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RESERVOIR ENGINEERING

Software & Services


TABLE OF CONTENTS

About Us....................................................................................... 03
Contact Information...................................................................... 04
Key Contacts................................................................................ 04

SOFTWARE & CASE STUDIES


Fekete Harmony™........................................................................ 05
F.A.S.T. DeclinePlus™................................................................... 06
F.A.S.T. RTA™............................................................................... 08
F.A.S.T. CBM™.............................................................................. 10
F.A.S.T. Evolution™....................................................................... 12
F.A.S.T. FieldNotes™.................................................................... 14
F.A.S.T. Piper™............................................................................. 16
F.A.S.T. VirtuWell™........................................................................ 18
F.A.S.T. WellTest™......................................................................... 20

SERVICES
Geological Studies....................................................................... 22
Pipeline Optimization................................................................... 23
Production Optimization.............................................................. 24
Regulatory Applications............................................................... 25
Reserves Evaluation..................................................................... 26
Reservoir Engineering & Simulation............................................. 27
Unconventional Gas Studies........................................................ 28
Well Test & Production Data Analysis........................................... 29

Project Experience....................................................................... 30
Training......................................................................................... 31

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ABOUT US

Fekete Associates Inc. is a consulting company based in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. We provide integrated
reservoir management services and software to the oil and gas industry worldwide. Founded in 1973, the
company has grown on the basis of its technical excellence and client service. Our client list includes over
1000 companies worldwide.

Our Staff
Fekete currently has a full-time staff of over 170 engineers, geologists, technologists, programmers and
support personnel.

Our Software
As an integral part of our petroleum engineering and geological consulting work, we develop software that
incorporates the latest in technology. Our software is innovative, easy to use, and provides practical and
advanced solutions for reservoir engineering and production optimization projects.

Our Services
Fekete approaches every project with a dynamic, technical, and practical attitude. We remain on the leading
edge of research in reservoir engineering and implement “best practices” into our software and services.
This is reflected in the wide variety of projects undertaken over the years and has resulted in better reservoir
management and production optimization for our clients. The professional quality of Fekete’s work is matched
by our continuing service and technical support.

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CONTACT INFORMATION

Calgary Houston
Suite 2000, 540-5th Avenue S.W. Suite 212, 10777 Westheimer Rd.
Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2P 0M2 Houston, Texas, USA 77042

Phone: 403.213.4200 (main)


Toll Free: 1.800.625.2488 (North America only)
Email: fast@fekete.com

fekete.com

KEY CONTACTS

Louis Mattar, President


Email: lmattar@fekete.com

David Dunn, Senior Vice President


Email: ddunn@fekete.com

Edward Ferguson, Senior Vice President


Email: eferguson@fekete.com

Casey O’Shea, Vice President - Business Development


Email: coshea@fekete.com

Dave Anderson, Vice President - Software


Email: danderson@fekete.com

Kevin Dunn, Vice President - Sales and Marketing


Email: kdunn@fekete.com

Mehran Pooladi-Darvish, Vice President - Engineering


Email: mpooladidarvish@fekete.com

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Fekete Harmony™ is a software environment created by Fekete to host our Well Performance Analysis
applications. Fekete Harmony™ includes tools for the preparation, editing and visualization of data which
will be used in various analysis techniques, and summarizes the results in a comprehensive reporting tool.
Fekete Harmony™ also allows the development of customized workflows that will reflect a company’s specific
strategy or experience in reservoir evaluations.

Fekete Harmony™ includes the following products:


F.A.S.T. DeclinePlus™
F.A.S.T. RTA™

Products coming to Fekete Harmony™ in 2011 Q4:


F.A.S.T. CBM™
F.A.S.T. VirtuWell™

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SOFTWARE
PRODUCTION ANALYSIS & RESERVES EVALUATION

Analyze Production Data:

Analysis methods in F.A.S.T. DeclinePlus™


include traditional and tight gas/shale decline,
type well decline, volumetrics, advanced material
balance, water-oil-ratio (WOR) analysis, and ratio
Streamline Your Reservoir Engineering Process in a Single Application

forecasting. Analysis methods can be


dynamically linked to share common user inputs
and enforce consistent results.

Advanced Workflows:

Fekete Harmony™ contains enhanced plot


creation and series manipulations, user defined
plot templates and analysis workflows.
Templates and automated workflows can be
easily loaded and set as default enabling the
user to save time and increase efficiency. Wells
are sorted in user defined, attributes-driven
hierarchies that make analysis and reporting
completely customizable.
Production Analysis & Reserves Evaluation

Reserve Evaluation:

Assign reserve classifications to well or group


forecasts. Consolidate entity forecasts to group
and hierarchy levels based on reserve
classification or forecast name. Consolidations
update dynamically with changes to individual
well forecasts.

GIS:

An interactive map allows for incorporation of


geological interpretations. Wells can be selected
and grouped through the GIS. Shapefiles and
image files such as topographical maps, net pay,
surface facilities, and land holdings are easily
incorporated. New wells and undeveloped
locations are created with a single click.

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CASE STUDY

Objectives:

• Identify appropriate analog wells for type well forecasting.

• Create type well decline curve for use in undeveloped


locations.
.
• Apply type well decline curve to wells with limited production
history and adjust to well performance.

Background:

• Tight gas play in Northeast B.C.

• 37 producing wells in area of interest, 2 with limited production


history.

Evaluating Tight Gas Using Traditional Methods


• 10 planned well locations requiring forecast for proved plus
probable undeveloped reserves.

Analysis:

• Use Type Well decline to create average forecast for the area,
EUR x Bcf.

• Apply type well forecast to wells with limited history and well
locations.

• Create consolidation for field total production and compare to


consolidation without locations.

Results:
Case Study

• Type Well decline based on the average performance of wells.

• Undeveloped locations added to GIS.

• Type Well forecast applied to undeveloped locations and wells


with limited production history.

• Consolidations based on reserve types


for economics.
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SOFTWARE
RATE TRANSIENT ANALYSIS

Estimate Fluid Volumes:

F.A.S.T. RTA™ provides multiple independent


techniques for estimating original oil and
gas-in-place (OOIP/OGIP) and expected ultimate
hydrocarbon recovery (EUR) without the need for
shutting-in the well and production downtime.

Reservoir Characterization:

Use a variety of advance decline analyses type


curves and models in F.A.S.T. RTA™ to determine
skin, permeability, drainage area, and fracture
half-length.

Operating Diagnostics:

Monitor reservoir depletion performance to


identify wellbore or reservoir related issues such
as pressure support (due to aquifer,
geo-mechanical, etc.) or pressure loss (due to
interference, liquid loading, etc.).
Put Your Production Data to Work

Unconventional Reservoir Module:

The Unconventional Reservoir Module (URM) is a


simple yet rigorous hybrid-technique (analytical
and empirical) featuring multiple analysis
methods used for the interpretation and
forecasting of production from tight oil and gas
wells.
Rate Transient Analysis

Production Optimization:

Generate a production forecast and conduct


“what if” scenario analyses to assess the
potential impact of changing the operating
conditions at the wellhead: adding compression,
drilling infill wells, stimulating the well, etc.

