Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als DOC, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

150 Aufrufe

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als DOC, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- Section 6.2 Page 323 to 330
- Additonal Mathematics Project Work 2013 Selangor (Project 2)
- Earthquake Engineering Application to Design
- KPP Book Eng
- Tutorial Nanoseismic
- First Review
- Earthquake Engineering Notes(1)
- Surname Signature
- Falla de San Andreas
- Hydraulic Fracturing Scientificamerican0716-46
- Team 2311 HiMCM Paper
- Trigonometry First Periodical 2011-2012
- ASGKIT PROG4
- Basics of Math & Electronics
- 3 Magnitude and Intensity
- 19 gempa.pdf
- Logarithm Functions
- Quake Quest
- Physics Pharma physio for anaesthetist
- Safety

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 23

Paul Damien

Contents

History of Logs

Meaning of Log

Applications to Mortgages

Applications to Seismology

Applications to Regression

2

History of Logarithms

Hundreds of years ago before calculators were invented, people got tired of multiplying

and dividing large numbers. And so they invented Logarithms to do the calculations.

They created a table called Log Tables that could approximately multiply and divide

large numbers. But as time went on people realized that logarithms were as profound as

life itself: more on this point later. The word “log” was used in a connotation similar to

one found in keeping a “log of your work.”

Burgi, a Swiss. The logarithms which they invented differed from each other and from

the common and natural logarithms now in use. Napier's logarithms were published in

1614; Burgi's logarithms were published in 1620. The objective of both men was to

simplify mathematical calculations. Napier's approach was algebraic and Burgi's

approach was geometric. Neither man had a concept of a logarithmic base. Napier

defined logarithms as a ratio of two distances in a geometric form, as opposed to the

current definition of logarithms as exponents. The possibility of defining logarithms as

exponents was recognized by John Wallis in 1685 and by Johann Bernoulli in 1694.

The invention of the common system of logarithms is due to the combined effort of

Napier and Henry Biggs in 1624. Natural logarithms first arose as more or less accidental

variations of Napier's original logarithms. Their real significance was not recognized

until later. The earliest natural logarithms occur in 1618.

Logarithms

are a shortcut for multiplication. Recall that means . Logarithm is a shortcut

for exponents.

Powers of ten are the building blocks for logarithms. So before we reveal what

logarithms actually are, let's just explore some powers of 10:

1000000 106 6

3

1000 10 3

2

100 10 2

1

10 10 1

0

1 10 0

-1

0.1 10 -1

0.01 10-2 -2

3

0.001 10-3 -3

-6

0.000001 10 -6

You should be able to see that there is a simple relationship between the power of ten and

the number of zeros in the number. If the number is greater than 1, then the power of ten

is just the number of zeros in the number: 1000 = 103. If the number is less than 1, then

the power of ten is just minus the number of digits after the decimal point: 0.0001 = 10-4.

the size of the power of 10 that equals the number.

Let's take a look at that last table again with one important change:

x 10x Logarithm of x

1000000 106 6

3

1000 10 3

100 102 2

1

10 10 1

0

1 10 0

-1

0.1 10 -1

-2

0.01 10 -2

-3

0.001 10 -3

-6

0.000001 10 -6

Since 100 is 102, then the logarithm of 100 is just 2. Since 0.001 is 10-3, then the

logarithm of 0.001 is just -3.

Definition of Logarithms

'y' is the logarithm of 'x' if 10y = x.

Remember this!

We have established that logarithms are just another name for a power of ten. We say that

100 is '10 to the power 2', but we can equally say the logarithm of 100 is 2. Similarly

4

when we make a statement such as 'the logarithm of 2 is 0.3' what we mean is that 100.3 is

equal to 2. The only difficult idea is fractional powers of ten. But then 100 is 1, and 101 is

10, so it should seem pretty unremarkable that 100.3 is a number like 2.

In particular we know the logarithm of 1, 2 and 10 (they're 0.0, 0.3 and 1.0), so how can

we find the logarithm of, say, 4?

