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EXPERIMENT -1

AIM: - To measure overall heat transfer coefficient for given composite wall with help of

composite wall apparatus.

The apparatus consists of a plates of different materials sandwiched between two aluminum

plates. Three types of slabs are provided on both sides of heater, which forms a composite structure. A

small hand press frame is provided to ensure the perfect contact between the slabs. A Dimmer stat is

provided for varying the input to the heater and measurement of input is carried out by a Voltmeter and

Ammeter. Thermocouples are embedded between interfaces of input slabs, to read the temperatures at

the surface.

The experiment can be conducted at various values of input and calculation can be made accordingly.

SPECIFICATIONS: -

1) Slabs Size:

a) M. S. - 25 cm x 25mm. Thick

b) Bakelite - 25 cm x 10mm. thick

c) Brass -25 cm x 10mm. thick

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

2) Nichrome heater wound on mica former and insulator with control unit capacity 200-watt

maximum.

3) Heater control unit: -230 V. 0 –2 A single phase Dimmer stat ------ (1 no.)

4) Voltmeter: -0 -250 volts.

5) Ammeter: -0 – 2 Amps.

6) Multichannel digital temperature indicator

a) To determine total thermal resistance of composite wall.

b) To plot temperature gradient along composite wall structure.

EXPERTMENTAL PROCEDURE:

c) Arrange the plates properly (symmetrical) on both side of heater plate). See that plates are

symmetrically arranged on both sides of heater plate (arranged normally)

d) Operate the hand press properly to ensure perfect contact between the plates

e) Close the box by cover sheet to achieve steady environmental conditions.

f) Start the supply of heater. By varying the Dimmer stat, adjust the input (range 30 - 70 watts) and

start water supply.

g) Take readings of all the thermocouples at an interval of 10 minutes until steady state is reached.

h) Note down the steady state readings in the observation table

Wall thickness 2.5 1.0 1.0

Conductivity 0.46 w/mk 0.12 w/mk 110 w/mk

OBSERVATIONS: -

Sr.

Heat Supplied (Watts) Temperature ºC

No.

Voltmeter Ammeter T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8

1 200 1 62.5 62.6 61.6 61.6 38.9 39.9 38.3 38.3

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

CALCULATIONS –

1) MEAN READINGS,

T1 T 2

a) TA ºC

2

62.5+62.6

= 2

=62.55℃

=335.55 K

b) TB T 3 T 4 ºC

2

61.6+61.6

= 2

=39.4℃

=312.4 K

c) TC T 5 T 6 ºC

2

38.9+39.9

= 2

= 39.4℃

= 312.4 K

d) TD T 7 T 8 ºC

2

38.3+38.3

= 2

=38.3⁰C

= 311.3 K

2) Rate of heat supplied,

Q = V x I Watts

= 200 x 1

= 200 Watts

For calculating the thermal conductivity of composite walls, it is assumed that due to large

diameter of the plates, heat flowing through central portion is unidirectional i.e. axial flow. Thus for

calculations, central half dia. area where unidirectional flow is assumed is considered. Accordingly

thermocouples are fixed at close to centre of the plates.

Now,

A

Where,

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

A= *d 2 (d = half dia. Of plates)

4

π

A = 4 *(0.125)2

= 0.0122718463 m3

Q

Heat flux q= A

200

= 0.01227

= 16297.46 watt/m2

TA TD

R total = m2 º K / W

q

335.55+311.3

= 16297.46

q *b

K Composite = W/m/K

TA TD

16297.46∗0.045

= 335.55−311.3

= 30.24 w/m k

b = Total thickness of composite slab

= 30.24 m

3. To plot thickness of slab material against temperature gradient

NOTE - The heat following through different slabs does not essentially flow in axial direction but a

part of it also goes radically outwards. Hence real heat flow in axial direction for whole area of slabs

is not known and hence by just knowing the If temperature difference, thermal conductivity of the slabs

cannot be determined.

PRECAUTIONS

1) Keep the Dimmer stat zero before state.

2) Increase voltage slowly

3) Keep all the assembly undisturbed.

4) Remove air gap between plates

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HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

5) When removing the plates do not disturb the thermocouples

6) Do not increase voltage above 200 V.

7) Operate selector switch of temperature indicator slowly.

T9

COOLING PLATE

T7

START PLATE

T5

BAKELITE

T3

M.S. PLATE

T1

HEATER

T2

M.S. PLATE

T4

BAKELITE

T6

START PLATE

T8

COOLING PLATE

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

temprature vs thikness

330

325 324

323

320

Temprature

315

310

307

306

305

300

295

Ta (K) = Tb (K) = Tc (K) = Td (K) =

thikness of slab

CONCLUSION:-

From this experiment we conclude that the heat transfer co-efficient of a given

composite wall is 30.24 W/m*K

SIGN____________ MARK__________

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

EXPERIMENT -2

SPHERE IN SPHERE' METHOD

INTRODUCTION

Conduction of heat is flow of heat, which occurs due to exchange of energy from one molecule

to another without appreciable motion of molecules. In any heating process, heat is flowing outwards

from heat generation point. In order to reduce losses of heat, various types of insulation's are used in

practice. Various powders e.g. asbestos powder, plaster of Paris etc. are also used for heat insulation. In

order to determine the appropriate thickness of insulation, knowledge of thermal conductivity of

insulating material is essential. The unit enables to determine the thermal conductivity of insulating

powders, using sphere in sphere' method.

THE APPARATUS

The apparatus consists of a smaller (inner) sphere, inside which is fitted a mica electric heater.

Smaller sphere is fitted at the centre of outer sphere. The insulating powder, whose thermal conductivity

is to be determined, is filled in the gap between the two spheres. The heat generated by heater flows

through the powder to the outer sphere. The outer sphere loses heat to atmosphere. The input to the

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

heater is controlled by a dimmer stat and is measured on voltmeter and ammeter. Four thermocouples

are provided on the outer surface of inner sphere and six thermocouples are on the inner surface of outer

sphere, which are connected to a multi-channel digital temperature indicator. Average of outer & inner

sphere temperatures give the temperature difference across the layer of powder.

