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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/rser

topologies and control strategies used in photovoltaic systems

Mohammad Barghi Latran n, Ahmet Teke

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Çukurova University, Adana, Turkey

art ic l e i nf o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The application of photovoltaic (PV) as a source of electrical energy in the distributed generation (DG)

Received 6 March 2014 systems are gaining more attention with the advances in power electronics technology. The one of the

Received in revised form key technologies in the PV based DG systems is grid connected inverter that is utilized to interface PV

30 August 2014

power systems into the utility grid. Multilevel multifunctional grid connected inverters (ML-MFGCIs) are

Accepted 12 October 2014

Available online 31 October 2014

new breed of power converter used in large scale PV applications and have superior advantages such as

lower switching power dissipation, lower harmonic distortion and lower electromagnetic interference

Keywords: (EMI) outputs. ML-MFGCIs perform the high quality power from PV systems and provide ﬂexible

Multilevel multifunctional inverter functionality with improved power quality (PQ), voltage and reactive power support and increased

Compensation of power quality problems

capability of the auxiliary service for the utility grid. This paper presents a detailed analysis of various

Distributed generation

ML-MFGCI conﬁgurations for 1-phase and 3-phase systems and control strategies to compensate the

Grid connected photovoltaic systems

different PQ problems. Almost 100 papers including the practical applications and recent research

studies on ML-MFGCIs are reviewed and analysed.

& 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362

2. Impact of inverter conﬁgurations on reliability, efﬁciency and cost of grid connected PV systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362

3. Multilevel multifunctional grid connected inverter (ML-MFGCI) topologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363

3.1. Voltage source ML-MFGCIs (VSML-MFGCI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363

3.1.1. Neutral point clamped MFGCIs (NPC-MFGCI). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363

3.1.2. Flying capacitor MFGCIs (FC-MFGCI). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364

3.1.3. Cascaded H-bridge MFGCIs (CHB-MFGCI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365

3.1.4. Recent advances in VSML-MFGCI topologies used in PV systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365

3.2. Current source ML-MFGCI (CSML-MFGCI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368

4. Modulation techniques used in ML-MFGCI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369

4.1. Sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369

4.2. Hysteresis technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370

4.3. Selective harmonic elimination PWM (SHE-PWM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370

4.4. Space vector PWM (SVPWM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370

5. Classiﬁcation of ML-MFGCIs based on control techniques. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370

6. Analysis and discussions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373

7. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375

n

Corresponding author.

E-mail addresses: mbarghi@student.cu.edu.tr (M. Barghi Latran),

ahmetteke@cu.edu.tr (A. Teke).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.10.030

1364-0321/& 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

362 M. Barghi Latran, A. Teke / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 42 (2015) 361–376

conﬁguration with an auxiliary circuit

A the transformer turn ratio in Hybrid full-bridge ML- Vc the sub-module DC link voltage in Modular MFGCIs

MFGCIs Vcsum sum of capacitors voltages in 11-level CHB-MFGCI

C the number of capacitors in neutral point Vdc the DC link voltage in MFGCIs

clamped MFGCIs Vg the grid voltage

Cd the number of clamping diodes in neutral point Vinv the inverter output voltage in full-bridge conﬁgura-

clamped MFGCIs tion with an auxiliary circuit

Fd the per phase number of freewheeling diodes in VMP the voltage at the midpoint of the capacitive dividers

neutral point clamped MFGCIs in Diode-clamped with second capacitive divider

IL the load current VPV sum of capacitors voltages in MFGCIs

Inref the reactive current in CHB-MFGCI S the separate PV array (DC sources) in cascaded H-

IPV the PV current bridge MFGCIs

M the series connected modules number in cascaded H- T the number of selected transformers in sequence in

bridge MFGCIs each phase for Hybrid full-bridge ML-MFGCIs

N the numbers of output voltage levels in MFGCIs

important technologies in PV based electrical power generation.

IN recent years, the interest in installing more renewable ML-MFI technology is based on the synthesis of the AC voltage

energy sources (RES) to generate electricity power has rapidly from several different voltage levels on the DC bus. When the

increased. A number of reasons such as environmental concerns, number of voltage levels on the DC side increases, the produced

electricity business restructuring, the fast developments of small output waveform includes more steps, generating a staircase wave

scale power generation technologies and micro-grid related sys- and low harmonic distortion which closes the sinusoidal wave-

tems can explain this trend. There are mainly two types of RES to form. ML-MFI topologies are increasingly used in large scale PV

generate electricity which are the most prevailing, the wind and system applications due to their many advantages such as low

solar energy. Solar energy has the advantage of being utilized power dissipation on power switches, low harmonic contents and

almost in every place with the appropriate placement of PV arrays low EMI outputs. The selected switching method to control the

compared to the wind energy. There are two main types of PV inverter will also have an effective role on functionality of inverter

system: grid connected PV system and standalone PV system. such as transferring the active power from PV generator to utility

Nowadays, the application of grid connected PV systems is widely grid as well as reactive power compensation, grid current harmo-

preferred over standalone PV systems [1–7]. The capacities of PV nic and unbalance mitigation and control the voltage proﬁle at PCC

power plants are continuously growing with decreased installa- [18,19].

tion costs and ﬁnancial supports. Due to the continuous increase of This paper focuses on the multilevel multifunctional grid

PV installations, it is required to develop new control strategies for connected inverters architecture, taking into account how to

the convenient operation and management of new power grid interconnect PV systems in the utility grid with improved PQ at

embedded with PV systems to keep up or improve the system the both user and grid side. This paper is therefore organized as

quality, energy efﬁciency and reliability [8–11]. follows: First, the impact of inverter conﬁgurations on reliability,

In practice, the output active power generated by PV arrays is efﬁciency and cost of grid connected PV systems are presented in

inherently unstable. Moreover, the utility is concerned due to the Section 2. Section 3 illustrates the basic concepts and recent

high penetration level of grid connected PV systems. This may cause advances in ML-MFGCI topologies. Sections 4 and 5 describe the

a hazardous situation for network in terms of PQ, voltage regulation modulation and control technique of MFGCI in PV systems,

and stability issues. Thus important requirements for PV systems are respectively. Finally, in Section 6, analysis and discussion on ML-

the fulﬁlment of standards on PQ, acoustic noise limitations and MFGCI technologies in PV systems are discussed, which is followed

electromagnetic compatibility as well as safety and protection by concluding remarks in Section 7.