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CASE STUDY

Objectives:

• Identify the optimal drilling location for an infill well.

• Determine if offset wells are interfering with the original


producing well.

• Estimate total reservoir OGIP.

Background:

• Conventional gas reservoir in western Canada.

• Field had produced for one year.

• Limited shut-in data but good flowing rate and pressure data.

• Optimize production of producing wells.

• Three wells in study:

- Primary well came on at 1.6 MMcfd.


- First offset came on at 2.0 MMcfd.
- Second offset was marginal producer.

Analysis:

• Traditional decline analysis (rate data only):

Where Should I Drill My Next Well?


- Identified ultimate recovery of ~ 1.4 Bcf.
- Inconclusive about interference effects.

• Advanced decline analysis methods (using flowing rate AND


pressure data):

- Estimated minimum reservoir OGIP of 4.8 Bcf.


- Confirmed interference between original producing well
and first offset well.
- Defined drainage area and boundaries for each well.

Results:

• Provided justification to support the planned infill drilling


Case Study

program.

• Confirmed that one offset well was interfering with the original
producing well.

• Generated estimate of reservoir OGIP that was substantially


higher than predicted by traditional decline analysis.

• Identified optimal drilling location for new


well. 9
SOFTWARE
COALBED METHANE RESERVOIR ANALYSIS

Analysis of Production Data:


History matched data.
Regions on the plot illustrate the liquid Use type curves and reservoir models to match
lifting/loading possibilities.
the production data and flowing pressures. Use
the matches to estimate properties such as
permeability, skin, and drainage area and to
diagnose problems such as liquid loading,
interference and change in operating conditions.

Production and Field Optimization:

Forecast well performance using variable


bottomhole flowing pressure and skin. Evaluate
Gas production forecast based on variable the benefits of compression, stimulation, and
bottomhole flowing pressure. infill drilling. Quickly import reservoir properties
into F.A.S.T. Piper™ to design and optimize your
gas gathering system.

Reserve Estimation:

Multiple analysis tools are available to estimate


the original-gas-in-place (OGIP), expected
Practical Toolkit for CBM Engineering Needs

ultimate recovery (EUR), and recovery factor.


These include deterministic methods such as
volumetrics, static and flowing material balance
and traditional decline analyses as well as
Likely span for gas and water rates probabilistic risk analysis using Monte Carlo
obtained from Monte Carlo simulation.
simulation.
Coalbed Methane Reservoir Analysis

Modeling Capabilities:

Various models, analytical and numerical, can be


utilized to characterize a reservoir. Apply single
Vertical/Vertical Fracture/Horizontal numerical
well models to history match the production or
generate post-history forecast for multi-phase
(Gas-Water) production. Apply single Vertical/
Vertical Fracture/ Horizontal/ Composite/
(a) Model selection tool (b) A plan view of Multilayer well-reservoir models for single phase
pressure propagation in a numerical
horizontal well model.
history match and production forecast.

Multi-Layer Capabilities:

Multiple layers of coal or sand can be included in


a model. The model can then be used to
generate a production forecast for each layer or
history match the commingled production of a
well completed and producing from several
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(a)
(b) zones.
CASE STUDY

Objectives:
Two-phase production forecast for a
multi-layer (2 coal & 1 sand) reservoir. • Forecast future production and reserves update.

• Optimize production of producing wells.

• Identify the infill drilling potential and devise development plan.

• Build a gas gathering model that could be used for field


optimization.

Background:

• Large CBM field in the USA, with complex reservoir behavior.


History matching and post-historical data
production forecast. • Large variation in reservoir properties.

• Changing gas composition due to presence of CO2.

• In excess of 25 years of production history.

• Several hundred wells are tied into a complex pipeline network.

Analysis:

• History matched production data (gas rate, water rate,

How Many More Wells Should We Drill?


wellhead pressures) from each well.
Use binary isotherms when fraction of CO2
in the produced stream becomes important. • Generated production forecasts for gas, water, and CO2
fraction.

• Accounted for unique CBM characteristics such as binary


desorption and matrix shrinkage.

• Built and calibrated a gas gathering model using the history


match results.

Results:

• The permeabilities obtained from history matching were found


Bubble map displaying well drainage area.
to be greater than 30 md in some areas and as low as 0.1 md
in other areas.
Case Study

• Locations where drainage areas were less than the well


spacing were identified for potential infill drilling.

• Identified 100+ candidate wells for artificial lift.

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SOFTWARE
TIGHT & SHALE GAS DEVELOPMENT PLANNING

Determine Optimum Well Spacing:

Answer the question “How many wells do I need


to optimally produce this field?” by comparing
and evaluating a wide range of development
scenarios based on both recovery and
profitability indicators. Test the sensitivity of
results to uncertainty in various reservoir and
economic input parameters.

Schedule On-stream Dates for New Wells:

Determine when new wells need to come


on-stream to maintain a predetermined
maximum field production rate. F.A.S.T.
Evolution’s™ sophisticated analytical reservoir
model predicts performance of new wells,
properly accounting for depletion and well
Make Better, Faster Field Planning Decisions

placement.
Tight & Shale Gas Development Planning

Optimize Surface Capacity:

Use F.A.S.T. Evolution™ to determine the most


efficient usage of gathering system facilities in a
“green field” development. Run multiple
scenarios using different maximum field rates to
find the most profitable results.

Evaluate Optimum Fracture Spacing in


Horizontal Wells:

Use F.A.S.T. Evolution™ to generate production


and cash-flow forecasts for different complex
completions, including multi-laterals and
multi-stage fractures.

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CASE STUDY

Figure 1: Recovery Factor Versus


Number of Wells Drilled Objectives:
100

95

90 To Determine:
85

80

75

70
• How many wells should be drilled to achieve a total field
recovery factor of at least 70%, over 20 years?
65
Recovery Factor (%)

60

55

50

• What is the most profitable well spacing scenario?


45

40

35

30

• What is the optimum field production rate, given that


25

20

15

10

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42
infrastructure will be expensive (letting the wells flow
unrestricted will be cost prohibitive)?
Total Num ber of Wells

• What is the optimum drilling schedule to achieve the


Figure 2: NPV Versus Number
of Wells Drilled desired field production rate?
10000

9500

9000

8500

Background:
8000

7500

7000

6500

6000

• Operator X has acquired new acreage offsetting a large


Discounted NPV (M$)

5500

5000

tight gas development.