SPECIFICATIONS -

1. INNER SPHERE - 100 mm 0. D., halved construction

2. OUTER SPHERE -200 mm I. D., halved construction

3. HEATER -Mica flat heater, fitted inside inner sphere.

4. CONTROLS –

a) Main switch -30 A, DPDT Switch

5. MEASUREMENTS-

a) Voltmeter -0 -200 volts

b) Ammeter -0 -1 Amp.

c) Multi-channel digital temperature indicator calibrated FOR Cr / Al thermocouples.

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE-

1. Keep dimmer stat knob at ZERO position and switch 0N the equipment.

2. Slowly rotate the dimmer stat knob, so that voltage increased.

3. Wait until steady state is reached.

4. Note down all the temperatures and input of heater in terms of volts and current

5. Repeat the procedure for different heat inputs.

OBSERVATIONS

No. INPUT

Calculation Method

Consider the transfer of heat by conduction through the wall of a hollow sphere formed of insulating

powder (Ref. fig.)

Consider a thin spherical layer of thickness dr at radius r & temperature difference of dT across the

layer. Applying Fourier law of heat conduction, heat transfer rate,

dT

q = -k 4 r

2

dr

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

q dr

X dT

4 k r2

r0 T0

q dr

4 k ri r 2

dT

Ti

q 1 1

X - ( Ti - To )

4 k ri r 0

4 k (rir 0)( Ti - To )

q

( ri - ro )

q(r2−r1)

K= 4πr1r2(Ti+T0)

CALCULATION

= 200 x 0.45

= 90 Watts

2. Average inner sphere surface temperature

TI +T2 + T3 + T4

Ti = °C

4

133+135+140+135

= 4

= 135.75 ⁰C

To = °C

6

16+16+18+17+18+17

= 6

= 16.5 ⁰C

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

3. Inner sphere radius = 50 mm = 0.05 m

4. Outer Sphere radius = 100 mm = 0.1 m

5. Thermal conductivity

q(r2−r1)

K = 4πr1r2(Ti+T0)

90(0.10−0.05)

= 4π∗0.10∗0.05(135.75−16.5)

= 0.60 W/mk

PRECAUTIONS

1. Operate all the switches and controls gently.

2. .If thermal conductivity of the powder other than supplied is to be determined, then dismantle

the outer sphere and remove the powder, take care those heater connections and thermocouples

are not disturbed.

3. Earthling is essential for the unit.

CONCLUSION:-

From this experiment we conclude that the thermal conductivity of the sphere is 0.60

W/m*K

SIGN____________ MARK__________

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

EXPERIMENT-3

INTRODUCTION:

Thermal conductivity is the physical property of the material denoting with which a particular substance

accomplishes the transmission of thermal energy by molecular motion.

substances of which it is a composed the phase i.e. gas, liquid or solid in which exists, its crystalline

structure if the solid, temperature and pressure to which it is subjected and whether of not it is a

homogeneous material.

Table -1 lists the values of thermal Inductivity of for some common metal

SOLIDS (Metals) Thermal Conductivity W STATE

I m °C

Pure Copper 380 20 0 C

Brass 110 do-

Steel (0.5% C) 54 do-

Stainless Steel 17 do-

THEORY:

Thermal energy can be conducted in solids by free electrons and by lattice vibrations. Large number of

free electrons moves about in the lattice structure of the material, in good conductors. These electrons

carry thermal energy from higher temperature region to lower temperature region, in a similar way they

transport electric charge. In fact, these electrons are frequently referred as electron gas. Energy may also

be transferred as vibrational energy in the lattice structure of the material. In general, however, this mode

of energy transfer is not as large as electron transport and hence, good electrical conductors are always

good heat conductors, e. g. copper, silver etc.

However, with increase in temperature, lattice vibrations come in the way of transport by free electrons

and for most the metals thermal conductivity decreases with increase in temperature.

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

THE APPARATUS

The apparatus consists of a copper bar, one end of which is heated by an electric heater and the other

end is cooled by a water-circulated heat sink. The middle portion, i.e. test section of the bar is covered

by a shell containing insulation. The bar temperature is measured at 8 different sections, while 2

thermocouples measure the temperatures at the shell. Two thermometers are provided to measure water

inlet and outlet temperatures.

A dimmer is provided for the heater to control its input. Constant water flow is circulated through the

heat sink. A gate valve provided, controls the water flow.

SPECIFICATIONS –

1) Metal Bar -Copper, 25 mm O.D., approx. 430 mm long with insulc along the test length and

water cooled heat sink at the other end.

2) Test length of the bar -240 mm.

3) Thermocouples –Chrome / alumel, 10 nos.

4) Band Chrome heater to heat the bar.

5) Dimmer stat to control the heater input -2A, 230 V.

6) Voltmeter and Ammeter to measure heater input.

7) Multichannel Digital temperature indicator, 0.1 °c least count, 0-201 channel selector switch.

8) Measuring flask to measure water flow.

3EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:

2) Start heating the bar by adjusting the heater input to, say, 80 volts or 100v

3) Start cooling water supply through the heat sink and adjust it to around

4) Bar temperature will start rising. Go on checking the temperatures intervals of 5 minutes.

5) When all the temperatures remain steady, note down all the observat complete the observation table.

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

OBSERVATION TABLE

Sr. Test Bar Temperature ºC Shell Water Water

No Flow

Temp. oC Temp. oC

Rate

Lit /

sec.

1 63.2 58.9 55.4 52.3 49.3 46.5 44.5 43.1 24.5 24.5 28.6 28.7 0.01

Using the temperatures of the bar at various points, plot the temperature along the length of the bar and

determine the slopes of graph (i.e. temperature drop per unit length) dT / dx at the sections AA, BB

and CC as shown in figure

Note: As the value of temperature goes on decreasing along the length of bar, the value of the slope dT

I dl is negative.

