Sie sind auf Seite 1von 28

E2 Scratch Pad

This is a private area (unless you say otherwise) for you to preview your writeups before
submitting them. The HTML and text is displayed just like a regular writeup, except privately,
viewable only by you and yours. You can choose to have other people be able to view it, so
that you can get comments on a writeup or what not, but this is not the default. Use it to test
or preview HTML (all the tags work just the same), or just to keep random notes to yourself.

Note Well, O User: Scratch pads are now of unlimited size

This is currently private. If you wish to allow logged in noders to view it, uncheck the
following checkbox, then press the Update! button. For more information, see E2 Options:
Sharing your scratch pad.


Show writeup hints here

(essential) It looks like you forgot to close a link, since you tried to link to a node with [ in the
title. Here is what you linked to: " [blind to the [immensity] ", " [Approval} and are
Liked by Him. We [pray] ", " [Commanding Self[, that base [coward]

[The Animal or Mammalian Self, Commanding to ‘Evil’] [Nafs-e-Ammara].

<p>[Sufism] (The name given to the [esoteric] dimension of [Islam], about which
little is actually known and much is assumed) recognizes three States of human
consciousness. These are:
[The Animal or Mammalian Self, Commanding to ‘Evil’] [Nafs-e-Ammara];
[The Guilty Conscious Self] [Nafs-e-Lawammah];
[The Contented Self] [Nafs-e-Mutmaeena].</p>
<p>A gradual introduction to an entire philosophy for human development might
benefit from an extract of a book that I have translated from an [Urdu] translation of the
Arabic original by The Blessed [Junaid Baghdadi] a [Saint] from the early centuries of
[Islam]. The book is called [Vaulting Aspirations] and the introduction reads as
<p>Gentle Readers and Benevolent friends.</p>
<p> I pray that [Allah], The Most Exalted, awakens us from the sleep of
heedlessness and removes from us the base desires of the [self]. How long will those who
sleep in heedlessness of the soul’s aspirations continue upon this course?</p>
<p>Oh [Allah] reveal to us the secret that You have disclosed to the truthful and
sincere ones. The secret that they have searched for. How wondrous is the dignity of
those who seek for Thee! Bestow upon them their desire. The Eminence of Your Bounty
and Grace has all the intelligent and discerning people under Your Infinite Care. Know
that the sincere [Gnostics] are those who possess [Vaulting Aspirations]. The ardent
[Saints] are to be found amongst the [Sufis].</p>
<p> When I reviewed the ranks of the [Friends of Allah] [Auliya Allah], of the
present times, I found that most lacked the knowledge of the [Path] [Tareeqat] and were
deficient in [Gnosis]. Even to the extent that they were unaware of the correct manner of
seeking. The height of ignorance is that they do not examine their baser self. They remain
ignorant of the heights of aspiration and do not realize how invaluable are the moments
of the heart. They are blind to the immensity of the gifts of Plentitude and the Mercy of
[Allah]. They remain [insensible] to the vast amount of Love that [Allah] bears for His
Creation. It is the great Mercy of [Allah], The Most Exalted, that He has chosen these
people for His [Gnosis]; Has allowed them to enter His Holy Court and has invited them
to draw ever closer to His Holy Presence. From His Holy Essence He has made them
aware of each station and hidden their ultimate end. He has bestowed us with hearts; Has
endowed them with the capacity of love and Has declared Himself to be the Penultimate
Friend. He has hidden Himself amongst the valleys of Splendor and Majesty and Has
invited us to seek His Glorious Visage.</p>
<p>Alas those devotees of His Holy Court who were to seek The Most Noble
One, are wandering perplexed and stupefied in the dark wilderness of their base desires.