requirements. Several standards such as EN61000-3-2 [12], IEEE

1547 [13], the U.S. National Electrical Code (NEC) 690 [14], and

IEC61727 [15] must be obeyed when connecting PV systems to utility 2. Impact of inverter conﬁgurations on reliability, efﬁciency

grid. These standards deal with issues such as PQ level of PV output and cost of grid connected PV systems

power, detection of islanding operation, grounding, etc. and deﬁne

the features and structure of the present and future PV modules [16]. Grid connected PV systems typically have four possible inverter

PV systems can be controlled efﬁciently to improve the system scenarios: (a) module inverter, (b) string inverter, (c) multi-string

operation and PQ at point of common coupling (PCC) with recent inverter and (d) central inverter as shown in Fig. 1. The central

advances in power electronics. The main purpose of PV systems is inverter can be used in PV power plant larger than tens kWp with

to generate active power. However, active power ﬁlter function- lower cost and higher efﬁciency. Major disadvantages of central

ality, voltage and reactive power support can be achieved with the inverter conﬁguration are the use of high voltage DC cables;

use of multifunctional inverter in PV systems. Inverters used in common Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) and module

grid connected PV systems can be connected to the utility grid in mismatch. Compared to central inverter, string inverter conﬁgura-

series or shunt. However, due the compensation of some PQ tion can achieve MPPT separately, leading to maximum total

problems such as harmonics, unbalance and reactive power are energy yield. Whereas, there are mismatches in the PV panels

directly concerned with the currents, shunt type topology is connected in series. For this reason, the module inverter conﬁg-

widely preferred because it can effectively injects compensating uration is developed that acts on a single PV panel with a single

currents into the PCC [1,17]. MPPT. The main drawback of a module inverter conﬁguration is

M. Barghi Latran, A. Teke / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 42 (2015) 361–376 363

reactive power control, frequency control and mitigate PQ pro-

blems in order to ensure a reliable, stable and efﬁcient power

conversion from PV systems. From the view of auxiliary function-

alities of ML-MFGCIs in PV systems, they can be classiﬁed as

illustrated in Fig. 1. Because the grid connected inverters (GCIs) are

usual current controlled voltage source inverters (VSI), the aux-

iliary services of ML-MFGCIs to enhance PQ on current issues can

easily be embedded in. However, the functionalities for voltage

issues are hardly achieved using the current controlled-VSIs GCIs.

ML-MFGCIs inject the active power from PV systems to utility grid

as well as can act as (i) active power ﬁlter (APF), (ii) power factor

corrector (PFC), (iii) current unbalance compensator (CUC), (iv)

voltage sag/swell/interruption/unbalance compensator (SSIUC)

and so on [33].

Fig. 1. Grid connected PV systems: (a) module inverter, (b) string inverter, 3. Multilevel multifunctional grid connected inverter

(c) multi-string inverter, (d) central inverter.

(ML-MFGCI) topologies

the lower overall efﬁciency. Multi-string inverter conﬁguration is In medium and high power applications, ML-MFGCI technology

an intermediate conﬁguration between the string inverter and the is a very efﬁcient alternative as the heart of interfacing systems for

module inverter conﬁgurations. In this conﬁguration, each PV integration of PV systems into utility grid. The superior harmonic

string can be controlled independently, so ﬂexible with a high spectrum, decreased voltage rating for the switches, decreased

overall efﬁciency [20]. common mode voltages and lesser voltage changes (dv/dt) are

The cost reduction of PV energy systems is one of the most important advantages of ML-MFGCIs. However, the complexity of

important considerations, which affects the installation capacity of control method rises compared to the traditional two-level inver-

overall PV power plant. Generally, a Levelized Cost of Energy ter. As illustrated in Fig. 2, ML-MFGCIs can be classiﬁed based on

(LCOE) index is adopted to quantify and compare the cost for the power circuit structure to mitigate PQ problems: (1) voltage

different PV systems [21,22]. Ref. [23] presented an overview of source ML-MFGCIs; (2) current source ML-MFGCIs.

LCOE indicators in PV power plants and impact of the plant’s

capacity factor on LCOE. Ref. [24] developed a method to optimize

and evaluate inverter conﬁgurations for grid connected PV sys- 3.1. Voltage source ML-MFGCIs (VSML-MFGCI)

tems to show that how the inverter conﬁgurations and their

operating strategy would impact on lifetime energy yield, LCOE In this section, the classiﬁcation of VSML-MFGCIs used in PV

considering the PV array scale, system cost, environmental condi- systems is presented.

tions and inverter reliability and efﬁciency.

Ref. [25] shows the effects of inverter failures in PV system’s 3.1.1. Neutral point clamped MFGCIs (NPC-MFGCI)

lifetime and investigates the suitability of several inverter conﬁg- NPC-MFGCI inverter is principally comprised of double two-

urations based on criteria of life cycle costs and total lifetime level VSIs stacked one over the other. As shown in Fig. 3(a), the

energy output. Ref. [26] proposed a method to suggest, among a negative point of the upper inverter and the positive point of the

list of commercially available system devices, the type and optimal lower one are assembled together to constitute the new phase

numbers of system devices, PV module and installation details of output, while to make the neutral point N, the initial phase

inverters. Ref. [27] focused on the impact of a more efﬁcient outputs are connected via two clamping diodes. Each power

inverter of PV system on LCOE and balance of system cost, switch has to block solely half of the entire inverter voltage;

analysing real grid connected PV system, transformerless inverter hence the power rating of the inverter can be doubled. NPC-MFGCI

applications, bipolar and unipolar PV array conﬁgurations. topology can be expanded to more output voltage levels and

The optimal solution to reduce LCOE index in large scale PV higher power rates by adding additional power switches and

system is the use of multilevel inverters instead of classical clamping diodes to be able to block higher voltages [34].

inverters. In Ref. [28], authors proposed new multilevel inverter Here the name diode clamped makes more sense, since there

conﬁgurations with less power switches for reduction LCOE in PV are more voltage-level clamping nodes than only the neutral N

systems. In order to improve the efﬁciency and reduce the cost of a [34]. The clamping diodes need completely different voltage

PV system, the use of transformerless PV multilevel inverters is an ratings for reverse voltage blocking because each triggered switch

alternative of increasing interest as stated in [29]. However, this is required to block a voltage level of Vdc/(n 1). The number of

topology has some problems related to the galvanic connection diodes needed for each phase can be calculated as (n 1) (n 2),

between the grid and the PV generator (e.g. efﬁciency degradation where n represents the levels of inverter. In DC-MFGCI, if n is

and safety problems). In some studies, such as Ref. [30], the assumed as the numbers of levels, the number of capacitors (C)

authors focused on to eliminate the injection of DC current to used in diode clamped side can be calculated by Eq. (1). The per

utility grid by transformerless multilevel inverters in PV systems. phase number of freewheeling diodes (fd), and the number of

