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C D T r a c k L i s……
t …………………………… … ……………………………… V
lntroduction _ _ _ _ …… … … …― ―V
l e s s o n 3 7 M a l o r T H a d s………
… ……… ………………………… … … 1
Lesson 38 1´ inor■iads _… … ……… … … … … ………… …… …3
Lesson 39 Au8mented■iads _ … ……… … … … … … … …… 4
L e s s o n 4 0 D i m i n i s h e d T r i a d s _ … … …………………… …… … …… … … 5
Lesson 41 Chord Symbo s …… … … …… …… … … … 6
Lesson 42 Triad inve「 sions … … …_ ………… … … … … …… ― -9
Lesson 43 Bass/Chord Theory …… … … … …… ……… ……… … … 10
Lesson 44 ヽ /oice Leading _ _……… … … … … …… ………… …… 12
Lesson 45 0pen―Pos tionヽ /oice Loading and Chorale Notation _ _ … … 14
L e s s o n 4 6 C o n t r ab r ゾ
a l e M O 」o n V o c e L e n d n g _………………………… … 15
Lesson 4フ ト
4a10rァ chords _ …… … … 19
Lesson 48 Dominantア Chords _ … _ _ _ _20
Lesson 49 Minorア Chords _ _ … _ _ ……… 21
Lesson 50 Minorア 15)ChordS _ … _ ……… 22
Lesson 51 Diminishedア Chords …… … _ _ _ 23
Lesson 52 1nvers ons oF Sevonth Chords_ … … … ………… 26
Lesson 53 ヽ/oice Leading Seventh Chords … … ……… …… …… … 2ア
Lesson 54 Contrary and bra‖elヽ /oice Leadin8 0f Seventh ChOrds…… … 29
Lesson 55 Third′Filth′
a nd Seventh Overthe Bass _ … … … … … …… 30
E X E R C I S E S ′L E S S O N S 5 2 巧 5 S E V E N T H _ C H O R D I N V E R S I O N S A N D V O i C L
L E A D I N C … …………………………… … … … …………………………… … 3 2
Lesson 56 Harmonic Accompanimentfrom a Lead Shoot __ … ……… 34
Lesson 57 Arpeg8iat ng Accompaniment Chords … … … … …… 36
Lesson 58 using the Third′ a nd Seventh overthe Root as Accompaniment
Chords … … … … …… … … … … … …… … ―……… … … 3 ア
Lesson 59 2:l Accompaniment Pattorn … … …… … 38
PATTERNS … … … ……… … ………… ……… 39
Lesson 60 ヽ
4elodicヽ4ot on _ _… _… … ― … … … … …41
Lesson 61 ヽ́′rting a Chord‐Toneヽ 4elody _ … … … …… 42
EXERCiSES′ LESSONS 60-61 ME10DY … … ………… ……… 43
Lesson 62 ヽ 4elcldicヽ
スot on over Change Of HarmOny _ _ _ 44
Lesson 63 Repeat ng aヽ 4elodic Phrase on Diflerent Chords_… … … 45 ……
Lesson 64 Theハ … … … … … … …… … ………… … 46
MELODY WRITINC … … … ………4ア
ヽVhatヽ Next? ___ ……… … … … … ……… …… … 49
About the Author ………… … …… … … … ― ……………… … 5 0
〕Track List
rack Number Page
l M a 1 0 r T n a d s …………………………………… …………………………………… ……… 1
2 ヽ 4inorTr ads… …… … … … … … … …… …… 3
3 Au8mented■ ads… … … ……… …………… … … … …… ………… …4
4 Dim nished Tr ads__ ………… ……… …………… …… … …… 5
5 Exercises′ aining l
Lcssons 3 7-41:Ear■ _ _ … _ …ア
6 Exercises′Lessons 37-41:[arTraining 2 __ … …… … … ア
7 ー4 1 : E a r T r a i n i n g 3 …… _
Lessons 3ア
Exercises′ … … 8
8 Exercises′ Lessons 3 7-41:Ear Training 4… … … _ _ … … 8
9 T r a d l n v e r s i o n…s… … …_ ― ― … …… …… ………………9
10 Triads、vith Bass_ …… … … …… … …… 1°
1l Close and Open Pos tion Tr ads …… … … …… 10
12 ヽ
/oicc Leadin8 of Tr adS … … …… … ―…― 12 .
ヽ /oice―
L ed withヽ
13 ComPar ng Not― Led Triads _ _ 12
Paral el Mo10n……… … ………
14 Voに e tead ng n Contrarゾ …… ……15
Lessons 42-46:EarTlaining l
15 Exerciscs′ _ _ 18
16 Excrcises,Lessons 42-46:Ear Trainin3 2 …_ …… 18
1 7 M a j o r 7 C h o r d…
……… ……―………… … ……… ……… …… 19
18 Dom nantア Chord … … …… ……… …… 20 t
19 Minorア Chord … … 21
つつ │
20 Minorア('5)Chord … ―^
2 1 D i m i n i s h e d アC h o r d ……… … … … … … … 23
22 Exercises′ Lessons 4ア ー51:[arTraining 1 24
23 Exercises′ Lessons 4ア ー51l EarTrainin82 _ 24
24 Exercises′ Lessons 4ア ー51:Ear Training 3… … 25
25 Excrcises′ LesSOns 47-51:EarTrainin3 4 … _ … 25
26 アChord lnversions _ _ - 26
2 7 V o i c e t e a d n g 7 C h o r d s n C o n t r a r l r / P a r a l ………
el Molon … … 29
23 アChords、 vth 3′ 5′and 7 over Bass … … _ 30
29 Exercises′ LeSSOns 52-55:[ar Tra lぅ n31 … 33

