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Galaxea, Journal of Coral Reef Studies (Special Issue): 123-132(2013)

nd
Proc 2 APCRS

Off bottom culture of Caulerpa lentillifera in three different


water levels in the marine waters of San Francisco,
Cebu, Philippines

Serapion N. TANDUYAN1, *, Ricardo B. GONZAGA2 and Virginia D. BENSIG2

1
 University Professor Cebu Technological University- Camotes Campus 6050 San Francisco, Cebu, Philippines
2
 Instructor I Cebu Technological University- Camotes Campus 6050 San Francisco, Cebu, Philippines

* Corresponding author: Serapion N. Tanduyan


E-mail: sntanduyan@yahoo.com

Abstract Caulerpa lentillifera has been reared tradi­ plastic screen dominates the highest growth rate of all the
tionally cultured in bottoms of fishponds and was first culture media used from site 1, 2 and 3. Middle layer is
reared in Mactan Island, Cebu, Philippines. Conversion of the best layer for the off- bottom culture of lato using the
mangroves into ponds has been banned in the Philippines plastic screen cage based on the highest mean growth of
and the off bottom culture of this alga was studied in order the plant. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed that
to find its growth in an open and natural body of waters there is no significant difference on the growth rate of
cultured at three different water levels and culture sites. Caulerpa lentillifera placed in plastic screen cage, tubular
This study used the Randomized Complete Block Design nets with the different water levels in the three culture
(RCBD) with four culture media as treatment. Treatment sites.
1, use plastic screen cage; Treatment 2, tubular plastic
screen; Treatment 3 nylon screen cage and Treatment 4 Keywords Caulerpa lentillifera, Off bottom culture,
tubular nylon screen. The culture media were placed in Water levels and San Francisco, Cebu Philippines.
bamboo raft where this was divided into three layers
representing the surface, midlayer and bottom layer and
placed in different sites which are muddy, rocky and
sandy bottom. Sampling was done every 15 days for three Introduction
months taking wet weight of the plant as factor. Results
showed that as to the efficiency of each culture medium Seaweed farming is one of the top fishery export com­
based on the water level it was found out that on the modities of the Philippines. This industry is gaining im­
surface level the C. lentillifera placed in plastic screen portance in the export market. They have been used as
cage has the highest growth rate in Site 1 (muddy site) and food, medicine, soil conditioner, and source of salt. As
tubular nets ranked first in site 2 (rocky) and site 3 (sandy). food, seaweeds are made into salads, boiled as vegetables,
For the middle layer based on the mean weight of the mixed with various species, pickled, cooked with coconut
plant showed that tubular nets has the highest in site 1 milk and many more.
(muddy) and plastic screen cage got the highest in site 2 Caulerpa locally known as lato in Visayan is a green
(rocky) and 3 (sandy). For the bottom layer the tubular alga which is now cultured in some parts of the country.
124 Tanduyan et al.: Off bottom culture of Caulerpa lentillifera