4500

4000

3500

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42

New Tight Gas Field Development Study


Total Num ber of Wells

Analysis:
Figure 3: NPV Plot Comparing Three qmax
Scenarios • We began by populating the reservoir model and running
Net Present Value versus Total Number of Wells
field forecasts.
12000

• Figure 1 shows that 18 wells are required to recover 70%


11000

10000 qmax = 5 MMscfd


9000

8000
qmax = 10 MMscfd of the original-gas-in-place (OGIP) over 20 years.
Discounted NPV (M$)

7000

6000
Unrestricted
• Figure 2 shows a clear maximum value at 12 wells drilled,
rather than 18.
5000

4000

3000

• Figure 3 suggests that the optimum field development


2000

1000

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22
Total Num ber of Wells
24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 scenario consists of drilling 13 wells with a maximum rate
limitation of 5 MMscfd for the field.

Figure 4: Calculated Well Schedule for • Figure 4 shows the resulting well schedule.
qmax = 5 MMscfd
Wells Started and Producing
Case Study

16

15

Results:
14

13

12

11

10
• Operator X began with some basic reservoir, well and
Number of Wells

7
economic data, but little or no direction. Using F.A.S.T.
Evolution™, we were able to quickly and systematically
6

find a theoretically optimum development


4

strategy for their undrilled acreage.


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1

0
0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50 5.00 5.50 6.00 6.50 7.00 7.50 8.00 8.50 9.00 9.50 10.00 10.50 11.00
Tim e (m onth)
SOFTWARE
DATA COLLECTION AND REPORTING

Ready for the Field:

Monitor Post-Completion Flow Backs and Limited


Production Tests.

• Select a customizable template to represent


the type of test being conducted.

• Production rates, volumes, and ratios are


immediately calculated as data is entered.
High Tech and Reliable Well Testing Software with 24 / 7 Support

• Quickly generate detailed plots and reports


for submission to client and regulatory
agencies.

• Calculate super compressibility using AGA


8 (detailed or simplified) or the
Benedict-Webb-Rubin equation of state
method.

• Calculate returning frac gas (CO2, N2 and


propane) from reservoir gas.

• Separate fluid production into oil (stock tank


equivalence), water and sediment.

• Identify swabbing sequences and


recoveries.

Real Time Data Acquisition:


Data Collection and Reporting

• Connect any surface or sub-surface


instrumentation that supports standard
Modbus Protocol.

• Set alarms to monitor tanks, separators,


rates, etc., and automatically issue an email
report.

• Data plots and tables are updated


instantaneously to detail current operating
conditions.

• Sample rates of one second during


build-ups can provide valuable insight into
the reservoir when used with F.A.S.T.
WellTest™.

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CASE STUDY

Objectives:

• To determine the amount of injected gas recovered during the


CASE 1
post-frac flow back.

.
Background:

• 1,600 mscf of nitrogen pumped into the well during the frac
treatment.

What is the Best Way to Record and Report Well Test Data?
Results:

• The plot represents a comparison between the amount of N2


(blue), total gas (red), and the net reservoir gas (green)
produced. The black line represents the total N2 injected.

• By the end of the test, the amount of N2 that is returned from


the formation is 1,473 mscf.

Objectives:
CASE 2 • To determine the amount of frac liquid recovered during the
post-frac swab operation.

Background:

• Perforated the first zone and performed an initial frac using 200
bbl of fluid.

• This was followed up 24 hours later with another frac using 940
bbl of fluid.

• Perforated the second zone and performed an initial frac using


673 bbl of frac fluid.

Results:
Case Study

• The table illustrates a typical swab recovery template with the


corresponding plot below.

• During this swab operation, they recovered 880 bbl of 1,666


bbl leaving 786 bbl for the production testers.

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SOFTWARE
GAS GATHERING SYSTEM ANALYSIS

Complete and Easy Field Development


Planning:

Quickly model existing and future gas gathering


systems from the reservoir to sales. Build your
gathering system with on-screen drag and drop
techniques and locate within a GIS interface.
Underlie shapefiles and images to view culture
and topography. Define deliverability, pipelines
and compression. Forecast future field
optimization scenarios.

Production Optimization:

Various diagnostics allow for easy


Model Gas Flow from the Reservoir to the Delivery Point

identification of:

• Bottlenecks within the gathering system.

• Data errors.

• Liquid load-up in the wellbore.

• Uplift potential.

• Build a gas gathering model that could be


used for field optimization.

Production Forecasting and Development


Justification:

Determine wellbore, pipeline and compression


requirements. Run “what if” scenarios to assess
Gas Gathering System Analysis

the impact of drilling infill wells, adding


compression and adding pipeline capacity.
Determine if proposed developments are
economic based on F.A.S.T. Piper™ forecasts.

Import F.A.S.T. RTA™ and F.A.S.T. CBM™


Models:

Investigate the field wide response of your


calibrated reservoir characterization. Quantify
flush production on a daily or monthly basis,
investigate the extent of the back-out of existing
wells and identify potential problems due to
liquid loading. Modify reservoir parameters to
evaluate the impact of re-completions and
schedule those changes to reflect current
timelines.

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CASE STUDY

Objectives:

• Determine production improvement from debottlenecking


gathering system.

Background:

• 90 wells on production.

• Psuction = 170 psia.

• Wellhead pressures range 200 psia - 500 psia.

• Total gas rate 16.0 MMscfd.

• Mainline bottleneck.

Analysis:

Evaluate Upside Potential in Debottlenecking


• Generated a model with additional 14 miles of 8” pipeline to
evaluate the Pressure Distribution Map and the Frictional
Pressure Loss Map.

• Increased compressor capacity to account for additional gas


volumes.

Results:

• Reduced suction pressure by 40 psia.

• Reduced wellhead pressure by as much as 300 psia.

• Increased gas rate by 3.0 MMscfd.

Other Studies:
Case Study

• 11 other gathering systems are modeled and updated on a


regular basis for this company.

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SOFTWARE
WELLBORE OPTIMIZATION

Convert Between Wellhead & Bottomhole


Pressure:

Calculate pressure drop in the wellbore to


estimate bottomhole or wellhead pressure for:

• Single or Multiphase (gas, water, oil,


condensate) flow, including hydrates detection.
• Vertical, horizontal, or deviated wells.
• Flow through casing or annulus and / or tubing.
• Use static or production / injection pressures.

Model Well Deliverability & Liquid Loading:

Use various sources to generate past, current,


and future IPR curves. Model different operating
conditions for oil and gas.

• Liquid loading.
• Compression.
• Coiled tubing / velocity strings.
• Soaping.
• Alternate flow paths.
Efficient Flow from Sandface to Surface

Determine expected rates for various scenarios.

Wellbore Diagram:

Visually construct detailed schematics for


complex wellbores.

• Enter TVD and MD.


• Single or multiple perforations.
• Model tapered casing and / or tubing.
Wellbore Optimization

Choke Analysis:

Find the most appropriate choke size to reach a


certain flow rate or pressure.

• Enter choke size and set depth.


• Single or multiphase (gas, water, oil,
condensate) flow.
• Full flow rate range.

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CASE STUDY

Objectives:

• Identify if and why the well is liquid loading.

