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Gestión Estratégica del

Mantenimiento
Gestión de Mantenimiento Basado
en la Condición (CM)
Capacidades Terminales
• Evaluar y contextualizar el plan de mantenimiento
proporcionado por el fabricante, optimizando los
costos de operación y la disponibilidad del equipo
productivo en distintos procesos productivos.
Competencias Específicas
• Al finalizar la sesión los
estudiantes:
– Analizan las ventajas y
desventajas de aplicar un
mantenimiento
predictivo en un
componente, sistema o
equipo.
Temas a tratarse
• Review.
• Why is CM Important?
• What is Condition Monitoring?
• CM Process Overview
The Preventive Maintenance process is most easily understood by breaking it down
into 6 distinctive stages / phases
1 STRATEGY Plan to obtain specific Outcome(s)

PLANNING &
2 SCHEDULING
Plan & Schedule the PM stop

RESOURCES
3 PREPARATIO
Organization and Mobilization of Resources

N
4 EXECUTION Execution of the scheduled activities

5 DEMOBILIZATION Return equipment to work & demobilize

PROCESS
6 MANAGEMENT
Measure Results - Manage

7
PRINCIPALES INDICADORES DE
MANTENIMIENTO

• DE GESTION
• FINANCIEROS
• GESTION DE LA MANO DE OBRA

8
A.- DE GESTION

1.- TIEMPO PROMEDIO ENTRE FALLAS


(Mean Time Between Failure)

N° HORAS DE OPERACION
MTBF =
N° DE PARADAS CORRECTIVAS
Empleado en sistemas en los que el tiempo de reparación es
significativo con respecto al tiempo de operación.
Se emplea para sistemas reparables 9
A.- DE GESTION

Para evaluar una Sección o “n” equipos

Suma (Horas de Operación)


MTBF SECCION A =
Suma (N° de Paradas Correctivas)

10
A.- DE GESTION

2.- TIEMPO PROMEDIO PARA LA FALLA


(Mean Time To Fail)

N° HORAS DE OPERACION
MTTF =
N° DE FALLAS
Usado en Sistemas no reparables (satelites, fluorescentes) o en los
que el tiempo de reparación o sustitución no es significativo en
relación a las horas de operación.
11
A.- DE GESTION

3.- TIEMPO PROMEDIO PARA LA REPARACION


(Mean Time To Repair)

Tiempo Total de Reparaciones Correctivas


MTTR =
N° de Reparaciones Correctivas

12
A.- DE GESTION

4.- DISPONIBILIDAD (Availibility)

Horas Laborales mes – P.Programadas-M.C.


A=
Horas Laborales al mes

• Horas Laborales: Horas calendario menos domingos y


feriados. Son las horas laborales de la Empresa.
• P. Programadas: Paradas programadas por MP
• M.C.: Paradas por mant. Correctivo (no programadas) 13
A.- DE GESTION

DISPONIBLE NO DISPONIBLE •M. P.


•Espera
•Paradas
•En uso •Reparación •Papeleo
•Stand By
•Activo correctiva •Falta de
programadas
repuestos
Tiempo Operativo Tiempo no operativo
•Overhaul
MTBF
Ai = MTBF
• Disponibilidad Inherente: + MTTR

Ao = A
• Disponibilidad Operacional: 14
A.- DE GESTION

5.- PORCENTAJE DE HORAS PARADAS POR EMERGENCIA

Horas Paradas por MC


PMC =
Horas de Funcionamiento

15
A.- DE GESTION

6.- INTENSIDAD DEL M.P. (IMP)


N° de Ordenes de MP Costo de MP
IMP = IMP =
N° de Ordenes Totales Costo Total de Mant.