30 H a r m o n i c A c c o m p a n i m e n t f r O m C h o r d S y m b o s_… _ 34
31 A r p e g g i a t e d C h o r d s a s A c c o m P a n i m………e n t _ … …… 3 6
32 3′5′andア over Bass as Accompanimont … … 3ア
33 2:l httern as Accompaniment _ …… _ _ 38
34 Exercises′ Lossons 56-59:Ear iainin3 1 … … - 40
35 Exercises,Lessons 56-59:EarTrainin8 2 …… 40
36 Chord Toneヽスelody …… … …… … 42
37 Exercises′ Lessons 60-61:Ear■ ainin8 1 …… … - 43
38 Exercises′ LeSSOns 60-61:EarTraining 2 _ 43
39 Exercises,tessons 60-61:EarTraining 3 … … 43
40 ヽハelodic Resolut ons oVer Change of HarmonY _ 44
41 1・ lelodic Phrases … … …… … 45
42 Melodγ Note Adiustments for Different Chords , _ … …
43 ヽスelodic Sequence … … … 46
44 Exercises′ Lessons 62-64:Ear Training l … … 48

1瀧 駆:I:選 距:IIIIIIIIII爺
躍 選網ij撫襴剛W識 みth s b(
Unlike most books on music theoぃ
and hen JveSyOu me

、 :::‖
よ :こi`│::『
II:lき ::]11:]1larmusに
c accompanimentfrom a lead sheet V′ e′1
vn melodies
vrting our o、
i nish up by、
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ン u′l develop harmonic and melodic listening′ reading′and、 vri ng skils through

e×ercises and eartraining pract ce l encOurageγou to Ⅵ漁
DrkヽV th a real keyboard

Bythe end ofthe book′ you′Ilbeabletocreateaccompanimentsfromaleadsheetand

、 Vn melody based on anγ common chord progression
vr te),Dur O`

Paul Schme ing

C h a r E m e r i tPuisa′n o D e p a r t m e n t
Berklee Co‖ege ofヽ4usic
Lesson 3ア。│ヽ

‐ ded・ md● neouJY r mend6ざ ePは `CC

:譜 緊 ll″ :置 γ♀ξ∬ 1憎:T∬ ::::ぽ
note chords They aro bu tup、
Triads arc three― vards in thirds from a Fundamontal no:=
ca‖cd a root The maior tr ad includes the tonic(rool)′
third′ tre
and filth notcs o「
lmajor scale bu t on thc triadt root

,一 Arpe99`o一

― ハlpe99:o一


t h e r o o t T h e s e n u m b e rfsu nacrleo″ s′ ″E f u n c l o n s a s t h e t h r d o f a C m
as n′

ads s in terms ofintervaに

Anothor way to think oft面 the major t面
From the rool′ ad
o be
has a majorth rd and a pcrlectttth L can aにseen as a majorth rd(C tO E)be ow
a m northird(Elo G)

― m3-
…― M 3 - に

dee Music TheOrv Book 2


l Bu ld a malortHad on each ofthelol owing notes

2 Each ofthese notes is the thttd of what majortttad?

3 Each ofthese notesisthe nth of what majortr ad?

│ ヽlinor Tri

Lesson 38。Minor Triads

Minortriads can be lormed by owenng thethird ofa malortttad by a ha「 stc3

the root′the intervals arc a minor third and a perfect or a minorthi「
ilflh′d l]=
ma10r thrd

C MaJOr Trbd C Mi"or Tl● d

M3 m3 m3 M3
.― ,5
■_________ 75

r Trl.d ,Min● r輌 Hdd

M3 m3 m3 M3

P5 _________ P,

3 1 M a J o r T dl d● O Minar Tndd

M, n3

¨_________ '5 25-

d s o u l o f t h c f o o w n g maadlso rTth面e l r s t o n e ` d o n e l o r y o
l M a k e m i n o r ta面

2 vhat minOrtr ad?

EaCh Ofthe FOl owing notesisthe third of、
■ ■
Berklee Music Theor"BoOk 2

Lesson 41.Chord S ymbols

v th chord symbols Chord symbo s are usua‖
Chords arc olten exPresSed、 γ made up
Of a letter that indicates the noto that the chord is and
on′ symbols that
ind cato add■ ona notesin tho chord there is nO other symbot the chord`ma,or
in chord 5Ymboに ′mn`for m nol o`Iord “ m′ and+`augmented(Chord Symboに
a l s o t bt e n w ■
m a y b e w r n t e n m a n Y d f l e r e n t w a y s CF omra leoXra mmpalyc ′ as CM
orCmaL and C m nOras ′ Cm,or Cmi)

Cm`" σ


l ヽ́Vr te the fo‖

o、ving triads The first one is donc lor you

2 Analyzc each trad b、、

、ri n8 1lS ChOrd mbol

[xercise、′Les,on,37-41 Triads and Chord Symbols

Lessons 37-41.丁riads and Chord Symbols


l 1 7 V t「e t h e ' oo‖

、ving tr ads

pl Emi"


