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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE • 215

INTERVENTIONS FOR CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT (EXCERPT) (Continued )


TABLE 49.16
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216 • Chapter 49

The following annexes complete this Section: category Ex, the testing shall be at least the testing provided
for in this Division for the construction category A.
(a) Physical and mechanical properties of materials (b) Inspection. The construction supervision shall be carried out
(b) Recommendations for the installation of expansion joints by a body or a department appointed by the Purchaser and
(Table 49.28) in charge of performing the contractual activities related to
(c) Recommendation for checking of metallic piping against the construction supervision that are required in the
seismic events Division 1 of the Code and in the construction technical data
(d) Allowable forces and moments on branches of pumps specified by the Purchaser. Regarding construction category
Ex, the tasks to be carried out by the inspector shall be at
49.5.5.4 Section C4, Supports, deals with design of the support- least those related to construction category A.
ing system and with the calculation of supports (Fig. 49.9). (c) Conformity Assessment. The specific requirements for pip-
ing that are within the scope of the PED and the conformity
49.5.5.5 General annexes covering buried piping complete the of which must be assessed according to the procedures are
design chapter (Fig. 49.10). detailed (see Table 49.31).
49.5.6 Part Fabrication 49.5.8 Comparison to ASME B31.1 and B31.3
This part provides fabrication rules for the various materials The main differences between CODETI® and ASME B 31.1
covered by the Code according to the following sections: are as follows:
(a) F1, rules applicable to all ferrous materials (a) The categories of piping are different.
(b) F2, rules applicable to nonaustenitic and nonstainless steel (b) Guarantied properties given without additional require-
constructions ments by the product standard (i.e., ASTM) are lower than
(c) F3, rules applicable to austenitic stainless steel construc- those given by European standards.
tions (c) Safety factors used in B31.1/B31.3 are higher than those
(d) F4, rules applicable to fabrication of supports used in CODETI® (for time-independent conditions).
Each section is divided into chapters that cover design of (d) Testing during and after fabrication is different in some
–welded joints, forming, welding, tolerances (see Fig. 49.11 and cases.
Table 49.29) and postwelded heat treatment.
Annexes complete these sections; Annex FA1 defines the per- 49.5.9 Future Developments
missible welded joints that depend on the construction category of The principal development of Division 1 will address an alter-
the piping (see Fig. 49.12). native procedure for checking bolted flange connections. This
new method, based on the European Standard NF EN 1591, will
49.5.7 Part Testing and Inspection account for tightness criteria and loads due to each operating con-
The chapters of this part define all the testing and inspection dition including external loading.
operations to which piping is designed and manufactured in Divisions 2 and 3 are in the course of preparation and will
accordance with Division 1 of the Code. cover the following:

(a) Testing. The Manufacturer, under his responsibility, must (a) Division 2: pipeline transportation (aboveground or buried)
define the testing type and extent, which must meet the (b) Division 3: water transportation and steel penstock
requirements provided for in this Division of the Code for the
construction category under consideration (see Table 49.30).
Testing shall be carried out by a testing body or depart-
ment, independent of the production department of the
Manufacturer, in charge of performing the testing required by
the Division 1 of the Code and by the Technical Construction
data specified by the Purchaser. Regarding construction
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TABLE 49.17 SELECTION OF A CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT PROCEDURE

Code deals with steam boiler and superheated water boilers and
covers the two basic types of boilers. (firetube and watertube).
According to the Code, a boiler consists of all parts subject to
pressure from water inlet (including valves) to the steam or super
heated water header (including outlet valves, where relevant, or
the last welded joint or flange at outlet of the header). This covers
all reheaters, economizers, piping, and safety accessories connected
directly to the boiler without intervening valves (i.e., subject to
the risk of overheating).
The rules of this Code have been developed to cover equipment
that must comply with the requirements of the PED. They can
also be applied to boilers subject to other regulations.
In addition, specifications covering composite materials falling
or not within the scope of the PED are being prepared. 49.6.2 Links with PED
COVAP® 2003 is in full conformity with the PED due to the
following:
49.6 PRESENTATION OF COVAP®
(a) Integration of PED hazard categories (Article 9, Article 10,
49.6.1 Scope and Annex II) in General
COVAP® (Code for construction of steam boilers and super (b) Integration of PED conformity assessment procedures
heated water boilers) is published by SNCT. COVAP is based on (Article 10 and Annex III) in Testing and Inspection
the French Standard Series NF E 32-100, which was withdrawn (c) Conformity with PED essential safety requirements (Annex I)
when the new European regulation (PED) came into being. This in the relevant parts of COVAP®
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218 • Chapter 49

