Sie sind auf Seite 1von 69

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

EXPERIMENT -1

AIM: - To measure overall heat transfer coefficient for given composite wall with help of
composite wall apparatus.

COMPOSITE WALLS APPARATUS


The apparatus consists of a plates of different materials sandwiched between two aluminum
plates. Three types of slabs are provided on both sides of heater, which forms a composite structure. A
small hand press frame is provided to ensure the perfect contact between the slabs. A Dimmer stat is
provided for varying the input to the heater and measurement of input is carried out by a Voltmeter and
Ammeter. Thermocouples are embedded between interfaces of input slabs, to read the temperatures at
the surface.

The experiment can be conducted at various values of input and calculation can be made accordingly.

Fig (a) Composite Walls Apparatus

SPECIFICATIONS: -
1) Slabs Size:
a) M. S. - 25 cm  x 25mm. Thick
b) Bakelite - 25 cm  x 10mm. thick
c) Brass -25 cm  x 10mm. thick

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 1


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
2) Nichrome heater wound on mica former and insulator with control unit capacity 200-watt
maximum.
3) Heater control unit: -230 V. 0 –2 A single phase Dimmer stat ------ (1 no.)
4) Voltmeter: -0 -250 volts.
5) Ammeter: -0 – 2 Amps.
6) Multichannel digital temperature indicator

EXPERIMENTALS TO BE CARRIED OUT


a) To determine total thermal resistance of composite wall.
b) To plot temperature gradient along composite wall structure.

EXPERTMENTAL PROCEDURE:

c) Arrange the plates properly (symmetrical) on both side of heater plate). See that plates are
symmetrically arranged on both sides of heater plate (arranged normally)
d) Operate the hand press properly to ensure perfect contact between the plates
e) Close the box by cover sheet to achieve steady environmental conditions.
f) Start the supply of heater. By varying the Dimmer stat, adjust the input (range 30 - 70 watts) and
start water supply.
g) Take readings of all the thermocouples at an interval of 10 minutes until steady state is reached.
h) Note down the steady state readings in the observation table

M.S Bakelite Brass


Wall thickness 2.5 1.0 1.0
Conductivity 0.46 w/mk 0.12 w/mk 110 w/mk

OBSERVATIONS: -

Sr.
Heat Supplied (Watts) Temperature ºC
No.

Voltmeter Ammeter T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8
1 200 1 62.5 62.6 61.6 61.6 38.9 39.9 38.3 38.3

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 2


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
CALCULATIONS –

1) MEAN READINGS,
T1 T 2
a) TA  ºC
2
62.5+62.6
= 2
=62.55℃
=335.55 K

b) TB  T 3  T 4 ºC
2
61.6+61.6
= 2

=39.4℃
=312.4 K

c) TC  T 5  T 6 ºC
2
38.9+39.9
= 2
= 39.4℃
= 312.4 K

d) TD  T 7  T 8 ºC
2
38.3+38.3
= 2

=38.3⁰C
= 311.3 K
2) Rate of heat supplied,
Q = V x I Watts
= 200 x 1
= 200 Watts
For calculating the thermal conductivity of composite walls, it is assumed that due to large
diameter of the plates, heat flowing through central portion is unidirectional i.e. axial flow. Thus for
calculations, central half dia. area where unidirectional flow is assumed is considered. Accordingly
thermocouples are fixed at close to centre of the plates.
Now,

Heat flux, q = Q Watts / m2


A
Where,

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 3


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

A= *d 2 (d = half dia. Of plates)
4
π
A = 4 *(0.125)2

= 0.0122718463 m3

Q
Heat flux q= A
200
= 0.01227

= 16297.46 watt/m2

1. Total thermal resistance of composite wall slab –


TA  TD
R total = m2 º K / W
q
335.55+311.3
= 16297.46

=1.48 ∗ 10−3 m2 k/w

2. Thermal Conductivity of composite slab –

q *b
K Composite = W/m/K
TA  TD
16297.46∗0.045
= 335.55−311.3

= 30.24 w/m k
b = Total thickness of composite slab
= 30.24 m
3. To plot thickness of slab material against temperature gradient

NOTE - The heat following through different slabs does not essentially flow in axial direction but a
part of it also goes radically outwards. Hence real heat flow in axial direction for whole area of slabs
is not known and hence by just knowing the If temperature difference, thermal conductivity of the slabs
cannot be determined.

PRECAUTIONS
1) Keep the Dimmer stat zero before state.
2) Increase voltage slowly
3) Keep all the assembly undisturbed.
4) Remove air gap between plates
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 4
HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
5) When removing the plates do not disturb the thermocouples
6) Do not increase voltage above 200 V.
7) Operate selector switch of temperature indicator slowly.

T9

COOLING PLATE

T7

START PLATE

T5

BAKELITE

T3

M.S. PLATE

T1

HEATER

T2

M.S. PLATE

T4

BAKELITE

T6

START PLATE

T8

COOLING PLATE

Fig. Line Diagram of Thermocouple Arrangement in Experimental Set Up

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 5


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

temprature vs thikness
330

325 324
323

320
Temprature

315

310
307
306

305

300

295
Ta (K) = Tb (K) = Tc (K) = Td (K) =
thikness of slab

CONCLUSION:-
From this experiment we conclude that the heat transfer co-efficient of a given
composite wall is 30.24 W/m*K

SIGN____________ MARK__________

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 6


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

EXPERIMENT -2

AIM: TO DETERMINE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF INSULATING POWDER USING


SPHERE IN SPHERE' METHOD

INTRODUCTION

Conduction of heat is flow of heat, which occurs due to exchange of energy from one molecule
to another without appreciable motion of molecules. In any heating process, heat is flowing outwards
from heat generation point. In order to reduce losses of heat, various types of insulation's are used in
practice. Various powders e.g. asbestos powder, plaster of Paris etc. are also used for heat insulation. In
order to determine the appropriate thickness of insulation, knowledge of thermal conductivity of
insulating material is essential. The unit enables to determine the thermal conductivity of insulating
powders, using sphere in sphere' method.

Fig (a) Thermal Conductivity of Insulating Powder Instrument

THE APPARATUS
The apparatus consists of a smaller (inner) sphere, inside which is fitted a mica electric heater.
Smaller sphere is fitted at the centre of outer sphere. The insulating powder, whose thermal conductivity
is to be determined, is filled in the gap between the two spheres. The heat generated by heater flows
through the powder to the outer sphere. The outer sphere loses heat to atmosphere. The input to the

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 7


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
heater is controlled by a dimmer stat and is measured on voltmeter and ammeter. Four thermocouples
are provided on the outer surface of inner sphere and six thermocouples are on the inner surface of outer
sphere, which are connected to a multi-channel digital temperature indicator. Average of outer & inner
sphere temperatures give the temperature difference across the layer of powder.

SPECIFICATIONS -
1. INNER SPHERE - 100 mm 0. D., halved construction
2. OUTER SPHERE -200 mm I. D., halved construction
3. HEATER -Mica flat heater, fitted inside inner sphere.
4. CONTROLS –
a) Main switch -30 A, DPDT Switch

b) Dimmer stat – 0-230 volts, 2A capacity.

5. MEASUREMENTS-
a) Voltmeter -0 -200 volts
b) Ammeter -0 -1 Amp.
c) Multi-channel digital temperature indicator calibrated FOR Cr / Al thermocouples.

Fig.1 Thermocouple and Heater Arrangement

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 8


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE-

1. Keep dimmer stat knob at ZERO position and switch 0N the equipment.
2. Slowly rotate the dimmer stat knob, so that voltage increased.
3. Wait until steady state is reached.
4. Note down all the temperatures and input of heater in terms of volts and current
5. Repeat the procedure for different heat inputs.

OBSERVATIONS

Sr. TEMPERATURE ºC HEATER


No. INPUT

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 Volts Amps

1 133 135 140 135 16 16 18 17 18 17 200 0.45

Calculation Method

Consider the transfer of heat by conduction through the wall of a hollow sphere formed of insulating
powder (Ref. fig.)