The Masters of this lore have stumbled into heedlessness. The have abandoned the
worship of [Allah] The Most Gracious and have taken up the veneration of their lower
selves and the idolatry of their base desires. They are so engrossed in this deceit of the
[lower self] that they are unable to understand its deception. The power that brings about
understanding and awakens mankind to reality is the Fire of Love. This fire has gone so
insipid that it is unable to turn them towards [Allah] The Most Exalted. The need of the
times is that when they are invited towards sincerity of belief they should so believe.</p>
<p>Alas the sparks that nature has buried in their hearts for this very purpose
have gone so ineffective that I fear that they may never burst in the flames of desire. After
perceiving the weakness of the people; the feebleness of their spiritual desire and the evil
of their superstitions, I determined to write such a book, the perusal of which would make
keen the dullness of their aspirations. A book that would inspire excellence in their belief
and ignite the smoldering sparks of love to produce a conflagration. I wish to drive away
the perplexity of the ignorant and awaken the people from the slumber of heedlessness.
The ability to write such a book comes from [Allah] and is a Mercy from Him. The
possession of His [Gnosis] and the Magnitude of His Favors have been herein inscribed.
The main aim of this book is to educate the disciples of [The Way] ([Sufism]) in the
[Gnosis] of [Allah] and to provide those who are attracted towards [Allah], with food for
thought. Secondly, it is meant to instruct those who love [Allah] in the manners to be
observed in His [Holy Court].</p>
<p>I pray that [Allah] may place His Special Favor and Blessings upon all those
who read this book with concentration; ponder upon its contents and treat it with respect
and consideration. I have included such subjects in this book that will serve to heighten
aspirations and increase the ability of the pious. These facts will haply acquaint the
heedless with the blessedness of their unawakened aspirations. It is obligatory upon the
[Saints] that they do not reveal the [|inner secrets of the hearts] as ordinary people are not
capable of sustaining such knowledge. Those who possess this knowledge are extremely
limited] in number. Those who tread the Path of [Gnosis] and attempt to attain unto
[Allah] are obviously few in number and those who are aware of the rank and dignity of
the [Saints] are very limited. The vast majority of the people are unaware of the dignity;
eminence; nobility and honor of the [|Sages of Allah]. Thus it is imperative that the
[Gnostics] conceal the tokens of [Allah’s Grace] from the uninitiated. </p>
<p>May The [Almighty Allah] of Sublime Glory, Bless us all with the ability to
turn towards His Holy Self. I pray for the ability and strength to carry out those deeds that
meet with His Approval and are Liked by Him. We pray that [Allah] bestow upon us His
Help. In order to remain steadfast in belief and trust in His Holiness. Undoubtedly He is
The Possessor of Power; The Most Generous; The Divine and Blessed; The Most
Forgiving; The Pardoner.</p>
<p>A few more concepts might serve to elucidate a complex and age long process
of human spiritual endeavor.</p>
<p>The [Punjabi] word ‘[Wadalay]’ signifies the morning, in everyday terms,
whilst ‘[Ludalay]’ is the corresponding eventide. [Transcendently] the ‘Big’ time of
newborn morn, is the [Macrocosm] or Being, created out of Nothingness. It is contained
in nowhere else, as completely, as within a single unselfish teardrop, noble drop of
salinity to contain entirety. That ‘[Gumbad-e-Minai]’ of [Allama Iqbal]; The upturned
[Wine Goblet] of the external universe wherein the lonely cry from a broken heart