H-H de Interv. de MP T. Maq. Parada por MP


IMP = IMP =
H-H disponibles T. Total Maq. Parada
por mantenimiento
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B.- FINANCIEROS
1.- COSTO DE MANTENIMIENTO POR FACTURACION
CTMN: Costo total de mantenimiento en
CMFAC CTMN
CMFAC== FAC un período. Incluye Overhaul.
FAC FAC: Facturación total de la empresa
en el mismo período
2.- COSTO DE MANTENIMIENTO POR INVERSION
CTMN CTMN: Costo total anual de
CMFAC =
CMINV = FAC manteni-miento.
INV INV: Inversión de los activos a valor
de reposición 17
B.- FINANCIEROS
3.- GESTION DE INVENTARIO
CREEP: Costo total repuestos
CMFAC = CREEP
GINV = inmovili-zados (en moneda
FAC
INV INV: dura) Inversión de los
activos a valor de reposición.
4.- GESTION DE TERCEROS

CMFAC = Costo Total de Servicios de Terceros


GTERC = FAC
Costo Total de Mantenimiento
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C.- GESTION DE LA MANO DE OBRA
1.- COSTO DE UNA H-H DE MANTENIMIENTO

CMFAC Total Planilla de Mantenimiento


CHHM =
= FAC Total de H-H

2.- BACKLOG (Carga Pendiente)


Es el tiempo en el que el equipo de mantenimiento debe trabajar para
acabar todas las ordenes pendientes, asumiendo que no lleguen
nuevas ordenes. 19
Why is CM Important?
• The First Step in Problem / Failure Avoidance is
Awareness of Potential Problems.
• CM is a Key Contributor to Support Equipment Availability
& Reduce Operating Cost.
• Close and Regular Monitoring Enables:
• Contribution to Maximize MTBF.
• Maximize Equipment Component Life
• Unscheduled Repairs:
• Cost More People:
• Increase Resource Needs Exponentially.
• Cost More $$$$:
• Can be up to 15x more than Similar Scheduled Repairs.

• A CM Based M&R Strategy Provides Opportunities to:


• Increase Productivity
What is Condition Monitoring?
Condition Monitoring
“The process of systematic data collection and evaluation to
identify changes in performance or condition of a system, or
its components, such that remedial action may be planned in
a cost effective manner to maintain reliability”
CM Goals & Objectives
“Timely detection of abnormal conditions to support Failures
Prevention and the Optimization of Component Life”
✓ Support Failure Prevention by timely detection of conditions
✓ Support MTBF results
✓ Effective prioritization to enable Planning & Scheduling to
manage and control the impact of failures
✓ Constant and Effective contribution to planning through
precise / accurate recommendations
✓ Effective and focused detection of potential failures
✓ Quantifiable positive contribution to M&R cost results
CM: What is included?
✓ Operator Inspection
Equipment ✓ Field Inspection
Inspections ✓ Pre PM Inspection
✓ During PM Inspection
Electronic ✓ Post PM Inspection
Machine Data ✓ PCR Inspection (Pre, During, Post)
✓ Machine Systems Performance Tests (TA1/TA2)
Fluid Analysis

Site Conditions /
Application
Work Order History
& Backlog
Condition Monitoring
Symptom Detection Repair Failure

? Planning

Time

Regular Monitoring & Analysis

Performance Range
Condit

(Upper & Lower Limits)


ion

Time (Hours) (Use)


CM Process Overview
The Condition Monitoring process is most easily understood
by breaking it down into 6 distinctive stages / phases
1 STRATEGY Plan to obtain specific Outcome(s)
DESIGN &
2 IMPLEMENT
CM routines design, resources allocation &
Implementation
3 EXECUTION CM routines operating and delivering results

4 INTERPRETATIO Data collection and Interpretation


N
5 RECOMMENDATION Deliver Recommendations

PROCESS
6 MANAGEMENT
Measure Results - Manage
CM Strategy
• Consider when establishing 1
Maintenance Strategy Elements
the Maintenance Strategy
• Involve What … Mission
… the entire organization Why … Goals & Objectives
How … Precise Instructions
• Document
… written document
With What … Resources
When … Frequency
• Give Access Where are We … Control
… Provide “Google Access” A clear and comprehensive Strategy is critical
for the implementation, standardization,
• Keep it Updated execution and sustainability of processes
… Dynamic
Design & Implement CM routines
• Design Condition Monitoring 2
routines
• Content
• Frequency
• Procedures
• Resources