We can find the answer very easily by observing the parallels between these two

equations:

2x2=?

10 x 100.3 = 10?

0.3

The answer to the first is 4. The answer to the second is, I hope you see, 100.6. Yes, we

just use the rule for adding powers as we did at the start of the tutorial. But look! 100.3 is 2

! The two equations are the same equations! The left hand sides are the same, so the

right hand sides are the same, so 4 is equal to 100.6, so the logarithm of 4 is just 0.6.

Let's try one more, a little more tricky. What is the logarithm of 5?

2 x ? = 10

10 x 10? = 101

0.3

The ? in the first must stand for 5. The ? in the second must stand for 0.7 (since we have a

powers of 10 multiplication and the powers must add: 0.3+0.7=1.0). Once more the two

equations are really the same, 2 is 100.3, 10 is 101, therefore 5 is 100.7, therefore the

logarithm of 5 is 0.7.

Multiplication

Our playing at finding logarithms has a purpose. It has led us to the idea that we can

relate the multiplication of numbers to the addition of logarithms. Let me show you why.

2. Take the logarithm of 3.74 (=0.5729)

3. Add the logarithms together (=1.0712)

4. Calculate what 10 is raised to that power (101.0712 = 11.781)

5

We were able to do the multiplication by using 3 simple operations: finding the logarithm

of a number, adding logarithms, finding the value of a power of 10. This last operation

(step 4) is sometimes given the horrible name of the 'antilogarithm' calculation.

is just the antilogarithm

of the sum of the

logarithm of A

and the logarithm of B:

A x B = 10(log(A)+log(B))

This looks quite unmemorable, so just remember the steps in the calculation above. To

multiply two numbers together using logarithms, first take the logarithm of each of the

numbers, then add these logarithms together, then take the antilogarithm (that is the

power of ten) of the sum, the result is the product of the two numbers.

Example: Suppose you were to multiply 1000 x 100. Obviously this is easy to do in your

head! But look at HOW you do it. You have THREE 0s and TWO 0s and you ADD

them, get FIVE 0s, and so the answer is 100,000.

But the cunning trick of logarithms is that Napier found out you could have HALF of a 0,

or TWO-THIRDS of 0s, etc, and add them up like that and get sensible answers! That’s

one of the reasons they’re lovely!

Half a 0 is the SQUARE ROOT of 10. Why? Because adding two of them makes ONE

0.

For any number you start with the question: "HOW MANY 0s?" The answer will usually

be some funny decimal.

Example: 125 times 9972 =1246500. Let’s see how we get an answer close to this using

logs.

125: how many 0s has that got? If it were 100 it would be 2 precisely.

9972: how many 0s? Nearly four. (If it was 10,000 it would have exactly four zeros)

6

The answer is going to be six and-a-bit more 0s. That is, roughly more than a million.

Note the word antilog simply means you’re taking the number and raising it to the power

of 10.

Division

Let us say we want to divide 15 by 5, and let us say we want to do it the hard way!

2. Take the logarithm of 5: log(5)=0.7

3. Subtract the logarithm of 5 from the logarithm of 15: log(15)-

log(5) = 1.18 - 0.7 = 0.48

4. Undo the logarithm by taking the power of ten: 100.48 = 3

If you find this hard, try to remember that logarithms are just a short hand for powers of

ten. When we are dividing 15 by 5 this way, really we are just doing this problem with

powers of ten:

Here's a summary:

is just the antilogarithm of

(the logarithm of A minus the logarithm

of B):

A ÷ B = 10(log(A)-log(B))

Functions

The logs we have worked with so far were powers of 10. They are called Log to the Base

10. But instead of working with powers of 10 what if we worked with powers of the

7

number e=2.718281828…. “e” is called the exponential number. The inverse of this

base is called the Natural Logarithm.

