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Control Lab

Control Lab Experiment-9 Objective : Use MATLAB to draw the Root Locus for the unity feedback

Experiment-9

Objective: Use MATLAB to draw the Root Locus for the unity feedback system with

the following open loop transfer function:

(

G s

)

4)( ( s s  

K

2

6) 4

(

s s

s

8)

Determine K for

function. Obtain the step response of close loop system and verify the value of

measurement of peak overshoot. Also obtain the impulse and ramp response of the closed loop system.

= 0.5 using root locus. At this value of K, obtain the close loop transfer

using

Software Used:

MATLAB R2010b Version 7.11.0.584.

Theory:

The root locus technique is used for finding the roots of the characteristic equation[1].

The root locus technique is used for the Relative stability of the system.

The root locus technique provides a graphical method of plotting the locus of roots in the s-plane as a given system parameter (generally the gain K) is varied over the complete range of value (may be from zero to infinite).

This method is very powerful graphical technique for investigating the effects of the variation of a system parameter on the locations of the closed loop poles.

The root locus technique provides a measure of sensitivity of roots to the variation in the parameter being considered.

The root locus technique provides a measure of sensitivity of roots to the variation in the parameter being considered.

General rules for constructing the root locus exist and if the designer follows them, sketching of the root loci becomes a simple matter.

A normal interpretation of improving stability is when the real part of a pole is in left half of the imaginary axis.

MATLAB Control System Toolbox contains two Root Locus design GUI, sisotool and rltool. These are two interactive design tools of SISO.

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Control Lab

Control Lab Procedure for plotting Root Locus The stepwise procedure for plotting the root locus for

Procedure for plotting Root Locus

The stepwise procedure for plotting the root locus for a given open loop transfer function based on salient features mentioned is given below:

1. Starting points. The root locus starts (K=0) from the open loop poles.[3]

2. Ending points. The root locus terminates (K=

3. Number of branches. The number of branches of root locus are N=P, if P>Z =Z, if Z>P Usually P>Z, therefore, N=P

4. Existence on real axis. The existence of the root locus on a section of real axis is confirmed if the sum of the open loop poles and zeros to the right of the section is odd.

5. Break away points. On the root locus between two open loop poles the roots move towards each other as the gain factor K is increased till they are coincident. At the coincident point the value of K is maximum as far the portion of the root locus between the two open loop poles is concerned .Any future increase in the value of K, break the root locus in two parts. The breakaway point can be determined by rewriting the characteristic equation and there from solving for the value of s from the equation given below:

) either on open loop zero or infinity.

dK

dS

0

6. The angle of asymptotes. For higher values of K the root locus branches are approximated by asymptotic lines making an angle with the real axis given by

(2K

P

1)*180 Z

Where k=0, 1, 2……upto (P-Z)-1

7. Intersection of asymptotes on real axis. The asymptotes intersect at a point x on the real axis given by

x=

Poles

Zeros

P

Z

8. Intersection point with imaginary axis. The value of K and the point at which the root locus branch crosses the imaginary axis is determined by applying Routh criterion to the characteristic equation. The root at the intersection point is imaginary.

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Control Lab

Control Lab 9. The angle of departure from complex pole. The angle of departure of the

9. The angle of departure from complex pole. The angle of departure of the root locus

from a complex pole is given by

d

180

o

(

P

Z

)

where

 

P

Z

,

= Sum of all the angles subtended by remaining poles and sum of all the

angles subtended by zeros respectively.

10. The angle of arrival from complex zeros. The angle of arrival or the root locus at a

complex zero is given by

a

180

o

(

Z

P

)

where

angles subtended by poles respectively.