CALCULATIONS -

Heat is flowing through the bar from heater end to water heat sink. When steady state is reached, heat

passing through the section CC of the bar is heat taken by water.

qcc m Cp T watts

=0.01*4180*(28.7-28.6)

= 4.18 watts

where,

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

dt

Now qcc K cc cc

dx

4.18=Kcc(𝑑𝑡⁄𝑑𝑥)

K = 160.576 W / m ºC

cc

2nk L1 T6 -T10

= q cc +

r

log 0

ri

2𝜋KL1(T6−T10)

=4.18 + 0.105

log

0.0125

= 5.54 watts

K = Thermal conductivity of insulation

= 0.35 W/m ºC

= 0.060 m

r 0= outer radius

= 0.105 m

ri = inner radius

= 0.0125 m

dt

qbb -K bb bb A

dx

W o

Kbb = C

M

5.54=Kbb*92.708*0.00049

Kbb=122.041 w/m℃

3. similarly, heat passing through section AA

2𝜋𝐾𝐿(𝑇3−𝑇4)

Qaa= Qbb+ 𝑟0

log

𝑟𝑖

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

2𝜋0.35∗0.09(55.4−24.7)

= 5.54 + 0.105

log

0.0125

= 8.395watts

𝑑𝑡

Now , Qaa=Kaa*𝑑𝑥*a

8.395 =Kaa*121.875*0.00049

=140.576w/m℃

RESULTS

1) Temperature of the bar decreases from hot end to cool end, which satisfies the Fourier law of

heat conduction

2) Thermal conductivity of bar at three different sections

K cc = 121.875℃/𝒎

Kbb = 92.708℃/𝒎

K aa = 53.125℃/𝒎

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 16

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

Preforming This Experiment.

SIGN____________ MARK__________

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

EXPERIMENT-4

AIM: To Study Temperature Distribution and the Effectiveness of the Pin Fin.

INTRODUCTION

Extended surfaces or fins are used to increase the heat transfer rates from a surface surrounding fluid

wherever it is not possible to increase the value of the surface heat transfer coefficient or the temperature

difference between the surface and the fluid. Fins are fabricated in a variety of forms. Fins around the

air-cooled engines are a common example.

As the fins extend from primary heat transfer surface, the temperature difference with surrounding fluid

diminishes towards the tip of the fin. The aim of the experiment is to study temperature distribution and

the effectiveness of the fin, which plays an important role in design of heat transfer equipment.

APPARATUS

The apparatus consists of a simple pin fin, which is fitted in a rectangular duct the duct is attached to

suction end of a blower. An electrical heater heats one end of fin. Thermocouples are mounted along the

length of fin and a thermocouple notes the duct temperature. When top cover over the fin is opened and

heating started, performance of fin natural convection can be for evaluated and with top cover closed &

blower started, fin can be 1 in forced convection.

SPECIFICATIONS -

1) Fins -12 mm O.D., effective length 102 mm with 5 Nos. of thermocouple positions the length,

made of brass, mild steel and aluminium -one each.

2) Duct -150 X 100mm cross-section, 1000mm long connected to suction side of blower.

3) Centrifugal blower with orifice and flow control valve on discharge side.

b) Voltmeter 0- 250 V, for heater supply voltage.

c) Ammeter 0- 1 amp. for heater current.

e) Multichannel digital temperature indicator.

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

THEORY

Let A = cross sectional area of the fin m 2 P = circumference of the fin, m2.

Heat is conducted along the length of fin and also lost to surroundings.

d 2T hP

2

0 ---------------------- 1

dx Kf A

h.P

Where, m

Kf A

1 at x 0

d

0 At x L , resulting in obtaining equation (2) in the form

dx

T T f cosh m. L x

---------------------- (4)

1 T1 T f cosh m.L

This is the equation for temperature distribution along the length of the fin. T1 And T f will be known

for the given situation and the value of 'h' depends upon convection i.e. natural or forced.

become steady, note down all the temperatures and the manometer difference.

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

A) NATURAL CONVECTION -

Open the duct cover over the fin. Ensure proper earthing to the unit and switch supply. Adjust

dimmer stat so that about 80 volts are supplied to the heater. The fin will start heating. When the

temperatures remain steady, note down the temperatures of the fin and duct fluid temperature. Repeat

the experiment at different inputs to heater.

OBSERVATIONS: -

Sr. No. Input Fin Temperature ºC Duct fluid temp ºC

V I T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

1 120 0.28 58 56 55 53 52 14

B) FORCED CONVECTION -

Close the duct cover over the fin. Start the blower. Adjust the dimmer stat so that about 100-110

volts are supplied to the heater. When the temperatures

Repeat the experiment at different inputs and at different air flow rates.

H (m of water) T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

CALCULATIONS-

NOMENCLA TURE-

58+56+55+53+52

= 5

=54.8℃

T =Tm- Tf

= 54.8-14

= 40.8℃

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

Tmf = mean film temperature = (Tm + Tf) /2

54.8+14

= 2

=34.4℃

v = Kinematic viscosity, m2 I s.

Natural Convection -

The fin under consideration is horizontal cylinder loosing heat by natural convection. For horizontal

cylinder, Nusselt number,

1

Nu 0.53 Gr.Pr

1

4 ------------ for 104 Gr.Pr 109

Nu 0.13 Gr.Pr

1

3 ------------ for 109 Gr.Pr 1012

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

where, Gr = Grashof number,

g . .D 3 . T

v2

3

9.81∗3.2531∗10−3 ∗(12∗10−3 ) ∗313.8

= (16.4224∗10)2

=64163.77

Pr = Prandtl number

C p .

K air

1.005∗18.32∗10−6 ∗103

= 0.02071

= 0.6979

=7.7099

(ℎ∗𝑠)

Now, h = 𝐾𝑎𝑖𝑟

(7.7099∗0.0271)

= 0.02071

= 17.4114w/m℃

Using h and m, determine temperature distribution in the fin from equation (4).

=5.01kg

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

Forced Convection-

As in natural convection, for horizontal cylinder loosing heat by forced convection,

Nu 0.615 Re

0.466

For 40 Re 4000

0.618

Vtmf .D

Re

V

v. Tmf 273

Vtmf

T f 273

Cd n.d 2 . 2 gh w a m3 s

Q

4

Q 0.15 0.1 m s

From Nusselt number, find out 'h' and from 'h', find out 'm'.

Now temperature distribution, heat transfer rate and effectiveness of the fin can be calculate using

equation 4, 5 and 6 respectively.

PRECAUTION

1. Operate all the switches and controls gently.

2. Do not obstruct the suction of the duct or discharge pipe.

3. Open the duct cover over the fin for natural convection experiment.

4. Fill up water in the manometer and close duct cover for forced convection experiment

5. Proper earthing to the unit is necessary

6. While replacing the fins, be careful for fixing the thermocouples. Incorrectly fixed couples may

show erratic readings.