Let, ri = radius of inner sphere, m.

ro = radius of outer sphere, m.

Ti = average inner sphere surface temp. 0C

T0 = average outer sphere surface. 0C

Consider a thin spherical layer of thickness dr at radius r & temperature difference of dT across the
layer. Applying Fourier law of heat conduction, heat transfer rate,

 dT 
q = -k 4 r 
2

 dr 

Where, k = thermal conductivity of insulating powder.

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 9


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
q dr
X  dT
4 k r2

Integrating between, ri to ro and Ti to To. We get

r0 T0
q dr
4 k ri r 2
   dT
Ti

q 1 1
X -  ( Ti - To )
4 k ri r 0

4 k (rir 0)( Ti - To )
q
( ri - ro )

q(r2−r1)
K= 4πr1r2(Ti+T0)

CALCULATION

1. Heater input = q = V x I Watts


= 200 x 0.45
= 90 Watts
2. Average inner sphere surface temperature

TI +T2 + T3 + T4
Ti = °C
4
133+135+140+135
= 4

= 135.75 ⁰C

3. Average outer here surface temperature

T5 +T6 + T7 +..........+ T10


To = °C
6
16+16+18+17+18+17
= 6

= 16.5 ⁰C

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 10


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
3. Inner sphere radius = 50 mm = 0.05 m
4. Outer Sphere radius = 100 mm = 0.1 m
5. Thermal conductivity
q(r2−r1)
K = 4πr1r2(Ti+T0)
90(0.10−0.05)
= 4π∗0.10∗0.05(135.75−16.5)

= 0.60 W/mk

PRECAUTIONS
1. Operate all the switches and controls gently.
2. .If thermal conductivity of the powder other than supplied is to be determined, then dismantle
the outer sphere and remove the powder, take care those heater connections and thermocouples
are not disturbed.
3. Earthling is essential for the unit.

CONCLUSION:-
From this experiment we conclude that the thermal conductivity of the sphere is 0.60
W/m*K

SIGN____________ MARK__________

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 11


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

EXPERIMENT-3

AIM: TO MEASURE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF GIVEN METAL ROD.

INTRODUCTION:

Thermal conductivity is the physical property of the material denoting with which a particular substance
accomplishes the transmission of thermal energy by molecular motion.

Thermal Conductivity of a material is found to depend on chemical composition of the substance or


substances of which it is a composed the phase i.e. gas, liquid or solid in which exists, its crystalline
structure if the solid, temperature and pressure to which it is subjected and whether of not it is a
homogeneous material.

Table -1 lists the values of thermal Inductivity of for some common metal

Table –1 – THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF SOME MATERIALS


SOLIDS (Metals) Thermal Conductivity W STATE
I m °C
Pure Copper 380 20 0 C
Brass 110 do-
Steel (0.5% C) 54 do-
Stainless Steel 17 do-

THEORY:

Thermal energy can be conducted in solids by free electrons and by lattice vibrations. Large number of
free electrons moves about in the lattice structure of the material, in good conductors. These electrons
carry thermal energy from higher temperature region to lower temperature region, in a similar way they
transport electric charge. In fact, these electrons are frequently referred as electron gas. Energy may also
be transferred as vibrational energy in the lattice structure of the material. In general, however, this mode
of energy transfer is not as large as electron transport and hence, good electrical conductors are always
good heat conductors, e. g. copper, silver etc.

However, with increase in temperature, lattice vibrations come in the way of transport by free electrons
and for most the metals thermal conductivity decreases with increase in temperature.

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 12


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
THE APPARATUS
The apparatus consists of a copper bar, one end of which is heated by an electric heater and the other
end is cooled by a water-circulated heat sink. The middle portion, i.e. test section of the bar is covered
by a shell containing insulation. The bar temperature is measured at 8 different sections, while 2
thermocouples measure the temperatures at the shell. Two thermometers are provided to measure water
inlet and outlet temperatures.

A dimmer is provided for the heater to control its input. Constant water flow is circulated through the
heat sink. A gate valve provided, controls the water flow.

SPECIFICATIONS –

1) Metal Bar -Copper, 25 mm O.D., approx. 430 mm long with insulc along the test length and
water cooled heat sink at the other end.
2) Test length of the bar -240 mm.
3) Thermocouples –Chrome / alumel, 10 nos.
4) Band Chrome heater to heat the bar.
5) Dimmer stat to control the heater input -2A, 230 V.
6) Voltmeter and Ammeter to measure heater input.
7) Multichannel Digital temperature indicator, 0.1 °c least count, 0-201 channel selector switch.
8) Measuring flask to measure water flow.

3EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:

1) Start the electric supply.

2) Start heating the bar by adjusting the heater input to, say, 80 volts or 100v

3) Start cooling water supply through the heat sink and adjust it to around

400 cc per minute.

4) Bar temperature will start rising. Go on checking the temperatures intervals of 5 minutes.

5) When all the temperatures remain steady, note down all the observat complete the observation table.

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 13


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
OBSERVATION TABLE
Sr. Test Bar Temperature ºC Shell Water Water
No Flow
Temp. oC Temp. oC
Rate
Lit /
sec.

T1 T2 T3 ` T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 I11 T12


1 63.2 58.9 55.4 52.3 49.3 46.5 44.5 43.1 24.5 24.5 28.6 28.7 0.01

Using the temperatures of the bar at various points, plot the temperature along the length of the bar and
determine the slopes of graph (i.e. temperature drop per unit length) dT / dx at the sections AA, BB
and CC as shown in figure

Note: As the value of temperature goes on decreasing along the length of bar, the value of the slope dT
I dl is negative.

CALCULATIONS -

Heat is flowing through the bar from heater end to water heat sink. When steady state is reached, heat
passing through the section CC of the bar is heat taken by water.

Heat passing through section CC

 qcc  m Cp T watts

=0.01*4180*(28.7-28.6)
= 4.18 watts

where,

m = mass flow rate of cooling water, Kg / s.

Cp = Specific heat of water = 4180 J / Kg ºC

Δ T = (Water outlet temp.) -(water inlet temp) ºC

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 14


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
 dt 
Now qcc  K cc   cc
 dx 

4.18=Kcc(𝑑𝑡⁄𝑑𝑥)

Kcc= 160.576 w/m⁰c

A = Cross sectional area of the bar = 0.00049 m2

K = 160.576 W / m ºC
cc

2) Heat passing through section BB

qbb  q cc + Radial heat loss between CC & BB


2nk L1 T6 -T10 
= q cc +
r 
log  0 
 ri 
2𝜋KL1(T6−T10)
=4.18 + 0.105
log
0.0125

= 5.54 watts
K = Thermal conductivity of insulation

= 0.35 W/m ºC

L1 = Length of insulation cylinder

= 0.060 m

r 0= outer radius

= 0.105 m

ri = inner radius

= 0.0125 m
 dt 
 qbb  -K bb   bb A
 dx 
W o
Kbb = C
M
5.54=Kbb*92.708*0.00049
Kbb=122.041 w/m℃
3. similarly, heat passing through section AA
2𝜋𝐾𝐿(𝑇3−𝑇4)
Qaa= Qbb+ 𝑟0
log
𝑟𝑖

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 15


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
2𝜋0.35∗0.09(55.4−24.7)
= 5.54 + 0.105
log
0.0125

= 8.395watts
𝑑𝑡
Now , Qaa=Kaa*𝑑𝑥*a

8.395 =Kaa*121.875*0.00049
=140.576w/m℃
RESULTS

1) Temperature of the bar decreases from hot end to cool end, which satisfies the Fourier law of
heat conduction
2) Thermal conductivity of bar at three different sections
K cc = 121.875℃/𝒎

Kbb = 92.708℃/𝒎

K aa = 53.125℃/𝒎

Fig.1. Experimental Set Up.

Distance between two thermocouple =0.032 m


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 16
HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

CONCLUSION- The Thermal Conductivity Of The Rod Is 141.064w/M℃. We Get By


Preforming This Experiment.

SIGN____________ MARK__________

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 17


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

EXPERIMENT-4

AIM: To Study Temperature Distribution and the Effectiveness of the Pin Fin.

