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JOSEFINA L.

DE LEON
Chief, Wildlife Resources Division
Biodiversity Management Bureau
Department of Environment and
Natural Resources
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Orientation-seminar on National and International
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‘Biodiversity’ is the wealth of


life forms on earth, encompassing
all species of plants, animals, and
microorganisms and the
ecosystems and ecological
processes of which they are part.
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Orientation-seminar on National and International
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Levels of Biodiversity

Ecosystems diversity
Species diversity
Genetic diversity
Photo: Bird life International Photo: Bird life International

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Levels of Biodiversity
Genetic Diversity

www.kolkatabirds.com

S
Ma

Mo

Family Name: Columbidae Family Name: Columbidae Family Name: Columbidae


Scientific Name: Gallicolumba menagei Scientific Name: Gallicolumba keayi Scientific Name: Gallicolumba platenae
Common Name: Sulu bleeding-heart Common Name: Negros bleeding-heart Common Name: Mindoro bleeding-heart

Photo: Bird life International Photo: Bird life International

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Orientation-seminar on National and International
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Levels of Biodiversity
Ecosystems Diversity
Species Diversity
Photo: Bird life International
www.kolkatabirds.com

S Ma

Photo: Bird life International Photo: Bird life International

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Species diversity

Terrestrial Aquatic & marine

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DENR PCSD DA
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Wildlife categories
Based on occurrence:
 Endemic – naturally occurring and found only in the
country or within a specific area in the country
 Indigenous – natural population is established in, but not
confined to, the country; natural population is also found
in other countries
 Exotic – does not naturally occur in the country
 Introduced –has established population outside its
natural range where man has brought them in
 Migratory – seasonal visitor to the country
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Wildlife categories
Based on status:
 Threatened species – generic term to denote
species or subspecies considered as critically
endangered, endangered, vulnerable, or other
accepted categories of wildlife which
population is at risk of extinction

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Wildlife categories
Based on status:
 Threatened species

• Critically endangered – species or


subspecies that is facing extremely high
risk of extinction in the immediate future;
population includes not more than 250
mature individuals in the wild; with 50%
chance of being extinct in the next five
years 10
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Wildlife categories
Based on status:
 Threatened species
• Endangered – not yet critically endangered
but survival in the wild is unlikely if the
causal factors continue operating; with 20%
chance of going extinct in 20 years;
population is not more than 2,500
individuals in the wild
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Wildlife categories
Based on status:
 Threatened species
• Vulnerable – neither critically endangered
nor endangered but is under threat from
various factors throughout its range and is
likely to move to endangered category in the
near future; with 10% chance of going
extinct in 50 years; population is not more
than 10,000 mature in the wild
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Wildlife categories
Based on status:
 Other threatened species – does not yet belong to
any of the threatened categories but is under
threat from various factors, such as over
collection, throughout its rate and is likely to move
to vulnerable category in the near future
 Other wildlife species - non-threatened species
but have the tendency to become threatened due
to predation and habitat destruction or other
similar causes
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Philippine
Wild
Fauna

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BIRDS

The country has


718 species of birds
Bird Life International

At least 231 of
these species
occur only in
the Philippines
Sierra Madre Ground-warbler
(Robsonius thompsoni)
www.birdwatch.ph
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Pithecophaga
jefferyi

The symbol of the


country; a Critically
Endangered species16
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AMPHIBIANS

At least 118 species


of amphibians are
known, 97 species
are FOUND ONLY in
the Philippines!
Sanguirana tipanan

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REPTILES Photo: Bird life International

At least 352
species of reptiles
(lizards, turtles,
crocodiles, and Northern Sierra Madre Forest Monitor Lizard
(Varanus bitatawa)
snakes) are found
in the country, of
which 244 are
found nowhere
else.

Limb-reduced Skink/Caraballo Mountains loam-swimming skink


(Brachymeles muntingkamay)
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Olive Ridley Loggerhead Leatherback


Turtle Turtle Turtle

Hawksbill Turtle Green Sea 19


Turtle
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MAMMALS

207 species of land


mammals, 133 are
endemic
Mingan shrew mouse
(Soricomys leonardocoi)

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Only in the
Philippines…

Northern Luzon Giant


CLOUD RAT 21
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INSECTS
20,940 species recorded
at least 70% is endemic

Pachliopta mariae
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Milionia coalescens (found at


Dahilayan Adv. Park, Bukidnon,
Mindanao)

Courtesy of: Leif Gabrielsen


(Paruparozzis/Butterfly Watchers
Philippines-FB)
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Philippine FLORA
At least 16,223 species have
been discovered and recorded
to harbor the Philippine
ecosystems
Source: (Framework for Philippine Plant Conservation Strategy and Action Plan, 2006.)