Ref. [31] proposed a technique for the optimal design of the power clamping diodes (cd) can be determined by Eqs. (2) and (3).

section and output ﬁlter of grid-connected PV inverter. In most PV

C ¼ n1 ð1Þ

systems, DC–DC converter is used for boosting the low voltage

output of PV panels as well as MPPT. In some studies, such as [32],

f d ¼ 2ðn 1Þ ð2Þ

authors suggested the multilevel inverter for boosting the output

voltage with self MPPT capability to eliminate DC–DC converter

(extra cost for LCOE in PV system). Additionally, ML-MFGCIs cd ¼ ðn 1Þ ðn 2Þ ð3Þ

364 M. Barghi Latran, A. Teke / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 42 (2015) 361–376

Fig. 3. Power circuit conﬁguration of Three-level (a) NPC-MFGCI, (b) FC-MFGCI, (c) CHB-MFGCI.

DC-MLIs are efﬁcient in applications operating at fundamental NPC-MFGCI and FC-MFGCI topology is that FC-MFGCI has a

frequency switching. However, the number of clamping diodes modular structure and can be more easily extended to perform

needed is quadratically associated with the number of output more voltage levels and higher power ratings [35].

voltage levels [35]. Ref. [36] proposed a new conﬁguration of FC-MFGCI based

shunt active power ﬁlter to increase the number of output voltage

levels and as a result, decrease the output voltage THD with

3.1.2. Flying capacitor MFGCIs (FC-MFGCI) reduced ratings and losses of ﬂying capacitors and power switches

FC-MFGCI topology is similar to the NPC-MFGCI expect that the for a PV system. The increase in the number of combinations

clamping diodes are replaced by ﬂying capacitors. Fig. 3(b) shows required to generate a desired voltage level and reduction in the

a three-phase three-level FC-MFGCI topology where the load voltage ratings of capacitors and stored energy in the ﬂying

cannot be directly connected to the neutral of the inverter to capacitors as well as the switching losses are the other advantages

generate the zero voltage level. Instead, the zero level is achieved of this type of inverter [37]. The 7-level full bridge 3-phase FC-

by connecting the load to the positive or negative side through the MFGCI adopted for PV-APF system is shown in Fig. 4. In this

ﬂying capacitor with opposite polarity respect the DC-link [34]. In conﬁguration, only one DC link is used for three single-phase FC-

n-level structure, NPC-MFGCIs require (n 1) DC link capacitors MFGCIs and the number of voltage levels is doubled. As a result,

and (n 1) (n 2)/2 auxiliary capacitors per phase comparing to the required DC capacitors are decreased from six to one and also

DC-MFGCI topology. The most important difference between the only one three phase transformer is enough to inject the currents.

M. Barghi Latran, A. Teke / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 42 (2015) 361–376 365

where the line to line voltage is the inverter output voltage.

Therefore, a single H-bridge inverter can generate three different

voltage levels. To avoid DC-link capacitor being short circuits, each

leg has two possible switching positions. The zero level can be

obtained connecting the phase outputs to the positive or the

negative sides of the inverter.

The number of output phase voltage levels in a CHB-MFGCI

with ‘s’ separate PV array (DC sources) is ‘n ¼ 2s þ 1’. The duty cycle

for each voltage level can be adjusted so that each DC source and

bridge shares the same load. If m is assumed as the series

connected modules number, the number of output voltage levels

in each phase can be calculated with Eq. (4). The switching states

of n level CHB-MFGCI can be calculated by Eq. (5).

n ¼ 2m þ 1 ð4Þ

sw ¼ 3n ð5Þ

dant switching state for each H-bridge inverter, inherently intro-

duces more redundancies. So, CHB-MFGCI provides more

redundancies than the NPC-MFGCI and FC-MFGCI topologies.

These switching redundancies and the natural modularity of

CHB-MFGCI enable the fault tolerant operation [34,35,38].

A numerous of new topologies such as three-level active NPC

(3L-ANPC), the modular multilevel inverter (MMI), the assisted

modular multilevel inverter (MMI), the CHB fed with unequal dc

sources or asymmetric CHB, the hybrid NPC, and the cascaded

matrix converter (CMC) have been studied in the recent literature.

back of 3L-NPC topology is the unequal sharing of losses

between the inner and outer power switches in each inverter

leg. Since the power switches are cooled with separate heat

sinks and cooling systems, it results in an asymmetric distribu-

tion of semiconductor junction temperature, which affects the

cooling system design and limits the maximum power rate,

switching frequency, and output current of the inverter. This

problem can be solved by replacing the neutral clamping

diodes with clamping switches to provide a controllable path

for the neutral current and thus the loss distribution among the

switches of the inverter can be controlled. With clamping

diodes in the 3L-NPC, the current freewheels through the lower

or the upper clamping diode, depending on the polarity of

current when the zero voltage level is produced. However, with

clamping switches, the current can be forced to ﬂow through

the upper or the lower clamping path [39,40]. These additional

devices are called active neutral clamping switches, as shown

in Fig. 5.

B. Magnetic coupled MFGCIs (MC-MFGCIs): Fig. 6 shows a single-

phase PV system with a magnetic coupled inverter as described

in [41]. The inverter composed of three full-bridge inverter

with connected of their midpoints to a primary of the trans-

formers. The secondary of the transformers are connected in

series. Due to different turns ratios of each transformer and the

ability of each full-bridge to make three different voltages

across the primary winding (þVdc, Vdc and 0) the voltage at

the AC terminals can be comprised of 27 levels. The most of the

transferred power (80%) is managed by main inverter with low

Fig. 4. Power circuit conﬁguration of 7-level FC-MFGCI.

switching frequency, which active and reactive power can be

3.1.3. Cascaded H-bridge MFGCIs (CHB-MFGCI) controlled independently.

CHB-MFGCIs are composed of the series connection of two or The advantage of this circuit is the generation of almost sine

more single phase H-bridge inverters as shown in Fig. 3(c). Each H- wave output accomplished with low switching frequencies. A

366 M. Barghi Latran, A. Teke / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 42 (2015) 361–376

Fig. 5. Power circuit conﬁguration of 3-level ANPC-MFGCI.