rebounds unto the crier after having traveled the vast and empty expanses, to return at
‘[Ludalay]’, the ‘Small’ time of Realization! The [Microcosm] re-visited upon ‘[|An
Evening Gloaming]’. When the Herds do return to the manger and the fold to rest and
masticate the day’s forage in the peace and contentment of wholeness. This can only be
true if the Shepard is watchful of the moments in the darkness of the stillborn night.</p>
<p>When the ‘[Savages]’, with pretensions to ‘[Civilization]’ have rent the
garment of piety and trampled the languages that rose out of the ashes of existence, like
the legendary phoenix, to uplift the drab and everyday of life unto the sublime.</p>
<p>“Arise and tune the harp of Brotherhood.
Give us back the cup of the wine of Love!”</p>
<p>”If Thou Fulfillment Seekest.
Extend Thy Deep Desire!
Rose as Thou perfume Claimed.
Now Garden Win Entire.”</p>
<p>When even a single couplet from the lips of the immortal ‘[Sufi Sages]’ holds
more real meaning than the entire literature of existentialism. The pain of loss is
compounded once the very realization of what we have lost, perhaps irrevocably, is itself
lost. [|The Gentle Religion of ‘Love’] that lies broken at our feet, to be replaced with a
harsh and stern frustration that is unaware of the reason of its plight. When the strident
overwhelms the soft notes from the lute of forgiveness and tolerance; When lengthening
shadows are no longer held in abeyance by the flickering lamp that consumes itself in
order to bring luminance to the shadow underworld of the “[Nafs-e-Ammara]”, the
[Commanding Self], that base coward that lurks within the creeping shadows of the
stillborn night!</p>
<p>A similar concept from [Cosmic Consciousness] divides consciousness into
three states, which are: [Simple Consciousness]; [Self Consciousness] and [Cosmic
Consciousness]. Yet again a parallel is to be found in the terms [Reptilian
Consciousness]; [Mammalian Consciousness] and [Human Consciousness] the three
epochs of human development. [Transcendentalism] or [Cosmic Consciousness] are
linked to the [Nafs-e-Mutmaeena] or [Contented Self] whereas [Nafs-e-Lawamma] or
[Guilty Conscious Self] is akin to [Self Consciousness] or [Mammalian Consciousness].
Finally [Nafs-e-Ammara] or [Mammalian Self Commanding to Evil] falls under the
category of a twilight world that lies between the [Reptilian Consciousness] and
[Mammalian Consciousness] with greater inclination towards {Reptilian Consciousness]
which is [Simple Consciousness].</p>
<p>Parallels abound and can be drawn and inferred from a number of Religions
and [Ethical Philosophies]. How strange it seems to be that the [Ancients] are reputed to
have possessed the [“Mysteries”] whereas we have abandoned the inner path for the more
worldly and lucrative path of materialism.</p>
<p>It might not be amiss to repeat a [Homily] from the World Famous [Sufi
Sage] [Maulana Rumi] Upon whom be the Mercy of Allah. A number of fellow travelers
from different nationalities arrived at a [Caravan Sarai], the leader of the party asked
them what they would like to eat? Each traveler responded with a different demand in
their respective tongues. Highly perplexed the leader sought advice from a local [Sufi].
The [Sufi] took their money and purchased a quantity of a single item and accompanied
the leader back to the waiting travelers. The leader was apprehensive about the wisdom of
this act but held his peace. He was pleasantly surprised when he saw his companions
welcoming the [Sufi] with audible appreciation. It transpired that each traveler had asked
for grapes but used their own language to express their desire. Thus each asked for the
same thing but seemed to be opposed to the others. Perhaps we too can benefit from this
[Homily] and learn greater understanding of our different civilizations; creeds; faiths;
races; culture and traditions.
Everything 2 HTML Tags