INTRODUCTION

Extended surfaces or fins are used to increase the heat transfer rates from a surface surrounding fluid
wherever it is not possible to increase the value of the surface heat transfer coefficient or the temperature
difference between the surface and the fluid. Fins are fabricated in a variety of forms. Fins around the
air-cooled engines are a common example.

As the fins extend from primary heat transfer surface, the temperature difference with surrounding fluid
diminishes towards the tip of the fin. The aim of the experiment is to study temperature distribution and
the effectiveness of the fin, which plays an important role in design of heat transfer equipment.

APPARATUS
The apparatus consists of a simple pin fin, which is fitted in a rectangular duct the duct is attached to
suction end of a blower. An electrical heater heats one end of fin. Thermocouples are mounted along the
length of fin and a thermocouple notes the duct temperature. When top cover over the fin is opened and
heating started, performance of fin natural convection can be for evaluated and with top cover closed &
blower started, fin can be 1 in forced convection.
SPECIFICATIONS -

1) Fins -12 mm O.D., effective length 102 mm with 5 Nos. of thermocouple positions the length,
made of brass, mild steel and aluminium -one each.

Fin is screwed in heater block, which is heated by a band heater.

2) Duct -150 X 100mm cross-section, 1000mm long connected to suction side of blower.

3) Centrifugal blower with orifice and flow control valve on discharge side.

4) Qrifice -dia. 22 mm, coefficient of discharge Cd = 0.64.

5) Measurements and controls-

a) Dimmer stat to control heater input, 0 -230 V, 2 amp.


b) Voltmeter 0- 250 V, for heater supply voltage.
c) Ammeter 0- 1 amp. for heater current.
e) Multichannel digital temperature indicator.

f) Water manometer connected to orifice meter.

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 18


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
THEORY
Let A = cross sectional area of the fin m 2 P = circumference of the fin, m2.

L = length of the fin = 0.102 m.

T1 = Base temperature of the fin.

Tf = Duct fluid temperature (channel No.6 of temperature indicator)

 = Temperature difference of fin and fluid temperature

h = heat transfer coefficient, w / m2 °C.

Kf = Thermal conductivity of fin material.

= 110 w I m K for brass.

= 46 w / m K for mild steel.

= 232 w / m K for aluminum.

Heat is conducted along the length of fin and also lost to surroundings.

d 2T hP
2
   0 ---------------------- 1
dx Kf A

   C1.emx    C2 .e mx  ---------------------- 2

h.P
Where, m 
Kf A

With the boundary conditions of

  1 at x  0

Assuming tip to be insulated,

d
 0 At x  L , resulting in obtaining equation (2) in the form
dx

 T  T f cosh m.  L  x 
  ---------------------- (4)
1 T1  T f cosh m.L

This is the equation for temperature distribution along the length of the fin. T1 And T f will be known

for the given situation and the value of 'h' depends upon convection i.e. natural or forced.

become steady, note down all the temperatures and the manometer difference.

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 19


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

A) NATURAL CONVECTION -

Open the duct cover over the fin. Ensure proper earthing to the unit and switch supply. Adjust
dimmer stat so that about 80 volts are supplied to the heater. The fin will start heating. When the
temperatures remain steady, note down the temperatures of the fin and duct fluid temperature. Repeat
the experiment at different inputs to heater.

OBSERVATIONS: -
Sr. No. Input Fin Temperature ºC Duct fluid temp ºC

V I T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

1 120 0.28 58 56 55 53 52 14

B) FORCED CONVECTION -

Close the duct cover over the fin. Start the blower. Adjust the dimmer stat so that about 100-110
volts are supplied to the heater. When the temperatures

Repeat the experiment at different inputs and at different air flow rates.

Sr. No. Manometer difference Fin Temperature ºC Duct fluid temp ºC


H (m of water) T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

CALCULATIONS-

NOMENCLA TURE-

Tm = Average fin temperature = (T1 + T2 + T3 + T4+ T5) I 5

58+56+55+53+52
= 5

=54.8℃

T =Tm- Tf

= 54.8-14

= 40.8℃

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 20


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
Tmf = mean film temperature = (Tm + Tf) /2

54.8+14
= 2

=34.4℃

Pa = Density of air, kgm / m3

Pw = Density of water, kgm / m3 = 1000 kgm I m3

D = Diameter of pin fin = 12 x 10-3 m

d = Diameter of orifice = 22 x 10-3 m

Cd = coefficient of discharge of orifice = 0.64

= Dynamic viscosity of air, N-s / m2.

Cp= Specific heat of air, kJ / kg °C.

v = Kinematic viscosity, m2 I s.

kair = Thermal conductivity of air, w / m °C

= volume expansion coefficient = 1 I (Tmf + 273 )

H = manometer difference, m of water.

V = velocity of air in duct, m/s.

Q = volume flow rate of air, m3/s.

V tmf = velocity of air at mean film temperature.

All properties are to be evaluated at mean film temperature.

Natural Convection -

The fin under consideration is horizontal cylinder loosing heat by natural convection. For horizontal
cylinder, Nusselt number,

Nu  1.10  Gr.Pr  6 ------------ for 101  Gr.Pr  10 4


1

Nu  0.53  Gr.Pr 
1
4 ------------ for 104  Gr.Pr  109

Nu  0.13  Gr.Pr 
1
3 ------------ for 109  Gr.Pr  1012

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 21


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
where, Gr = Grashof number,

g . .D 3 . T

v2

3
9.81∗3.2531∗10−3 ∗(12∗10−3 ) ∗313.8
= (16.4224∗10)2

=64163.77

Pr = Prandtl number

C p .

K air
1.005∗18.32∗10−6 ∗103
= 0.02071

= 0.6979

Determine Nusselt number.

Now, Nu   h.D  K air -

=7.7099

(ℎ∗𝑠)
Now, h = 𝐾𝑎𝑖𝑟

(7.7099∗0.0271)
= 0.02071

= 17.4114w/m℃

From h, determine 'm' from equation (3)

Using h and m, determine temperature distribution in the fin from equation (4).

The rate of heat transfer from the fin can be calculated as

q  h. p.K f . A  T1  T f  tanh mL

=5.01kg

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 22


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
Forced Convection-
As in natural convection, for horizontal cylinder loosing heat by forced convection,

Nu  0.615  Re 
0.466
For 40  Re  4000

Nu  0.174  Re  For 4000  Re  40000


0.618

Vtmf .D
Re 
V

v. Tmf  273
Vtmf 
T f  273

Velocity of air is determined from air volume flow.

Cd n.d 2 . 2 gh   w  a  m3 s
Q
4

V= Q / Duct cross sectional area

 Q  0.15  0.1 m s

From Nusselt number, find out 'h' and from 'h', find out 'm'.

Now temperature distribution, heat transfer rate and effectiveness of the fin can be calculate using
equation 4, 5 and 6 respectively.

PRECAUTION
1. Operate all the switches and controls gently.
2. Do not obstruct the suction of the duct or discharge pipe.
3. Open the duct cover over the fin for natural convection experiment.
4. Fill up water in the manometer and close duct cover for forced convection experiment
5. Proper earthing to the unit is necessary

6. While replacing the fins, be careful for fixing the thermocouples. Incorrectly fixed couples may
show erratic readings.

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 23


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 24


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 25


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

CONCLUSION
Comment on the observed temperature distribution and calculation by theory, it is expected
that temperatures should be slightly less than their calculated values because of radiation and non-
insulated tip.
Graphs of temperature distribution in both natural and forced convection

SIGN____________ MARK__________
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 26
HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

EXPERIMENT-5

AIM: To Determine Convective heat transfer coefficient in force convection.

Whenever a fluid is being forced over the heated surface, forced convection heat transfer occurs. The
apparatus consists of a circular pipe, through which cold fluid, i.e. Air is being forced. A band heater is
provided outside the pipe to heat the outside surface uniformity. Temperature of pipe is measured with
thermocouples attached to pipe surface. Heater input is measured by a Voltmeter and Ammeter. Thus,
heat transfer rate and heat transfer coefficient can be calculated.