This alga grows in the marine and brackish waters where terms of weight reared at different culture sites:
the water is clear and with slow current. The thallus is a. Muddy
greenish and sometimes brownish depending on the qual­ b. Sandy
ity of water and soil. c. Rocky
There are various species of Caulerpa found in the
Philippine waters. Of this, Caulerpa lentillefera is the Nature and Importance of the Study
species best adopted for pond culture although certain Camotes Islands is noted of its Camotes Sea which is
varieties of C. racemosa maybe utilized as well (Trono et considered as one of the fishery grounds of the Philippines
al. 1985). It is abundant of marine flora and fauna and presently
In the Visayas, like in Calawisan, Lapu lapu City, pond fishermen have felt the declined catch.
production of this alga has been successfully cultured in Caulerpa species are gathered in some parts of the
commercial quantity for local and international markets Islands which evidenced the presence of the plant in the
(Romano, 1999). wild. These have been totally harvested by the gleaners
In the Philippines conversion of mangrove areas into and eventually it disappeared.
fishponds was totally banned because of its degradation Due to the declining condition on the supply of the
due massive conversion of the mangrove areas in the fast marine products including Caulerpa and other edible sea
two decades in to fishponds. That is why there is less pro­ weeds, this study on the off bottom culture of C. lentillifera
duction of C. lentillefera cultured in fish ponds. was made in order to provide food and livelihood to the
It is on this regard that the cultivation of this species of farmers and fishermen because the farming venture re­
alga was tried in the open sea to determine whether this quire less capital and technology to be adopted by the
will favorably grow in this type of habitat. Hence, off interested farmers. This may also contribute to the real­
bottom culture of this alga was studied in order to find its ization of the food sufficiency program of our government.
growth in an open and natural body of waters cultured at
three different water levels and different culture sites
which may provide livelihood option to the fishermen and Materials and methods
other interested person who wanted to engage in the
cultivation of this particular commodity. Study site
The study site is the marine waters of Northern
Poblacion, San Francisco, Cebu specifically the coastline
Objectives of the study of CSCST- Fishery and Industrial College (Fig. 2).
Camotes Island is composed of three islands namely:
1. To determine the efficiency on the different culture Pacijan, Poro and Ponson. They are found off the north
media on the growth rate of Caulerpa lentillifera at dif­ eastern coast of the island of Cebu and lies 10˚37′ to
ferent culture sites and water levels: 10º43′10″ north and 124º24′40″ to 124º29′4″ East. The
a. Plastic Screen Cage western most Island of Pacijan is entirely within the po­
b. Tubular Plastic Screen litical jurisdictions of the municipality of San Fran­cis­co
c. Nylon Screen Cage while the eastern most and smallest island of Ponson
d. Tubular Nylon Screen belongs to the municipality of Pilar. The island Poro is
2. To find out the growth rate of Caulerpa lentillifera in split between the municipalities of Poro and Tudela. The
terms of weight at different water levels: islands belong to the Province of Cebu.
a. Surface Three specific sites were considered as experimental
b. Middle sites where the rafts were placed: the sandy, rocky and
c. Bottom muddy site.
3. To find out the growth rate of Caulerpa lentillifera in Experimental site number 1 is the sandy site (Fig. 3)
Tanduyan et al.: Off bottom culture of Caulerpa lentillifera 125

has bottom ranging from pure sand with mixture of small The experimental plant
amount of mud. Site two is rocky site (Fig. 4) where rocks Caulerpa lentillifera (Fig. 11) however, has a thallus
and boulders dominate the bottom. Site three is the muddy consisting of horizontal branched stolon and erect
site (Fig. 5) where the bottom is muddy and has loose branches, the latter densely covered by many short ramuli
bottom with some sea grasses growing on it. almost the entire length of their axes.; each ramulus has a
short stalk and a globose tip, 1-3 mm in diameter; distinct
Experimental Raft constriction between the tip of the stalk and the base of the
A three layered bamboo raft was used in the study (Fig. globose tip is distinctive of these species. This kind of
6), The height of each raft was 4 meters and the width is 3 alga commonly grows in shallow, sandy to muddy lagoon
meters such that each layer which resembles the surface, and reef flats not exposed during low tides where the
middle layer and bottom is one meter from each other and water is generally calm. It may form extensive bed in
one half meter is provided from the surface and from the exceptionally good habitats. It is commercially farmed in
bottom to give an allowance that the plants are not exposed ponds and lagoons and is the most edible species of
to direct sunlight in the case of the surface layer and it will Caulerpa. The alga is a stenohaline species and thrives in
not sag into the bottom in the case of the bottom layer. areas where salinity of the water is below 25 parts per
thousand. Growth and natural stocks is thus seasonal in
Experimental Cage habitats where water becomes brackish during rainy
There were two kinds of nets being used in the study; seasons, or those cultured in ponds.
the plastic screen and the nylon screen net. They are used
to cover the four types of the culture methods being used; Source of Seedlings (Fig. 12)
the plastic screen cage, the nylon screen cage, the tubular The Caulerpa seedlings were taken from the ponds of
plastic screen and the tubular nylon screen (Figs. 7-10). Carmen, Cebu City.
The cages have the size of one square foot and the
tubular nets are one meter long and having a diameter of 1 Sorting of Seedlings (Fig. 13)
foot. They are alternately placed in each layer of the raft Caulerpa seedlings were sorted by getting the dead
resembling the surface, middle and the bottom. They are seedlings and other associated species attaching on it.
set in three different sites; the muddy, rocky and sandy Only the healthy ones were used as experimental plant.
bottoms.
Amount and Placing of Seedlings in the Culture Media
and Sites
Methods In every culture medium, a 250 grams of Caulerpa was
placed for cultivation then tied using a plastic straw and
Experimental Design placed in the culture media (nylon screen cage, tubular
This study used the Randomized Block Design (RCBD) nylon screen, plastic screen cage and tubular plastic
with four culture media as treatments. Treatment 1 used screen) after weighing and tying. Then it was placed in
the plastic screen cage (Fig. 8); Treatment 2, tubular every culture sites, the muddy, rocky and sandy sites.
plastic screen (Fig. 9); Treatment 3 nylon screen cage
(Fig. 7) and Treatment 4 tubular nylon screen (Fig. 10). Sampling of the plant (Figs. 18, 19)
The different culture methods were placed in a bamboo Sampling was done every 15 days for 3 months where
raft where this was divided into three layers representing each culture method was assigned as number and was
the surface, midlayer and the bottom layer and placed in drawn by lot in each sampling period. Each method has an
different sites which are muddy, rocky and sandy bottom. equal chance to be included in the sampling in each
Each culture method was planted with 250 grams lato sampling day. This was based on the 45 days culture/
seedlings and was allowed to grow until 3 months. cropping period of the plant
126 Tanduyan et al.: Off bottom culture of Caulerpa lentillifera