through inductors, leaving one unconnected phase per inverter,

which together form the three output phases of the overall

multilevel topology. Since it is based on three phase inverters

rather than single phase H-bridges at the output compared

with the CHB-MFGCI, it requires fewer cells and features a

transformer with less secondary windings. It also has less DC

link capacitors and power switches, although it introduces

inductors and has a lower number of output levels. This

conﬁguration is not scalable to obtain more voltage levels; it

presents a viable solution to supply AC motors and transfor-

mers, particularly when the DC source can be split into two

insulated parts, such as PV arrays. The presence of two isolated

Fig. 6. Power circuit conﬁguration of 27-level MC-MFGCI. DC sources avoids the circulation of common mode currents in

dual-inverter conﬁguration. In the case of a single DC source,

common mode currents can be prevented either by an addi-

tional three phase common mode reactor or by the application

of a proper Space Vector Modulation algorithm. In this last

case, common mode voltages are not generated by the inverter

but at the price of lower DC bus voltage utilization [39,43–46].

E. Hybrid NPC-MFGCIs (HNPC-MFGCI): This topology consists of an

NPC-MLI operated using a grid switching frequency and a two-

level standard inverter as shown in Fig. 9. The general purpose

of the ﬁrst inverter is to inject the generated power from PV

system to utility grid, and also the second inverter controls the

quality of injected power. The losses of the system are reduced,

mainly the switching losses, because the ﬁrst inverter switches

few times per cycle, and the second inverter switches with very

low currents [47,48].

Fig. 7. Power circuit conﬁguration of 19-level ACHB-MFGCI. F. Modular MFGCIs (M-MFGCI): Fig. 10 shows the single-phase

circuit of the M-MFGCI, which has two arms including the right

and left arm, with each arm having N sub-module (SM),

major drawback of the circuit is the need for three equivalent resistor, and one buffer inductor. DC link of the M-

transformers. MLI is connected to high voltage sources depending on the

C. Asymmetric CHB-MFGCIs (ACHB-MFGCI): If the CHB-MFGCI operation purpose of the inverter. The output of the inverter is

topology, as shown in Fig. 3(c), is fed by unequal DC voltage the connection point of the right and left arms. Each SM has

ratios between cells, some or even all voltage level redundant two states (“ON” and “OFF”), and the corresponding output

switching states can be eliminated, maximizing the number of voltage of the SM is Vc or 0. The capacitor will charge or

different voltage levels generated by the inverter. This topology discharge during the period of the “ON” state of the SM

permits the switching of the higher power cells at fundamental depending on the direction of Ism [49].

frequency, reducing the switching losses of the inverter and G. Hybrid full-bridge ML-MFGCIs (HFB-MFGCI): In HFB-MFGCI, each

thus improving efﬁciency. However, this advantage is also its phase consists of two full-bridge inverters and their corre-

important weakness since the power is not evenly distributed sponding transformers, which have a series-connected second-

among the inverter cells, mitigating the input current low order ary as shown in Fig. 11. The levels of output voltage will be

harmonics elimination effect of the multipulse rectiﬁer system different with the different turn ratios of the transformers. In

of the conventional CHB [39,42]. 19-level ACHB-MFGCI conﬁg- Fig. 11, the full-bridge inverter called main inverter circuit

uration is shown in Fig. 7. which associates the turn-ratio (1:3a) transformer and the

D. Dual ML-MFGCIs (D-MFGCI): As illustrated in Fig. 8, two of the other full-bridge inverter called auxiliary inverter circuit, how-

phases of each VSI are tied to the other two of the phases ever, the output voltage waveform of each phase is 9-level.

M. Barghi Latran, A. Teke / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 42 (2015) 361–376 367

Fig. 10. Power circuit conﬁguration of M-MFGCI. divider.

In other cases, the number of output voltage levels by a During the positive half cycle of grid voltage, which is when S1

combination of cascaded transformers could be normalized and S2 are on, the voltage V 1 MP2 ¼ V in V MP2 . When S2 and D5

by n ¼ 3T; n ¼ 1; 2; 3. Here, T means the number of selected conduct, (V 1 MP2 ) equals to (V MP1 V MP2 ). During the negative

transformers in sequence in each phase. The turn-ratio of Trf.1x half-cycle, while S3 and S4 are on, (V 1 MP2 ) becomes

is 1:a, and others are determined by 3T order. Applying proper (V MP1 V in ). While S3 and D6 conduct, V 1 MP2 ¼ V MP1 V MP2 .

switching functions to this topology, the ﬁnal output level can The injection of a DC current into the utility grid is eliminated

be generated by the rate of an integer to an input voltage by connecting the neutral grid terminal to the midpoint of the

source (Vdc). Attractive features of this topology are summar- second capacitive divider (MP2), which controls the average

ized as: (1) generation of high-quality output voltage waves; voltage of MP2. The efﬁciency of this topology is similar to the

(2) lower switching frequency; (3) high-performance ﬁltering single-phase three-level DC-MLI, considering that the same

effects due to the leakage reactance of cascaded transformers; power switches are used.

(4) low dv/dt stresses imposed on switching devices [50]. I. Full-bridge conﬁguration with an auxiliary circuit: The multilevel

H. Diode-clamped with second capacitive divider: The topology in inverter conﬁguration consists of a full bridge inverter with an

Ref. [30] is based on the single phase three level DC-MLI. The auxiliary circuit as shown in Fig. 13. PV arrays are connected to

topology adds a second capacitive divider to which the neutral the inverter by a DC–DC boost converter which is used to

grid terminal is connected (Fig. 12). The voltage at the midpoint increase inverter output voltage Vinv to keep greater than √2 of

of the additional capacitive divider (MP2) is controlled and the utility grid voltage Vg to guarantee the power injection from the

non-injection of the DC to the grid is assured. The topology has PV arrays into utility grid [19]. Because PV arrays are used as

the positive features over DC-MLI; mainly, the non-generation input voltage sources, the voltage produced by the arrays is

of variable common mode voltage and reduced the current known as Varrays. Varrays is boosted by a DC–DC boost converter

ripple. to exceed √2Vg. As shown in Fig. 13, an auxiliary circuit

368 M. Barghi Latran, A. Teke / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 42 (2015) 361–376

number (n) is presented between different inverter types in

Table 1.

advantages of its inherent boost characteristics, longer lifetime of

the storage unit, inherent fault protection capability and direct

control of the output current [54,55]. The reason of the CSI not

being as popular as VSI is that inductors employed in CSI as energy

Fig. 13. Power circuit conﬁguration of full-bridge with auxiliary circuit. storage devices have higher conduction losses and therefore

compared to DC link capacitors of VSI have lower energy storage

efﬁciency [56,57]. However, with the development of supercon-

ducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) technologies the problem

related to conventional inductors are going to be solved and hence

CSIs can be considered appropriate for high power application.