SPECIFICATION: -

1. Test pipe – 33mm, I.D., 500mm Long.


2. Band heater for pipe.
3. Multichannel Digital Temperature Indicator Range 0-300 C using.
Chromel / Almelo thermocouples.
4. Dimmer stat 2 Amps. 240 Volts. For heater input control.
5. Voltmeter Range 0-200 volts.
6. Ammeter Range 0-2 Amps.
7. Blower to force the air through test pipe.
8. Orifice meter with water manometer.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE: -

1. Put ‘ ON’ mains supply.


2. Adjust the heater input with the help of dimmer stat.
3. Start the blower and adjust the airflow with valve.
4. Wait till steady state is reached and note down the reading in the observation table.

OBSERVATION TABLE: -

Sr. No. Volt Amp. Temperatures C Manometer


Difference
V I T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 Hw (mm of water)

1 152 175 33 52 78 84 86 69 53.96 4.4

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 27


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

CALCULATIONS: -

1. Air inlet temp. T1 = 33C


2. Air outlet temp. T7 = 53.96C
3. Density of air,
ρa = 1.293 x 273 Kg / m3
273 + T1
=1.1553 Kg / m3

4. Dimmer of orifice = 22mm


Manometer difference = Water head = hw mtrs.
Air head, ha = hw (ρw / ρa)
1000
=441.535*10−3

= 38.145 m
Where, ρa = Density of water = 1000 Kgt / m3
 Air volume flow rate,
Q = Cd x ao x √2g ha m3 / Sec.

= 0.64*3.8*10−3 ∗ √2 ∗ 9.81 ∗ 38.145


= 6.653*10−3 𝑚3 /𝑠𝑒𝑐
Where, Cd = Discharge of Coefficient
Cd = 0.64
ao = Cross Section area of orifice
5.Mass flow rate of air,
ma = v x ρa Kg / sec.
= 6.653*10−3 kg/sec
Q = m3/sec. of air
Velocity of air,
V=Q m/sec
Where,
ap = Cross sectional area of pipe
= 8.33 x 10-4 m2

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 28


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
6. Heat gained by air, q = ma x Cpa x (T7 – T1)
=7.6742*10−3 ∗ 103 (53.96 − 33)
= 160.62 watts
Where, C pa = Specific heat of air – 1kJ / Kg K. OR 103 J / Kg K.
7. Average inside surface temperature,

Ts = T2 + T3 + T4 + T5 + T6 C
5
52+78+84+86+69
= 5

=73.8℃
= 346.8 K
8. Bulk mean temp. of air,
Tm = T1 + T7 C
2
33+53.96
= 2

= 43.48℃
=316.48K

9. Average surface heat transfer coefficient, -


Actual Heat Loss Due To Forced Convection = q – Heat Loss Due To Radiation
 Heat Loss Due To Radiation (q1), -
q1 = 0.4 x A x (Ts4 – Ta4) x σ____________________ ( σ – Stefan Boltzmann Constant)
= 0.4*0.0518*(3464 − 3054 )*5.66*10−8
 hexpt = q – q1 W/ m2 k
A x (Ts – Tm)
133.93
= 0.0518(173.8−43.48)

= 98.004 w/mk
Where, A = Inside surface area of the pipe = П x di x l
= П x 0.033 x 0.5
= 0.0518 m2
di = Inside dia. Of Pipe = 0.033 mtrs.
10. Reynolds number-
ReD = V x D
V
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 29
HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
2.987∗0.033
= 17.4∗5∗10−6

= 15072.897
v = Kinematics viscosity at Tm
D = 0.033 m.
If ReD < 2000, flow is laminar.
If Reynolds number exceeds 2000, flow is turbulent.
For turbulent flow,
NuD = h.D
kair
= 0.023 (ReD) 0.8 (Pr.) n
= 0.714

Where, n = 0.4 when fluid is being heated.


N = 0.3 when fluid is being cooled.
Determine htheo from Nu.
0.023(15072.827)0.8∗(0.714)
hth = 0.033

= 36.794 w/𝑚2 𝐿

PRECAUTIONS: -

1. While putting ‘ON’ the supply, keep dimmer stat at zero position and blower switch ‘OFF’.
2. Operate all the switches and controls gently.
3. Do not obstruct the flow of air while experiment is going on.

CONCLUSION: -
From This Practical We Conclude That Surface Heat Transfer Co-Efficient Is
Calculated 98.009 W/𝑀2 𝐾 and Theoretical Is 36.794 W/𝑚2 𝐿

SIGN____________ MARK__________
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 30
HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

EXPERIMENT-6

AIM: - To Determine the local heat transfer co-efficient of air in Natural convection.

INTRODUCTION:-
In contrast to the forced convection, natural convection phenomenon is due to the temperature
difference between the surface and the fluid and is not created by any external agency. Natural
convection low patterns for some commonly observed situation are shown in Fig. 1.
The present experimental set up is designed and fabricated to study the natural convection
phenomenon from a vertical cylinder in terms of the variation of local heat transfer coefficient
along the length and also the average heat transfer coefficient and with comparison with the
value obtained by using an appropriate correlation.

APPARATUS:
The apparatus consists of a brass tube fitted in a rectangular vertical duct. The duct is opened
at the top and bottom and forms an enclosure and serves the purpose of undisturbed surrounding.
One side of the duct is made up of Perspex for visualization. An electric heating element is
kept in the vertical tube, which in turn heats the tube surface. The heat is lost from the tube to
the surrounding air by natural convection. The temperature of the vertical tube is measured by
seven thermocouples. The heat input to the heater is measured by an ammeter and a voltmeter
and is varied by a dimmer stat. The vertical cylinder with the thermocol position is shown in
Fig. 2. while the possible flow pattern and also the expected variation of local heat transfer
coefficient is shown in fig. 3. The tube surface is polished to minimize the radiation losses.

Fig.A. Experimental Set Up for Natural Convection

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 31


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
SPECIFICATION-

1. Diameter of the tube (d) =38 mm.


2. Length of tube (L) = 500mm
3. Duct size 200mm  200mm  800mm. Length

4. Multichannel Digital Temperature Indicator 0-300 C using Chromel / Alumel Thermocouple.


5. Ammeter 0-2 Amp. and Voltmeter 0-200 Volts.
6. Dimmer stat 2 Amp. 240 Volts.

THEORY-
When a hot body is kept in still atmosphere, heat is transferred to the surrounding fluid by
natural convection. The fluid layer in contact with the hot body gets heated, rises up due to the
decrease in its density and the cold fluid rushes in to take place. The process is continuous and
the heat transfer takes place due to the relative motion of hot and cold fluid particles.
The heat transfer coefficient is given by :

q-q1
h=
As  (Ts  Ta ) - - - - - - - - - (1)

Where,

h=Average surface heat transfer coefficient (W )


m2 C
q=Heat Transfer rate(Watt)
= V*I
= 70.48 watts

As =Area of the heat transferring surface=n.d.1 ( m 2 )

Ts =Average surface temperature

(T1  T2  T3  T4  T5  T6  T7 )
Ts  C
7
105.7∗109.3∗109.6∗119.6∗115.4∗110.3∗104.2∗24.8
= 8

=110.25℃

Ta =Ambient temperature in the duct

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 32


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
q1 =Heat loss by radiation

=  . A. (Ts 4  Ta 4 )

Where,

 =Stefan Boltzmann constant= 5.667 108 W


m2 .K 4

A= Surface area of pipe=0.0597 m 2


 = Emissivity of pipe material=0.22
Ts & Ta = Surface and ambient temperatures in K respectively.

The surface heat transfer coefficient, of a system convection depends on the shape, dimensions
and or temperature difference between heat transferring surface dependence of ‘h’ on all the
above mentioned parameters terms of non-dimensional groups as follow :

h  L A  [ g.L.  .T  C p . ]
3 n

 - - - - (2)
k v2k
Where,
hL
- - - - - - - - is called the Nussle number
k

g .L.3  .T
- - - - - is called Garish of Number and
v2

C p .
- - - - - - - - - is the prenatal Number.
k
A and n are constants depending on he shape and orientation of the heat transferring surface.
Where,
L = A characteristic dimension of the surface.
K = Thermal conductivity of fluid .
v = Kinematics Viscosity of fluid.
C p = Specific heat of fluid.