2 Analyzo cachtrad、 ヽV:te tho chord svmbol abovc thc

v th its chord svmbol nan,e

Ear Training
l L s t c n t o t h e m a l o raadn dT hmc ndn′
∼eaCh examp e as etther a majo
o r m n o r ta面
a malor mlnor

b ma10r m nOr
c malor mlnor

d ma10r m nOr

6 2 L ` t e n l o t h e m i n o r a n d d i m na`dh eTdh etn門

denll,each examp e as enher a
m i n o r o r d m n ` h e da dt 商
a lη lnor d min`hed
b mnor d min`hed
c m lnor d min`hed
d minor diminished
Berklee Music Theorン 3ook 2

は 3‖ d mad de市
,eaCh ed̈hσ
a major augmented
b ma10r augmented
c malor augmented
d major augmented

4器 ぃ Chは am口 ぃ a m 可 O L 而 n O L d 面 市弥 e d ′σ

よ 品 11::]d Thett de前
a ma10r m nor d minished augmented
b ma,Or minOr d min`hed au8mented
c major minor d min`hed augmented
d major minOr dim n shed augmented
e major m nor diminished augmented
f ma10r m nOr diminished augmented
g ma10r minor d min`hed augmented
h major minor dim nも hed au8mented
on 42 Triad lnversiOns

Lesson 42.丁riad inversions

Tradsbu tuP、vardsin thirds fronn the root aro said to be ilぅ

r00tpOsition The individunl
notes oF a tr ad can be rearrangcd(′
,so thatthe th id Orfitth is on the bottom

R001P● 5itloll; ist inversiOn; 211d inver510":

彙ool(1)o"bottom ard ollし。ttom 5th o"レ ottom


l ヽ
″間te theも
│。w ngt市
ads , t h c r f r s t Iasne〔c O n d i ] v o r s i o n s

Cmin 3,● o・

fst illv 2‖d inv 4st inv 2nd inv lst inv 2nd inv

2 C o m P l e t c o a c h o f t h e i n v e r t c d c h O r d s o n t h e s t、a r y bb eu l 。
ャb dl,s uP、
、a r d S i r o m
the given noto

EI Emin Al, 3mi"


3 Analyze each chord w th chOrd symbols fOr each Ofthe inverod triads The frst
one is done fOr you

Berklee Music Theorン 3ook 2

Lesson 43 Bass/Chord ttheory

Complete harmony includes a bass nOte(bot(olminnOtC,

add tion to the three notes
y the lovvesi notc ofthe harmony
ofthe tr ad ltis usua‖ and is usua v tho tr s root
ln haimon"a chord is considered to be in iootaspos
IOn3 asthe rootisthe bass′
regardless of the pos tionin8 0f the rest of the
the chord
notes Tle y
in bass is usua‖
notated in bass clef


3 ●3 8

C h o r d m e m b e r s t e x C l u d i n 8 t h o b a s s ) S P r e a d O u t o v e r m o r e t h a n o I ,eo aorcet as、

t o b e i n O p e n p O s i t i o n C h o r d m e m b e rvs 、 thin the salne octave are said to be in c10se
h o r d s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o b e i n r o o t p o s t i o n a s l o no 8o t a ,i ts h ei 「
p O s i t i O n A g a i nc′ n
the bass AIl ofthese chords′ w h e t h e r c l o s e o r o l )aernc′ i n r o o t p o s t i o n

υ ‐ ‐
Ciose Ope" Ciose Open CloSe OFen


l Complete the harmony by adding the root oF each chord in thc bas,

ワ ● ● T● 椰 1 ●● ■‐ ‐
tesson 43 Bass/Chord lheory

2 R e w r t e t h e F o ‖o 、
v i n g c l o s Pe O―S t i O n c h o r d s i n o p e n p o s t i o n b y r e v e r s i n g t h e t o p
a n d b o t t o m n o t e s N o t a t e at‖ hree notos on the treble star

Fmin `● 3 3・

フ 1

│ │ │

3 Rcwrto the fo‖

o、ving open_Pos tiOn chord5 in close PositiOn by reversing the top
and bottom notes

F“ :" G● B O。

フ │ υ 1ブ

4 Add the bassto complete the harmonγ ofthese Open_pOs tiOn chords

フ │ 「 ‐
♭υ J レて ‐

Berklee^ス usic Theorシ BoOk 2

Lesson 44 Voice Leading

Voice leading reters to the、

vay that individual voiccs(nOtes of the chord)mOVe in a
series of chOrds(chord PrOgreSSiOn)The 8oa1 0f voicc loading is tO have each voice
move as litt e as pOssiblc in a lnelodica‖
y interest ng way frOll,chOrd to chord ヽ、
voice lead a chOrd ProgreSSiOn′frst100k forthe cOmmon tone― ―a note'ound in t、 vo
successive chords Keepins con]mOn tOnesil,the same voiceis rctcrrod lo as cOmmon‐
lone voice leading CommOn toncs are hish‖ 8htOd here:

Note that direrentinversions oF each chord are used to makc this movementsmooth′
a nd linear The bass PlalrS the r00t Ofthe and
movosindependent y oF
thc upper vOices