A total harvest of the sampled plant was made by tubular nylon screen. In the surface level the highest is
getting its weight using a weighing scale. Then the sam­ 467.5 in sandy site. In the middle the highest is 516.7
pled plant is returned to the area where it was sampled. grams in the rocky site and in the bottom it is 361.7 grams.
Similar to the Plastic screen cage the bottom got the
Determination on the physic - chemical parameters of highest growth rate based on the water level.
sea water Table 3 present the mean growth rate of Caulerpa
A secchi disk was used to measure the transparency; pH lentillefera in nylon screen cage. It shows that in the
meter model (Milwaukee pH 600) was used to determine surface level the highest is 340.8 grams in Rocky site and
hydrogen- ion concentration, Atago refractomoter for in the middle is 353.3 grams in sandy site and on the
measuring salt content and mercury thermometer for the bottom it is 221.7 grams in sandy site.
temperature. Table 4 presents the growth rate of Caulerpa lentillifera
in tubular plastic screen cage. It reveals that in the surface
Guarding the Project the highest growth rate is 220 grams in muddy site and in
The project was guarded all day through until the the middle it is 477.2 grams at sandy site and in the bottom
duration of the project to control pouching. it is 565 grams in rocky bottom.
Table 5 shows the mean growth of Caulerpa in four
Statistical Methods Used different culture methods in surface layer and the site
This experimental study used the means and rank and where the rafts were placed. It was found out that site 1
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) as statistical tools. In­ (muddy bottom), plastic screen cage has the highest mean
crement of growth of the plant was known by deducting rate, followed by the tubular nylon screen, nylon screen
initial weight of the pant during planting from the present cage and tubular plastic screen. In site 2 (rocky bottom)
weight of the plant during sampling period. the tubular nylon screen got the highest followed by the
nylon screen cage then the tubular plastic screen. In site 3
(sandy bottom) tubular nylon screen got the highest
Results followed by the nylon screen cage then the plastic screen
cage and tubular plastic screen.
Table 1 presented the growth rate of C. lentillefera in Table 6 reveals the mean growth of C. lentillifera in
plastic screen cage. It revealed that there is a difference in different culture methods and three different sites in
growth of the plant in different sites and water level. It middle layer of water. It was found out that in site 1
further revealed that in the surface level the plant reaches (muddy bottom) tubular nylon screen got the highest
to 315.5 grams in muddy bottom. For the middle, the (417.3 g) followed by plastic screen cage (356.79 g) then
highest rate is 663.3 grams and in the bottom it is only the tubular plastic screen cage (299.29 g) and nylon screen
381.7 grams. This accounts on the fact that sandy soil has cage (263.39). In site 2 (rocky bottom) plastic screen cage
clear water which is evidenced by the fast moving current. got the highest (608.3 g) followed by the tubular nylon
This presents further that highest growth rate occurred in screen (516.7 g) followed by tubular plastic screen
middle layer of water. (381.7 g) and nylon screen cage (248.3 g). In site 3 (sandy
Table 2 shows the growth of Caulerpa lentillefera in bottom) plastic screen cage got the highest (663.3)

Table 1 Computed mean on the growth rate of Caulerpa lentillifera in plastic screen cage
Tanduyan et al.: Off bottom culture of Caulerpa lentillifera 127

Table 2 Computed mean on the growth rate of C. lentillifera in tubular nylon screen cage

Table 3 Computed mean on the growth rate of C. lentillifera in nylon screen cage

Table 4 Computed mean on the growth rate of C. lentillifera in tubular plastic screen cage

Table 5 Comparative growth rate of C. lentillifera in different culture media at the surface layer