• Assign Resources
• People
• Tools & Equipment
• Transportation
• …

• Implement routines

• Test routines – Dry run


CM Strategy & CM Routines
• CM Strategy or SOP (Standard Operating Procedure) 1 2
• “Foundation” of the House
• Without Clear Definition, the CM Process Cannot be Adequately
Executed, Managed, or Improved
Continuous Improvement
CM Performance Metrics

WO History
Inspections

Application
Electronic

Analysis
Fluids
Data

CM Strategy or SOP (Standard Operating Procedure)


(What, Who, When, Where, How, Duration, Metrics)
CM: Execution
• Many Condition Monitoring Routines
Required Intimate Contact with
Equipment / Machines.
– Climbing On or Under, Connecting To, Etc.
– “Touching & Feeling”
• It’s Critically Important that
All CM Routines Are
Completed Safely….!!!
#1: Inspections


Operator Inspections
Daily / Period Inspections
• Pre-PM Inspections
Equipment • PM Inspections
Inspections • Post-PM Inspections
• Pre-PCR Inspections
Electronic • PCR Inspections
Machine Data • Post-PCR Inspections
• Machine Systems
Fluid Analysis
• Performance Tests / TA1 + TA2
Site Conditions /
Application

Work Order History


& Backlog
#1: Inspections
• Many Inspection Types
– Some Complement Each Other
• Different Scope of Work
• Different Time Allowed
– Some Duplicate (Increase Chance to Detect)
• What Manpower Exists?
• Operator (“Fit-for-Use”) • How and When to
Perform Inspections?
• Daily / Periodic Inspection
• What Training is
• Pre-PM Inspection (Prep for PM) Required?
• How to Get Information
• During PM Inspection to the Right People?
– Large Window of Opportunity for CM
• Post PM Inspection (Quality)
#1: Inspections: Operator
• Quick and Easy to Complete
– Goal: Ensure Machine is “Fit for Use”
• Focus / Targets:
– Easy to Perform (Low Technical Content)
– Get the Most of the Operator Expertise

• Guided by Checklists for:


• Clear “Go” & “No-Go” Criteria
• Recordkeeping
• Output:
– Written Output (Not Verbal)
#1: Inspections: Daily or Periodic
• Goal: Identify Machine Defects Requiring Action
– Critical Faults

• Performed by Technical People


– Training + Focus on Prevention

• Primary Visual (Use Good Checklist)

• Use All Available “Windows of Opportunity”

• Must be Supported by Planning.


• Machine Ranking, Pending Backlogs, Top Problems Lists
#1: Inspections: Daily or Periodic (Fuel Bay)
• Advantages:
– Opportunity to Use Window of Opportunity
• Rush hour
– Impact on Plant KPIs (Availability, MTBS, etc.).
• Disadvantages:
– Limited Time in Rush hour
– Need to Clearly Define “Scope-of-Work”
– Need to Appropriately Structure
Resources, Time, & Expectations.
#1: Inspections: During PM
• Location: Workshop or Field
• Large Window to Perform
• Requirements for Effectiveness:
– Detailed Checklists
– Performed by Trained People
– Cleaned / Washed Machine

• Outputs: Detailed PM Checklists


– Validate Backlogs (Pending)
– Validate Backlogs (Executed)
– Fix Defects
#1: Inspections: Performance Tests (TA1/TA2)
• Machine Systems & Operational Checks
• Starts at Commissioning
• Periodic to Verify Performance
(During Life Cycle) ERS System
ERS Motor Performance Tests
#1: Inspections: Performance Tests (Checklist)
• Documented Procedures &
Performance Criteria
– Some Tests Included in PM Routines or
Pre-PM Inspections
#1: Inspections: Other Tools
• What Other Tools Can be Considered to Improve CM
Efficiency or Effectiveness?
– Tooling: Conventional or Other
• Temperature Guns?
• Photo or Laser Tachometer?
• Thermal Imaging?
• Other?
Thermal Camera Can “See” a Hot
Joint in an oven
#2: Electronic Machine Data
• ET (Electronic Technician)
Equipment • VIMS™ (Vital Information
Inspections Management System)
• SIBAS / MIDAS
Electronic • BCS
Machine Data
Fluid Analysis