F 3 F 3,
Nol voi`e led ハ 。■Po,iti。 Voite ied Vori。●3 POSiti。
"r。 " "`

‐ =

stanin8 in r001 pOs tho

top voice tvoiCeVOuld
l)ヽ movo nsi‖
u strate[ to thc lcFl
(1)elovv, fthc chords vvere not voice ed′
and asi‖u strated to thc righi`│)e10、
、 「、olcc―

oice ied:
`f nol●
1生J4ち にe lea“


l ヽ́′rte out the noOvement Of the middle voice(voice 2)'om the

vc ice_leading
exan3ρle On Page 12′bOth vOice ed and nOt vOice led


Noモ voice fed`

Voice i●d`

2 ヽ́′rite Out themovemont Of the bOttOm vOice(Voice 3)′

both voice Od and not
voice ed

●│,C●: voice:ed,

3 ヽ
/ o i c e l e a d t h e 0F,ov‖
i n g c h O r d sO′
bserving the commOn_tOne princIPle

F ,m`" lll・ 4_:_ t● 。 ´

Berklee A4u,c llleor"B`)で ,(J

Lesson 45 Open―Position VOice Leading and Chorale


Chords are sometimes notated in chOrale nOtation′

、vhich places theνOt、
higher voices
in the treble clef and the、
vo 10.ver voices in the bass clef TO easi y distinguish the
voices′ the stems of the hisher∨
oices in each clef 80 upward and the stems oF the
ower vo ces 80 dOWnward

C Cl10r● le Notctioll


l Revvrite tbese chords in chorale nOtation

Re●lliar IIcta“
o": Chorale"。 lol:o":

フ 8 '■ 8 '

2 ヽ/oice leading open― ray as close_POs tiOn: iind

Pos tiOn chords wOrks tho same・

the cOmmon tone′ ヽ
and keep itin the salme voice
/oice lead thc fo O、 0 Den―
POS tiOn chOrds′ Observing the cOmmon-10ne pr nciPle uSe chOra10 nOtat on

F ,min 3♭ G Eo C F

●7 │ │

Lesson 46 fo型
el Mdbn VOice leaang

Lesson 46。Contrary/Parallel MOtiOn VOice Leading

′ hensuccessivechOrdsdOnOthaveac011:lキ
t i o n a v O c e J e ::llili:`
t o a G m a j o r ttlraadd′ a 語こ
‖ ‖
驚 I『
Contrary Motl。 PargileI MOtlon:
υPper voices move ":
dOwII, upper voice3 ond
b●53 moveS“ P bass move ln s● me directl● ll

バlovc the upper vOicOs as indicated

Each example mOvesfrOm an F maiortO a c
m a 1 0 r ta商

C● trary Para:lel ntrary G Para!lel

F “ c F G 『 F `

υ `

2 :偉 n_lclne
hcn avjほ

Colltrarッ par.:lel
F G F c
Berklee Music Theorシ B00k2

3 ヽ
/oice lead theo、
ving chords′
fo‖ thenbass′
firstin paranel motion to the in contraγ

paratiei Contrary
D ■mi" Cm:" F 3 ■m`‖ Gmin F
。 Ons andも
]'43 46 hver● にe lea“

Exercises′Lessons 42-46.In∨ersiOns and VOice


●もた eに ad“ ヽ P「OgF蒟 0:∬

reen chOrds
com mon―tone principle′ l堂 器lhi渋

B Cmin ■, 3, O E cmin A, 3, D E, Cmin A, 3, D


2面 ∝ に調 市 s P % 健 蒟 m“ 市調 ヽ L . n t 赫 ‖e 躍 ni

11lcI肌 品 淵

ハ ,
“= = == = == Ц

' 3min C A , , 3min C A , , omin c

F︲     ︱
フ │

_1 」 」

3 Analyze each chOrd、 v th its chOrd syml)011,ain e

I    J

υ │



「 0
BerkleP Music Theorル B00k2

Ear Training

鱗) ・」

「RIT:離 ・dentli
[llll:]lS Th°each
eaSa exam口

MdJOr Allgmented MaJ。 「 Minor ●I口ini3hed MJor

a ma,or m lnor dim n`hed augmented

b ma10r m:nor dmn`hed augmented
c maJor mlnor d min`hed aU8mented
d maiOr m lnor d nninished augmented
o malor m lnor dim nished augmonted
f ma10r m lnor dim n`hed augmented

3 ma,or m lnor dim n`hed augnnented

h ma,Or minor dmn`hed au8monted

2 L`ten to the demOnstralon t面

ads Then′denl∼ each eXamp e asa malor m nO「
diminished′or augmented tr ad
“= = = == = = Щ


MJor Allgmented Or Minor ,imini3"ed M 可o r

1 l ‐ │

a ma,Or mlnor dmn`hed au8mented

b ma10r mlnor d min`hed augmented
C ma,Or m lnor d minished augmented
d ma10r m lnor dim nished augmented
e ma,or m lnor dmn`hed augmented
f major m inor dmn`hed augmented
g ma,Or mlnor d min`hed au8mented
h majOr iη lnor diminished augmented
LesЮ n 47 Malorフ Chords

Lesson 47.Majorア
器り 蹴r:riPI置
品メ lξ
喘‖Ψ鳥1■吉 faぽ
::「 LIば
tach note functions as described by its corresponding scale