 

Z

,

P

= Sum of all the angles subtended by remaining zeros and sum of all the

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Control Lab

Control Lab MATLAB commands used:  rlocus : Evans root locus Syntax rlocus : computes the

MATLAB commands used:

rlocus: Evans root locus Syntax rlocus : computes the Evans root locus of a SISO open-loop model. rlocus(sys) : calculates and plots the root locus of the open-loop SISO model sys[2].

feedback : Feedback connection of two LTI models Syntax sys=feedback(sys1,sys2): returns an LTI model sys for the negative feedback

interconnection[2].

Step: Step response of LTI systems Syntax step : calculates the unit step response of a linear system step(sys) : plots the step response of an arbitrary LTI model sys.

impulse: Impulse response of LTI model Syntax impulse : calculates the unit impulse response of a linear system. impulse (sys): plots the impulse response of an arbitrary LTI model sys.

lsim: Response of continuous linear systems to arbitrary inputs

Syntax

lsim: plot the time response of the LTI model sys to the input time history t,u The vector t specifies the time samples for the simulation and consists of regularly spaced time

samples. t=0:dt:Tfinal [y,t] = lsim(sys,u,t)

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Control Lab

Control Lab MATLAB Program : clc; % assume K=1,Transfer Function declaration num=[1 6]; den=[1 8 24

MATLAB Program:

clc;

% assume K=1,Transfer Function declaration num=[1 6];

den=[1 8 24 32]; t=tf(num,den) % root locus plot

subplot(2,2,1)

rlocus(t) hold

y=ezplot('-sqrt(3)*x');

[k,poles]=rlocfind(t)

num1=k*num;

T1=tf(num1,den);

sys=feedback(T1,1)

% step response plot

subplot(2,2,2)

step(sys) s=stepinfo(sys) y=s.Overshoot

zeta=log(y)/sqrt(pi^2+(log(y))^2)

grid on %impulse response plot

subplot(2,2,3)

impulse(sys)

grid on

% ramp response plot

subplot(2,2,4)

t = 0:0.01:5; ramp=t; [y,t]=lsim(sys,ramp,t); plot(t,y); grid on

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Control Lab

Control Lab Result : Transfer function: s  6 s 3  8 s 2 

Result:

Transfer function:

s 6

s

3

8 s

2

24 s 32

Current plot held

Select a point in the graphics window

Selected point =1.7341

2.9844i

k 3.6634

poles =

-4.5224

-1.7388 + 2.9854i

-1.7388 - 2.9854i

Transfer function:

3.663 s  21.98 s 3  8 s 2  27.66 s  53.98
3.663
s 
21.98
s
3
8 s
2
27.66 s  53.98
Plots-
-sqrt(3 ) x
Step Response
0.8
10
0.6
5
0
0.4
-5
0.2
-10
0
-5
0
5
0
1
2
3
x
Time (sec)
Imaginary Axis
Amplitude

Impulse Response

1 0.5 0 -0.5 0 1 2 3 4 Amplitude Amplitude
1
0.5
0
-0.5
0 1
2
3
4
Amplitude
Amplitude

Time (sec)

Ramp Response

2 1 0 0 2 4 6
2
1
0
0
2
4
6

1.5

0.5

Time

Fig. 1 Results obtained on MATLAB

Comment:

The root locus and different responses curve have been plotted for the given system.

References:

[1] I.J. Nagrath, M. Gopal” Control System Engineering”, New Age International, V th edition, 2010 [2] MATLAB User’s Guide [3] “Prof.B.S.Manke ”Linear control systems,Khanna Publishers, IX th edition ,2009

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Control Lab

Control Lab Tutorial Sheet Q1. Use MATLAB to draw the Root Locus plot for the open

Tutorial Sheet

Q1. Use MATLAB to draw the Root Locus plot for the open loop transfer function

G(s) H(s) =

K

s(s+1)(s+6)

Determine (i) the value of K at s = - 4. (ii) the frequency of sustained oscillations.

Q2. Sketch the root locus of the open loop transfer function given below

G(s) H(s) =

(+0.1)

(−0.3)(2++0.6)

and Determine the Stability. Verify result by use of MATLAB.

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