• Evaluate the effect of coiled tubing.

Background:
. • Vertical gas well in east Texas.

• Well has now produced for 4 months.

• 2-7/8” Tubing to 11,200 ft.

• 5-1/2” Casing to 11,540 ft.

• Perfs from 11,150 ft to 11,237 ft.

• No bottomhole flowing pressures measured.

• Well history:

- Initial PR = 6,600 psia. Current PR = 5,840 psia.


- Initial production was 1.20 MMscfd at 320 psia WH

This Well is Loaded Up. What Should I Do?


pressure. WGR = 15 bbl/MMscf.
- Current gas rate is approximately 0.65 MMscfd and
intermittent.

Analysis:

SF / WH AOF Module:

• Initial surface rate and pressure is used to create a sandface


IPR curve.

Gas AOF / TPC Module:

• Maintaining a wellhead pressure of 320 psia and 15 bbl/d of


water requires a rate of 1.09 MMscfd to lift liquids.

• At a reservoir pressure of 6,250 psia, liquid loading occurred.

• Current PR = 5,800 psia.


Case Study

Results:

• 1-1/2” coiled tubing was installed and the well unloaded as


expected. New wells in the area have since been completed
with 1-1/2” coiled tubing from initial
production.
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SOFTWARE
ADVANCED PRESSURE TRANSIENT ANALYSIS

Analyze Build-Up and Drawdown Data:

Load and plot data with easy-to-use import and


filtering tools. Built-in wizards guide the user
from data input through analysis, modeling and
forecasting. “Controlled” tests or “un-planned”
build-ups on producing wells are easily
analyzed using the flexible data management
feature.

Design and Analyze Perforation Inflow /


Injection Tests (PITA) to Establish Initial
Reservoir Pressure and Permeability:

Simulate the pressure build-up or fall-off


response expected after perforating. Establish
the minimum shut-in time required to quantify
the reservoir pressure and estimate
permeability. Analyze the test data using the
Everyday Well Test Data Interpretation Tool

new PITA analysis option developed by Fekete.


Advanced Pressure Transient Analysis

Analyze Mini-Frac Tests to Estimate


Reservoir Pressure and Permeability:

Pressure fall-off data from mini-frac tests (after


frac-closure) can be analyzed using the new
PITA injection analysis option to estimate
reservoir pressure and permeability.

Predict Deliverability Performance:

Using results determined from pre-frac tests,


predict the deliverability performance for
different frac properties to establish optimum
frac design.

20
CASE STUDY

Objectives:

• To establish the reservoir flow characteristics and obtain a


reasonable production forecast.

Background:

Why Do I Need to Test a Well Exhibiting Stable Flow on Cleanup?


• Shallow gas well with low pressure.

• A 4-point modified isochronal test was conducted to establish


the deliverability potential.

• The well looked great at surface with the 16 hour extended


flow stable at 1.1 MMscfd.

Analysis:

• The pressure recorders were retrieved after a 2 week build-up


and revealed a much different story.

• Even without detailed analysis, pressure loss is evident and


raises suspicions of a very limited reservoir.
• History matching indicates:

- a zone of good permeability that extends to a radius of


about 525 ft from the well (20 acres).
- a tight zone that extends to a radius of about 1200 ft from
the well (105 acres).
- an OGIP of 0.94 Bcf.

Results:

• Indication of small reservoir size and GIP seriously impacted


tie-in decision and development plans for future wells.
Case Study

• The client can use this forecast to determine the project


economics of tie-in and when to install compression.

21
SERVICES
GEOLOGICAL STUDIES

Fekete’s geoscientists have evaluated prospects around the world. The strength of our expertise is
the interdisciplinary co-operation between Fekete’s geological, petrophysical, geophysical, and
reservoir engineering staff, and the integration of their results to arrive at a practical and technically
rigorous reservoir interpretation.

The geoscience team’s interpretation of oil and gas reservoirs incorporates all pertinent
stratigraphic, structural, and petrophysical analyses. Gross and net pay analyses and the areal
extent of reservoirs are determined through detailed correlations of hydrocarbon zones and
surrounding strata. The stratigraphy, lithology, depositional environment and subsurface structure
are also assessed. Also, Fekete determines reservoir parameters from petrophysical logs, core
analyses, drillstem tests and well completion information. Mapping and modeling of reservoirs is
completed utilizing all available information for a study area.

Fekete’s geological professionals provide an array of services for both domestic and international
projects. These include:

Basin Analysis:

• Sequence stratigraphic analysis.


• Paleo-environmental interpretation.
• Resource mapping and assessments.
• Exploration prospect generation and risk assessment.
• Petroleum geochemistry.

Reservoir Management:

• Basin analysis and modeling for production


optimization (including EOR – secondary &
tertiary recovery).
• Basin and regional studies for hydrocarbon
potential.
• Gas storage evaluations.
• Property evaluations and resource
assessments.
• Regulatory applications.
• Expert witness.

Petrophysical / Core Evaluations:

• Petrophysical evaluations.
• Sequence stratigraphy – stratigraphic and
sedimentological interpretation.
• Detailed core descriptions.
• Depositional facies analysis.

3D Reservoir Modeling:

• Digitizing and volumetrics.


• Reservoir characterization and subsurface
mapping.
• Reservoir simulation – structural and facies
modeling and upscaling.

22
SERVICES PIPELINE
GEOLOGICAL
OPTIMIZATION
STUDIES

Fekete’s abilities in gas gathering system optimization have been recognized as a truly unique and
valuable service to the oil and gas industry. Using our F.A.S.T. Piper™ software, Fekete’s engineers
are able to build a model of a gas gathering system that includes the surface gathering system,
wellbores, and reservoirs.

On the surface, F.A.S.T. Piper™ has the capability to model complex pipeline systems with actual
sizes, routes, and elevation changes along with various facilities such as compressors, separators,
off-takes, and intakes. Wellbore modeling allows the engineer to analyze wellhead and sandface
deliverability and determine if and when a well is capable of lifting liquids to surface. In addition,
tank-type (volumetric depletion), transient, water-drive, connected, geopressured or coalbed
methane reservoirs may be incorporated into a F.A.S.T. Piper™ model.

After building the model, Fekete personnel can conduct a field tour to obtain accurate flowing
pressures and investigate compressor operations. This provides a snapshot of system
performance to which the model is calibrated in order to represent actual field conditions. After
calibration, future production forecasts can be generated with “what if” scenarios, including
compressor changes, new well tie-ins, debottlenecking, accelerated recovery, and more.

From multiple zone / multiple pressured systems in Alberta, coalbed methane systems in
Wyoming, high pressure gas in Pakistan, to tight gas in Australia, our engineers have accumulated
a vast range of experience and valuable insight. Many clients have chosen Fekete’s expertise
because our recommendations generate immediate production increases at minimal cost and risk.