FIG. 49.7 DETERMINATION OF HAZARD CATEGORY FOR A PIPING CONTAINING A DANGEROUS GAS

Regarding hazard categories, Fig. 5 given in Annex II of the (3) volume of the vessel, V (liters)
PED for “fired or otherwise heated pressure equipment with the (4) operating pressure, P (bar)
risk of overheating intended for generation of steam or superheat-
ing water” has been included in Part G of COVAP(see Fig. 49.13). Determination of the hazard category of a boiler should not be
Part G also provides figures for vessels and piping to cover considered as a hazard analysis (which, in other respects, is
other equipment included in the concept of “assembly” defined by required by Annex I of the PED).
the PED (“several pieces of pressure equipment assembled by a 49.6.3 Main Concepts
Manufacturer to constitute an integrated and functional whole”).
These figures define four hazard categories (I, II, III, and IV in 49.6.3.1 Failure Modes. The failure modes to which the ves-
ascending order) depending on four parameters as follows: sels are likely to be subjected are classified into two types.
(1) nature of fluid (gas or liquid) (a) Failure Modes of Primary Type. Failure modes of primary
(2) dangers from fluid (flammable, explosive, toxic, oxidizing) type are modes for which the failure results from the
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TABLE 49.18 RISK ASSESSMENT FOR PIPING FALLING WITHIN THE SCOPE OF THE PED
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220 • Chapter 49

TABLE 49.19 RISK ASSESSMENT: ADDITIONAL CRITERIA FOR PIPING BEYOND THE SCOPE OF THE PED

TABLE 49.20 DETERMINATION OF THE CONSTRUCTION CATEGORY IN CODETI®

application or maintenance of a loading of a given intensity (1) incremental collapse


as follows: (2) fatigue cracking
(1) gross plastic deformation
(2) plastic instability (bursting) 49.6.3.2 Construction Categories. The concept of construc
(3) elastic and elastic-plastic instability (buckling) tion categories enables the construction quality of a boiler to be
(4) creep rupture adapted and consistent with its future working conditions. This
(5) brittle fracture concept has been significantly modified to be consistent with the
concept of PED hazard categories.
(b) Failure Modes of the Secondary Type. Failure modes of the
secondary type are modes for which the failure results from (a) In COVAP® 2003, the determination of the construction cat-
repeated variations in loadings as follows: egory of a boiler is based on the following:
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TABLE 49.21 NOMINAL DESIGN STRESS

TABLE 49.22 PERMITTED COMBINATIONS OF THE DIFFERENT NOMINAL DESIGN STRESSES AND PIPING
CATEGORIES, FOR OPERATING CONDITIONS BEYOND THE CREEP RANGE OF THE MATERIAL
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TABLE 49.23 WELDED JOINT COEFFICIENT