Bu‖d a malor 7 chord upwardsfrom each g ven nOte

2 Analyze each chord、 vith a chord symbol

Berklee Music Theorシ BoOk 2

Lesson 48.Dominantア Chords

The dominant 7(ア ng the seventh ofthe majorア

)chord can beformed by Owe百 chord
by a halfstep

CM■ 7


1 Bu‖d a dominantア chord up、vards frOm each 8iven nOtO

2 Analyze each chord 、

v th a chord symbol Hint: 5ome are malo「 ア sOme are
Lesson 49 Minor 7 Chords

Lesson 49。Minorア Chords

The minOr 7 chord(minア

)Can bO fOrmcd by 、
l。 the third of the dominantア
a ha fstep

C7 Cminフ


1 Bui d a mino「アchord upvvards from each 8iven note

2 Analyze each chord w th a cho「

d symbol Hint: Some are m nOrア ′50me are
dom nantア
3erklce Music Theor"3ook 2

Lesson 50。Minorア (♭

The minOr 7(15)chord[Symbol minフ (15月′also knovvn as the diminished′

ha i― c an bo
formed by owettngtho nth ofthe m no「 アchord l)y a ha Fstep

Cmin7 Cmin71,5)


Bu d a min7(15,chord up.・7ards frOm eac1l givcn noto

2 Ana vzc cach chOr(1、 、

■h a chord s、 o1 5ome are ni nor 7′some are minア (,5)
lesson 51 Diminished 7 Chords

L e s s o n 5 1 . D i m i n i s h e dcア
The diminished 7 chOrd(。
ア)is ltrmerl by ver
lo、ng the seventh Of a (,5,chord
minア by
a ha Fstep

Cm`"71,51 c・ 7


m3 ・
5 ・

C o m p a r e d t O t h e m a i O′rt ア
h C S e v e n t h o i t h e d m n ` hcchdoア
r d h a s b e o1。


彙識猟樹 T瀞熙『よ 剛酬 to avoid

a so be


1 Bu ld dlninished 7(°
ア)chords ul)、
vards frOm oach 3iVCn note

(llse enharmo"ic 7th)

2 Ana yze each chord wth a chOrdsymbo sOmOaで mnア (,5)′

some aに dim n`hedア
Berklee Music Theor"3oで

Lessons 47-51.Seventh Chord Types and

1 ヽ́′rite out each o'the FO‖

ovving chords from the chord symbols

E7 Cmin711, ,M■7 ●min7 3min71,,

2 Analyzc each chord vvth a chord symbOl

Ear Training

l Listen to each denlonstrat on chor(l denl"Cach

Then examp e as e"hera major 7
a ma10'ア dOm nantア
b n'a10rア dOl1l alぅ
c ma orア dom nant「
d m a l o 「F dom nantア

chord nThen′
日stcn lo cach dcn,onstktion denl,o・ ch eЮ or
m lc s dherdominantア
minor 7

a dom nantア m norア

b dom nantア minOrア
c domillantア minorア
d dominant 7 m norア

tessons 47 51 Se■
enth chord,peS and mbOL

〕 は 面 °n c h a よ T h e ● d e 前 ″ e a C h e x a m 口 e ぉ d h σ ttnaア

:,編 洲 :h dem°

a minOrア m n705)

b minOrア min7(,5)

c minorア m i n ア1 5 )

d minOrア m i n ア1 5 )

輪4 Listen to each demonstralon chOrd

or diminishedア
dend″eaCh example as elhero5)

a min7(,5) diminishedア
b m i n ア1 5 ) diminishedア
c min7o5) dimin`hedア
d mnア ('5) d min`hedア
Berklee Music Theorン 3ook 2

Lesson 52.Inversions of Seventh Chords

Like tr ads′ v th
seventh chOrds can be inverted There arc three inverslons pOssible、
seventh chords The rirst invers on has the th rd on the botlomi secOnd invers on has
the Fith on the bottolη
,th rd invcrsion has the seventh on thc bottom

Root,ositlo31 15t intlersion

1 ovving seventh chords
Wiite the three inversions of the fo‖


Ist 2"d 3rd 15■ 211d 3rd lst 2"d ttd

、lh a chord
2 1denl″each nVCrted sevcnth chord、 bol

tesson 53 Voice Leading Seventh chOrds

Lesson 53.Voice Leadin g Se∨enth Chords

As、v th triads′
seventh chords can be voice ledovvin8
frn‖ the COmmon-lone pr nc l)e
ln these examples′
each voice moves sm00thl"as the common tone is observed

FM● フ 3,M● フ CM可 フ A,MaJ7 F7 3,7 07 ハ暉

フ     ・

- 一


l Complete the voice lending irom thelo8

PoS tiOn

FMa:7 ,Mai7 6Mai7 ハ,Mai7 F7

2 Complete the voice leading from the staning position

Amin7 ,min7 Cmi"7 Cmin7 ハ昴:"7115),min71151●

昴:“ス,6 mi"7175,Cmin7051
Berkl∝ Music Theor"B00k2

3 Complete the voice leading frOm the starting pOsitiOn Hint:Tbere l be no w‖

c o m m o n t o n e s V O c e e a d m o v i n g e a c h v O i c e dSotwenp, /mhooa」
nl 「