(A Guide to using HTML in E2.)

Sure, you can node in plain text - just like you can talk in one voice. This guide shows
how to use all the HTML tags allowed in E2.

If you already know HTML, a list of tags allowed in E2 is at E2 FAQ: HTML.

If you just want a quick reference, you might want to use the quick start instead.

Note: until recently, tags were not case sensitive. However, the new XHTML standard states that
tags are now case sensitive, and should always be in lowercase. For this reason, I recommend
not using uppercase tags any more.

Table of Contents (links lead to individual chapters)

0 : Overview/Contents/Index
1 : Tags and Starting New Lines
1.1 : Tags/HTML Overview
1.2 : Starting New Lines
1.3 : Paragraphs
1.3.1 : Paragraph Alignment
2 : Character Formatting
2.1 : Bold and Italics and Underline vs. STRONG and EMphasis
2.1.1 : Bold / Italic / Underline
2.1.2 : STRONG / EMphasis
2.1.3 : B/I vs. STRONG/EM
2.2 : Do you like 'em big or small?
2.3 : SUPer VARiable SUBmarine
2.3.1 : SUPerscript and SUBscript
2.3.2 : VARiables
2.4 : Monospaced Text a.k.a. Computers and HTML
2.4.1 : Inline Monospaced Tags
2.4.2 : PRE-formatted text
2.5 : 'Editing'
2.5.1 : INSert and DELete
2.5.2 : STRIKE That
3 : Special Characters
3.1 : Using square brackets in Everything
3.2 : Math symbols
4 : Lists
4.1 : Numbered and Bulleted Lists
4.1.1 : Numbers/Numerals/Outline
4.2 : Definition Lists
5 : Giving Credit Where Credit is Due
5.1 : Block Quotations
5.2 : Quotes
6 : Miscellaneous Tags
6.1 : Outlines using heading levels
6.2 : Horizontal Rules
6.3 : Saying Less
7 : EOF: Index and Information
7.1 : Index
7.2 : Thanks
7.3 : Guide Information

This guide has an index in the last chapter.

1: Tags and Starting New Lines

1.1: Tags/HTML Overview

HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. A markup language in general means that is
consists of plain text but also have certain character sequences that denote something special.
In this case, HTML, almost all "fancy" things (like formatting) are done by using "tags". Plain
HTML tags are generally in the form:

<tag_name> normal text to format </tag_name>

This is how "markup" comes into play: the text "normal text to format" is typed just as it appears;
the tags that surround that text (the <tag_name> and </tag_name>, in this case, tell the web
browser how it should appear.

While this guide will help you with your HTML, E2's writeup hints will also warn you about some
errors in your HTML. Visit your user settings and make sure the "Show critical writeup hints" and
"Show HTML hints" options are checked (they are by default), and check "Show strict HTML
hints" (which is not checked by default). Then press the submit button.

Most of this guide is dedicated to showing how to use tags that format text. However, the thing
most people want to be able to do at first is be able to separate their text into paragraphs. Lucky
for them, that is explained next...

1.2: Starting New Lines

The first thing you probably want to do is separate your lines a bit. Because of the way HTML
works, just hitting Enter won't start a new line. Instead, you have to use some tags that don't
really format text, but say how the text should flow. To just start on a new line,
like this, just insert <br /> where you want the line to break. (In other words, put one at the end
of each line.) That tag is useful for things like poems, where you want each line to be short.
1.3: Paragraphs

For longer sections of text, though, like paragraphs, using the paragraph tag is better. Simply
put <p> before each paragraph, and </p> after each paragraph. For example, if this is typed:

The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.
It jumped very quickly and swiftly in order
to reach the proper velocity it needed to
clear the dog.
"Why did it jump?", she asked.
"It would have been easier on the fox to
just construct a ramp, put on roller skates,
and skate over the dog."
A perplexed boy answered, "Didn't you know?
The fox lost its roller skates."
Then this is how it would show:

The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. It jumped very quickly and swiftly in order to reach
the proper velocity it needed to clear the dog.

"Why did it jump?", she asked. "It would have been easier on the fox to just construct a ramp,
put on roller skates, and skate over the dog."

A perplexed boy answered, "Didn't you know? The fox lost its roller skates."

1.3.1: Paragraph Alignment

You may have seen some nodes that play with the text alignment, like this:

This sentence is on the right.

This sentence is centered.

This sentence is back on the left.

You may find this useful when noding poetry, ...

... or if you just want to give the reader ...

... a headache (in that case, shame on you).

To do the alignment, we use the same <p> tags previously mentioned, but we give more
information in the tag. Most HTML tags can have several items of addition information, called
attributes, but E2 filters most of them out. On of the attributes allowed is the align attribute of
the paragraph tag. We may align the paragraphs using <p align="x">, where x is left, center,
right, or justify.

This paragraph starts with <p align="left">. As you can tell, it is easier to just make the
opening tag a plain <p>, since this is assumed by default.