Moreover, the recently-introduced reverse blocking IGBT has

eliminated the need for series diode and thus making CSI a good

alternative. Recently, the interest of researchers for multilevel

inverters based on CSI for various applications has noticeably

increased [58]. In this section, the classiﬁcation of CSML-MFGCI

used in PV systems is presented.

single-line diagram of the grid-connected PV system based on

DCS-MFGCI. DC link current of each inverter unit is controlled

Fig. 14. Power circuit conﬁguration of AM-MFGCI.

independently, whereas control of AC-side current is per-

formed according to a combined current control scheme. Each

PV system operates at the maximum power by their own MPPT.

Table 1

Each PV array is interfaced with the corresponding inverter

Comparison of main switches requirement through DC-link inductor LDC. The proposed multilevel struc-

between n-level ML-MFGCI. ture with control scheme is capable of operating equal and

unequal insolation/irradiation level [58].

Inverter type Switch number

B. Boost current ML-MFGCI (BC-MFGCI): Fig. 16 shows single-line

DC-MFGCI 2ðn 1Þ diagram of the grid-connected PV system based on BC-MFGCI.

FC-MFGCI 2ðn 1Þ

CHB-MFGCI 2ðn 1Þ

ACHB-MFGCI 2ðn 1Þ

M-MFGCI 2ðn 1Þ

MC-MFGCI 4log 3 ðnÞ

D-MFGCI 4log 3 ðn 2Þ þ 4

AM-MFGCI 2log 3 ðnþ 2Þ þ 2

DC-bus capacitors and the full-bridge inverter. Proper switch-

ing control of the auxiliary circuit can generate a half level

of PV supply voltage, i.e. þ Vpv/2 and Vpv/2. With the help

of this topology, the output voltage can be produced with a

lower harmonic content and reactive power can be controlled

[51–53].

J. Assisted modular AM-MFGCI (AM-MFGCI): Fig. 14 shows the

conﬁguration of PV based multilevel inverter, which composed

of PV modules, level modules and a standard H-Bridge module

and the inverter generates a 7-level output phase voltage.

However, by adding level modules to the system, the number

of output voltage levels can be increased. PV module consists of

PV arrays and a capacitor group. Depending on the increase of

the output level number, PV arrays are suitably connected in

series and PV module is expanded according to the number of

level modules. The output voltage level numbers can be raised

by adding the number of PV and level modules. This inverter

structure provides an advantage in point of decreasing of the

power switching number compared to other inverter types

[29]. Fig. 15. Power circuit conﬁguration of DCS-MFGCI.

M. Barghi Latran, A. Teke / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 42 (2015) 361–376 369

BC-MFGCI structure allows a high power factor operation of a the decrease of the current slope in the circuit devices, with a

PV system, injecting a quasi-sinusoidal current into the grid, consequent reduction of conducted and radiated EMI. The BC-

with virtually no displacement in relation to the line voltage at MFGCI technique also allows adapting or minimizing current

the point of common coupling among the PV system and the waveforms harmonic content [59].

loads. The major appeals of using the CML technique are the

balanced current sharing among semiconductor switches and 4. Modulation techniques used in ML-MFGCI

four categories as (i) SPWM, (ii) Hysteresis, (iii) Selective harmonic

elimination and (iv) SVPWM as shown in Fig. 17.

with a triangular carrier waveform to generate gate signals for the

Fig. 16. Power circuit conﬁguration of BC-MFGCI. inverter switches. Power dissipation is one of the most important

issues in high power PV applications. The fundamental frequency

SPWM control method was proposed to minimize the switching

losses. The multi-carrier SPWM control methods also have been

implemented to increase the performance of multilevel inverters

and have been classiﬁed according to vertical or horizontal

arrangements of carrier signal. The vertical carrier distribution

techniques are deﬁned as level shifted (LS-PWM), which includes

phase disposition (PD-PWM), phase opposition disposition (POD-

PWM) and alternative phase opposition disposition (APOD-PWM),

while horizontal arrangement is known as phase shifted (PS)

control technique. In fact PS-PWM is only useful for cascaded H-

bridges and ﬂying capacitors, while PD-PWM is more useful for

NPC. Each of the mentioned multi-carrier SPWM control techni-

Fig. 17. Classiﬁcation of ML-MFGCIs based on modulation techniques. ques have been illustrated in Fig. 18, respectively [19,39,60–62].

Fig. 18. Multi-carrier SPWM controls strategies: (a) PD, (b) POD, (c) APOD, (d) PS.

370 M. Barghi Latran, A. Teke / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 42 (2015) 361–376

the appropriate switching states and their duty cycle according to

certain modulation scheme. SVM operates in a complex plane

divided in the six sectors separated by a combination of turn-on or

turn-off states of switching in the power circuit. The reference

vector is used to locate two adjacent switching-state vectors and

compute the turn-on time for each switch. Although with the

better reliability and perfect anti-jamming of digital control

technique, SVM is of slow response time caused by the inherent

calculation delay [63]. In order to solve this drawback, the

improvement of adopting deadbeat control [65] and a certain

oversize of the system reactive components are recommended

[66]. Fig. 19 shows the space vector diagram of a three-level

inverter with sector and subsectors.

Fig. 19. Space vector diagram of a three-level inverter with sector and subsectors.