Table 6 Comparative growth rate of C. lentillifera in different culture media at the middle layer
128 Tanduyan et al.: Off bottom culture of Caulerpa lentillifera

Table 7 Comparative growth rate of C. lentillifera in different culture media at the bottom layer

Table 8 Highest growth rate of C. lentillifera at different culture media, site and layer of water

Table 9 Comparative analysis of the highest growth mean rate of Caulerpa reared in off bottom culture in San Francisco,
Cebu with Caulerpa grown in ponds of Carmen, Cebu and Kalawisan, Mactan, Island, Cebu

Table 10 Physico- chemical Parameters of seawater on the three experimental sites of Caulerpa lentillifera
Tanduyan et al.: Off bottom culture of Caulerpa lentillifera 129

followed by the tubular plastic (477.2 g), tubular nylon showed that in muddy bottom, tubular plastic screen has
screen (456.2 g) and nylon screen (353.3 g). the highest (368.3 g) followed by plastic screen cage and
Table 7 presents the mean growth rate of C. lentillifera nylon screen cage then the last is tubular nylon screen. In
in the middle layer using four different culture methods. It site 2 (rocky bottom) tubular plastic screen got the highest
130 Tanduyan et al.: Off bottom culture of Caulerpa lentillifera

(565 g) followed by plastic screen (381.7 g) and the last is lowest is nylon screen cage with an increment of 90.8 g
the nylon screen cage (181.7 g). In site 3 (sandy bottom) with 36.32% increment compared to the growth of lato in
the tubular plastic screen got the highest (537.3 g) Kalawisan and BFAR 7 pond in Carmen, Cebu which we
followed by tubular nylon screen (324.5 g), plastic screen consider as the control, the increment is 1,125 g for 3 mos.
cage 9307.5 g) and the last is nylon screen cage (221.7 g). with a percentage increment of 450%. Based on the data
Table 9 compares the growth of the different culture the increment in the off bottom culture of lato in the
methods of Caulerpa cultured in different sites and water present study (plastic screen cage) is only 1/3 from that of
levels with that of that growth in ponds based on the ponds. However, per interview of Estellore and Berame in
interview of Mr. Mabini Berame and Mr. Ben Estillore, 45 days culture in the cultivation of lato in ponds, they
Station Superintendent of Carmen-Lake Danao Research harvested it by pruning letting the remaining plant to
Outreach Station based at Carmen, Cebu. It was found out region wherein after 45 days of culture 1/2 of the original
that the plastic screen cage has the highest mean growth weight will be harvested then after 18 days after the first
rate of 663.3 g in the middle layer in sandy bottom with an harvest, they will harvest 100% of the initial weight of the
increment of 413.3 g for three months with a percentage plant until after the second harvest (18 days). Harvesting
increment of 165.32%. This was followed by tubular is done weekly which harvest one 100% of the initial
nylon screen with an increment of 315 g and 126%. The weight of the plant. Whereas in our study we didn’t prune
third is tubular nylon screen which has an increment of the plant but we made the total harvest of the whole
266.76 with a percentage increment of 106.68 and the sample. Then another sample will be harvested in the next
Tanduyan et al.: Off bottom culture of Caulerpa lentillifera 131