This has <p align="center"> as the paragraph tag.

This right-justified line[s] begins with <p align="right">.

This paragraph opens with <p align="justify">. Some browsers are able to display justified
paragraph alignment, which means that the left and right sides of the text are lined up. Fancy
stuff. Browsers that do not understand "justify" in the align attribute simply default to normal
alignment, which is straight on the left, and jagged on the right. Of course, having justified
paragraphs usually looks cooler if each paragraph is of a decent length, unlike this one, which is
a tad on the short side.

Ok, no more messing

around with the

paragraph alignment.

Using the align attribute is another feature popular with the poets. Ok, no more mention of
poetry. This is a computer lesson, not a human language lesson.

2: Character Formatting

2.1: Bold and Italics and Underline vs. STRONG and EMphasis

2.1.1: Bold / Italic / Underline

Creating new lines was easy enough, right? Now to make some text stand out from the rest.
The tags used to create bold and italics text is pretty easy to remember.
To make something bold, put a <b> tag at the start of the bold text, and </b> at the end of the
bold text.
To make something italics, put <i> at the start of the italics text, and </i> at the end of the
italics text.
If you guess you should use <u> before and </u> after what you want to be underlined, you
would be correct.
For example,
<b>This</b> is bold, <i>this</i> is italics, <b><i>this</i></b> is
<i><b>both</b></i>. <u>This sentence is underlined.</u>
This is bold, this is italics, this is both. This sentence is underlined.
Note that you can nest tags, and order doesn't matter. Just be sure to not close them in an
improper order, like this:
<b><i>Never do this!</b></i>
The result is undefined, but it usually just looks messed up. If you are really unlucky, it will make
all the rest of the page have wrong formatting, too.
I recommend against underlining text in HTML, because makes text look like a link when it
really isn't.

2.1.2: STRONG / EMphasis

The strong and emphasis tags generally display as bold and italics. However, it is
recommended to use strong and emphasis instead of bold and italics (an explanation follows, in
the next section).
To mark something as strong use the <strong> tag before the strong text, and </strong>
after it. Most browsers show this as bold.
To mark something as having emphasis, put the <em> tag before the emphasized text, and
</em> after it. Most browsers show this as italics.
For example,
<strong>This</strong> is strong and <em>this</em> is emphasized.
renders as
This is strong and this is emphasized.
Again, you can nest tags, order doesn't matter, and be sure they are closed in the correct order.

2.1.3: B/I vs. STRONG/EM

Now, you may be wondering why there are 2 tags to do bold, and 2 tags to do italics. The short
answer is: there isn't.

Oh, you want to know the longer answer, even though I may bore you to death? Yay! First,
some background...
A physical style tells the browser, "I want the text to look exactly like this".
A logical style tells the browser, "this text has a certain significance, but I'll let you decide how it
should look".

One major advantage of logical styles is that the user can decide how things look. For example,
somebody may not like to read a lot of italics text because it can be hard to read a lot of. But if a
page uses the italics a lot, that person would be unhappy. However, if the emphasis tag is used,
they could set that tag to display as something else for them. They may choose to show it as
green on a blue background, and not the italics they dread.

For the long term, logical styles are also better, since physical styles are deprecated (the W3C
recommends that they shouldn't be used any more).

Of course, physical styles are a bit easier to remember, and take a little less typing. To that, I
say: how lazy can you get? It only takes a few more keypresses, and you'll make more people
happier. You may want to think of is as in this programming analogy:
physical styles : magical numbers :: logical styles : constants

To make things even more confusing, there are some cases where it is preferable to use
physical styles on E2. For example, foreign words like pedo are often introduced this way.
Another rare example is for titles of aeroplanes, boats, and horseless carriages; for example:
The motorcycle gang grunted in awe at the newest member's bike, The Tender Heart.

So again: <b> and <i> and <u> are bad, physical styles; <strong> and <em> are good, logical

2.2: Do you like 'em big or small?