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

CONCLUSION

Comment on the observed temperature distribution and calculation by theory, it is expected

that temperatures should be slightly less than their calculated values because of radiation and non-

insulated tip.

Graphs of temperature distribution in both natural and forced convection

SIGN____________ MARK__________

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 26

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

EXPERIMENT-5

Whenever a fluid is being forced over the heated surface, forced convection heat transfer occurs. The

apparatus consists of a circular pipe, through which cold fluid, i.e. Air is being forced. A band heater is

provided outside the pipe to heat the outside surface uniformity. Temperature of pipe is measured with

thermocouples attached to pipe surface. Heater input is measured by a Voltmeter and Ammeter. Thus,

heat transfer rate and heat transfer coefficient can be calculated.

SPECIFICATION: -

2. Band heater for pipe.

3. Multichannel Digital Temperature Indicator Range 0-300 C using.

Chromel / Almelo thermocouples.

4. Dimmer stat 2 Amps. 240 Volts. For heater input control.

5. Voltmeter Range 0-200 volts.

6. Ammeter Range 0-2 Amps.

7. Blower to force the air through test pipe.

8. Orifice meter with water manometer.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE: -

2. Adjust the heater input with the help of dimmer stat.

3. Start the blower and adjust the airflow with valve.

4. Wait till steady state is reached and note down the reading in the observation table.

OBSERVATION TABLE: -

Difference

V I T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 Hw (mm of water)

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

CALCULATIONS: -

2. Air outlet temp. T7 = 53.96C

3. Density of air,

ρa = 1.293 x 273 Kg / m3

273 + T1

=1.1553 Kg / m3

Manometer difference = Water head = hw mtrs.

Air head, ha = hw (ρw / ρa)

1000

=441.535*10−3

= 38.145 m

Where, ρa = Density of water = 1000 Kgt / m3

Air volume flow rate,

Q = Cd x ao x √2g ha m3 / Sec.

= 6.653*10−3 𝑚3 /𝑠𝑒𝑐

Where, Cd = Discharge of Coefficient

Cd = 0.64

ao = Cross Section area of orifice

5.Mass flow rate of air,

ma = v x ρa Kg / sec.

= 6.653*10−3 kg/sec

Q = m3/sec. of air

Velocity of air,

V=Q m/sec

Where,

ap = Cross sectional area of pipe

= 8.33 x 10-4 m2

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

6. Heat gained by air, q = ma x Cpa x (T7 – T1)

=7.6742*10−3 ∗ 103 (53.96 − 33)

= 160.62 watts

Where, C pa = Specific heat of air – 1kJ / Kg K. OR 103 J / Kg K.

7. Average inside surface temperature,

Ts = T2 + T3 + T4 + T5 + T6 C

5

52+78+84+86+69

= 5

=73.8℃

= 346.8 K

8. Bulk mean temp. of air,

Tm = T1 + T7 C

2

33+53.96

= 2

= 43.48℃

=316.48K

Actual Heat Loss Due To Forced Convection = q – Heat Loss Due To Radiation

Heat Loss Due To Radiation (q1), -

q1 = 0.4 x A x (Ts4 – Ta4) x σ____________________ ( σ – Stefan Boltzmann Constant)

= 0.4*0.0518*(3464 − 3054 )*5.66*10−8

hexpt = q – q1 W/ m2 k

A x (Ts – Tm)

133.93

= 0.0518(173.8−43.48)

= 98.004 w/mk

Where, A = Inside surface area of the pipe = П x di x l

= П x 0.033 x 0.5

= 0.0518 m2

di = Inside dia. Of Pipe = 0.033 mtrs.

10. Reynolds number-

ReD = V x D

V

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HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

2.987∗0.033

= 17.4∗5∗10−6

= 15072.897

v = Kinematics viscosity at Tm

D = 0.033 m.

If ReD < 2000, flow is laminar.

If Reynolds number exceeds 2000, flow is turbulent.

For turbulent flow,

NuD = h.D

kair

= 0.023 (ReD) 0.8 (Pr.) n

= 0.714

N = 0.3 when fluid is being cooled.

Determine htheo from Nu.

0.023(15072.827)0.8∗(0.714)

hth = 0.033

= 36.794 w/𝑚2 𝐿

PRECAUTIONS: -

1. While putting ‘ON’ the supply, keep dimmer stat at zero position and blower switch ‘OFF’.

2. Operate all the switches and controls gently.

3. Do not obstruct the flow of air while experiment is going on.

CONCLUSION: -

From This Practical We Conclude That Surface Heat Transfer Co-Efficient Is

Calculated 98.009 W/𝑀2 𝐾 and Theoretical Is 36.794 W/𝑚2 𝐿

SIGN____________ MARK__________

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 30

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

EXPERIMENT-6

AIM: - To Determine the local heat transfer co-efficient of air in Natural convection.

INTRODUCTION:-

In contrast to the forced convection, natural convection phenomenon is due to the temperature

difference between the surface and the fluid and is not created by any external agency. Natural

convection low patterns for some commonly observed situation are shown in Fig. 1.

The present experimental set up is designed and fabricated to study the natural convection

phenomenon from a vertical cylinder in terms of the variation of local heat transfer coefficient

along the length and also the average heat transfer coefficient and with comparison with the

value obtained by using an appropriate correlation.

APPARATUS:

The apparatus consists of a brass tube fitted in a rectangular vertical duct. The duct is opened

at the top and bottom and forms an enclosure and serves the purpose of undisturbed surrounding.

One side of the duct is made up of Perspex for visualization. An electric heating element is

kept in the vertical tube, which in turn heats the tube surface. The heat is lost from the tube to

the surrounding air by natural convection. The temperature of the vertical tube is measured by

seven thermocouples. The heat input to the heater is measured by an ammeter and a voltmeter

and is varied by a dimmer stat. The vertical cylinder with the thermocol position is shown in

Fig. 2. while the possible flow pattern and also the expected variation of local heat transfer

coefficient is shown in fig. 3. The tube surface is polished to minimize the radiation losses.