 = Coefficient of volumetric expansion for the fluid.

g = Acceleration due to gravity.


T  [Ts  Ta ]

=95.4 ℃

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 33


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
1
For gases,   1
(T f  273) k
1
=(65.5+273)

2.9368 * 10−3 𝐾 −1

(Ts  Ta )
Tf 
2
(110.2+24.8)
= 2

= 67.5℃
For a cylinder losing heat by natural convection, the constants A and n of equations (2) have
been determined and the following empirical correlation’s obtained.

hL
 0.59(Gr .Pr ) 0.25 For 10 < Gr .Pr < 10 - - - - - (3)
4 8
k
hL 1
 0.59(Gr .Pr ) 3 For 108 < Gr .Pr < 1012
k
135.48∗0.02925∗0.59
h= 0.5

= 45.748w/𝑚2 𝐾
L = Length of the cylinder.
All the properties of the fluid are determined at the mean film temperature( T f ).

PROCEDURE:

(1) Put ON the supply and dimmerstat to obtain the required heat input.
(Say 40 W, 60 W, and 70 W etc).

(2) Wait till the steady state is reached, which is confined from temperature readings – (
T1 to T7 ).

(3) Measure surface temperature at the various points i.e. T1 to T7 .

(4) Note the ambient temperature i.e. T8

(5) Repeat the experiment at different heat inputs (Do not exceed 80 W).

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 34


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
OBSERVATIONS:
(1) O. D. Cylinder = 38 mm.

(1) Length of Cylinder = 500mm

(2) Input to heater = V  I Watts.

Sr. Volt Amp TEMPERATURE, C


No.

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8

1 110 0.64
105.7 109.6 109.6 119.6 115.4 110.3 104.2 24.8
1

CALCULATIONS :
(1) Calculate the value of average surface heat transfer coefficient, neglecting end losses
using equation (1).

(2) Calculate and plot (Fig. 4) the variation of local heat transfer coefficient along the length
of the tube using :

g
T = T1 to T7 and h=
As  (T1  T8 ) L

h =45.748 w/𝑚2 𝐾
(3) Compare the experimentally obtained value with the predictions of the correlation equations
(3) or (4).
NOTE :- The heat loss due to radiation and conduction is not considered , they are present,
which give difference between actual and theoretical values

PRECAUTIONS:-

1) Proper earthling is necessary for the equipment.


2) Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position before putting on main
switch and slowly.
3) Keep the least 200 mm. space behind the equipment .
4) Operate the change-over switch of temperature indicator gently
from one position to other, i.e. from 1 to 8 position.
5 ) Never exceed input above 80 Watts.

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 35


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
RESULTS AND DISCUSSONS:-
Some typical results are shown in Fig. 4 and 2 different heater inputs. The Heat transfer
coefficient is having a maximum value at the beginning as e because of the just starting of
the building of the boundary layer and it decrease expected in the upward direction due to
thickening of layer and which is one. This trend is maintained up to half of the lengths (approx.)
and beyond that there Is little variation in the value of local heat transfer coefficient because of
the transition and turbulent boundary layers. The last point shows somewhat in the value of heat
transfer coefficient, which is attributed to end loss C temperature drop.
The comparison of average heat transfer coefficient is also made with predicted values are
somewhat less than experimental values due to heat loss by radiation.
 Heat loss of radiation =  . A. (Ts 4  Ta 4 )
Where,

 =Stefan Boltzmann constant= 5.667 108 W


m2 .K 4

A= Surface area of pipe=0.0597 m 2


 = Emissivity of pipe material=0.22
Ts & Ta = Surface and ambient temperatures in K respectively.

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 36


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

Fig.1.& 2. Convection Path for Vertical Plate

CONCLISION: From This Practical We Conclude That The Surface Heat Transfer Co*Efficient
By Theoretical Is 45.748 W/𝑀2 𝐾 𝐴𝑁𝐷 𝐴𝑁𝐴𝐿𝐼𝑇𝐼𝐶𝐴𝐿𝐿𝑌 11.8086 W/𝑀2 𝐾.

SIGN____________ MARK__________

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 37


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

EXPERIMENT-7

AIM: To Measure Heat Transfer Rate, Heat Transfer Coefficient, L.M.T.D. And Effectiveness
Of Given Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger For Parallel Flow.

THEORY:

Heat exchangers are the devices in which the heat is transferred from one fluid to another. Exchange of
heat is required at many industrial operations as well as chemical processes. Common examples of heat
exchangers are radiator of a car, condenser of a refrigeration unit or cooling coil of an air conditioner.

Heat exchangers are of basically three types –

i ) Transfer Type -In which both fluids pass through the exchanger and heat gets transferred through
the separating walls between the fluids,

Fig (a) Transfer Type Heat Exchanger

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 38


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
ii ) Storage Type -In this, firstly the hot fluid passes through a medium having high heat capacity and
then cold fluid is passed through the medium to collect the heat. Thus hot and cold fluids are alternately
passed through the medium,

Fig (b) Storage Type Heat Exchanger

iii ) Direct Contact Type -In this type, the fluids are not separated but they mix with each other and
heat passes directly from one fluid to the other. Transfer type heat exchangers are the type most widely
used. In transfer type heat exchangers, three types of flow arrangements are used, viz. parallel, counter
or cross flow.

Fig (c) Direct Contact Type Heat Exchanger

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 39


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
In parallel flow, both the fluids flow in the same direction while in counter flow, they flow in the
opposite direction. In cross flow, they flow at right angles to each other.

The apparatus consists of two concentric tubes in which fluids pass. The hot fluid is hot water, which is
obtained from an electric geyser. Hot water flows through the inner tube, in one direction. Cold fluid is
cold water, which flows through the annulus. Control valves are provided so that direction of cold water
can be kept parallel to that of hot water.

Thus, the heat exchanger can be operated either as parallel flow heat exchanger.
The temperatures are measured with thermometers. Thus, the heat transfer rate, heat transfer coefficient,
L.M.T.D. and effectiveness of heat exchanger can be calculated for both parallel flow.

SPECIFICATIONS -

1) Heat exchanger -a) Inner tube - 12.7 mm O.D., 11.7 mm I.D. copper

tube.

b) Outer tube - 25 mrn NB G.I. pipe.

c) Length of heat exchanger is -1 mtr .

2) Electric heater -3 KW capacity to supply hot water.

3) Valves for flow and direction control- 5 Nos.

4) Thermometers to measure temperatures -10 to 110 C -4 Nos.

5) Measuring flask and stop clock for flow measurement.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

1) Start the water supply. Adjust the water supply on hot and cold sides. Firstly, keep the valves V 2 and
V 3 closed and V 1 -V 4 opened so that arrangement is parallel flow.

2) Put few drops of oil in thermometer pockets. Put the thermometers in the thermometer pockets.

3) switch 'ON the geyser. Temperature of water will start rising. After temperatures become steady,
note down the readings and fill up the observation table.

4) Wait until the steady state is reached and note down the readings.

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 40


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
OBSERVATION TABLE:-

HOT WATER COLD WATER


TYPE OF TEMPERATURES TIME TEMPERATURES TIME
FOR 1 FOR 1
FLOW LIT. LIT.
WATER WATER
IN °C OUT °C Xh SEC IN °C OUT °C Xh SEC
PARALLEL 59 49.5 85 26 29.1 44
FLOW

CALCULATIONS:-
1) Hot water inlet temp. thi = 59 °C

Hot water outlet temp, tho = 49.5°C

2) Hot water flow rate, mh -

Let time required for 1 lit. Of water be xh sec

Mass of 1 lit. Water = 1Kg.

1
:. mh = kg/s.
xh
1
=85

=0.0117kg/s

3) Heat given by hot water (inside heat transfer rate)

qh = mh . cp .( thi – tho ) watts.