Site Conditions /
Application

Work Order History


& Backlog
#2: Electronic Machine Data: VIMS + Other Systems
• Machine & Component ECM Information
– ERP
– EAM

ERS Info: Examples of


Machine Information
#2: Electronic Data: Technology Solutions
• Technology for CM (Minestar • Intervention Still
Health™, ECA, Product Link™,): Needed
– Efficiency:
• Data Collection
– Define Maintenance
• Data Analysis & Interpretation Activities (Investigate,
• Data Reporting / Recommended Corrective Troubleshoot, Repair
Actions
Planning)
“Exception Reports” for Efficiency:
– Effectiveness:
• No Action Needed (No Color)
• Data Analysis & Interpretation
• Action Needed (Red, Blue, Orange)
#3: Fluid Analysis
• Shell Lube Analyst
• Coolant Analysis
Equipment • Fluid Consumption (Make-Up)
Inspections • Magnetic Plug Inspections
• Filter Inspections
Electronic
• Screen Inspections
Machine Data
• ISO Particle Count
Fluid Analysis • Ferrous & Non-Ferrous Debris
Site Conditions /
Application

Work Order History


& Backlog
#3: Fluid Analysis: Shell Lube Analyst
• Shell LubeAnalyst checks the condition of your lubricants and
machinery. It is an oil monitoring service that helps your
company run smoothly helping you to detect possible problems
with the oil or machinery before they are serious

Shell LubeAnalyst will help your company save time and money in
maintenance and possible loss of production due to machinery failure.
It is an early warning system, which aims to give you peace of mind
knowing that both your machinery and lubricants are in optimal operatin
• The Shell LubeAnalyst system is fast and easy to use. After you have
registered for this service online, you should take samples of the oil in
your machinery and send them to one of our laboratories. As soon as
we have carried out the tests and analysis of the samples, we will send
you our diagnosis and the appropriate recommendations by email. In
this way, Shell LubeAnalyst becomes an early warning system that
gives you peace of mind knowing that your machinery and lubricants
are in perfect condition
#3: Fluid Analysis
• Wear Metals • Chemical &
– Copper Physical:
– Iron – Water • Oil Condition:
– Chromium – Fuel – Soot
– Lead – Particle Count – Oxidation
– Aluminum – Filtergram – Nitration
– Silicon – TBN / TAN – Sulfur
– Sodium – Viscosity
– Molybdenum – Particle Quantifier
#3: Fluids: Magnetic Plug Inspections
• Inspected then Information Stored for Future Reference
– Photographed, Severity Rating of Material, Amount of Material
– Compartment, Hours: Machine, Oil, and Component
Machine Hours: 840
Oil Hours: 840
Axle Hours: 840
PM Insp: 1
Iso Code: 21/17
Iron ppm: 33
Machine Hours: 569
Oil Hours: 569
Axle Hours: 569
Trend

PM Insp: 2
Iso Code: 22/18
Iron ppm: 30
Machine Hours: 260
Oil Hours: 260
Axle Hours: 260
PM Insp: 1
Iso Code:22/18
Iron ppm: 30
#3: Fluids: Magnetic Filters & Screens
• Shell lube videocheck
#3: Fluids: Keys to Success
• Take & Handle Samples Correctly.
• Correct Bad Practices.
• Submit Promptly to the Lab.
#3: Fluids: Keys to Success
• Ensure Samples are Taken:
– From Recommended
Compartments
11
– At the Correct Frequency
Examples of SOSsm Trays (By Machine).
Clearly Denotes Machine Compartment & Quantity
#4: Site Conditions / Application
• Site Conditions
Equipment • Machine Operation / Use
Inspections (Operator Behavior)
Electronic
Machine Data
Fluid Analysis

Site Conditions /
Application

Work Order History


& Backlog
#4: Site Conditions / Application Monitoring
• Understand the Mine / Site
– Current Conditions & Operations
– Future Mine Plans or Expansions