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

SPECIFICATION-

2. Length of tube (L) = 500mm

3. Duct size 200mm 200mm 800mm. Length

5. Ammeter 0-2 Amp. and Voltmeter 0-200 Volts.

6. Dimmer stat 2 Amp. 240 Volts.

THEORY-

When a hot body is kept in still atmosphere, heat is transferred to the surrounding fluid by

natural convection. The fluid layer in contact with the hot body gets heated, rises up due to the

decrease in its density and the cold fluid rushes in to take place. The process is continuous and

the heat transfer takes place due to the relative motion of hot and cold fluid particles.

The heat transfer coefficient is given by :

q-q1

h=

As (Ts Ta ) - - - - - - - - - (1)

Where,

m2 C

q=Heat Transfer rate(Watt)

= V*I

= 70.48 watts

(T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 )

Ts C

7

105.7∗109.3∗109.6∗119.6∗115.4∗110.3∗104.2∗24.8

= 8

=110.25℃

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

q1 =Heat loss by radiation

= . A. (Ts 4 Ta 4 )

Where,

m2 .K 4

= Emissivity of pipe material=0.22

Ts & Ta = Surface and ambient temperatures in K respectively.

The surface heat transfer coefficient, of a system convection depends on the shape, dimensions

and or temperature difference between heat transferring surface dependence of ‘h’ on all the

above mentioned parameters terms of non-dimensional groups as follow :

h L A [ g.L. .T C p . ]

3 n

- - - - (2)

k v2k

Where,

hL

- - - - - - - - is called the Nussle number

k

g .L.3 .T

- - - - - is called Garish of Number and

v2

C p .

- - - - - - - - - is the prenatal Number.

k

A and n are constants depending on he shape and orientation of the heat transferring surface.

Where,

L = A characteristic dimension of the surface.

K = Thermal conductivity of fluid .

v = Kinematics Viscosity of fluid.

C p = Specific heat of fluid.

T [Ts Ta ]

=95.4 ℃

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

1

For gases, 1

(T f 273) k

1

=(65.5+273)

2.9368 * 10−3 𝐾 −1

(Ts Ta )

Tf

2

(110.2+24.8)

= 2

= 67.5℃

For a cylinder losing heat by natural convection, the constants A and n of equations (2) have

been determined and the following empirical correlation’s obtained.

hL

0.59(Gr .Pr ) 0.25 For 10 < Gr .Pr < 10 - - - - - (3)

4 8

k

hL 1

0.59(Gr .Pr ) 3 For 108 < Gr .Pr < 1012

k

135.48∗0.02925∗0.59

h= 0.5

= 45.748w/𝑚2 𝐾

L = Length of the cylinder.

All the properties of the fluid are determined at the mean film temperature( T f ).

PROCEDURE:

(1) Put ON the supply and dimmerstat to obtain the required heat input.

(Say 40 W, 60 W, and 70 W etc).

(2) Wait till the steady state is reached, which is confined from temperature readings – (

T1 to T7 ).

(5) Repeat the experiment at different heat inputs (Do not exceed 80 W).

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

OBSERVATIONS:

(1) O. D. Cylinder = 38 mm.

No.

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8

1 110 0.64

105.7 109.6 109.6 119.6 115.4 110.3 104.2 24.8

1

CALCULATIONS :

(1) Calculate the value of average surface heat transfer coefficient, neglecting end losses

using equation (1).

(2) Calculate and plot (Fig. 4) the variation of local heat transfer coefficient along the length

of the tube using :

g

T = T1 to T7 and h=

As (T1 T8 ) L

h =45.748 w/𝑚2 𝐾

(3) Compare the experimentally obtained value with the predictions of the correlation equations

(3) or (4).

NOTE :- The heat loss due to radiation and conduction is not considered , they are present,

which give difference between actual and theoretical values

PRECAUTIONS:-

2) Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position before putting on main

switch and slowly.

3) Keep the least 200 mm. space behind the equipment .

4) Operate the change-over switch of temperature indicator gently

from one position to other, i.e. from 1 to 8 position.

5 ) Never exceed input above 80 Watts.

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

RESULTS AND DISCUSSONS:-

Some typical results are shown in Fig. 4 and 2 different heater inputs. The Heat transfer

coefficient is having a maximum value at the beginning as e because of the just starting of

the building of the boundary layer and it decrease expected in the upward direction due to

thickening of layer and which is one. This trend is maintained up to half of the lengths (approx.)

and beyond that there Is little variation in the value of local heat transfer coefficient because of

the transition and turbulent boundary layers. The last point shows somewhat in the value of heat

transfer coefficient, which is attributed to end loss C temperature drop.

The comparison of average heat transfer coefficient is also made with predicted values are

somewhat less than experimental values due to heat loss by radiation.

Heat loss of radiation = . A. (Ts 4 Ta 4 )

Where,

m2 .K 4

= Emissivity of pipe material=0.22

Ts & Ta = Surface and ambient temperatures in K respectively.

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

CONCLISION: From This Practical We Conclude That The Surface Heat Transfer Co*Efficient

By Theoretical Is 45.748 W/𝑀2 𝐾 𝐴𝑁𝐷 𝐴𝑁𝐴𝐿𝐼𝑇𝐼𝐶𝐴𝐿𝐿𝑌 11.8086 W/𝑀2 𝐾.

SIGN____________ MARK__________

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

EXPERIMENT-7

AIM: To Measure Heat Transfer Rate, Heat Transfer Coefficient, L.M.T.D. And Effectiveness

Of Given Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger For Parallel Flow.

THEORY:

Heat exchangers are the devices in which the heat is transferred from one fluid to another. Exchange of

heat is required at many industrial operations as well as chemical processes. Common examples of heat

exchangers are radiator of a car, condenser of a refrigeration unit or cooling coil of an air conditioner.

i ) Transfer Type -In which both fluids pass through the exchanger and heat gets transferred through

the separating walls between the fluids,

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

ii ) Storage Type -In this, firstly the hot fluid passes through a medium having high heat capacity and

then cold fluid is passed through the medium to collect the heat. Thus hot and cold fluids are alternately

passed through the medium,

iii ) Direct Contact Type -In this type, the fluids are not separated but they mix with each other and

heat passes directly from one fluid to the other. Transfer type heat exchangers are the type most widely

used. In transfer type heat exchangers, three types of flow arrangements are used, viz. parallel, counter

or cross flow.

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

In parallel flow, both the fluids flow in the same direction while in counter flow, they flow in the

opposite direction. In cross flow, they flow at right angles to each other.