Fekete’s engineers can build a model of


a gas gathering system including:

• Actual pipeline sizes, routes, and


elevation changes.

• Well deliverabilities.

• Multiple zones with different pressures,


reserves, and depletion.

• Multiple delivery points.

• Different gas compositions.

• Rigorous model based production


forecasting.

• Aquifer support or communicating


reservoir modeling for material balance.

• Compositional tracking for product


allocation.

• Historical production matches and


overlays.

23
SERVICES
GEOLOGICAL STUDIES
PRODUCTION OPTIMIZATION

Fekete’s Production Optimization group investigates and identifies upside reserve and production
potential which can then be developed and added to your booked reserves. We have developed a
comprehensive Opportunity Banking Database process which incorporates geological, reservoir,
completion, production, and economic analyses into a comprehensive summary of your assets.
Specifically, the process includes petrophysical evaluation of bypassed pay including offset
analogies and recommended perforation intervals, testing programming, remedial workover
programming for under-performing wells, assessment of optimal well spacing, abandonment
liabilities, and project economics. All projects are managed in a knowledgeable database with
additional information appended as operations advance.

Projects are prioritized so that they can be instantly reactivated if oil or gas prices jump or new
facilities are built nearby. Project tracking is easy and ideas are never lost with staff turnover. We
have many years of experience and an excellent track record. Clients have realized millions of
dollars of upside production based on our results.

Another specialized service is Wellbore Optimization using Fekete’s F.A.S.T. VirtuWell™ software.
IPR’s, AOF curves, liquid loading, stripper compressors, choke sizing, and velocity strings are
modeled to determine the best downhole tubular configuration.

In addition, Fekete’s Production Optimization group enjoys working on unusual projects that do
not fit conventional categories. These include:

• Acid gas disposal.

• Frac optimization.

• Expert witness testimony.

• Audit of field operations for “best


practices” and cost effectiveness.

Ultimately, our goal is to maximize recovery by


optimizing production and operations of your oil
and gas assets. We investigate all aspects of
the problem by drawing upon Fekete’s
multi-disciplinary expertise. In the end, we bring
forward solutions that either add value or cut
costs.

24
SERVICES REGULATORY
GEOLOGICAL
APPLICATIONS
STUDIES

Fekete assists oil and gas companies in their reservoir management plans by pre-planning and
obtaining the necessary regulatory approvals in British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan. We
have completed and received approval for thousands of applications. Our applications are
technically complete, accurate, and ensure a favorable evaluation by the regulatory authorities.

We can also provide expert witness testimony at government and court hearings. By using Fekete
to handle your regulatory applications, your staff can concentrate on their core responsibilities.

The applications we routinely prepare are:

• Downspacing.
• Holdings.
• Gas production in oil sands areas.
• Commingled production.
• Good production practice (GPP).
• Concurrent production.
• Gas-oil ratio penalty relief.
• WGR and ECF exemptions.
• Pool delineation.
• Enhanced recovery (waterflood).
• Water disposal.
• Acid gas disposal.
• Metering waivers.
• Allowable calculations.
• 0-38 submissions.
• Primary schemes for heavy oil.
• CEE / CDE new pool classification.

25
SERVICES
RESERVES EVALUATION

Fekete’s qualified reserve and resource evaluators identify and address key technical and
economic issues. We use our considerable in-house experience, specialized expertise and the full
spectrum of Fekete’s software to understand your reservoirs, to model and forecast production,
and to provide reserve estimates with confidence.

We prepare professional NI 51-101 and SEC compliant reserve reports for Canadian and United
States regulators. We conduct, appraise, and audit reserves for a variety of purposes including:

• Annual corporate reserve evaluations.


• Individual property reports for acquisition, divestment, and mergers.
• Audit of company reserves to satisfy banking requirements.
• Fair market value estate evaluations.
• Submissions to regulatory authorities regarding issues that require economic evaluations
(i.e. otherwise flared solution gas holidays).
• Assessments of prospective undeveloped lands.
• Reserve certification for international / foreign clients.

As we conduct our diligent review of your wells and properties, we make recommendations on
reservoir management issues such as:

• Increasing well density to maximize recovery.


• Providing alternative pipeline / compressor routes to alleviate deliverability restrictions.
• Enhanced recovery.
• Monitoring well performance (flowing pressures and rates).
• Conducting a pressure build-up test to determine well damage or for pool delineation.
• Integrating seismic and geological models with our reservoir interpretations.

Our group’s most important assets are our people, our reputation, and our relationships with our
clients, the financial community, and the multitude of stakeholders who rely on a fair and
independent reserve report.

26
SERVICES
RESERVOIR ENGINEERING & SIMULATION

Fekete provides an integrated team of reservoir engineers, geologists, geophysicists,


petrophysicists, production engineers, simulation engineers and computer specialists for detailed
reservoir studies. We assemble the team consistent with the objective of the project, whether that is
reservoir development and optimization, or improved reservoir characterization.

Past projects include:

• Reservoir Development and Optimization: such as WAG, CO2-EOR, thermal recovery, and
waterflood design and optimization.
• CO2 Sequestration and Acid Gas Disposal: such as reservoir engineering and modeling of
CO2 storage aquifers in the Middle East and in Alberta as well as post-mortems on five acid
gas disposal projects that have either unexpectedly pressured up or experienced
unexpected acid gas breakthrough.
• Reservoir Characterization: such as multi-well interference analysis for characterization of the
size and permeability of “top water” and “lean zones” in SAGD operations, or connectivity
between gas storage pools.
• Experimental Schemes: such as natural-gas hydrate reservoirs and SO2 disposal.

All simulation projects commence with a detailed review of data quality and analysis of the effect of
data uncertainty on results. Preparation of the dynamic pressure and production data involves a
screening process that uses practical oilfield experience. For example, completion reports are
diligently reviewed for fracture effectiveness, perforation timing, injector/producer pair behavior,
and more. More often than not, basic reservoir engineering techniques are then used to gain an
understanding of the reservoir behavior, and prepare the simulation engineer for challenges during
history matching and reasons for such
challenges.

For large reservoirs, Fekete’s geological,


petrophysical, geophysical and reservoir
engineering staff work in an integrated and
interactive team. The geoscience team is
responsible for building the static model that
honors the depositional environment, and
integrates independent stratigraphic, structural,
and petrophysical analyses.

Simulation proceeds only after scoping analyses


determine that the integrated reservoir
characterization model is representative of the
reservoir, that it will generate trustworthy results,
and that it is economically justified.

Uncertainty assessment is included in the


workflow, when necessary through the use of
assisted history matching tools. After history
matching, multiple realizations are run to
investigate the full range of possible outcomes.

We meet your objectives, whether it is to


optimize the production and development
strategy, or to improve reservoir characterization.

27
SERVICES
UNCONVENTIONAL GAS STUDIES

Fekete helps clients engaged in coalbed methane (CBM) and shale development to optimize
production from new or existing wells. In the past few years, Fekete has been involved in a number
of unconventional gas projects including:

• Undertaking industry funded initiatives to study shale gas.