5. Classiﬁcation of ML-MFGCIs based on control techniques

Ref. [49] proposed an improved phase disposition PWM (PD- An advanced control technique is very critical for the efﬁcient

PWM) for an M-MFGCI which is used PV system. This new operation of ML-MFGCI system. ML-MFGCI control technique

modulation method is based on selective virtual loop mapping calculates the current and voltage reference signals and deter-

(SVLM), to achieve dynamic capacitor voltage balance without the mines the switching sequence of inverter switches. There are

help of an extra compensation signal. The concept of virtual various control techniques and algorithms in the literature applied

submodule (VSM) is ﬁrst established, and by changing the loop to ML-MFGCI systems. Frequency domain techniques, i.e. Fast

mapping relationships between the VSMs and the real submo- Fourier Transform, are not widely used due to large computation

dules, the voltages of the upper/lower arm’s capacitors can be well time and delay in calculating the reference signals [67]. Time

balanced. This method does not require sorting voltages from domain techniques use instantaneous derivation of compensating

highest to lowest, and just identify the MIN and MAX capacitor current or voltage signals. There has been a huge number of

voltage’s index which makes it suitable for a modular multilevel control techniques successfully applied to ML-MFGCIs in the time

converter with a large number of submodules in one arm. domain. Most common time domain control methods used in ML-

Compared to carrier PS-PWM, this method is more easily to be MFGCI are the instantaneous active and reactive power (also called

realized in ﬁeld-programmable gate array (FPGA) and has much as 3-phase pq theory) which is shown in Fig. 20 [68] and

stronger dynamic regulation ability, and is conducive to the synchronous reference frame method (also called as 3-phase dq

control of circulating current. theory) which is shown in Fig. 21 [69]. These methods convert the

current and voltage signals in ABC frame to stationary reference

4.2. Hysteresis technique frame (pq theory) or synchronously rotating frame (dq theory) to

extract the fundamental and harmonic quantities [67]. In pq

The switching signals are derived from the comparison of the theory, instantaneous active and reactive powers are calculated,

current error signal with a ﬁxed width hysteresis band. This while, dq theory concerns with the current free of the source

technique has extreme robustness, good stability, fast dynamic and voltage. The active and reactive power concern with fundamental

automatic current limited characteristic. Some unsatisfactory fea- components (pq theory) and the fundamental component in

tures of this technique are producing varying modulation frequency distorted voltage or current (dq theory) are DC quantities in these

for the active power ﬁlter and difﬁculty in designing the input ﬁlters theories. ML-MFGCI controller based on instantaneous active and

to the possible generation of unwanted resonance on the utility grid. reactive power theory were studied in [29,33,36,41,50], pq theory

That the performance of active power ﬁlter affected by the phase has limitations when the source voltages are unbalanced and/or

current interaction is also a negative feature and the current distorted. The pqr theory is modiﬁed and referred as “pq0 theory”

coupling restrict the current control technique applied in the system to eliminate these limitations that were studied in [94,95].while

with insulated neutral. In order to overcome the intrinsic short- synchronously rotating frame (SRF) theory based controller were

comings, many improvements have been suggested [63]. studied in [49,58,70].

Double-loop dq control based on discrete Fourier transform

4.3. Selective harmonic elimination PWM (SHE-PWM) (DFT) and phase locked loop (PLL) method in CHB-MFGCI are used

switching method and dependent on the elimination of deﬁned

harmonic orders. The principle of this method is to deﬁne the

switching angles of harmonic orders for eliminating and obtaining

the Fourier series expansion of output voltage. Basically, in SHE,

the Fourier coefﬁcients or harmonic components of the predeﬁned

switched waveform with the unknown switching angles are bring

to zero for those undesired harmonics, while the fundamental

component is kept to the desired reference amplitude. SHE is a

very attractive option for the application in three-level inverters,

because the equipment needs to operate at a very low switching

frequency to reduce the semiconductors losses [19,34,39,64]. Fig. 20. Control scheme of instantaneous active and reactive power theory.

M. Barghi Latran, A. Teke / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 42 (2015) 361–376 371

control method.

control loop, the fuzzy logic (FL) control and the proportional-

resonant (PR) control is applied, respectively. The switching

pattern generation is achieved using SVPWM technique.

Fig. 23. Control scheme of three-level NPC-MFGCI based on decouple control of the

active and reactive power. Direct Power Control (DPC) is based on the instantaneous

power theory and commonly used in control schemes of grid tied

inverters. Ref. [73] proposed an extended DPC (EDPC) for a three-

in PV systems to coordinate active and reactive power control [70]. phase NPC-MFGCI fed from PV system. DPC approach for inverter

In this method, DC voltage of each inverter module is controlled to makes possible to achieve unity power factor (UPF) operation by

track the reference by the PI controller. In Ref. [36], a modiﬁed directly controlling its instantaneous active and reactive power.

control strategy in accordance with p-q theory, PS-PWM method The other is a fuzzy logic controller, in the multi-DC-bus voltage

and predictive current control was proposed for FC-MFGCI which control loop, developed to provide active power command. To

is shown in Fig. 22. achieve UPF operation, the reactive power command is set to zero.

To keep the injected current from PV systems into the utility The proposed control scheme shows in Fig. 25.

grid sinusoidal and to achieve high dynamic performance with low Voltage oriented control (VOC) is based on SRF control method

total harmonic distortion (THD), a digital PI current control and commonly used in control of PQ compensators and interfaced

algorithm is used in NPC-MFGCI [51,52,71]. As shown in Fig. 23, inverters in DG systems. In Ref. [74], a modiﬁed version of VOC

the inverter control is based on a decoupled control of the active method and SVPWM technique have been applied to control the

and reactive power. DC voltage is set by a PI controller that 3-level NPC-MFGCI as shown in Fig. 26. With the proposed

compares the actual DC bus voltage and the reference voltage modiﬁcation, the PV system operates as a shunt APF, a reactive

generated by the MPPT, and provides active current reference in a power compensator and a load’s current balancer simultaneously.

SRF attached at grid voltage vector. The other component of In this way, the PV system operates more efﬁciently compared to

current vector represents the reactive current and it can be kept the traditional PV systems and offers ancillary services to

at zero to maintain almost unity power factor. utility grid.

To generate the proper inverter reference currents based on the In Ref. [75], authors proposed a generalized reactive power

instantaneous reactive power theory, the dual-loop current control theory for a CHB-MFGCI used in PV system to generate the reactive

method are commonly preferred. As shown in Fig. 24, to generate current reference. Within the inverter’s capability, reactive power

reference currents in dual-loop current control method, Ref. [72] required by the loads is provided to enhance the grid PQ. To

uses the outer DC bus voltage control loop. In the inner current minimize harmonics and achieve zero error tracking, a hybrid

372 M. Barghi Latran, A. Teke / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 42 (2015) 361–376

and level-shifted carrier PWMs to share the control action among

the cascade-connected bridges to concurrently synthesize a multi-

level waveform and to keep each of the PV arrays at its maximum

power operating point.

Fig. 30 shows the control block diagram of a M-MFGCI which

proposed in Ref. [49], where Vdcref is the reference of the dc-link

voltage, Vdc is the dc-link voltage, Iqref is the reactive reference

current, VS(a, b, c) is the ac-side grid voltage and I(a, b, c) is the output

current of the M-MFGCI. Vdcref and Vdc are compared with each

other to generate the active reference current idref. The reference

voltage can be obtained by decoupled control, and the suppression

compensation signal for a circulating current should be added to it.