The apparatus consists of two concentric tubes in which fluids pass. The hot fluid is hot water, which is

obtained from an electric geyser. Hot water flows through the inner tube, in one direction. Cold fluid is

cold water, which flows through the annulus. Control valves are provided so that direction of cold water

can be kept parallel to that of hot water.

Thus, the heat exchanger can be operated either as parallel flow heat exchanger.

The temperatures are measured with thermometers. Thus, the heat transfer rate, heat transfer coefficient,

L.M.T.D. and effectiveness of heat exchanger can be calculated for both parallel flow.

SPECIFICATIONS -

1) Heat exchanger -a) Inner tube - 12.7 mm O.D., 11.7 mm I.D. copper

tube.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

1) Start the water supply. Adjust the water supply on hot and cold sides. Firstly, keep the valves V 2 and

V 3 closed and V 1 -V 4 opened so that arrangement is parallel flow.

2) Put few drops of oil in thermometer pockets. Put the thermometers in the thermometer pockets.

3) switch 'ON the geyser. Temperature of water will start rising. After temperatures become steady,

note down the readings and fill up the observation table.

4) Wait until the steady state is reached and note down the readings.

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

OBSERVATION TABLE:-

TYPE OF TEMPERATURES TIME TEMPERATURES TIME

FOR 1 FOR 1

FLOW LIT. LIT.

WATER WATER

IN °C OUT °C Xh SEC IN °C OUT °C Xh SEC

PARALLEL 59 49.5 85 26 29.1 44

FLOW

CALCULATIONS:-

1) Hot water inlet temp. thi = 59 °C

1

:. mh = kg/s.

xh

1

=85

=0.0117kg/s

= 0.0117*4200(59-49.5)

= 466.83watts

= 0.0227*4200(29.1-26)

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

= 295.554 watts

Ti - To

LMTD = Tm

Ti

ln

To

33−20.4

= 33

𝐼𝑛( )

20.4

= 26.19℃

Ti = thi – tci

= 59-26

= 33℃

To = tho – tco

=49.5-29.1 =20.4℃

Now, qh Ui Tm. Ai

qh

;. Ui = W /m2 o C

( Tm . Ai)

466.83

= 26.19∗0.03455

=515.91w/𝑚2

= 0.03768 m2

Uo .L

Similarly, qc =

Tm . Ao

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 42

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

qo .L

:. Uo =

Tm . Ao

295.54

=26.19∗0.037649

=299.33w/𝑚2 ℃

T c 2 - T c1

Effectiveness =

T h1 - T c1

effectiveness

different between the fluid inlet temp

The expressions are simpler because the heat capacities curve not involved expression like the

following also curve correct expressions for effectiveness.

mh ch Th

ε=

(mc) min(Thi Tci )

mc cc Tc

(mc) min(Thi Tci )

(0.0227)(4200)(29.1−26)

= (0.0117)(4200)(59−26)

= 0.1823

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

RESULTS-

Inside Outside °C Ui Uo

(Watts) (Watts)

W/m2°C W/m2°C

FLOW

PRECAUTIONS

1) Never switch on the geyser unless there is water supply through it.

2) If the red indicator on geyser goes off during operation, increase the water supply because it indicates

that water temperature exceeds the set limit.

3) Ensure steady water flow rate and temperatures before noting down the reading

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

CONCLUSION:-

In this practical we conclude that heat transfer rate, heat transfer co-efficient,

LMTD and effectiveness of of given concentric tube heat exchanger for parallel flow.

SIGN____________ MARK__________

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

EXPERIMENT-8

AIM: To Measure Heat Transfer Rate, Heat Transfer Coefficient, L.M.T.D. And Effectiveness

Of Given Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger For Counter Flow.

THEORY:

Heat exchangers are the devices in which the heat is transferred from one fluid to another. Exchange of

heat is required at many industrial operations as well as chemical processes. Common examples of heat

exchangers are radiator of a car, condenser of a refrigeration unit or cooling coil of an air conditioner.

i ) Transfer Type -In which both fluids pass through the exchanger and heat gets transferred through

the separating walls between the fluids,

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

ii ) Storage Type -In this, firstly the hot fluid passes through a medium having high heat capacity and

then cold fluid is passed through the medium to collect the heat. Thus hot and cold fluids are alternately

passed through the medium,

iii ) Direct Contact Type -In this type, the fluids are not separated but they mix with each other and

heat passes directly from one fluid to the other. Transfer type heat exchangers are the type most widely

used. In transfer type heat exchangers, three types of flow arrangements are used, viz. parallel, counter

or cross flow.

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

In parallel flow, both the fluids flow in the same direction while in counter flow, they flow in the

opposite direction. In cross flow, they flow at right angles to each other.

The apparatus consists of two concentric tubes in which fluids pass. The hot fluid is hot water, which is

obtained from an electric geyser. Hot water flows through the inner tube, in one direction. Cold fluid is

cold water, which flows through the annulus. Control valves are provided so that direction of cold water

can be kept counter to that of hot water.

Thus, the heat exchanger can be operated either as counter flow heat exchanger.

The temperatures are measured with thermometers. Thus, the heat transfer rate, heat transfer coefficient,

L.M.T.D. and effectiveness of heat exchanger can be calculated for both counter flow.

SPECIFICATIONS -

1) Heat exchanger -a) Inner tube - 12.7 mm O.D., 11.7 mm I.D. copper

tube.

5) Measuring flask and stop clock for flow measurement.

EXPERIMENTALPROCEDURE-

1) Start the water supply. Adjust the water supply on hot and cold sides. Firstly, keep the valves V 2

and V 3 open and V 1 -V 4 closed so that arrangement is counter flow.

2) Put few drops of oil in thermometer pockets. Put the thermometers in the thermometer pockets.

3) Switch 'ON the geyser. Temperature of water will start rising. After temperatures become steady,

note down the readings and fill up the observation table.

4) Wait until the steady state is reached and note down the readings.

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

OBSERVATION TABLE:-

TYPE OF TEMPERATURES TIME TEMPERATURES TIME

FOR 1 FOR 1

FLOW LIT. LIT.