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www.pawb.gov.ph
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Only in the
Philippines…

Family Name: Rafflesiaceae

Scientific Name: Rafflesia baletei

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Only in the
Philippines…

Family Name: Nepenthaceae


Family Name: Orchidaceae
Scientific Name: Nepenthes merrilliana Macfarlane
Scientific Name: Paphiopedilum argus (Reichb.f.) Stein
Common Name: Mindanao Giant Pitcher Plant
Common Name: Lady slipper 26
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Megadiversity Country
 one of 17 countries identified as
containing 60 to 70 % of the World’s
biodiversity
 next only to Brazil, Colombia, and
Indonesia.

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HOTTEST OF THE HOT SPOTS

• In 1999, Philippines was identified further as one of 25 global


hotpots* (3rd for threatened birds, 8th for threatened
mammals)
• On a per unit area basis, the Philippines is the top
megabiodiversity country and hottest of the hot spots

*HOT SPOT -an area where there is high probability of species extinction. 29
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Threatened Fauna/Animals of the


Philippines
59
60
53

50

40
CR
EN
30
VU
OTS

20 17 16
14
12
10
8
10
5 5 4 4 4
0 0 0
0
Terrestrial Mammals Birds Reptiles Amphibians

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Wild Flora of the Philippines
NO. OF THREATENED SPECIES
NO. OF (DAO 2007-01)
TAXONOMIC NO. OF
ENDEMIC
GROUP SPECIES
SPECIES CR TOTAL NO. OF
EN VU OTS
THREATENED
SPECIES
Angiosperms 8,120 c. 5800 89 141 123 56 409

Gymnosperms 33 6 - 9 2 - 11

Pteridophytes 1,100 285 10 35 51 8 104

Bryophytes 1,271 195 - 2 - - 2

Algae 1,355 undetermined - - - - -

Fungi, slime
molds,
3,555 undetermined - - - - -
water
molds

Lichens
Source: 789 Philippine Plant
(Framework for undetermined
Conservation- Strategy
- and Action
- Plan,- 2006.) -

TOTAL 16, 223 99 187 176 64 526

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www.pawb.gov.ph
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IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITY

• Sustains our life support system on earth


• Contributes to environmental stability
• Provides options for the present and
future in terms of bio-resources

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Picture soure: Internet

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1. Habitat Destruction
• Logging
• Forest Fires
• Land conversion

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2. Unsustainable Utilization
• Over harvesting of NTFP
• Destructive & Over-fishing

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3. Environmental Pollution
– Chemical waste
– Mine tailings
– Hazardous wastes
– Factory discharge
– Oil spills

TASMAN SPIRIT
Pakistan, July 2003
Grounding entrance Karachi
port
~30,000 tonnes crude oil spilled
Sitio Bagatnan, Lusaran
(in front of Taklong Island)
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Guimaras Oil spill
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4. Biological Pollution
•Invasive alien species

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5. Poaching and Illegal trade

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What is Wildlife Trade?


 the act of engaging in the exchange, exportation or
importation, purchase or sale of wildlife, their
derivatives or by-products, locally or internationally
(Section 5 (t) of RA 9147
Derivatives – substances or materials By-products = any part taken from wildlife
extracted or taken from wildlife (e.g. blood, species (e.g. meat, hides, antlers,
saliva, genes, oils, resins, spores, pollen, feathers, bones, carapace, scales,
etc); compounds directly or indirectly flowers, trunks, leaves, etc), or whole
produced from wildlife and/or products dead body of wildlife in preserved/stuffed
produced from wildlife (Sec. 5 (mm) of state, or compounds indirectly produced
the Joint IRR) thru a biochemical process
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When is wildlife trade illegal?


 Transactions use
fraudulent or fictitious
permit

Species & quantity


exceeds what are allowed
under a permit

Absence of permit
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Legal wildlife traders


Permit Holders:
- have at least 50 legal wildlife
breeders :
* monkeys (3)
* birds (11)
* assorted wildlife (6)
* butterflies (30), mostly in
Marinduque
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Illegal Wildlife Trade


Illegal trade in wildlife and wildlife
related products has been
recognized as the fourth largest
industry (drug, weapon and human
trafficking as the top three in that
order)

estimated at a global scale to be


worth billions of dollars and
involving hundreds of millions of
plants and animals every year
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Illegal Wildlife Trade

In Asia, the illegal


wildlife trade is
estimated at $8 billion
to $10 billion a year.
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Illegal Wildlife Trade

 In the Philippines, illegal


wildlife trade is estimated at
about PhP50.0M – PhP70.0M
per year, excluding associated
habitat loss/destruction,
animal deaths, and supposed
government revenues which
could have been generated
from permit issuances.
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