sampling period by using random numbers. However, screen where it is also 1 meter length and the mesh size is
without using the test of means, there were plants who 3/4 inch. This also happens in plastic screen cage where it
reached more than 1000 g. Like for instance in site 2 offers favorable growth to C. lentillifera since it has also
(Rocky bottom surface level) the tubular screen net bigger mesh size where water circulation is great although
reaches 1,100 g in 3 months; 1,030 g in (sandy bottom it has similar area with nylon screen cage.
middle layer); plastic screen cage 1000 g for 2 months in Based on the mean growth rate of C. lentillifera in
(middle layer sandy bottom); screen net cage 1100 g in 2 different water levels and sites, it was found out that
1/2 mos. (middle sandy bottom) and 1225 g for the tubular plastic screen cage has the highest growth rate over other
screen net at the midlayer in sandy bottom. Another thing culture methods and sites. It grows best in middle layer in
is that Caulerpa in ponds has wider and bigger space not site 3 (sandy bottom) which has a mean growth of 663.3 g
compared to the cages and tubular nets where it has for 3 months then followed by tubular nylon screen in
smaller and shallower space. surface layer. This accounts on the fact that middle layer
Table 10 presents the physico- chemical parameters of has the moderate physico- chemical conditions than the
seawater. It shows that the three sites (muddy, rocky and rest of the layers (bottom and surface).
sandy) slightly differ in water depth during low tide and Although Caulerpa is an epibenthic plant which at­
high tide Sites 1 and 3 slightly vary in current velocity taches to the mud substrates in ponds (Berame 2003,
while site 2 got the lowest velocity All other parameters Estellore 2006 personal com.) and (Romano, 1999) growth
have slight differences on their values on water tem­ has only reached 565 g in the bottom layer in rocky bottom
perature, transparency salinity and pH. It should be noted for 3 months compared in tubular plastic screen compared
that water transparency exceeds the water depth in each to the middle layer in site 3 (sandy bottom) using plastic
site meaning light is able to penetrate the sea bottom screen cage which is 663.3 g.
which allows the plant for photosynthetic process. Significantly, the results on the cultivation of the plant
in the open sea will provide additional livelihood options
for the fisherfolks to engage in Caulerpa farming since
Discussions this requires small capital investment compared to its
cultivation in fishponds. Training on site selection, proper
Results showed that different culture methods have selection of seedlings, cage maintenance will be done as
different growth rates in different sites. Plastic screen part of the extension program of the university to help
cage showed favourable growth in site 1 at the surface solve the unemployment problem of the people. Produc­
layer then also in site 3 (rocky bottom) which is 608.3 g tion of Caulerpa lentillefera in off bottom culture systems
and in site 3 (sandy bottom) which is 663.39 g. Tubular will help provide food items to the people thereby helping
nylon screen showed favourable growth in site 2 which solve the food security problem of the country.
has 418.6 g and site 3 (sandy bottom) 467.5 g in surface
layer. Tubular plastic screen showed good growth also in Morphology and General Conditions of the Cultured
site 1 (muddy) 368.3 g; site 2 (rocky bottom) 565 g and Caulerpa
site 3 (sandy bottom) 537.3 g. As observed the culture lato was almost similar to the
Out of the four culture methods Caulerpa lentillifera in conditions when it was purchased as seedlings. The
nylon screen cage didn’t show best growth over other seedlings were purchased from the Capin Lato Farm at
methods in different sites. This accounts on the fact that Cogon West, Carmen, Cebu where their seedlings was
the size of the cage is only 1 square foot and the mesh size bought from Carmen-Lake Danao Research Outreach
is very small where there is less water exchange inside the Station of BAR 7 situated at Carmen, Cebu. The only dif­
cage and it is easily get fouled by dirts and epiphytes ference in the cultured lato is the increase of the size of
where the tubular nylon screen nets have greater space the grape-like structure in the tubular nylon screen method
since it is 1 meter in length same with tubular plastic in site 3 (sandy bottom) in the middle layer. All the rest
132 Tanduyan et al.: Off bottom culture of Caulerpa lentillifera

have similar morphology with the original seedlings. Central Visayas Consortium for the Integrated regional Research
and Development (CV-CIRRD) (1989) Central Visayas
Seaweed Farming Technoguide Caulerpa lentillifera J.

Conclusions Agardh, p 27
Esteillore B (2006) (Pers Comm.) Station superintendent, Car­
men Lato Farm, Carmen Lake Danao Research Out­reach
That plastic screen cage is the best culture method
Research Station, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic re­
based on the highest mean growth rate among other
sources Regional Office No. 7, Carmen, Cebu
methods and that the middle layer is the best water level
Martinez-Goss MR, Dionisio-Sese MI, Elegardo FB, Migo VP
to place the raft based on the mean weight of the plant. and Hori K. (2001) Analyses of Algae for Food. DOST
The best site is sandy site based of the means, however PCASTRD), Bicutan Taguig, Metro Manila, Philippines
based on the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) there is no Ponce AQ, Luhan MaR, Guanzon Jr NG (1992) Seaweeds of
significant difference on the culture methods, water level Panay. SEAFDEC, Aquaculture Department, Tigbauan,
and sites on the growth of Caulerpa lentillefera in off Iloilo, Philippines, p 114
bottom culture and longer culture period for off- bottom Romano S (1999) Culture of “Lato”(Caulerpa lentillefera) in
Caulerpa lentillefera be done to determine its growth in ponds using artificial substrates: In Tan JS (ed) The Fishers
different seasons of the year. Journal of Colleges in Fisheries of the CSCST- System,
January-June, pp 16-19
Skelton PA, South GR (1998) Guide to the common seaweeds of
Palalo Deep Marine Reserve. ADIA Samoa Tech Rep,
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