WATER WATER

IN °C OUT °C Xh SEC IN °C OUT °C Xh SEC

COUNTER 52.5 44 36.25 25.5 31.5 47.5

FLOW

CALCULATIONS:-

1) Hot water inlet temp. thi = 52.5 °C

1

:. mh = kg/s.

xh

1

=36.25

𝑘𝑔⁄

= 0.02758 𝑠𝑒𝑐

= 0.02758*4200 (52.5-44)

= 984.608 watts

=0.02116*4200(31.5-25.8)

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

=533.19 watts

Ti - To

LMTD = Tm

Ti

ln

To

27−12.5

= 2.7

𝐼𝑛( )

12.5

= 15.83℃

Ti = thi – tco

= 52.5-25.5

= 27℃

To = tho – tci

= 44-31.5 = 12.5℃

Now, qh Ui Tm. Ai

qh

;. Ui = W /m2 o C

( Tm . Ai)

(984.604)

= 18.83∗0.03454

= 1513.1875𝑤⁄𝑚2 ℃

= 0.03768 m2

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

Uo .L

Similarly, qc =

Tm . Ao

533.19∗1

= 18.83−0.03768

= 751.4 𝑤⁄𝑚2 ℃

qo .L

:. Uo =

Tm . Ao

(52.5−25.5)

=(52.8−25.5)

= 0.3148

T c 2 - T c1

Effectiveness =

T h1 - T c1

(31.5−25.5)

=(52.8−25.5)

= 0.2222

effectiveness

different between the fluid inlet temp

The expressions are simpler because the heat capacities curve not involved expression like the

following also curve correct expressions for effectiveness.

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

mh ch Th

ε=

(mc) min(Thi Tci )

mc cc Tc

(mc) min(Thi Tci )

(0.02116∗4200(31.5−25.5))

= 0.02116∗(52.6−25.5)

= 0.933

RESULTS-

Inside Outside °C Ui Uo

(Watts) (Watts)

W/m2°C W/m2°C

FLOW

PRECAUTIONS

1) Never switch on the geyser unless there is water supply through it.

2) If the red indicator on geyser goes off during operation, increase the water supply because it indicates

that water temperature exceeds the set limit.

3) Ensure steady water flow rate and temperatures before noting down the reading fluctuating water

supply can give erratic results.

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

CONCLUSION:-

In this practical we conclude that the heat exchanger rate, heat transfer co-efficient,

LMTD, and effectiveness of given concentric tube heat exchanger for counter flow.

SIGN____________ MARK__________

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

EXPERIMENT-9

AIM: To Measure Heat Transfer Rate, Heat Transfer Coefficient, L.M.T.D. And Effectiveness

Of Given Cross Flow Heat Exchanger

THEORY

Heat exchangers are the devices used to transfer the heat from one fluid to other. Transfer of heat is

needed for many applications. Commonly used types of heat exchangers are transfer type, storage type

and direct contact type. In transfer type, both hot and cold fluids are passing simultaneously through the

heat exchanger and heat is being transferred through the separating wall between them. Transfer type

heat exchangers are simple for connections and installations and hence are used in many applications.

In transfer type heat exchangers, different type of flow arrangements are used, viz, parallel, counter or

cross flow. The cross flow heat exchanger is finned tube heat exchanger. The hot fluid is hot air obtained

from air heater. The cold fluid is cold air. The schematic flow arrangement is shown in figure. Hot air

flows through copper tubes. Cold air flows across the tubes & fins. Two air blowers are provided to

generate the airflow. Butterfly valves at blower suction control the airflow. Two rectangular orifices are

provided to measure the airflow rates.

SPECIFICA TIONS -

1) Copper tubes -O .D .19 mm, I. D .17.1 mm & 520 mm long with 24 Nos. of 50 mm O.D. fins- 25

Nos.

2) Orifice at hot side -150mm x 110 mm ( C =0.65) & cold side -237 mm x 123 mm. ( C = 0.7 )

d d

4) Digital multi channel temperature indicator for measuring the air temperatures.

5) Butterfly valves at blower suction to control hot and cold air flow.

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

EXPERIMENTALPROCEDURE-

1) Fill sufficient water in both the manometers.

2) Start the blowers and switch 'ON' the air heaters as required 1,2 or 3 Nos.

4) Wait till steady state is reached and note down the observations.

OBERVATIONS

Difference Difference

Temp. Temp. Temp. Temp.

H m H m

T °C T °C wh T °C T °C wh

hi ho ci co

52 42 1.5 30 34 0.5

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

DATA

pa

i

o

CACULA TIONS-

1) Hot air inlet temp. T = 52 °C

hi

ho

ci

co

Airhead, h =h (P -P )

a wh w a

= 0.002(1000/1.1574)

= 1.728 m

hi d a h

Kg

Mass flow rate, m =Q "

a hi ic s

Kg

Similarly, for cold air side, m =Q

cl cl a s

=0.118*1.1574

= 0.1932 Kg/s

Kg

where, = Density of air at mean temp. from table,

a m3

3) Heat collected by cold air –

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

Kj

Q =ffic Cp (T -T )

c a co ci s

= 0.1375*1.005(34-30)

= 0.5528 Kg/s

Heat lost by hot air -

Kj

Q =m Cp (T -T )

h h a hi ho s

= 0.1132*1.008(52-49)

= 1.34166 KJ/s

LiT=F*LMTD cf o C

=0.96*13.839

=13.147℃

f

(T -T )-(T -T )

LMTD = hi co ho ci

cf (T -T )

ln hi co

(T -T )

ho ci

(52−30)−(42−34)

= 52−30

𝐼𝑛( )

42−34

= 13.839℃

and

for finding out correction factor, values of R and S are required

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

(T -T )

R= co ci

(T -T )

hi ho

(T -T )

S= hi ho

(T -T )

hi ci

(52−42)

=(34−30)

= 2.5

A.

U =

i A. LiT

1.94166

=0.698∗13.147 = 0.21159 KW/𝑚2 ℃

Q

U = c

o A . LiT

o

0.5528

= 0.689∗13.147

= 0.01507 KW/𝑚2 ℃

ε=

maximum possible heat transfer rate

ε=

m C T -T

h pa hi ho

m C (T -T )

pa hi ci

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 58

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

0.13752∗1.005(34−30)

= 0.13752∗1.005(52−30)

= 0.1818

h c

RESULTS:-

Obs. No. ∆T U U ε

i o

W W

( ) ( )

2

m Co 2

m Co

( C)

1 13.147 211.59 15.07 0.6386

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

PRECAUTIONS :-

I) Start the blower before switching on the air heater & put air heater ‘off’

CONCLUSION:

In This Practical We Conclude That The Heat Transfer Rate Of Cold Air

Is 0.5528KG/S. And Hot Air Is 1.9417 KG/S. Heat Transfer Co-Efficient Is 0.2116 KW/𝑚2 And

Outside Is 0.0151 KW/𝑚2 And Effectiveness Is 0.0386.