= 0.0117*4200(59-49.5)

= 466.83watts

Where, cp = Specific heat of water = 4200 J/kg . K.

4) Similarly, for cold water,

Heat collected by cold water (outside heat transfer rate)

qc = m c . cp . ( tco – tco ) watts.

= 0.0227*4200(29.1-26)

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 41


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
= 295.554 watts

5) Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD)

Ti - To
LMTD =  Tm 
 Ti 
ln  
 To 

33−20.4
= 33
𝐼𝑛( )
20.4

= 26.19℃

where, for parallel flow,

Ti = thi – tci
= 59-26
= 33℃
To = tho – tco

=49.5-29.1 =20.4℃

6) Overall heat transfer coefficient, U -

a) Inside overall heat transfer coefficient, Ui -

Inside diameter of tube = 0.011 m

:. Inside surface area of the tube, Ai = π. di . L = π x 0.011 x 1 = 0.3454 m2

Now, qh  Ui  Tm. Ai

qh
;. Ui = W /m2 o C
( Tm . Ai)

466.83
= 26.19∗0.03455

=515.91w/𝑚2

b) Outside overall heat transfer coefficient, Uo –

Outside diameter of tube = 0.012 m.

Outside surface area of the tube, Ao =  . do . 1 = π x 0.012 x 1


= 0.03768 m2

Uo .L
Similarly, qc =
Tm . Ao
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 42
HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
qo .L
:. Uo =
Tm . Ao

295.54
=26.19∗0.037649

=299.33w/𝑚2 ℃

7) Effectiveness of heat exchanger –

Case(1) mh ch  mc cc actual heat transfer mh ch ( Th1 - Th 2)

So maximum possible heat transfer = mh ch ( Th1 - Tc 2)

Effectiveness = (Th1 - Th 2)(Th1 - Tc1)

Case(2) mc cc  mh ch actual heat transfer mc cc (Tc 2 - Tc1)

So maximum possible heat transfer = mc cc (Th1 - Tc1)

T c 2 - T c1
Effectiveness =
T h1 - T c1

change in temp of the min heat capacity fluid


effectiveness 
different between the fluid inlet temp

The expressions are simpler because the heat capacities curve not involved expression like the
following also curve correct expressions for effectiveness.

mh ch Th
ε=
(mc) min(Thi  Tci )

mc cc Tc

(mc) min(Thi  Tci )

(0.0227)(4200)(29.1−26)
= (0.0117)(4200)(59−26)

= 0.1823

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 43


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
RESULTS-

HEAT TRANSFER RATE LMTD

Inside Outside °C Ui Uo
(Watts) (Watts)
W/m2°C W/m2°C

PARALLEL 466.83 295.554 26.19 515.91 299.33

FLOW

PRECAUTIONS
1) Never switch on the geyser unless there is water supply through it.

2) If the red indicator on geyser goes off during operation, increase the water supply because it indicates
that water temperature exceeds the set limit.
3) Ensure steady water flow rate and temperatures before noting down the reading

Fluctuating water supply can give erratic results.

Fig.D Experimental Set Up Parallel Heat Exchanger.

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 44


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

CONCLUSION:-
In this practical we conclude that heat transfer rate, heat transfer co-efficient,
LMTD and effectiveness of of given concentric tube heat exchanger for parallel flow.

SIGN____________ MARK__________

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 45


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

EXPERIMENT-8

AIM: To Measure Heat Transfer Rate, Heat Transfer Coefficient, L.M.T.D. And Effectiveness
Of Given Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger For Counter Flow.

THEORY:

Heat exchangers are the devices in which the heat is transferred from one fluid to another. Exchange of
heat is required at many industrial operations as well as chemical processes. Common examples of heat
exchangers are radiator of a car, condenser of a refrigeration unit or cooling coil of an air conditioner.

Heat exchangers are of basically three types

i ) Transfer Type -In which both fluids pass through the exchanger and heat gets transferred through
the separating walls between the fluids,

Fig (a) transfer type heat exchanger

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 46


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
ii ) Storage Type -In this, firstly the hot fluid passes through a medium having high heat capacity and
then cold fluid is passed through the medium to collect the heat. Thus hot and cold fluids are alternately
passed through the medium,

Fig (b) storage type heat exchanger

iii ) Direct Contact Type -In this type, the fluids are not separated but they mix with each other and
heat passes directly from one fluid to the other. Transfer type heat exchangers are the type most widely
used. In transfer type heat exchangers, three types of flow arrangements are used, viz. parallel, counter
or cross flow.

Fig (c) direct contact type heat exchanger

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 47


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
In parallel flow, both the fluids flow in the same direction while in counter flow, they flow in the
opposite direction. In cross flow, they flow at right angles to each other.

The apparatus consists of two concentric tubes in which fluids pass. The hot fluid is hot water, which is
obtained from an electric geyser. Hot water flows through the inner tube, in one direction. Cold fluid is
cold water, which flows through the annulus. Control valves are provided so that direction of cold water
can be kept counter to that of hot water.

Thus, the heat exchanger can be operated either as counter flow heat exchanger.
The temperatures are measured with thermometers. Thus, the heat transfer rate, heat transfer coefficient,
L.M.T.D. and effectiveness of heat exchanger can be calculated for both counter flow.

SPECIFICATIONS -

1) Heat exchanger -a) Inner tube - 12.7 mm O.D., 11.7 mm I.D. copper

tube.

b) Outer tube - 25 mrn NB G.I. pipe.

c) Length of heat exchanger is -1 mtr .

2) Electric heater -3 KW capacity to supply hot water.

3) Valves for flow and direction control- 5 Nos.

4) Thermometers to measure temperatures -10 to 110 C -4 Nos.


5) Measuring flask and stop clock for flow measurement.

EXPERIMENTALPROCEDURE-

1) Start the water supply. Adjust the water supply on hot and cold sides. Firstly, keep the valves V 2
and V 3 open and V 1 -V 4 closed so that arrangement is counter flow.

2) Put few drops of oil in thermometer pockets. Put the thermometers in the thermometer pockets.
3) Switch 'ON the geyser. Temperature of water will start rising. After temperatures become steady,
note down the readings and fill up the observation table.

4) Wait until the steady state is reached and note down the readings.

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 48


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
OBSERVATION TABLE:-

HOT WATER COLD WATER


TYPE OF TEMPERATURES TIME TEMPERATURES TIME
FOR 1 FOR 1
FLOW LIT. LIT.
WATER WATER
IN °C OUT °C Xh SEC IN °C OUT °C Xh SEC
COUNTER 52.5 44 36.25 25.5 31.5 47.5
FLOW

CALCULATIONS:-
1) Hot water inlet temp. thi = 52.5 °C

Hot water outlet temp, tho = 44 °C

2) Hot water flow rate, mh -

Let time required for 1 lit. of water be xh sec

Mass of 1 lit. water = 1Kg.

1
:. mh = kg/s.
xh

1
=36.25

𝑘𝑔⁄
= 0.02758 𝑠𝑒𝑐

3) Heat given by hot water ( inside heat transfer rate)

qh = mh . cp .( thi – tho ) watts.

= 0.02758*4200 (52.5-44)

= 984.608 watts

Where, cp = Specific heat of water = 4200 J/kg . K.

4) Similarly, for cold water,

Heat collected by cold water (outside heat transfer rate)

qc = m c . cp . ( tco – tco ) watts.