Before we review exponential and logarithmic functions, let's review the definition of a

function and the graph of a function. A function is just a rule. The rule links one number

to a second number in an orderly and specific manner. All the points on the graph of a

function are made up of two parts: (a number, and the function value at that number). For

example, the number of hours worked in a week could be the first number, and the salary

for the week could be the function value. If an hourly salary is $7.00, then the rule would

be 7 times the number of hours worked.

You could identify a point on the graph of a function as (x,y) or (x, f(x)). You may have

only one function value for each x number.

If the points (2, 3), (4, 5), (10, 11), and (25, 26) are located on the graph of a function,

you could easily figure out a corresponding rule. To get the function value, you just add 1

to the first number. The rule is f(x) = x + 1.

8

The points (3, 8) and (3, 18) could not be points on the graph of a function because there

are two different function values for the same x value

y = ex

clearly shows that it is a one to one function, hence an inverse exists. We call this inverse

the natural logarithm and write it as

y = ln x

y = ex

and

y = ln x

9

eln x = x

and

ln ex = x

Example

10

Properties of Exponentials

• ex+y = (ex)(ey)

• exy = (ex)y

• e0 = 1

• e-x = 1/(ex)

11

P = C (1 + r/n) nt

where

P = future value

C = initial deposit

r = interest rate (expressed as a fraction: e.g. 0.06)

n = # of times per year interest is compounded

t = number of years invested

When interest is only compounded once per year (n=1), the equation simplifies to:

P = C (1 + r) t

When interest is compounded continually (i.e. n --> ), the compound interest equation

takes the form:

12%, compounded monthly. How long will it take the investment to reach $2,000?

Answer: It would take about 5 years and 10 months for the investment to reach $2,000.

Step 1: The annual percentage rate is the rate that you would receive if the

interest were calculated at the end of the year. This means there was no

compounding during the year.

Step 2: Determine what the interest rate would be per month by dividing the 12%

by 12 months:

Step 3: From above, we know that we can find the balance after t years as

follows:

12

Step 4: Replace the right side of the above equation with $2,000:

Step 5: We must isolate the exponential term; therefore, divide both sides by

$1,000:

Step 6: Take the natural logarithm of both sides of the above equation:

Step 8: We get:

years. If you multiply 0.80505974113 years by 12, you get 9.6607 months. This

indicates that it takes 5 years and about 10 months for the $1,000 to reach $2,000.

13

Applications to Mortgages

There is a relationship between the mortgage amount, the number of payments, the

amount of the payment, how often the payment is made, and the interest rate. The

following formulas illustrate the relationship:

where P = the payment, r = the annual rate, M = the mortgage amount, t = the number of

years, and n = the number of payments per year.

Example: Suppose you wanted to take out a mortgage for $75,000 with monthly

payments at 7%, but you could only afford $450 per month payments. How long would

you have to make payments to pay off the mortgage, and how much interest would you

pay for this payment period?

Answer: It would take you 616.10755485 months to pay off the mortgage, that is,

roughly 51 years and 5 months. The bank would either have you pay 616 payments of

$450 per month and one last payment of $48.40 or your 616th payment would be

$498.40.

substitute $75,000 for M (the mortgage amount), 7% for r (the annual interest

rate), 12 for n (the number of payments per year, and $450 for P (the mortgage

payment). You are solving for t (the number of months that you must make

payments)

14

to get:

Step 7: Take the natural log of both sides of the above equation:

Step 8: Simplify the left side of the above equation using the third rule of

logarithms:

15

Step 11: The 12t stands for the number of months in t years or 616 months plus

part of a month. The number of years is 51.3422962552 or a little more than 51

years to pay off the mortgage.

The amount that you will pay over this term is (616)($450) = $277,200

+1(.107555063)(450) or $48.39977835 rounded to $48.40. Normally, the bank

will add this extra amount on the 616th payment. Sometimes they will have a

617th pay of $48.40. The total amount paid over the mortgage period is

$277,248.40.