• Reserve estimation of tight gas.
• Analysis of production data and production forecast for Coalbed Methane reservoirs
(including Horseshoe Canyon coal, Mannville coal, San Juan Basin, Black Warrior Basin,
Drunkard Wash, …).
• Analysis of production data and production forecast for shale gas reservoirs (Appalachian,
Barnett, Haynesville, Montney).
• Reserve evaluation of CBM, tight gas and shale gas reservoirs.
• Provide evidence and engineering support for regulatory applications such as downspacing.
• Production optimization of new or mature CBM wells.
• Preparing engineering reports to determine a CBM-specific development strategy.

Fekete’s Unconventional Gas group has completed a variety of coalbed methane studies with
some consisting of more than 1,000 wells. They include the high pressure, high gas content coals
in the San Juan Basin, multi-zone coals of the Black Warrior Basin, dry Horseshoe Canyon and wet
Mannville coals in Alberta, and Bowen Basin coals in Australia. Our completed projects include:

• Viability of developing new CBM resources.


• Optimal infill well spacing for development of existing fields.
• Gas production forecasts and estimation of de-watering periods.
• Reserve evaluation using volumetrics, traditional decline, static and flowing material balance
and history matching.
• Field development strategy.
• CBM gathering system optimization using F.A.S.T. Piper™.

Using the required engineering tools from simple single well tank-type models to complex
multi-well gridded numerical models, Fekete engineers address complexities that arise in the
analysis of unconventional gas reservoirs and generate reliable production forecasts. The
complexities include but are not limited to gas desorption, diffusion, dual porosity reservoirs,
undersaturated/saturated CBM reservoirs and reservoirs consisting of multiple layers of coal and
sand.

28
SERVICES
WELL TEST & PRODUCTION DATA ANALYSIS

At Fekete, we approach our business with a dynamic, technical and practical attitude.
We have seen significant client value in combining our well test (Pressure Transient) and
advanced decline (Rate Transient) analysis services under one common umbrella called
Well Test & Production Data Analysis. Results obtained from combining both services allow a
greater understanding of the reservoir, completion efficiency and optimization potential. Our
expertise is further strengthened by our interdisciplinary co-operation between these services and
with Fekete’s geological, petrophysical, geophysical and reservoir engineering professionals.

PROJECTS:

Well Test Analysis


• Design and analysis of various tests (flow & buildup, injection & falloff, DST, perforation
inflow, minifrac tests) to determine critical reservoir properties such as reservoir pressure,
permeability, skin and fracture properties.

• Estimate distances to reservoir


boundaries and / or heterogeneities and
establish reservoir volume.

• Predict deliverability potential at various


flowing conditions.

• Recommend potential stimulation (for


damaged wells) or optimization
candidates (utilizing tubing performance
curves and liquid lift calculations).

• On-site supervision and software


training.

Advanced Decline Analysis


• Accurate determination of in-place
volumes.

• Reservoir characterization (permeability,


skin, fracture half-length).

• Diagnose changing skin or permeability


conditions.

• Monitor well performance in competitive


drainage situations.

• Monitor productivity to ensure proper


production allocation.

• Determination of optimal well spacing


and recoveries from infill drilling.

• Providing drainage areas for regulatory


downspacing applications.

• Proof of “tight gas” for government tax


credits.

29
PROJECT EXPERIENCE

Fekete has conducted projects in the following geographical areas:

Canada: Africa/Middle East:


Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Algeria, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Jordan, Libya, Iran,
Newfoundland, North West Territories, Nova Scotia, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Tanzania, Tunisia, United
Ontario, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory Arab Emirates, Yemen

USA: Europe:
Alaska, California, Colorado, Indiana, Kansas, Austria, France, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Netherlands,
Kentucky, Louisiana, New Mexico, Michigan, North Sea, Spain, Turkey
Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma,
South Dakota, Texas, Virginia, Wyoming Australasia:
Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Mongolia, Pakistan,
South America / Caribbean: Papua New Guinea, Philippines
Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Peru,
Trinidad, Venezuela

30
TRAINING

Fekete regularly teaches F.A.S.T.™ Software and Petroleum Engineering courses. Our instructors bring the
best of advanced research and practical experience into the classroom. Students gain immediate, real-world
skills that are applicable in their daily job. Completing a course from us will help expedite your learning and
enable you to better solve your reservoir or production optimization problems.

A Fekete course gives you immediate access, not only to our experts who use the software daily, but to
technical advice on projects that you may currently be working on. Our courses provide an environment in
which you can practice with case study material and sample files taken from actual studies conducted by
Fekete. This gives you the confidence to apply techniques covered in the course immediately after you return
to your job.

F.A.S.T. Software Courses: Fekete Harmony™ | F.A.S.T. DeclinePlus™, F.A.S.T. CBM™, F.A.S.T.
FieldNotes™, F.A.S.T. Piper™, F.A.S.T. RTA™, F.A.S.T. VirtuWell™, F.A.S.T. WellTest™, Unconventional Gas Field
Development using F.A.S.T. RTA™ and F.A.S.T. Piper™, Unconventional Pressure Transient Analysis in F.A.S.T.
WellTest™ and Unconventional Rate Transient Analysis in F.A.S.T. RTA™

Petroleum Engineering Courses: Well Test Interpretation, Modern Production Data Analysis for
Unconventional Reservoirs, Gas Deliverability Forecasting, Oil and Gas Well Spacing in Alberta

Additional Training: In addition to our regularly scheduled courses, Fekete has developed a number of
Lunch & Learn presentations and In-House Training courses to meet your needs. Please contact our course
coordinator at fast@fekete.com to learn more about the course offerings provided by Fekete.

31
FEKETE ASSOCIATES INC.

Suite 2000, 540 - 5th Avenue SW | Calgary, Alberta | Canada | T2P 0M2
403.213.4200 | 1.800.625.2488 (North America only) | fast@fekete.com | fekete.com

Copyright © 2011 Fekete Associates Inc. Printed in Canada. All logos and trademarks are the registered property of Fekete Associates Inc.
COALBED METHANE
RESERVOIR ANALYSIS

MAIN FEATURES

Isotherm / Volumetrics: Type Curves for CBM:


Visually compare measured gas content of coal to the Langmuir Use Agarwal-Gardner Rate-Time type curve
Isotherm. Generate volumetric estimates of the recovery factor developed for dry coal to estimate gas-in-place as
and recoverable reserves based on abandonment pressure or well as permeability and skin.
abandonment CO2 fraction. Calculate free, adsorbed and total
gas-in-place. Analytical Models:
Use analytical models to generate single-phase production
Binary Langmuir Isotherm: forecast, history-match production or confirm results of other
Monitor the fraction of CO2 in the produced gas by modeling the models. The available well/reservoir models includes fracture,
binary mixture of CH4 and CO2 using Extended Langmuir vertical, horizontal, composite, multi-layer, horizontal multi-frac
Isotherm. and multi-frac composite..