●7 ″7
Lesson 54 Contrary and Para‖ cl Voice teadng of Seventh chOrds

Lesson 54. Contrary and Para‖

el Voice Leading of
Seventh Chords

As 、 vith tr ads′ t o n e s mav be voice led

seventh chords vvth no cOmmon in either
c o n t r a r y O r pealr am‖

GMaJ7 FMaJ7 0MaJ7 ,MaJ7 CMaJ7 FMaJ7 E12M■

7 OIM■7

C●lltrary Motiο para"e!Motion



l ヽ
/oice lead theわ
vin8 ProgreSS10n using i rst contrar、
then Para‖
el moton

FMaJ7 CMaJ7 AM■7 FMaJ7 GMaJ7 AMdJ7

Co“ trdry par.1lel

2 ヽ
/oice lead using contrary and Para‖el mOt On

CM■7 0,MaJ7 ,MaJ7

ハ CM■7 BIM■7 ハ 7

Comtrary Parc:!el
Berklee Music Theorン BOok 2

Lesson 55。丁hird′Fifth′
and seventh overthe Bass

Frequently seventh chords cOntain thefifth′

third′ and the
and seventh in the chord′
rootin the bass′
making a total offour voices This sOund is especia‖pop
y commonin

Fmi“ 7

ヽ/oice leading the th rd′ and seventh vvorks tho sameas voice leading re8ular

CMaJ7 CM■7
Lcss()n55 Third′ Fi"h′and Seventh over the Bass


l VN/rte thc Fo‖ving seventh chOrds 、

0、 v th the third′
fifth, a ld sOventh Over the

ー ■min7 7 Cmi‖ フ15)

2 ヽ 7in3 Seventh chords、

/oice lead tho Fcll10N・ 、
lth t1le third′
and sevonth Overtho
using the common_tone pr ncIPle

FM■7 Cmin7

3 ヽ
/oico lead the th rd′
f fth,and seventh′
usin8 cOntrary then Para‖
el nnOt On

FM可 7 `m:"7 ハmin7 3,M■ 7 FMJフ `“ :h7 Amin7 3,M可 7

”= = = == = = Щ

Cchtrary Pargl!e:
Berklee Music Theor"BoOk 2

Exercises′Lessons 52-55。Seventh―Chord lnversions

and Voice Leading
1 ヽ
7oico lead this prOgression oF seventh chords using the cominon_lone principle

3,M■ 7 Gmin7 Cmin7 F7 3,M■ 7 0,MaJフ Cm`“ 7 Cmin7 F7 3,MdJ7

B“ :"7 E7

2 ヽ v th the third′
/oice lead the same progression using the common tone pr nciple、
f lth′
and seventh overthe rOotin the bass

F"M可 7 Cmlll'Cmin7 F7 3,MaJ7

[xercises′ Lessons 52-55 Seventh‐ChOrd inversions and VOiぐ
e Leading

Ear Training

辟 ・謄l轟
l wりL∬
‖駅 nЮ
プ otP°
mm The.

a maiOrァ dominantア minOrア

b malorア dominantア mino「 ア "f冊

c malorア dom nantア minOrア
d majOrア dominantア minorア

e malorア dominantア m ino「 7

f m■0「ア dOminantア m[nOrア

g majOrア dominantア minorア

h ma10rア dominantア m n o 「7
Berklee Music Theor"3ook 2

Lesson 56.Harmonic Accom panirnent frorrl a

Lead Sheet

z ′ a n s i r e q u e n J y w o r k w " h a l e a dr asthheeert ′
i n P O P U a r m u J c a n d i ma uz ●c than a
complcte score The lead sheetincludesthe melody and the chords expressed in chord
sym5ols′ whereas the score contains notes
a‖、 vrtten out Accompanists use thc lead
sheet as a guide ine to creatcv]PariS thc r o、 irom the chord symbOlinformation


rthe melod、 devised

Tho frst stcp to creat 18 harmonic accompaniment(suppOrtわ
from the chord symbols)is to voice lead the chords in thc ra118e oi usiratcd
notes i‖
belo・ 、vhere they、v l sound rich and fu‖ v
′but not so lo、asto sound muddy The
melody is plaved separately abovo tho chords

FMoJ7 Cmi"7 C7 FM■7

︱    書

フ │ │

4 ´ ‐
Lesson s6 HarmOnic AcconPariment'Om a Lead Sheet

ヽ/oice lead the

chords pOsitiOn shOwn vratch out
signaturel for the key
'om the ttrst

■7 G7 Cmi"7 c7 FM■7
θ ,

│ │
ー ―

● 1
Berklee l■usic Theorシ Book 2

Lesson 57.Arpeggiating AccompanirYlent Chords

Arpe88iating chords__playing each not「

oF thc chord soParatCl"rather thanata‖
same timc is a common way to create harmon c accompaniment Nolce thatthe
notes oF each chord are argeggiated in the sarre order/start n8 vvith the lovvest nclte t
the hi3hest nOle and back again―
vhi e the Ori3inal voice leading frOm the previous
lessOn remains intact(Lesson 5 6′
P 34)

FM■7 Cmin7 FM■7


_,「 ,_ ´ ■ _ ´ ,_ ― ‐


1 Complete the arpo8giatOd accOml)animent ヽ́′hen there are、vo chords in the

same measure′ uso tho nrst chord br the irst two beats of the pattern′
and the
second chord ltlrthe lasttvvo boats FoHow the voice
leading set up in the previOus
lessOn(Lesson 56′P 35)