Meanwhile, it is no longer possible to balance the system capacitor

voltage dynamically by generating the proper compensation

signal. This approach avoids excessive compensation signal mutual

Fig. 26. Control scheme of VOC based three-level NPC-MFGCI. interference (which increases system stability) and provides a

possibility for circulating current suppression and satisﬁes high DC

voltage utilization ratio.

Ref. [80] proposed a FC-MFGCI which acts as both active power

generator and APF. Increase in the number of output voltage levels,

natural self-balancing of ﬂying capacitors and dc link voltage and

lower power rating of components are the main properties of FC-

MFGCI inverter compared with traditional multilevel inverters.

Furthermore, a new control method based on instantaneous

Fig. 27. Control scheme of 11-level CHB-MFGCI.

reactive power theory and Predictive Current Control using mod-

iﬁed PS-PWM modulation method has been presented and applied

to proposed APF. Also, maximum power of PV array has been

injected to system using a simple method for MPPT.

Fig. 28. The current and DC voltage control subsystems used in CHB-MFGCI

controllers.

controller is applied to current control. The overall control diagram

is shown in Fig. 27. Inref, Vcsum, IL, VPV and IPV represent the reactive

current, sum of capacitors voltages, load current, PV output

voltage and PV current, respectively. The repetitive controller can

force periodic tracking error to approach zero asymptotically [76],

but the dynamic response is slow. So the hybrid controller is

applied, in which the proportional controller improves the

dynamic response and the repetitive controller improves the

accuracy in steady state.

In Ref. [77], the authors proposed a CHB-MFGCI for PV systems Fig. 29. Control scheme of 7-level CHB-MFGCI.

governed by a new integrated fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The

novelties of the proposed system are the use of a fully FLC (not

requiring any PWM switching-angle generator and PI controller)

and the use of an H-bridge power-sharing algorithm.

Ref. [78] suggested a control method that permits the inde-

pendent control of each DC-link voltage in CHB-MFGCI, enabling

the MPPT of each solar panel. The stable operation boundaries of

the inverter under unbalanced operating conditions, without any

additional controller are investigated. A new reactive power

controller (RPC) is also proposed that enhances the operating

range of the CHB-MFGCI inverter. The proposed RPC enables the

inverter to operate under unbalanced PV panel conditions, when

one panel becomes completely shaded. The overall control block

diagram is shown in Fig. 28.

Ref. [79] developed a control technique based on an energy-

sampled data model that enables the design of a linear discrete

controller in voltage loop for each array, providing the stability of

the system for the all range of PV array operating conditions as Fig. 30. Control scheme of 5-level M-MFGCI.

M. Barghi Latran, A. Teke / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 42 (2015) 361–376 373

Abbreviations of ML-MFGCI conﬁgurations.

A traditional grid connected PV plant contains a large number

Abbreviation Description

of PV modules connected in series and parallel to constitute

strings and sub-arrays. The inverters are then connected to the VSML-MFCGI Voltage source ML-MFGCI

medium voltage (MV) electric grid through a power transformer. CSML-MFGCI Current source ML-MFGCI

The large scale PV plants can be further classiﬁed as centralized NPC-MFGCI Neutral point clamped MFGCI

ANPC-MFGCI Active neutral point clamped

and multi-string types. In centralized type, the central inverter DC-MFGCI Diode clamped MFGCI

performs a unique MPPT algorithm for all the strings and inter- FC-MFGCI Flying capacitor MFGCI

faces to the MV grid. In multi-string architecture, the strings are CHB-MFGCI Cascaded H-bridge MFGCI

connected to DC/DC converters that convert the PV string output ACHB-MFGCI Asymmetric cascaded H-bridge MFGCI

DVS-MFGCI Dual voltage source MFGCI

voltage into a common DC bus which feeds a central inverter that

MC-MFGCI Magnetic coupled MFGCI

interfaces to the MV grid. Two-stage converters allow the PV M-MFGCI Modular MFGCI

panels to operate over a wider voltage range than is possible with AM-MFGCI Assisted modular MFGCI

a centralized architecture and reduce losses due to panel mis- DCS-MFGCI Dual current source MFGCI

match and partial shading. On the other hand, DC/DC converter HFB-MFGCI Hybrid full-bridge MFGCI

HNPC-MFGCI Hybrid neutral point clamped MFGCI

increases the costs and decreases the conversion efﬁciency. BC-MFGCI Boost current MFGCI

Although both architectures use central inverters, grid connected

centralized architectures currently represent the state-of-the-art

for megawatt-scale PV plants due to their low cost-per-watt, easy (1) The available ML-MFGCIs are mainly experimental prototypes

maintenance and high conversion efﬁciency [81]. and their capacities are low. The trend in the industry is

As shown in Fig. 31, standard central inverters will continue to toward higher power ratings for ML-MFGCIs, because the ML-

be the most widely used inverter type in 2016 due to the growing MFGCIs cost per watt decreases as ML-MFGCIs power

demand for large commercial and grid connected projects, also the increases. Therefore, ML-MFGCIs with power ratings up to a

demand for turnkey substations is forecast to grow quickly in few megawatts may be offered to the commercial market.

emerging markets, since these products help speed up installation (2) The functionalities of ML-MFGCIs still need exploit. ML-MFGCI

times or simplify designs for large projects [97]. controls must be able to enhance grid reliability and power

Medium and high power multilevel inverters are optimal quality, and support grid voltage and frequency stability. With

solution for large scale grid connected PV systems. The multilevel the increase in PV penetration, future ML-MFGCIs for large

inverter not only achieves power generation tracking, but also can solar plants will need to incorporate several grid-control

complete the reactive, unbalance, and harmonic current compen- functionalities.

sation and named as multilevel multifunctional inverter. In the (3) Another trend, for the DC side of the ML-MFGCI, is the use of

central type PV plants without any DC–DC converter for MPPT, the higher system voltages to reduce wire costs and power losses.

new generation multilevel inverters act as maximum power tracer On the DC side, most large PV systems have been operating

to achieve high conversion efﬁciency. with a DC voltage limit of 1000 V. In order to increase cost

The evolution of ML-MFGCI in PV systems over the last years savings and efﬁciency, and accommodate technological

has resulted in several research, proven topologies and control advances in PV cells that allow for operation at 1500 V.