Another way to draw attention to things is by changing the font size.

Of course, a change in font size can be used for other purposes, too... Help me! I went to a shrink, and I was really shrunk!

The <small> and <big> tags are easy to remember. Multiple nestings of the same tag will
cause text to get really big, or really small.
Here is how to use them by themselves:
<small>Small</small> and <big>big</big>.
show as:
Small and big.
Multiple nestings, like:
<small><small><small>Very small</small></small></small> and
<big><big><big>very big</big></big></big>.
will show as:
Very small and very big.

One neat thing to do with the smaller and bigger tags is to make "small caps". So to make this
official-looking title:
you would type:
<big><big>E</big></big><small>VERYTHING</small><big><big> 2 HTML

One last (but rather sad) note: character-cell-based (console-only) browsers, like Lynx or Links,
are unable to show different font sizes. This is because they use a monospaced, or monowidth
font, so each character takes up the same amount of room. Although the old fossiles people
who use these browsers are descreasing, just remember a general rule in HTML (that I just made
up) - formatting should add to existing text, and should not subtract from the text if absent.

2.3: SUPer VARiable SUBmarine

2.3.1: SUPerscript and SUBscript

Imagine a excellent underwater submersible that changes.

That is a super variable submarine.
* groan *
Ok, ok, no more lame puns to introduce some tags... You're really cramping my style.. my
cascading style! <rimshot>

If you are going to type in mathematical and/or chemical and/or math-related expressions, you
should know about the subscript and superscript tags. You could guess what tags you use to
show this:
I like subscript and superscript.
But don't feel bad if you think <sup> should be "super"; it messes up even experienced HTML-
writers (like me, waaaahhh).
I like <sub>sub</sub>script and <sup>super</sup>script.
With these tags, I like to also use the <small> tag, so it looks nicer. If the use of superscripts
and/or subscripts is important to correctly read your writeup, you may want to see Everything
number presentation.

2.3.2: VARiables

The <var> tag is also useful for mathematical fields, as it indicates a variable, usually by
rendering the text italics. For example, to show the discriminant of the quadratic formula,
d = b2 - 4ac
you could write:
<var>d</var> = <var>b</var><sup><small>2</small></sup> -
Also note how I used the small tag in the superscript tag to make the 2 look nicer. I also could
have used the character entity &sup2; for the 2, but that is for a later section.

2.4: Monospaced Text a.k.a. Computers and HTML

There are several tags for displaying monospaced, or fixed-width text. (Could it be because
HTML was developed for computers, so displaying code, text to key in, display text, etc. would
be popular? Nah.) All these tags pretty much all display the same on each browser, so you'll
probably end up just picking one or two that you like, and using it/them a lot.

2.4.1: Inline Monospaced Tags

Quick diversion: an "inline" tag is an HTML tag that can be used on text that is in part of a line;
that is, the text that is formatted via an inline tag can be in with other text that is formatted
differently. The 4 tags explained here are all inline, so they can be used almost anywhere you

The first inline fixed-width tag allowed on here, on E2, was the teletype text tag. This tag is used
to indicate teletype text.
I would use this tag to show people how to type basic *nix and/or DOS commands:
type cd and press the "Enter" key
which I would enter as:
type <tt>cd</tt> and press the "Enter" key
Of course, on Lynx it would look the same, since every character is already the same width, but
it would stand out for the majority of people who use graphical browsers. If it is important that it
stands out, you might also want to surround the text with strong tags.

A slightly more relevant tag to use, though, would be the keyboard tag, which indicates text to
key in via a keyboard (or punchcard if you're on a primitive machine). So the example changes
type cd and press the "Enter" key
which I would now enter as:
type <kbd>cd</kbd> and press the "Enter" key

"But what if I was to show the output of the command?" you ask. (Ask it, ... ask it, ... Ask it now!
Thank you.)
That is what the <samp> tag is for - sample output.
After I type in cd and press the "Enter" key (under Unix), I might see:
42 ~ #
as my tcsh prompt*, which is simple to write HTML for:
<samp>42 ~ # </samp>
(* Yes, a root prompt. I'm 1337.)