■7 ,min7 Gmin7 FMJ7

_ ^生 .
[e、son 58 Using the Third Fifth′ and Seventh over thc Root as Accompaniment chOrds

Lesson 58.∪ sing the Third′Fiith′ and Seventh over

the Root as AccompanirYlent Chords

プ Accompan cに d'om sevetth chords ith′

only with the r00t Ofthe chord in the bass
he h"d′

FM■7 FM■7
McI● dソ
フ │

‐ 舟 書



l ヽ
/oice lead the Fc1l o ving chords from tho start ngn′usin8
POs only
tion the
third′ chord
and seventh of each seventい

■7 ,min7 G7 Gmin7 FMdJ7

フ │

Berkleeヽ 4usic TheOr"3ook 2

Lesson 59.2:l Accompanirlnent Pattern

I A n o t h e r a c c o m p a n m e n t P a t t e r n t h a t w o、
vr kth
s wthe
c ‖ throo notes o'the third,fth′
and seventh is the 2:l pattern T 0 0fthe thrcc

l譜 r:λ
s:1瞥 e、
by nsdr Th s notes are struck togethel a tcrnai ng

is a 21l partern based on the voice

FMaJ7 Cmi“ 7


l COml)ete tho 2:l harmonic accO]]Danin]cnt tsing the sanlO vOice leadin8 as the
previous t、
vO 10ssons(l esso1ls 5ア
ald 58 , 36-3「

Omin7 Cmin7 0

Exerc scs tcs,ons 56-5' Harmonizing and Accompaniment Patterns

Exercises′Lessons 56-59.Harrllonizing and

Accompaniment Patterns

1 ヽ
/oicc load the accompanYing chOrds using the common― tone pr nctple

GM■7 Emi“ 7 ハmin7 ,7

丘= = = == = = 崚

_ ■ 舟

2 Arpeg8iate the voice ed chords to

crente an accolnPanimcni Be careFul to
arpeggiatethe notes oi each chord
in the saine o「
dei to PrcServe the voice

3 `
/oice lead the third′
and seventh from thc stari ng pos tiOn sho、

FM■7 3,M可7 Emin7125) ハ7

フ │

Berklee Music Theorル BoOk 2

4 using the third′ Fih′ and seventh lo crcate an

Create a 2:l pattern′
accompan ment

髭= = = = = = = 氏 FM■7 3,M■7 Emin71,5) ■7

0 │

Ear Training

麟‐・::焉 ぃア
arpe8'aFd ChOrd,and
hem as ′m可

a ma10rァ dOm nantア mlnorア

b nnajorア dom nantア minorア

C ma10rフ dOm nantア minorア

d majorア dom nantア m lnorア

O ma10rァ dOminantア minorア

f ma10rァ dOminantア m lnorア

8 majOrア dominantア mlnor 7

2‖ g船
mep̈甜 出
and dem,ch。

肥 埠
a majorア dom nant「 1]10rア

b ma10rァ dOm nantア minorア

C ma10rァ dOm nant 7 minorア

d ma10rァ dOm nantア m lnorア

e ma10rァ dOm nantア minorア

f major, don¬ nant 7 m lnorア

8 ma10rァ dOm nantア minorア

teSson 60 Melodicヽ ィOtiOn

Lesson 60。Me10dic MOtiOn

い ム step`am可 ¨ 而剛 SecO山 網
酌 :ギ [l常 脚 鰍 :い "…

M■ or 2nd .``_^_,_J
Minor 211d

Steps(s)and loaps tL)are analyzed as this me10dY mOves irom One noto 10 the next


l A n a l y z e t h O n o O t Obet、
n veen tho nOtes OFthe,o‖o、
ving me10dY by using e ther S
or L
Berklee Music TheOr"B00k2

Lesson 61.1/Vriting a Chord―

TOne Melody
The nOtes that make up a chord are ed
ca‖ chOrd tOnes A chord_tOne melody is one
that uses only notes Oftherent
cu「 chord′
i n anY Orden Notes may be used in diflerent
octaves′and some may be used more than once before others are used



l A d j u s t t h e n O t e s o Fm et hOζ
dy to ttt the chords Label the chord tones using
numerals′ a s above
a D,

b Bminア

2 ヽ
│ヾrte a 4-mcasure chord tone lmelody on o、

F M a 」7

嗽 対
E x e r c , も, L 6 s o n s O “ 1 ″

LessonS 60-61。 Melody


Ear Training
試°N σ
er“ Oф
e轟̈o∝ Ve Then
鵠騨 蹴"ape」
鍮 ・罐糧品::L蝋 “

be轟 mm側 に mdody

2日 Stn o a cnlげ 出 ∝よ The● tほ
鍮 “ `牛

uSen o いσ
a dcMイ
Thmメ 郷ЮmdO"
ロ be ms■
蟷・ ““
Berklee Music TheOr"3ook 2

Lesson 62.Melodic MOtiOn over Change of Harrl10ny



it note oitho next chord fthe lasi nOte oF b h
a chord is alsO a chord 10ne ofthe next
it chOrd′
may bc descr bed as a cOmmon tone
(CT)In these cases′
a leap into the Frst nOte ofthe l]ext chOrd is Possible f the last
note of a chOrd is nOt a chord tOnc ofthe next vn
asa lknoヽ
com mOn-10ne′
Or NC)′
a step、
visc resOlut on intO the frst note ofthe next chord is ca ed fo■