=0.02116*4200(31.5-25.8)

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 49


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
=533.19 watts

5) Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD)

Ti - To
LMTD =  Tm 
 Ti 
ln  
 To 

27−12.5
= 2.7
𝐼𝑛( )
12.5

= 15.83℃

where, for parallel flow,

Ti = thi – tco
= 52.5-25.5
= 27℃
To = tho – tci

= 44-31.5 = 12.5℃

6) Overall heat transfer coefficient, U -

a) Inside overall heat transfer coefficient, Ui -

Inside diameter of tube = 0.011 m

:. inside surface area of the tube, Ai = PI . di . L = PI x 0.011 x 1 = 0.3454 m2

Now, qh  Ui  Tm. Ai

qh
;. Ui = W /m2 o C
( Tm . Ai)

(984.604)
= 18.83∗0.03454

= 1513.1875𝑤⁄𝑚2 ℃

b) Outside overall heat transfer coefficient , Uo –

outside diameter of tube = 0.012 m.

outside surface area of the tube, Ao =  . do . 1 = π x 0.012 x 1


= 0.03768 m2

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 50


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
Uo .L
Similarly, qc =
Tm . Ao

533.19∗1
= 18.83−0.03768

= 751.4 𝑤⁄𝑚2 ℃

qo .L
:. Uo =
Tm . Ao

7) Effectiveness of heat exchanger –

Case(1) mh ch  mc cc actual heat transfer mh ch ( Th1 - Th 2)

So maximum possible heat transfer = mh ch ( Th1 - Tc 2)

Effectiveness = (Th1 - Th 2)(Th1 - Tc1)

(52.5−25.5)
=(52.8−25.5)

= 0.3148

Case(2) mc cc  mh ch actual heat transfer mc cc (Tc 2 - Tc1)

So maximum possible heat transfer = mc cc (Th1 - Tc1)

T c 2 - T c1
Effectiveness =
T h1 - T c1

(31.5−25.5)
=(52.8−25.5)

= 0.2222

change in temp of the min heat capacity fluid


effectiveness 
different between the fluid inlet temp

The expressions are simpler because the heat capacities curve not involved expression like the
following also curve correct expressions for effectiveness.

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 51


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
mh ch Th
ε=
(mc) min(Thi  Tci )

mc cc Tc

(mc) min(Thi  Tci )

(0.02116∗4200(31.5−25.5))
= 0.02116∗(52.6−25.5)

= 0.933

RESULTS-

HEAT TRANSFER RATE LMTD

Inside Outside °C Ui Uo
(Watts) (Watts)
W/m2°C W/m2°C

COUNTER 984.604 533.19 18.83 1513.1787 751.4


FLOW

PRECAUTIONS
1) Never switch on the geyser unless there is water supply through it.

2) If the red indicator on geyser goes off during operation, increase the water supply because it indicates
that water temperature exceeds the set limit.
3) Ensure steady water flow rate and temperatures before noting down the reading fluctuating water
supply can give erratic results.

Fig.D. Experimental Set Up of Counter flow Heat Exchanger

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 52


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

CONCLUSION:-
In this practical we conclude that the heat exchanger rate, heat transfer co-efficient,
LMTD, and effectiveness of given concentric tube heat exchanger for counter flow.

SIGN____________ MARK__________

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 53


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

EXPERIMENT-9

AIM: To Measure Heat Transfer Rate, Heat Transfer Coefficient, L.M.T.D. And Effectiveness
Of Given Cross Flow Heat Exchanger

THEORY
Heat exchangers are the devices used to transfer the heat from one fluid to other. Transfer of heat is
needed for many applications. Commonly used types of heat exchangers are transfer type, storage type
and direct contact type. In transfer type, both hot and cold fluids are passing simultaneously through the
heat exchanger and heat is being transferred through the separating wall between them. Transfer type
heat exchangers are simple for connections and installations and hence are used in many applications.

In transfer type heat exchangers, different type of flow arrangements are used, viz, parallel, counter or
cross flow. The cross flow heat exchanger is finned tube heat exchanger. The hot fluid is hot air obtained
from air heater. The cold fluid is cold air. The schematic flow arrangement is shown in figure. Hot air
flows through copper tubes. Cold air flows across the tubes & fins. Two air blowers are provided to
generate the airflow. Butterfly valves at blower suction control the airflow. Two rectangular orifices are
provided to measure the airflow rates.

SPECIFICA TIONS -

1) Copper tubes -O .D .19 mm, I. D .17.1 mm & 520 mm long with 24 Nos. of 50 mm O.D. fins- 25
Nos.

2) Orifice at hot side -150mm x 110 mm ( C =0.65) & cold side -237 mm x 123 mm. ( C = 0.7 )
d d

3) Air heaters (1Kw capacity) to supply hot air- 3 Nos.

4) Digital multi channel temperature indicator for measuring the air temperatures.

5) Butterfly valves at blower suction to control hot and cold air flow.

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 54


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

Fig(a): EXPRIMENTAL SETUP FOR CROSS FLOW HEAT EXCHANGER


EXPERIMENTALPROCEDURE-
1) Fill sufficient water in both the manometers.

2) Start the blowers and switch 'ON' the air heaters as required 1,2 or 3 Nos.

3) Adjust the butterfly valve say 90 ° i. e. full open or 45 0.

4) Wait till steady state is reached and note down the observations.

5) Repeat the procedure by changing the butterfly valve position.

OBERVATIONS

HOT AIR COLD AIR

No. Inlet Outlet Manometer Inlet Outlet Manometer


Difference Difference
Temp. Temp. Temp. Temp.
H m H m
T °C T °C wh T °C T °C wh
hi ho ci co
52 42 1.5 30 34 0.5

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 55


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
DATA

1) Sp. heat of air = C = 1.00-5 KJ / Kg K


pa

2) Inside surface area of tubes A =0.698 m2.


i

3) Outside surface area of tubes A =2.79 m2.


o

CACULA TIONS-
1) Hot air inlet temp. T = 52 °C
hi

Hot air outlet temp. T = 42 °C


ho

Cold air inlet temp. T = 30 °C


ci

Cold air outlet temp. T =34 °C


co

2) Mass flow rate of hot side –

Airhead, h =h (P -P )
a wh w a

= 0.002(1000/1.1574)

= 1.728 m

Air volume flow rate, Q =C "  2g  h  a


hi d a h

Kg
Mass flow rate, m =Q   "
a hi ic s

Kg
Similarly, for cold air side, m =Q  
cl cl a s

=0.118*1.1574

= 0.1932 Kg/s

Kg
where,  = Density of air at mean temp. from table,
a m3
3) Heat collected by cold air –

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 56


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
Kj
Q =ffic  Cp (T -T )
c a co ci s
= 0.1375*1.005(34-30)
= 0.5528 Kg/s
Heat lost by hot air -
Kj
Q =m  Cp (T -T )
h h a hi ho s
= 0.1132*1.008(52-49)

= 1.34166 KJ/s

4) Logarithmic mean temperature difference (LMTD)

LiT=F*LMTD cf o C
=0.96*13.839

=13.147℃

Where, LMTD =LMTD if the arrangement was counter flow


f

(for 1 -mixed and 2 -unmixed, LMTD cf should be taken. )

(T -T )-(T -T )
LMTD = hi co ho ci
cf (T -T )
ln hi co
(T -T )
ho ci
(52−30)−(42−34)
= 52−30
𝐼𝑛( )
42−34

= 13.839℃
and

F = correction factor = 0.95


for finding out correction factor, values of R and S are required

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 57


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
(T -T )
R= co ci
(T -T )
hi ho
(T -T )
S= hi ho
(T -T )
hi ci
(52−42)
=(34−30)

= 2.5

Find out value of F from graph using values of R and S.

5) Heat transfer coefficient,

i) Inside heat transfer coefficient


A.
U =
i A. LiT
1.94166
=0.698∗13.147 = 0.21159 KW/𝑚2 ℃

ii) Out side heat transfer coefficient

Q
U = c
o A . LiT
o

0.5528
= 0.689∗13.147

= 0.01507 KW/𝑚2 ℃

6) Effectiveness of heat exchanger –

Rate of heat transfer in heat exchanger


ε=
maximum possible heat transfer rate

ε=
m  C  T -T
h pa hi ho  
m  C  (T -T )
pa hi ci
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 58
HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
0.13752∗1.005(34−30)
= 0.13752∗1.005(52−30)

= 0.1818

where, m. C pa is smaller of two capacity rates of m or m .


h c

RESULTS:-

Obs. No. ∆T U U ε
i o
W W
( ) ( )
2
m Co 2
m Co
( C)
1 13.147 211.59 15.07 0.6386

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 59


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
PRECAUTIONS :-

I) Start the blower before switching on the air heater & put air heater ‘off’

Switching’ OFF' the blower.