History Matching: Matrix Shrinkage:


Import historical production data and match it to determine Invoke the matrix shrinkage option to model stress-dependent
reservoir parameters (permeability, skin, drainage area, and permeability of coal. Utilize different matrix shrinkage correlations
porosity). for forecasting or history matching. Generate permeability vs.
pressure plots for visual confirmation of correlations.
Material Balance:
Estimate original-gas-in-place using static material balance Well Monitoring:
(including King, Seidle and Jensen & Smith methods) or flowing Use the well monitoring option to closely monitor the key factors
material balance (for dry coal). affecting the production of new wells.

Deliverability Forecasting: Multi-Layer Modeling:


Forecast gas and water rates, as well as average reservoir Use the multi-layer functionality to history match the production or
pressure and water saturation based on constant or variable generate forecast for a well perforated into multi zones of coal
flowing pressure and fluid levels. Use the multi-well option to and sand.
quickly determine optimal drill spacing for play areas.
Risk Analysis:
Numerical Models: Perform Risk Analysis using Monte Carlo simulation to investigate
Generate forecasts or history match production data using the the impact of uncertainty in reservoir/well parameters on the
numerical models available for single fracture, vertical or horizon- gas-in-place, EUR and gas and water production and find out the
tal well configuration. likely outcomes.

Data Diagnostics: F.A.S.T. Piper™ Integration:


This feature shows a customizable collection of plots designed to Analyze your CBM wells using F.A.S.T. CBM™. Import the results
quickly show data inconsistencies or operational issues in a in F.A.S.T. Piper™ to forecast multiple wells & optimize tie-in
producing well. locations, pipeline capacity and compression.

Sample plots generated from F.A.S.T. CBM™

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PRODUCTION DATA ANALYSIS
& RESERVES EVALUATION

MAIN FEATURES

Type Wells and Analog Performance: Water-Oil-Ratio (WOR) Analysis:


Normalize analog well production to create a Type Well perfor- Analyze oil reservoir performance using WOR,
mance profile. Use the clipboard functionality to easily apply WOR+1, or water cut diagnostics. Generate oil and
profiles to wells with little or no historical production. water rate forecasts based on constant or variable total
fluid rate.
Advanced Workflows:
Create analyses that can be independent or can be linked to
enforce consistency in results. Develop user defined plot Tight Gas / Shale Decline:
templates with automatically generated analyses. Re-organize Exclusive to F.A.S.T. DeclinePlus™, a more rigorous method to
the data hierarchy on-the-fly to analyze groups based on an match production decline from transient to boundary dominated
extensive list of parameters. Incorporate F.A.S.T. RTA™ into the flow. The transition time can be directly input or calculated based
workflow and compare results from traditional and advanced on estimates of permeability and drainage area.
methods on the same plots.
Consolidations:
Consolidate entity forecasts to group and hierarchy levels based Traditional Analysis Methods:
on reserve classification or forecast name. Consolidations Perform Arps’ decline analysis using advanced best fit options,
update dynamically with changes to well forecasts. multiple segments, and unique line manipulations. Conduct oil
and gas volumetric calculations based on detailed reservoir
Forecasts Worksheet: parameters or mapped hydrocarbon pore volumes. Perform gas
Easily create by-product forecasts using constant or variable or oil material balance on single wells or reservoir groups using
ratios. View, copy/paste or export entity forecasts for easy volumetric, geo-pressured, connected reservoir, or water drive gas
transition into economic software. models and volumetric, volatile oil, or geo-mechanical oil models.

Sample plots generated from F.A.S.T. DeclinePlus™

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Phone: 403.213.4200 | Toll Free: 1.800.625.2488 | declineplus@fekete.com | fekete.com
TIGHT & SHALE GAS
DEVELOPMENT PLANNING

MAIN FEATURES

Determine Optimum Well Spacing: Optimize Surface Capacity:


Determine how many wells are needed to optimally produce a Determine the most efficient usage of gathering
field by comparing and evaluating a wide range of development system facilities in a “green field” development. Run
scenarios based on recovery and profitability indicators. Test the multiple scenarios using different maximum field rates
sensitivity of results to uncertainty in various reservoir and to find the most profitable results.
economic input parameters.

Net Present Value versus Total Number of Wells Net Present Value versus Total Number of Wells

Discounted NPV (M$)


Discounted NPV (M$)

Total Number of Wells Total Number of Wells

Schedule On-stream Dates for New Wells: Evaluate Optimum Fracture Spacing in
Determine when new wells need to come on-stream to Horizontal Wells:
maintain a predetermined maximum field production rate. Use F.A.S.T. Evolution™ to generate production and cash-flow
F.A.S.T. Evolution™’s sophisticated analytical reservoir model forecasts for complex completions, including multi-laterals and
predicts performance of new wells, properly accounting for multi-stage fractures.
depletion and well placement.

Forecast 2 - Field Forecast: Stacked Production Rates Forecast Rates


Rate Forecasst 1 (MMscfd)
Field Production (MMscfd)

Time (month) Time Forecast 1 (month)

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DATA COLLECTION
AND REPORTING

MAIN FEATURES

Test Data Results: Monitor Recovered Fluids and Frac Gases:


View test results at a glance with superb graphical presentation Configure gas meters to monitor the amount of frac gases
and detailed tabular outputs. Monitor key location for possible (CO2, N2, C3) and reservoir gases being recovered. Monitor
hydrating or liquid loading conditions. the percent of load fluid (oil, water, mixed) recovered.

Test Data Transfer:


Gas and Fluid Meter Calculations:
Transfer production test data to pressure transient analysis
Gas rates are calculated using AGA 3, AGA 7 and AGA 8 software (F.A.S.T. WellTest™).
specifications. Oil rate calculations use ASTM 1250D, AGA 7 and
different oil correlations such as Standing and Vasquez & Beggs
PAS Requirements:
to determine GOR2 and liberated gas.
Meets Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB) Pressure
ASCII Standard (PAS) requirements for electronic production test
Manual or Real Time Data Gathering: data submission in Alberta, Canada.
Electronically gather production test data in “real time” from
the wellhead, test equipment & downhole gauges using the FieldNotes Viewer (free):
ModBus Protocol. Alarm on critical maximum or minimum View and print reports from F.A.S.T. FieldNotes™ and ERCB PAS
conditions. Import CSV or other ASCII file formats. files.

Sample plots and tables generated from F.A.S.T. FieldNotes™

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Phone: 403.213.4200 | Toll Free: 1.800.625.2488 | fieldnotes@fekete.com | fekete.com
GAS GATHERING
SYSTEM ANALYSIS

MAIN FEATURES

Integrated Asset Modeling: Compression & Pipeline Loops:


Use F.A.S.T. PiperTM to identify bottlenecks and operational Models positive displacement compressors such
problems with existing and proposed systems. Incorporate all as reciprocating and rotary screw configurations.
aspects of your gathering system, including the reservoir, surface Capable of modeling capacity curves or horsepower
equipment and pipelines, to forecast production and compare limits. Ideal for choosing optimum compressor locations.
optimization scenarios. Model pipeline loops and flow loops explicitly.