• Identify Operations:
– Permanent + Temporary

• Identify Characteristics of Operational Circuits


– Regular Observations (Measurements, Timing, Data & Analysis)
– Identify Areas to Improve

• Define + Track + Monitor Operational Parameters


– Operator Practices, Fuel Consumption, Haul Distance, % on Grade
#4: Site Conditions / Application Monitoring
How Are the Operating Conditions of these Machines?
How Are the Machines Being Used?
Are They in Line with dealer Recommendations?
Are They in Line with Your Site’s LCC & Maintenance Plan?
#4: Site Conditions / Application Monitoring
• Observe & Measure:
– Photos, Timing, Electronic Data, Other
• Define Improvement Opportunities
• Change the Plan
– CM and/or M&R Strategy (i.e. PCR Targets)
ERS: Propel is ~10.5%
– Include Actions in Site Improvement Plan of Total Machine Hours !!
• Application or Training Changes? M&R? Other?
What’s This Mean?
What To Do With This?
Do We Change the Plan?
TTT: Travel Forward Distance
is Much Higher than Reverse
#5: Work Order History (Learning From Failures)
• Learning from Failures
• Work Order History
Equipment • Backlog
Inspections • Pareto Analysis
• Root Cause Analysis
Electronic
Machine Data
Fluid Analysis

Site Conditions /
Application

Work Order History


& Backlog
#5: Work Order History (Learning From Failures)
History Might Be Scary…….
• Analyze Repair History Maybe It’s Something We
• But Why? Don’t
Want to Be Reminded About…
• Learning is Critical to Ensure
History Doesn’t Repeat Itself
– Analyze Failures
– Analyze Effectiveness of
Equipment Management Routines
• What Am I Detecting?
• What Am I NOT Detecting?
As Improvements are Implemented,
– Implement Corrective
The SceneryActions…!!!
Looks Better and Better
Over Time…
#5: Work Order History (Learning from Failures)
• We Have to Understand / Analyze the Whole Picture
• Purpose: Take Action to Modify / Improve Your CM Plan
Learning from Failures
• On-Site Condition Monitoring Plan
• Other Mining • Inspections
Operations • Operator, Daily / Periodic
• Factory or Regional • Pre-PM, PM, Post-PM • Data
Inputs • Pre-PCR, PCR, Post-PCR • Analysis
Programs • Machine Systems Performance Tests
• Interpretation
• Electronic Data
• ET, VIMS, SIBAS, BCS
• Action
The • Fluids Analysis
Picture… • SOS, Magnetic Plugs, Filters,
The
Screens
• Site Conditions / Application Interpretation…
• Learning from Failures
#5: Work Order History (Learning From Failures)
• Learning From Failures:
– On-Site • Repair History
– Other Mining Operations – Analyze Failures:
• Root Cause of Critical Events
• Repair History:
– Simplified RCA
– Pareto Analysis – Applied Failure Analysis (AFA)
– Top Issues: – Analyze Effectiveness of
• Top 10: By Downtime (MTTR) Corrective Action:
• Top 10: By Frequency (MTBS) • Repair Actions (Permanent or
• Top 10: By Cost Temporary Solutions)
• Detection Process (Prevention
Plan)
Top 10 Summary
(Downtime Hours)
#5: Work Order History (Learning From Failures)
• Failure Analysis
– Simplified Analysis
– Applied Failure
Analysis (AFA)

• What Failed or Caused the


Shutdown?
• How Did it Fail?
• Why Did it Fail?
• Should We Expect More
Failures?
• How Can We Prevent More
#5: Work Order History (Learning From Failures)
• Initiate the CI Process to Improve M&R Execution
– What Adjustments are Needed?
– How Can We Improve: CM Detection, Repair Execution, P&S,…?
Continuous Improvement Process
Next Class
• Gestión del CM
• Lectura recomendada:
– http://www.duoc.cl/sustentable/pdf/AChEE_Mich
elDeLaire.pdf
Gracias por su atención