2) Use all the controls and switches gently.

3) Do not put cloth or hand in blower suction or in butterfly valve.

4) Do not disturb thermocouples or wires.

CONCLUSION:
In This Practical We Conclude That The Heat Transfer Rate Of Cold Air
Is 0.5528KG/S. And Hot Air Is 1.9417 KG/S. Heat Transfer Co-Efficient Is 0.2116 KW/𝑚2 And
Outside Is 0.0151 KW/𝑚2 And Effectiveness Is 0.0386.

SIGN____________ MARK__________

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 60


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

EXPERIMENT-10

AIM: To Determine Emissivity For The Given Surface Plate.

Theory:

All the bodies emit and absorb the thermal radiation to and from surroundings. The rate of thermal
radiation depends upon the temperature of body. Thermal radiations are electromagnetic waves and they
do not require any medium for propagation when thermal radiation strikes a body, part of it reflected,
part of it is absorbed and part of it is transmitted through body.

The fraction of incident energy, reflected by the surface is called reflectivity (ρ). The fraction of incident
energy , absorbed by the surface is called absorptivity (α). And the fraction of incident energy
transmitted through body is called transmissivity (τ).The surface which absorbs all the incident radiation
is called a black surface.

For a black surface,

ρ+α+ τ=1

The radiant flux, emitted from the surface is called emissive power (E). The emissivity of a surface is
ratio of emissive power of a surface to that of black surface at the same temperature. Thus,

E
ε=
EB

The apparatus uses comparator method for determination of emissivity of test plate. It consists of two
aluminium plates, of equal physical dimensions. Mica heaters are provided inside the plate in an enclose
to provide undisturbed surroundings.

One of the plates is blacken outside for use as a black surface has (ε = 1). Another plate is having natural
surface finish. Input in measured with common ammeter and voltmeter ones thermo couple is fitted on
surface of each plate to measured the surface temperature with digital temperature indicator by adjusting
input to the heaters, both the plates are maintained at equal temperatures and difference in input is due
to different emissivity.

Holes are provided at backside bottom and the top of enclose for for natural circulation of air over the
plates. The plate enclose is provided with Perspex acrylic sheet at the front.

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 61


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

Fig. Experimental Set Up for Emissivity of Tested Plate

Experimental procedure

1. Blacken on of the plates with the help of lamp black (Normally this is blacken at the works, but
if blackening is wiped out, then blackening is necessary.
2. Keep both the dimmer knobs at zero position.
3. Insert the supply pin-top in the socket (which is properly earthed) and switch ‘ON’ the mains
supply.
4. Switch ‘ON’ the mains switch on the panel.
5. Keep the matter select switch (toggle switch) at the black plate side position.
6. Adjust dimmer of black plate, so that around 110-120 volts are supplied to black plate.
7. Now, switch the meter selector switch on other side.
8. Adjust test plate voltage slightly less than that of black plate (say 100-110 volts).
9. Check the temperatures (after say 10 minutes) and adjust the dimmers so that temperatures of
both plates are equal and steady normally very minor adjustment are required for this.
10. Note down the reading after the plate temperatures reach steady state.

Observation table:

Input

Plate V I Surface Temperature

Test plate 85 0.26 T1

Black plate 121 0.47 T2

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 62


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
Calculation:

1) Enclosure temperature

TE = 35.35 0C

= (35.35+ 273) 0K =308.35K

2) Plate surface temperature

T = T1 = T2 = 108.5 0C

TS = (108.5+273.15) K

=381.65K

3) Heat input to black plate,

Wb = V * I watts

=121*0.47

=56.87 watts

4) Heat input to test plate

WT = V * I watts

= 85*0.26

=22.1 watts

5) Surface area of plates


A=2* * D2 + (π * D * t)
4

= 0.0447 m2

where, D = diameter of plates = 0.16m

t = thickness of plates = 0.009m

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 63


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
Conclusion:

The Emissivity of test plate was found to be 0.3886 at the temperature of 381.55 K. the
complete combustion of 1 kg of fuel.

SIGN____________ MARK__________
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 64
HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

EXPERIMENT-11

AIM: To determine the value of Stefan Boltzmann constant for radiation heat transfer.

THEORY:

Stefan Boltzmann law states that the total emissive power of a perfect black body is proportional
to fourth power of the absolute temperature of black body surface

Eb   T 4

Where,  = Stefan Boltzmann constant = 5.6697 x 10-8 W/ (m2 K4)

DESCRIPTION:

The apparatus consists of a flanged copper hemisphere fixed on a flat no conducting plate. A test disc
made of copper is fixed to the plate. Thus the test disc is completely enclosed by the hemisphere. The
outer surface of the hemisphere is enclosed in a vertical water jacket used to heat the hemisphere to a
suitable constant temperature. . Three Cr-Al thermocouples are attached at four strategic places on the
surface of the hemisphere to obtain the temperatures. The disc is mounted on an ebonite rod which is
fitted in a hole drilled at the center of the base plate. Another Cr-Al thermocouple is fixed to the disc
to record its temperature. Fill the water in the SS water container with immersion heater kept on top of
the panel.

SPECIFICATIONS:

Specimen material : Copper

Size of the disc : Ø20mm x 0.5mm thickness

Base Plate : Ø250mm x 12mm thickness (hilum)

Heater : 1.5 kW capacity, immersion type

Copper Bowl : 200mm

Digital temperature indicator : 0-199.9° C

Thermocouples used : PT-100 Thermocouple 3 nos. on hemisphere

Stop Watch : Digital type

Overhead Tank : SS, approx. 10 liter capacity

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 65


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
Water Jacket : Ø 230 mm, SS

Mass of specimen, 'm' : 5gm

PROCEDURE:

1. Remove the test disc before starting the experiment.

2. Heat the water in the SS container to its boiling point.

3. Allow the boiling water into the container kept at the bottom containing copper hemisphere
until it is full. Allow sufficient time to attain thermal equilibrium which is indicated by the
four thermocouples provided on the hemisphere.

4. Insert the test disc fixed on the ebonite rod sleeve completely inside and lock it. Start the stop
clock simultaneously.

5. Note down the temperature of the test disc at an interval of about 15 sec for about 15 to 20
minutes.

OBSERVATION TABLE:

Let Td = Temperature of the disc before inserting into the plate in K

Thermocouple Temperature of the copper hemisphere ° C

T1 58.3
T2 58.5
T3 58.7
T4

Temperature - time response of test disc:

Time t sec Temperature T5 ° C


0 29.40
15 29.40
30 29.60
45 29.90
60 30.4
75 31
290 31.6

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 66


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
105 32.6
120 33
135 33.6
150 34.3
165 35.1
180 35.9
195 36.6
210 37.3
225 38.1
240 38.9
255 39.9
270 40.6
285 41.3

CALCULATIONS:

1. Plot the graph of temperature of the disc v/s time to obtain the slope (dT/dt) of the

line, which passes through/nearer to all points.

2. Average temperature of the hemisphere

(T1  T2  T3 )
Tavg   273.15 K
3
58.3+58.5+58.7
= 3

=331.5K

3. Td = Temperature of the disc before inserting to test chamber ° K (ambient)

dT
4. Rate of change of heat capacity of the disc = mC p
dt
5∗0.38∗0.8098
= 3.142∗(331.5−304.4)

= 1.32*10−6w/m

Net energy radiated on the disc =  Ad (T 4 avg  T 4 d )

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 67


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

d2
where, Ad = area of the disc = m2
4

d = 20 mm
Cp = specific heat of copper = 0.38 kJ/kg-K

Rate of change of heat capacity of the disc = Net energy radiated on the disc

dT
mC p   Ad (T 4 avg  T 4 d )
dt

Thus ‘  ’ can be evaluated as shown

dT
mC p
 dt
Ad (T avg  T 4 d )
4

Conclusion: by performing this practical we conclude that Stephan Boltzmann constant is


1.32*10−6w/𝑚2 𝑘 4 .

SIGN____________ MARK__________
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 68
HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 69