SIGN____________ MARK__________

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

EXPERIMENT-10

Theory:

All the bodies emit and absorb the thermal radiation to and from surroundings. The rate of thermal

radiation depends upon the temperature of body. Thermal radiations are electromagnetic waves and they

do not require any medium for propagation when thermal radiation strikes a body, part of it reflected,

part of it is absorbed and part of it is transmitted through body.

The fraction of incident energy, reflected by the surface is called reflectivity (ρ). The fraction of incident

energy , absorbed by the surface is called absorptivity (α). And the fraction of incident energy

transmitted through body is called transmissivity (τ).The surface which absorbs all the incident radiation

is called a black surface.

ρ+α+ τ=1

The radiant flux, emitted from the surface is called emissive power (E). The emissivity of a surface is

ratio of emissive power of a surface to that of black surface at the same temperature. Thus,

E

ε=

EB

The apparatus uses comparator method for determination of emissivity of test plate. It consists of two

aluminium plates, of equal physical dimensions. Mica heaters are provided inside the plate in an enclose

to provide undisturbed surroundings.

One of the plates is blacken outside for use as a black surface has (ε = 1). Another plate is having natural

surface finish. Input in measured with common ammeter and voltmeter ones thermo couple is fitted on

surface of each plate to measured the surface temperature with digital temperature indicator by adjusting

input to the heaters, both the plates are maintained at equal temperatures and difference in input is due

to different emissivity.

Holes are provided at backside bottom and the top of enclose for for natural circulation of air over the

plates. The plate enclose is provided with Perspex acrylic sheet at the front.

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

Experimental procedure

1. Blacken on of the plates with the help of lamp black (Normally this is blacken at the works, but

if blackening is wiped out, then blackening is necessary.

2. Keep both the dimmer knobs at zero position.

3. Insert the supply pin-top in the socket (which is properly earthed) and switch ‘ON’ the mains

supply.

4. Switch ‘ON’ the mains switch on the panel.

5. Keep the matter select switch (toggle switch) at the black plate side position.

6. Adjust dimmer of black plate, so that around 110-120 volts are supplied to black plate.

7. Now, switch the meter selector switch on other side.

8. Adjust test plate voltage slightly less than that of black plate (say 100-110 volts).

9. Check the temperatures (after say 10 minutes) and adjust the dimmers so that temperatures of

both plates are equal and steady normally very minor adjustment are required for this.

10. Note down the reading after the plate temperatures reach steady state.

Observation table:

Input

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

Calculation:

1) Enclosure temperature

TE = 35.35 0C

T = T1 = T2 = 108.5 0C

TS = (108.5+273.15) K

=381.65K

Wb = V * I watts

=121*0.47

=56.87 watts

WT = V * I watts

= 85*0.26

=22.1 watts

A=2* * D2 + (π * D * t)

4

= 0.0447 m2

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

Conclusion:

The Emissivity of test plate was found to be 0.3886 at the temperature of 381.55 K. the

complete combustion of 1 kg of fuel.

SIGN____________ MARK__________

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 64

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

EXPERIMENT-11

AIM: To determine the value of Stefan Boltzmann constant for radiation heat transfer.

THEORY:

Stefan Boltzmann law states that the total emissive power of a perfect black body is proportional

to fourth power of the absolute temperature of black body surface

Eb T 4

DESCRIPTION:

The apparatus consists of a flanged copper hemisphere fixed on a flat no conducting plate. A test disc

made of copper is fixed to the plate. Thus the test disc is completely enclosed by the hemisphere. The

outer surface of the hemisphere is enclosed in a vertical water jacket used to heat the hemisphere to a

suitable constant temperature. . Three Cr-Al thermocouples are attached at four strategic places on the

surface of the hemisphere to obtain the temperatures. The disc is mounted on an ebonite rod which is

fitted in a hole drilled at the center of the base plate. Another Cr-Al thermocouple is fixed to the disc

to record its temperature. Fill the water in the SS water container with immersion heater kept on top of

the panel.

SPECIFICATIONS:

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

Water Jacket : Ø 230 mm, SS

PROCEDURE:

3. Allow the boiling water into the container kept at the bottom containing copper hemisphere

until it is full. Allow sufficient time to attain thermal equilibrium which is indicated by the

four thermocouples provided on the hemisphere.

4. Insert the test disc fixed on the ebonite rod sleeve completely inside and lock it. Start the stop

clock simultaneously.

5. Note down the temperature of the test disc at an interval of about 15 sec for about 15 to 20

minutes.

OBSERVATION TABLE:

T1 58.3

T2 58.5

T3 58.7

T4

0 29.40

15 29.40

30 29.60

45 29.90

60 30.4

75 31

290 31.6

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

105 32.6

120 33

135 33.6

150 34.3

165 35.1

180 35.9

195 36.6

210 37.3

225 38.1

240 38.9

255 39.9

270 40.6

285 41.3

CALCULATIONS:

1. Plot the graph of temperature of the disc v/s time to obtain the slope (dT/dt) of the

(T1 T2 T3 )

Tavg 273.15 K

3

58.3+58.5+58.7

= 3

=331.5K

dT

4. Rate of change of heat capacity of the disc = mC p

dt

5∗0.38∗0.8098

= 3.142∗(331.5−304.4)

= 1.32*10−6w/m

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

d2

where, Ad = area of the disc = m2

4

d = 20 mm

Cp = specific heat of copper = 0.38 kJ/kg-K

Rate of change of heat capacity of the disc = Net energy radiated on the disc

dT

mC p Ad (T 4 avg T 4 d )

dt

dT

mC p

dt

Ad (T avg T 4 d )

4

1.32*10−6w/𝑚2 𝑘 4 .

SIGN____________ MARK__________

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Page | 68

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

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