methods. There have many topologies and control strategies of Also researches may be able to improve their production

ML-MFGCIs for PV systems been well documented for different modeling results by accounting for the relationship between

capacities and auxiliary functionalities. Several abbreviations of inverter efﬁciency and DC input voltage. While this relation-

ML-MFGCIs based on the topology or application were described ship varies by topology, it is also product speciﬁc.

in Section 3 are presented in Table 2. These abbreviations can be (4) The elimination of the output transformer from ML-MFGCIs

used to emphasize the main features of MFGCIs more concisely systems not only reduces the cost, size, and weight of the

[67]. conversion stage but also increases the system overall efﬁ-

The future ML-MFGCIs must evolve to meet the technological ciency. However, if the transformer is removed, the galvanic

advances of PV cells, semiconductor parts, magnetic components isolation between the PV generator and the grid is lost. This

and smart grid integration. ML-MFGCIs are expected to meet the may cause safety hazards in the event of ground faults.

following requirements, future trends and challenges: Furthermore, when no transformer is used, the ML-MFGCI

could inject direct current (DC) to the grid, causing the

saturation of the transformers along the distribution network.

are still not perfect. Besides, it is hard to say which topology is

better than the others, and a further study on the topology theory

of ML-MFGCIs is essential necessary. Table 3 summarizes a

detailed comparison of different ML-MFGCIs topologies [33].

7. Conclusions

important role in distributed generation to integrate PV systems

into the utility grid. In recent research studies, novel control

algorithms and topologies for ML-MFGCIs interfaced with large

Fig. 31. Standard central inverters are currently the most widely used inverter type scale PV system are developed to optimize the energy conversion,

in the world [97]. to control the PQ of the utility grid, to perform low cost operation

374

Table 3

Technical aspects of different multilevel multifunctional grid connected inverters in PV systems.

Levels Switching

Utility Functionality Topology Control method Modulation strategy Capacity DC bus controller Reference

number frequency

APF, PFC CHB-MFGCI 11 pq with PI and repetitive controller PS-SPWM 1 kHz 195 W PI [75]

a b

APF CHB-MFGCI 7 LS-PWM and PS-PWM – – [79]

PFC Full-bridge with auxiliary circuit 5 Digital PI current control algorithm SPWM 20 kHz 75 W – [51]

c

PFC CHB-MFGCI 13 – 1 kHz 10 kW – [85]

Calculation of witching

PFC AM-MFGCI 31 pq – – – [29]

angles

PFC DC-MFGCI 3 – – 16 kHz 5 kW – [31]

M. Barghi Latran, A. Teke / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 42 (2015) 361–376

DC-MFGCI with second capacitive

PFC 5 Digital PI current control algorithm Carrier PWM – 750 W – [52]

divider

PFC CHB-MFGCI 5 PI current control algorithm PS-PWM 5 kHz – PI [89]

PFC Full-bridge with auxiliary circuit 5 Digital PI current control algorithm Carrier PWM 20 kHz – – [53]

PFC CHB-MFGCI 5 PI and PR current control algorithm – 5 kHz 2 kW – [90]

PFC ACHB-MFGCI 19 Average power control – 18 kHz – – [42]

PFC CHB-MFGCI 3 Dual-loop current controller Carrier PWM – 3.5 kW – [95]

pq based a fully FLC without any PWM and PI

PFC CHB-MFGCI 9 FLC base – 9 kW Not require [77]

controller

PFC M-MFGCI 5 dq current control SVLM based on PD-PWM 2.4 kHz – PI [49]

PFC CHB-MFGCI 7 pq PS-PWM 3 kHz – Two PI [78]

PFC NPC-MFGCI 3 pq-DPC – – – FLC [96]

PFC BC-MFGCI 5 open-loop SPWM 3 kHz – – [87]

Phase Combination of VOC and

APF, PFC, CUC NPC-MFGCI 3 SVPWM – 50 kW PI

SVPWM

[74]

APF, PFC, Introduce new PWM

CHB-MFGCI 21 pq – 3 kVA PI [41]

SSIUC method

SSIUC-PFC NPC-MFGCI 3 FL based current control – 10 kHz, 1 kW DC voltage balancer [84]

APF, PFC, CUC CHB-MFGCI 5 pq (real power theory) Carrier PWM – – – [91]

APF, PFC DVS-MFGCI 3 PI base current control SVPWM 20 kHz – PI [44,45]

APF, PFC NPC-MFGCI 3 the pq theory (pq0-current control), SVPWM 5 kHz – SVPWM-PI [92], [93]

APF, PFC HFB-MFGCI 9 pq-current control method SVPWM – 13 kW AVR [50]

3-

SHE-Hysteresis band

APF HNPC-MFGCI – Direct Current Control – – PI [47,48]

strategy

PFC NPC-MFGCI 5 Digital PI current control algorithm SPWM 4 kHz – PI [71]

PFC DVS-MFGCI Sliding mode control – – – PI [46]

PFC CHB-MFGCI 5 dq current control by two PI controllers SVPWM 10 kHz – SVPWM [82,83]

PFC NPC-MFGCI 3 pq with PR SVPWM 7.5 kHz – FLC [72]

PFC NPC-MFGCI 3 pq-an extended DPC SVPWM – – PI type FLC [73]

Linear quadratic

PFC NPC-MFGCI 3 dq current control Carrier PWM 9 kHz 1 kW [59]

regulator

PFC HFB-MFGCI dq current control PS-PWM 300 Hz 2.6 MVA PI [58,88]

PFC CHB-MFGCI 7 dq-VOC PS-PWM 500 Hz 1.5 MVA PI [94]

a

Energy-balance control strategy for a cascaded single-phase grid-connected H-bridge multilevel inverter linking n independent photovoltaic (PV) arrays to the grid. The control scheme is based on an energy-sampled data

model of the PV system and enables the design of a voltage loop linear discrete controller for each array, ensuring the stability of the system for the whole range of PV array operating conditions.

b

19.5 kHz for LS-PWM, 58.5 kHz for PS-PWM.

c

A switching pulse generator for each H-Bridge consists of a signal generator and a signal comparator. The signal generator produces unity gain sinusoidal modulating signal with period T and a staircase like carrier signal with

period 6T. At the signal comparator the modulating signal and the carrier signal are compared to produce switching signals. When the sinusoidal modulating signal is greater than the carrier signal, the signal generator gives an

output of 1. Otherwise it gives an output of 0.

M. Barghi Latran, A. Teke / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 42 (2015) 361–376 375

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