http://www.people.umass.edu/aizen/pdf/tpb.measurement.pdf

Alharbi ,Asma Mohammed (2013). Teacher's attitudes towards integrating

technology: Case studies in Saudi Arabia and the United States

Masters Theses. Paper 58.

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Al-Zaidiyeen , Naser Jamil. (2010). Teachers’ Attitudes and Levels of

Technology Use in Classrooms: The Case of Jordan Schools retrieve from:

http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ies/article/viewFile/5891/4664

Bates, A. W. (1995). Technology, Open Learning and Distance

Education. London: Routledge.

Boyle, T. (2004). Technology and the reflective practitioner.

Chen, C. (2008). Why do teachers not practice what they believe regarding

technology integration? The Journal of Educational Research, 102(1),

65- 75.

Creswell, John W. (2007). Research design: qualitative, quantitative and mix

method approaches, 116-130.

Frand, J. L. (2000). The information age mindset. Educause review,

September/October, 14-24. Retrieved March 23, 2006

from: http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ERM0051.pdf

Irons, A. and Alexander S. Alexander (Eds.) (2004).. Effective Learning and

Teaching in Computing (pp. 182-188). London: RoutledgeFalmer.

MacKinnon, Soledad (2002).Technology Integration in the Classroom, Is

There Only One Way to Make It Effective?

McNeill Jr. ,Richard G..(2011). Adapting Teaching to the Millennial Generation:

A Case Study of a Blended/Hybrid Course

41
Price, L. and Kirkwood, A (2006). . Adaptation for a changing

environment: developing learning and teaching with information and

communication technologies.

Swan, K., & Hofer, M. (2011). In search of technological pedagogical content

knowledge: Teachers initial foray into podcasting in economics. Journal

of

Research on Technology in Education, 44(1), 75-98

Wood, E., Specht, J., Willoughby, T., & Mueller, J. (2008). Integrating

computer

technology in early childhood education environments: Issues raised by

earlychildhood educators. Alberta Journal of Educational Research,

54(2), 210-228.

Appendices

APPENDIX A.

Subject Consent to participate the study

Dear Participant,

42
The following information is to provide you to decide whether you want
to participate in the present study. You should be aware that you are free to
decide not to participate or withdraw at any time without affecting the
relationship to school administration as well as your co-teachers.
The purpose of this study is to understand the “Technology in the classroom:
From the lens of public school teachers”. The procedure is a
phenomenological study design.
Data will be collected at three points-at the beginning of the study, at the
midpoint of the study and at the end of the study. Data collection will be
through interviews( transcript from the participants) and focus group
discussion.
Do not hesitate to ask questions about the study either before participating or
during the time that you are participating. I would be happy to share the
findings with you after the research is completed. However, your name will not
be associated with the research findings in any way and only the researcher
will know your identity as a participant.
There are no known risks and/or discomforts associated with the study. The
expected benefits associated with your participation are the information about
the live experiences of teachers in adapting to technology in the classroom,
the opportunity to participate in a qualitative research study and co-authorship
of the study.
Please sign your consent with full knowledge of the nature and purpose of the
procedures. A copy of this consent form will be given to you to keep.

Date:______________
Signature of the Participant:___________________

MORRIS JOHN I. LOBETOS


Researcher

APPENDIX B

Participants Acknowledgement to Participate In the Study

Title of the study:

Technology in the classroom: From the lens of public school teachers

43
This document acknowledges you understand of your rights as a participant in
this study, which the researcher has explained to you prior to signing this
document. I acknowledge that the researcher has explained my rights, the
requirements of this study, and the potential risks involved in participating in
this study. I understand there is no compensation for, or direct benefit of
participating in this study. By signing below and providing my contact
information I am indicating that I consent to participate in this study, that I am
at least 18 years of age, and I am eligible to participate in this study. You may
withdraw from this study at any time by notifying me by text or email.

Date: _______________
Signature:_______________
Phone Number, Email Address, or Postal Address:
______________________________________________________________
__

Thank you for your participation,

MORRIS JOHN I. LOBETOS


Researcher

APPENDIX C

Interview Guide Questions

Interview Guide Questions:

Time of Interview:_____________

Date:________________________

44
Place:________________________

Interviewer: MORRIS JOHN I. LOBETOS

Interviewee:___________________

Position of Interviewee:__________________________

Questions:

1. What are the experiences of a public school teacher in

adapting new technology in the classroom?

2. How do teachers cope in adapting technology for instruction?

Curriculum vitae

MORRIS JOHN I. LOBETOS


Contact Number: 09102002795

Residence: 383Makiling Road Central Park Subd. Bangkal, Davao


City.
E-mail Address: morskee3000@yahoo.com
Date of Birth: Aug. 13, 1986
Place of Birth: Davao City
Civil Status: Single

45
Age: 29
Sex: Male
Citizenship: Filipino
Religion: Roman Catholic
Skills: Electrician, Electronics Technician and Computer Technician
Mother’s name: Irene I. Lobetos
Fathers’s name: Carlito V. Lobetos

a. Educational Attainment

Post-Graduate studies: University of Immaculate Conception


Course: currently taking PhD. Major in educational leadership
Award received: Cum Laude

Graduate Studies : Southern Philippines Academy, Inc.

Month and Year Graduated: March 2013

Degree: Master of Educational Management

College: Assumption College of Davao


Month and Year Graduated: April 2007
Degree: Bachelor of Secondary Teacher major in Mathematics
Award received: Cum Laude

Secondary: Gov. Vicente Duterte National High School


Month and Year Graduated: March 2003

Elementary: Leon Garcia Elementary School


Month and Year Graduated: March1999

Trainings Attended:

46
Research Presenter: Diad Activity on Global Education (Oct. 25,
2015)
Teacher Induction Program (February 4, 2014)
K to 12 Mass Training ( May 2013)

Working Experience:
Teacher 1 –Maa National High School -2013- Present
Auxiliary Teacher-Talomo National High School-Davao City-2011-
2013
High School Teacher-Aquinas School Metro Manila -(2008-2010)

47