1 17「tc a short simplC meL)d、 01, this 2‐

chOrd Progression t,se each Ofthe Four
Cnl n7 notes as the last note o1lhe ir51 measure′
and resolve thatnote into thc
next chOrd bv lcap ir its 。(,日
a] 110n tOnc or resolve by steP ifS a il′
lon_ch。 「d_


Les,oo 63 Repeating a Melodic Phrase on DifFerent Chords

Lesson 63.Repeating a Melodic Phrase on Diferent

S『 nf畔 穏T詭 IW‖ 繋町
精群 胤 1∬
‖ :
:Ti舗 鰍 [d°

l c p h r a s e m a r k i n g s :

A7 Cmin A7

Nttce mtt メh而 c heぬand mdOdC Shapes 盟稲l轟 d met撒

11:‰ [:
chordsin measures 3 andvere the
4、 different′melody nol i lよ
v chords
lo accommodate the ne、

`, Cmin7

we ephお

聯 計
i』 朧鳳離12meが


νO m easures′Vith a repeat ofthat me10dy in
2 Wrte your ovVn melodyin the frst●
V th
the second tv.o measures Pract Ce playing itヽ the chords

,MaJ7 FM■7
Berklee 14usic Theor"300k2

Lesson 64.The Melodic Se quence

鱗金 i:瀾
『∬錯 :薔簡T:鷺月
:al脂 [再
:Iξ∬鳳 配:11まli爺
fourth one is olen completely differentto bring thin3s to a COnclusion



Varied Complete:v OifFerellt


l Complete these melodic s e q u e n c e s ′

u s i n 8 t h e el 1η0 d i c m a t o r a l a n d c h o r d s

Cmin7 C7 FMgi7 0'M“ 3,M■i77


Emin7115) ,MaJ7


2 ComPlete these melodic sequences′ using the melodic mater al and chords

Cmin7 A7 ,m`"7 G7

[xercises′tes5ons 62-64 Melodγ Writing

Lessons 62-64.Melody lA/riting


A'requently used song FOrm uses a 4 measure、vhich repeats in the f rstsect on′
then a shOrter 2-measure phraso is repeated yお rthesecOnd
sequent a‖ sect on Not ce
the double barine after measure 8 scParaivOngsect
the ons

4-med`ure pltr●3e

CMaJフ Fmin7 口
BertteMEic■r13oo望 _ _ _ _

l vn mclody 7rt n8 0n this satne chOrd
Try Your o、
4-mcasure phrase in the second fJur measUres′ 評撚 :鳳ぽ;l膿

y わr t h e l a s t e i g h t m e a s u r e s
repeated sequcntia‖

Fm`“7 B17
CM可 7


AM■7 働 mi"7


Ear Training

l FMalア chOrds Then′ transclbe th`4-measure me ody

しヽt e n t o t h e C Maanldア

円 可7

2 L i s t e n t o t hDminア
C and Gア chords Then′ transcr be this 4-measure mC10dy

Omin7 G7

be th`4-m easure
3 L s t n t o t h eDminア ′Gア′and CMa17 chords Then transc高
me odv

What/s Nex17

Whatも Next?

Congratulations on finishing Berklee′

ヽイυs,c乃heOりιθοο々2 No、vシlЭ u have a basic
understanding of chords and chOrd types′
including maloら
m inO,diminished′and

輛 網 nttir臨 ″ 出 昴群 罰
朧 綿距 辮 編 思 撃憾 1鮮 ave even written melodies Of yOur o、
Continue、vorking withthis materialas much as yOu possibly can riteoutandPlaythe
chordsofsongsfrOmaleadsheet practicevoiceleadinganddevisingaccOmpaniment
patterns based On the chords,tッwriting your o、vn me10dy On those same chords All
of these activ ties w‖
l help to reintorce and even further the theorct cal knowledge
gained in this cou「
―keep practicing′
Until then― and continue to bui d your knO、
vledge of music theoっ

ν‖l make you a bette「musician

11 1 1 1 1 1 1 ■ 1
Berklee Music Theorン 3ook 2

About the Author

Paul Schme ing′

Chair Emeritus ofthe PianO Department at Berkleeege
Co‖of Music′
is a master pianist interpreteら
improvisec and arranger He has inspired cOuntless
students since he began teaching at Berklee in 1961 He has perlormed or recorded
Wlh iaZZ greats such as Cは
rk Ter%Rebecca hrHs′ George Coleman′ caro S oane′

阻 硼 喘 蹄 ζttm!w′ 瀧 :』 靴 RY∫ l珊 淵 謝 脚 懺
albums,interpreting the music Of Hoagy Carmichael and songs assOciated、
vith Frank
S natra He`the co author Ofthe 3erklee Prac″ ce Mettοdiゃ ard(Berklee Press
2001)and∂ettkねe rnsね
ρ[絡 ヵ οard Cerdee PFss 2002 He`Jso the author and
instructor of three online courses on Berkleemusic "ο
υs,c rrleο
′ ′A″
/ 70′ υs,c
動eογ 207′and θer々たe終 a″ treめοd


8肥 4
ISBN □―凸7Lヨ ヨー□LL… 1

HL50448062 9剛