Everything over the $75,000 mortgage is interest. The interest you will pay over

the 51 plus years is $277,248.40 - $75,000 = $202,248.40

16

Applications to Seismology

Before we start, let's talk about earthquakes and how we measure their intensity.

reading taken 100 km from the epicenter of the earthquake) and S is the intensity of a

''standard earthquake'' (whose amplitude is 1 micron =10-4 cm).

Richter studied many earthquakes that occurred between 1900 and 1950. The largest had

magnitude of 8.9 on the Richter scale, and the smallest had magnitude 0. This

corresponds to a ratio of intensities of 800,000,000, so the Richter scale provides more

manageable numbers to work with.

Each number increase on the Richter scale indicates an intensity ten times stronger. For

example, an earthquake of magnitude 6 is ten times stronger than an earthquake of

times stronger than an earthquake of magnitude 5.

Example: Early in the 20th century the horrific earthquake in San Francisco registered 8.3

on the Richter scale. In the same year, another earthquake was recorded in South America

that was four times stronger. What was the magnitude of the earthquake in South

America? Let SF and SA denote San Francisco and South America, respectively.

17

Answer: The intensity of the earthquake in South America was 8.9 on the Richter scale.

18

19

varies with time according to the formula

Y=C ekt

where Y is the original amount (the amount at time t=0) and k is a

non-zero constant.

If k is positive, then the amount Y gets larger or grows with time, and

the amount is said to be experiencing exponential growth.

If k is negative, then the amount Y gets smaller or diminishes with

time, and the amount is said to be experiencing exponential decay.

often occur:

• Time is given; you are to find the amount at that given time.

This usually just involves evaluating the amount function.

• The amount is given; you are to determine at what time does

this amount occur. This usually involves solving an exponential

equation, which means logarithms will be needed.

All living beings have a certain amount of radioactive carbon C14 in their bodies. When

the being dies the C14 slowly decays with a half-life of about 5600 years. Suppose a

human skeleton is found in Tahoe that has 42% of the original C14. When did the person

die?

Solution

y = Cekt

C/2 = Cek(5600)

20

Dividing by C,

1/2 = e5600k

ln(0.5) = 5600k

so that

ln(0.5)

k = = -0.000124

5600

y = Ce-0.000124t

y = 0.42C

0.42C = Ce-0.000124t

Divide by C,

0.42 = e-0.000124t

ln(0.42) = -0.000124t

Divide by -0.000124

ln(0.42)

t= = 6995

-0.000124

21

Applications to Regression

Suppose P changes from 50 to 60. Then Log P changes from 3.9 to 4.1 = 0.20.

Q = APb

Y = b0 + b X

Suppose you ran a regression with data and found that b0 = 5.1 and b = 2.0. Writing

back in log form, we have:

The above rule gives us the answer immediately! The relative change in P is 1% = .01.

But this is also the change in Log P, from the above rule. Because the regression

coefficient is 2.0, the change in Log Q is 2 times 0.01 = 0.02. Since Log Q increases by

0.02, the rule assures us that Q itself has changed by .02. That is, quantity supplied

increases by 2% when price increases by 1%. The value 2% is also called “elasticity.”

22

What is the unit of measurement of sound? The answer is decibel. What is a decibel? It

is a logarithm of ratios!!!

Long, long ago, in an industry far, far away ... the decibel was born. The story goes

something like this: Telephone engineers discovered that a particular length of a

particular type of phone wire attenuated the wire’s signal power a certain amount. The

same length of the same type of wire always attenuated the input power by the same

ratio, regardless of the actual level of the input signal. They called this ratio the “bel”, in

honor of Alexander Graham Bell.

But the “bel” was much too cumbersome for dealing with small signal power ratios, so

the “bel” was divided by 10 and called the decibel. Mathematically, it works out

dB = 10log(P2/P1).

As you look at this formula, you’ll note that it does nothing more than describe a ratio

between two power levels, P2 and P1. In most cases, P1 is the input power to some

device, and P2 is its output power. That’s what decibels are all about: logarithm of ratios.