Well Deliverability: Project Manager (Time-Based Configurations):


Model deliverability at the wellhead or the sandface. Generate Make changes to a gathering system in the future to predict the
IPR curves from the wellhead and sandface to determine poten- effects of adding new wells, looping pipelines, and adding
tial for production uplift. Supports conventional AOF methods as compression.
well as transient and coalbed methane deliverability.
F.A.S.T. RTATM Integration:
Diagnostics: New in February, 2010, import horizontal, fracture, composite or
Analyze outputs by means of onscreen displays, bubble maps radial RTA analytical models. Forecast forward your RTA analyti-
and various data plots and exports. Use pressure-based bubble cal well model under the constraints of your surface system, or
maps to quickly identify high back pressure areas. Use velocity run field studies to address the impact of field wide compression,
and friction based link maps to identify bottlenecks. Use uplift looping and other optimization scenarios.
and drawdown bubble maps to identify wells with significant
untapped potential. Visualize the impact on field pressure when Production Forecasting:
incorporating development changes such as a proposed drilling Combine deliverability with various reservoir models to forecast
program, additional compression, or new pipeline loops. future production. Reservoir models include conventional
volumetric (Tank-type), transient, water-drive, connected,
Economics: geo-pressured and coalbed methane.
Evaluate the economics of a Piper scenario. Account for the
capital costs of adding new wells ,facilities and pipelines. Model
GIS Mapping Tool:
the fixed and variable costs of operating your system throughout Quickly construct proposed and existing gas gathering systems
the fields life. Adjust for inflation and set a discount rate. Specify using geodetic location imports and/or on-screen editing tools.
a price deck based on either volume or energy content pricing. Underlay shapefiles and image files to facilitate construction to
Evaluate individual wells or the system as a whole based on its real world extents and insure that nodal connections match the
net present value and cash flow. field.

Screen shots generated from F.A.S.T. Piper™

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RATE TRANSIENT
ANALYSIS

MAIN FEATURES

Fetkovich Type Curves: Specialized Analysis:


Analyze transient and boundary-dominated flow. Combines rate A diagnostic tool to determine permeability, skin,
and cumulative type curves. Estimates EUR as well as skin and and fracture half-length from the transient part of the
permeability. data.

Flowing Material Balance:


Blasingame: Converts flowing pressures to corresponding average
Type curves for analyzing variable rate/variable pressure systems. reservoir pressure and calculates fluid-in-place using material
Vertical, horizontal, fractured, and water-drive reservoirs. Estimates balance.
original fluid-in-place, permeability, skin, and fracture half-length.
Unconventional Gas Analysis
Links square root-time plot and flowing material balance plot for
Agarwal-Gardner: analyzing tight/shale gas data. Estimates EUR and stimulation
Includes raw and smoothed data derivative plots. Vertical, effectiveness.
fractured, and water-drive reservoirs. Estimates original fluid-in-
place, permeability, skin, and fracture half-length. Analytical and Numerical Models:
Analytically model vertical/horizontal wells, hydraulic fractures,
multi-layers, composite, horizontal wells with multiple fractures,
Normalized Pressure Integral:
horizontal wells with multiple fractures-composite and water
Well test-style type curve analysis with integration for data drives. Numerically model oil above and below the bubble point
smoothing. Estimates original fluid-in-place, permeability, skin, and gas-oil-water in vertical/horizontal wells and hydraulic
and fracture half-length. fractures.

Wattenbarger: Data Diagnostics:


Type curves for analyzing linear flow. Estimates original fluid-in- Guides to identify problems with data quality BEFORE doing
place, permeability, and fracture half-length. analysis.

Sample plots generated from F.A.S.T. RTA™

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WELLBORE
OPTIMIZATION

MAIN FEATURES

Wellbore / Sandface Deliverability: Plunger Lift:


Evaluate both sandface and wellhead deliverability curves for gas Model gas wells lifting water and/or condensate
wells producing water and/or condensate. Determine sandface on plunger lift. Evaluate the feasibility of a planned
deliverability from sandface or wellhead test data. plunger lift installation for a well which is currently
flowing but loading up. Improve an existing plunger lift
Tubing Performance: installation by exploring the effects of operational variables
Assess fluid-carrying capacity of wellbores and determine effects on the well’s deliverability. Thoroughly understand plunger lift
on deliverability with changes to wellbore configurations in both with the single-cycle and nodal analysis plots and other tools.
gas and oil wells.
Static Pressure Profile:
Wellbore Modeling: Complete shut-in sandface pressure from wellhead pressure and
Calculate wellhead to sandface or sandface to wellhead pressure liquid level in the wellbore.
traverse for wellbores of arbitrary geometry. Perform hydrates
detection along the well at given flowing conditions. Detailed Reservoir Model:
pressure loss computations and fluid properties are readily Predict initial deliverability from gas reservoirs above the dew
accessible. point.
Wellbore Schematics: Liquid Lift:
Semi-scale graphical depiction of wellbore configuration and Determine minium flow rate for liquid lift to avoid fall-back and
geometry. load-up in gas wells.

Sample plots generated from F.A.S.T. VirtuWell™

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ADVANCED PRESSURE
TRANSIENT ANALYSIS

MAIN FEATURES

Quick & Easy Data Entry: Test Design:


A comprehensive system of wizards is designed to guide Simulate a test to determine optimal test
the user through the appropriate steps to ensure data is procedure. Determine if a horizontal well should
entered properly and that they obtain a reliable analysis. be considered as an alternative to a vertical well.

Pressure Transient Analysis (Conventional): Analytical Modeling:


Analyze drawdown/build-up data or injection/fall-off data for gas, Create reservoir conditions from a host of analytical models to
oil and water wells. Use both vertical and match the pressure behaviour observed during a test or during
horizontal well configurations. extended production/injection periods.

Pressure Transient Analysis (Unconventional): PAS Requirements:


Analyze pressure buildup after perforating or analyze pressure Meets ERCB Pressure ASCII Standard (PAS) requirements for
falloff following frac calibration tests. electronic test data submissions in Alberta, Canada. TRG.PAS
files can be easily created, viewed and edited.

Deliverability Forecasting: Other:


Predict the deliverability of a well based on modeling results. Analyze results from multi-rate tests to determine the compo-
Generate “what-if” scenarios to determine the increase in deliver- nents of the total skin factor. Establish IPR and OPR based on test
ability expected from stimulation or adding compression. results.

Sample plots generated from F.A.S.T. WellTest™

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Phone: 403.213.4200 | Toll Free: 1.800.625.2488 | welltest@fekete.com | fekete.com