(1) hazard category of the boiler (I, II, III, or IV) obtained The rules of this part are completed by the following six
from the PED Annexes:
(2) assessment of the potential hazard of failure
(3) the consequence of a failure (1) prevention of risk of brittle fracture based on fracture
mechanics.
(b) The selection of the construction category has significant (2) prevention of risks of corrosion.
consequences on the construction of the boiler. The most (3) safe products intended for the manufacture of piping
important are the following: subject to the essential safety requirements of the
European PED or the relevant French transposing regu-
(1) the type of certificate for the material (specific testing or lations (Decree 99-1046). This Annex allows the use of
nonspecific testing) materials that are not covered by European standards
(2) the safety factors applied on tensile strength and on but that are covered by other recognized standards (i.e.,
yield strength (see Table 49.32) French or German standards).
(3) the weld joint efficiency (z ⫽ 1.0; 0.85; 0.7)
These requirements are summarized in Table 49.33. 49.6.5 Part Design
The Code provides two complementary types of design rules:
49.6.4 Part Material specific design rules (DBF ⫽ design by formula) and general
Part M defines the minimum conditions to be fulfilled for the design rules (DBA ⫽ design by analysis).
selection of materials, conditions regarding the use of the (a) The specific design rules cover the most usual components
products, drawing up of orders, supplying, possibilities of using and welded joints subject to common loadings (i.e., pressure).
products taken from stock, testing, and marking of products. In these rules, the thickness of the component is determined by
(a) Boilers Falling Within the Scope of the PED. The products a direct formula, or the strength of the component is checked
intended for the fabrication of boilers or boilers components by formulas or graphs. Due to this type of pressure equipment,
must be defined by one of the following documents: special attention is paid to the determination of design temper-
atures. No other justification is necessary if these rules are
(1) a supporting harmonized European standard for materials. used in accordance with their conditions of applicability. The
(2) a material data sheet resulting from a European following is covered by the specific design rules:
approval for materials for pressure equipment;
(3) a particular material appraisal. For piping falling within (1) cylindrical shell
hazard category III, the particular appraisal shall be per (2) spherical shell
formed by the Notified Body in charge of the conformi- (3) rectangular header
ty assessment procedures for the piping. (4) formed ends
(5) flat ends
For the products intended for the fabrication of a (6) openings in cylindrical or spherical shells and in formed
boiler not subject to the essential safety requirements ends
of the above-mentioned documents, the rules of para. (7) water or steam pipes
(b) below apply.
In addition to the above rules, specific rules regarding fire-tube
(b) Boilers Beyond the Scope of the PED. The products intend boilers are provided (e.g., for tubesheet and furnace; see Fig. 49.14).
ed for the fabrication of boilers or boilers components shall
be defined by referring to a standard or, in the absence of (b) The general design rules are intended to be used when the spe-
such a standard, to a particular specification that attests that cific rule do not apply. In these rules, which are covered in
these products are suitable for the intended use. Annexes CA1 and CA2, the check of the strength is performed
According to the grouping of materials listed in Table 49.34 by complying with criteria regarding stresses or stress ranges.
(taken from EN 288-3), the selection of a material and acceptance Determination of the required stresses shall be performed
criteria are related to construction category. either numerically, analytically, or experimentally.
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TABLE 49.24 MATERIAL GROUPING

49.6.6 Part Fabrication Each section covers the following topics: design of welded
This part deals with the fabrication of boilers or boiler compo- joints, forming, welding, tolerances, and postweld heat treatment
nents. Two complementary sets of design rules are provided in the (see Table 49.35).
following sections: Annexes complete these sections; Annex FA1 defines the per-
missible joints according to the construction category of the boiler
(a) F1, rules applicable to all ferrous materials (see Table 49.36).
(b) F2, rules applicable to nonaustenitic and nonstainless steel
constructions 49.6.7 Testing and Inspection
(c) F3, rules applicable to austenitic stainless steel construc- The various sections of this part define the testing and inspec-
tions tion operations to which boilers must be subjected.
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TABLE 49.25 STEEL GRADES AND MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE THICKNESSES IN RELATION TO CONSTRUCTION
CATEGORIES

TABLE 49.26 SAFETY FACTORS

Depending on the hazard category of the vessel, conformity


assessment may be carried out by the Manufacturer or by a
Notified Body, in accordance with one of the given procedures
(see Table 49.39).
The inspection body may be any of the following:
49.6.7.1 Testing. A testing body or department independent of (a) the inspection department of the Principal.
the production department of the Manufacturer shall carry out the (b) a specialized body selected by the Principal.
testing. The Manufacturer, under his responsibility, shall define (c) a department of the Manufacturer in charge of performing
the testing type and extent, which shall meet as a minimum the all or part of the supervision of the construction; after agree-
requirements provided for in the Code for the construction catego ment between the parties involved, a certified quality system
ry under consideration (see Table 49.37). of the Manufacturer is implemented under the responsibili-
ty of the Manufacturer.
49.6.7.2 Inspection. The construction supervision shall be car
ried out by a body department appointed by the Customer (named The Principal in the order shall specify the procedure regarding
“Principal”) in COVAP. the activities of the inspection body.

49.6.7.3 Conformity Assessment. The Code defines the specif- 49.6.8 Comparison to ASME BPVC Section I
ic requirements for boilers that are within the scope of the PED The scope of COVAP® 2003 is similar to the scope of ASME
The conformity assessment must be performed according to Table BPVC Section I, except that miniature boilers are not specifically
I.10.4.3.1 of the Code (see excerpt, Table 49.38). addressed and locomotive, portable, and traction service boilers
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TABLE 49.27 COMPONENTS