Example: Assume you have a 50-watt stereo and your neighbor has a 100-watt stereo.

How much more powerful, in decibels, is your neighbor’s stereo than yours? To find out,

plug the two stereo systems’ power levels into the previous decibel formula. I’ve re-

written it slightly to make it a bit easier to use.

dB = 10 x [log(P2/P1)]

dB = 10 x [log(100 watts/50 watts)]

dB = 10 x [log(2)]

dB = 10 x [0.301]

dB = 3.01

Example: If your favorite radio station decides to install a new transmitter that will

increase its output power from 10,000 watts to 20,000 watts, how much more powerful,

in decibels, is the new transmitter than the old one? Again, the answer can be found with

the decibel formula.

dB = 10 x [log(2)]

dB = 10 x [0.301]

dB = 3.01

23

In both cases the answer is 3.01 dB. How can that be? In the first example, the power

difference was 50 watts, and in the second example the power difference was 10,000

watts! How the heck can each one be equal to 3 dB? The answer is not related to the

absolute difference between two power levels, but rather the ratio of the two power

levels. In both examples the ratio is two. That is, one of the power levels is twice as much

as the other. It doesn’t really matter what the actual levels are, just the ratio between

them. That’s all decibels are: logarithm of ratios.

Creation

Most religious books have one common notion: the universe began with a sound. (Many

physicists also assume this: recall the theory of the Big Bang.) Thus, for example, the

Bible starts with: “In the beginning was the Word.” Likewise, in Hinduism, the Sanskrit

word “Ohm” is the sound of the universe at creation. But sound is measured as a

logarithm of ratios. And so you see why mathematics is truly the universal language!!

And why logarithms are so profound.

Beethoven

Ludwig Von Beethoven went stone-deaf half way into his adult life. That didn’t stop him

from composing the greatest symphony ever: The Ninth Symphony. Beethoven yearned

to hear any sound at all, but couldn’t. In his quest to understand sound without listening,

he wrote several masterpieces until he crafted the Ninth. He understood (more than any

other composer) that the human voice was by far the most beautiful instrument. And so

if you listen to the Ninth, in the very first measure or two the structure for the entire

symphony appears, particularly the last movement – the Ode to Joy. He transformed his

entire life’s pain to an everlasting gift to the human race in this last movement where he

celebrates the human voice. If you study the music sheet carefully you will see the

amazing genius work out scale transpositions unlike any other in music. Beethoven, like

many composers, composed on the pianoforte.

But what is a piano keyboard? Based on all of the above, you should now deduce that it is

really a logarithmic scale. Likewise, the human voice is a chain of frequencies, which are

measured in hertz, and which are functions of logarithms.

- Section 6.2 Page 323 to 330Hochgeladen vonKnoll711
- Additonal Mathematics Project Work 2013 Selangor (Project 2)Hochgeladen vonfarhana_hana_9
- Earthquake Engineering Application to DesignHochgeladen vonEmil Alexandru Dinu-Popa
- KPP Book EngHochgeladen vonSora Mayonaka
- Tutorial NanoseismicHochgeladen vonputih_138242459
- First ReviewHochgeladen vonVikas Poddar
- Earthquake Engineering Notes(1)Hochgeladen vonKrishna Anish
- Surname SignatureHochgeladen vonKennyajk
- Falla de San AndreasHochgeladen vonAnonymous bxsB9E
- Hydraulic Fracturing Scientificamerican0716-46Hochgeladen vonJuan
- Team 2311 HiMCM PaperHochgeladen vonkg_suh
- Trigonometry First Periodical 2011-2012Hochgeladen vonRogelio Pontejo
- ASGKIT PROG4Hochgeladen vonObed Diaz
- Basics of Math & ElectronicsHochgeladen vonnirajkapase
- 3 Magnitude and IntensityHochgeladen vonsathishrmkce
- 19 gempa.pdfHochgeladen vonicha
- Logarithm FunctionsHochgeladen vonCM Paul
- Quake QuestHochgeladen vonRahman Atthariq
- Physics Pharma physio for anaesthetistHochgeladen vonkaran270
- SafetyHochgeladen vonSteve Alain Onana Dang
- SRIA_Guide_to_Seismic_Design_online .pdfHochgeladen vonsekkei
- Probabilistic Seismic Hazard analysis and Design Earthquakes - Closing the loop.pdfHochgeladen vonNoe David Lazos
- Hop Rtn Marcara El Pinar 8 1.80 1.80 Ch4 894m 170720Hochgeladen vonRusbel Espinoza Mendoza
- Hop Rtn Yungay Shupluy 18 1.20 1.20 Ch4 894m 170720Hochgeladen vonRusbel Espinoza Mendoza
- GEN Ed SCienceHochgeladen vonAlili Dudz
- What%20Richter%20Scale%20Earthquake%20can%20my%20Building%20Withstand.pdfHochgeladen vonSteven
- Earthquake Hazard ProfileHochgeladen vonAishwarya Kumar
- Absolute DbHochgeladen vonawa buaya
- Thaton-Thu_Dama_Waddy_Kalama-Taung-BTS.docHochgeladen vonThiha Aung
- WEEK 3Hochgeladen vonJeanne Pauline Oabel

- A ThermaCoat Case StudyHochgeladen vonBilly Joe Ereno
- 2-failure-to-launch-ppt-handouts_unlocked (1).pdfHochgeladen vonJesusDiFabio
- Petroleum engineering_well controlHochgeladen vonJeffrey
- SIMATIC HMI Basic Panels Operating InstructionsHochgeladen vonDavid Nicolae
- SPE-139222 Selection Methodology for Screening Evaluation of Enhanced Oil Recovery MethodsHochgeladen vonFabricetoussaint
- White Holes Cosmic Gushers in the Universe PaperbackHochgeladen vonJack Lee Jee Keng
- Thermal Fatigue Monitoring GuidelinesHochgeladen vonvarunsuri8
- ORA LABORATORY MANUALHochgeladen vonshrikantmsd
- Sprinkler Irrigation 2011 CompleteHochgeladen vonmosne1
- Floating ParticlesHochgeladen vonshahadatme
- Us Steel ExtractsHochgeladen vonHerbert P. Bacosa
- 1n5711Hochgeladen vonJaime Lazo
- Content Based Image Retrival1Hochgeladen vonNinad Samel
- ManualHochgeladen vonGiuseppe Varriale
- MATE1000 Lecture 11 Mechanical Properties of MetalsHochgeladen vonclearcasting
- ISA S5.4-1991 Instrument Loop DiagramsHochgeladen vonHassanSadiq
- SemisolidHochgeladen vonzxvcazcf
- Hayt Cap 8 SolutionHochgeladen vonVitor Campos
- Romac Thrust Block Restraint-calculator-helpHochgeladen vonAdrian Rogers
- SAPIA (1).docHochgeladen vonJulio Sweeney
- ch15Hochgeladen vonChala1989
- Operation Argus Nuclear Tests in Atmosphere 1958 - DNA 6039F - Operation ARGUS - 1958Hochgeladen vonmelissarossi199
- Linear Theories for 2D Airfoil in Unsteady FlowHochgeladen vonSri Vatsan
- Part 02 Question (238 - 245)Hochgeladen vonKartik
- 53_36765_ME593_2014_1__1_1_DC Motors.pdfHochgeladen vonDora Teng
- Kinematics (Modified)Hochgeladen vonGuianne Carlo Bustamante
- [3] THESIS Wi-Fi Based Indoor Positioning System Using SmartphonesHochgeladen vonDo Dinh Thuan
- TIL1292 Generator Rotor Dovetail CrackingHochgeladen vonzomglolzscribd
- Monokote Z 146Hochgeladen vonRicardo Silva
- Advanced Metallurgical Concepts for DP Steels With Improved Formability and Damage ResistanceHochgeladen vonMartin

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.