The last inline fixed-space tag (but not least, of course) is <code>. This is used for code
examples. In this official E2 HTML guide&tm;©etc., I use this tag in almost every example of what
HTML code should be used to create something. However, I'm sick of HTML right now, so I'm
going to use an example from Java:

the line macroText.put(MACRO_SOURCE_LINES, Integer.toString(lineCount));

stores the number of lines in the E2 HTML tags source file for later use

which I entered as:

the line
stores the number of lines in the E2 HTML tags source file for later

Note how an end-of-line character is normally converted into a space by your web browser ...

2.4.2: PRE-formatted text

... although the next tag I'm going to show you will tell the browser to start a new line.

If you have large code examples, or what to make some nice (or ugly) ASCII art, it is usually
easier to just enter in a straight block of text, instead of using many HTML tags. The pre-
formatted tag allows you to do this by surrounding (usually multiple) line[s]s of text with <pre>
and </pre>.
For example, a short C++ program might be:

#include <iostream>

#define EDB_GONE true

void main() {
cout << "Hello, Everythingites!" << endl;
cout << "EDB, please don't eat me!" << endl;
I made all the characters the same width and made the indents by using multiple spaces. The
HTML code is:
#include &lt;iostream&gt;

#define EDB_GONE true

void main() {
cout &lt;&lt; "Hello, Everythingites!" &lt;&lt; endl;
cout &lt;&lt; "EDB, please don't eat me!" &lt;&lt; endl;
Ummm, don't worry about the &lt; stuff yet; that is another example of a character entity
reference, which is how you display a less-than sign, <, in HTML. This is explained in the next
chapter. If you want to have the pre effect without doing hard work, use Wharfinger's
Linebreaker and/or E2 Source Code Formatter and/or text formatter.

2.5: 'Editing'

2.5.1: INSert and DELete

Now, for some rarely, almost never-seen tags. (You can skip right to "STRIKE That", if you
You still here? Wow, you're insane. I've never used the insert and delete tags, but I guess you'll
find out the hard way how useless they are...
<ins> indicates where text has been inserted (usually since a previous draft). <del> indicates
where text has been deleted.
Here is a sample of an edited document:
Honored sirs, I would greatly appreciate it if you do business with me.
Netscape 4 does not support these tags, so this is what it looks like in a non-stupid browser
(and some stupid ones, too, like IE):
Yo, idiotHonored sirs, I would greatly appreciate it if you do business with me, or you're
Here is the code to generate the first example:
<del>Yo, idiot</del><ins>Honored sirs</ins>, <ins>I would greatly
it if you</ins> do business with me<del>, or you're toast</del>.
As mentioned, older Netscape versions (which are still in common use for some reason, grrrr)
are too dumb to support those tags, so I recommend against using them.

2.5.2: STRIKE That

There is another way to indicate crossed-out text, which is by using one of the strikethough
tags. Both <s> ... </s> and <strike> ... </strike> do the exact same thing. One way to use
these tags is to "officially" say one thing, but let the reader know what you are really thinking:
You are such a pushover easy-going person. I don't know if I could stand being so
spineless flexible.
This was typed as:
You are such a <s>pushover</s> easy-going person.
I don't know if I could stand being so <strike>spineless</strike> flexible.
Yes, you could use ^H instead of strikethrough, but morons^H^H^H^H^H less well-educated
people could get confused. :)

3: Special Characters

If you've been experimenting with drugs, I mean, HTML, you may have been having trouble
displaying things like a less-than sign, < . There is a simple reason for, and solution to, that
The reason: < and > are reserved for denoting a tag (that should be obvious enough by now)
and & starts a character entity reference. What is that, you ask? Well, just read on for an

These character entities allow numerous symbols to be inserted into normally ASCII-only HTML
files. Always use these entities instead of just typing them:

 &amp; to show & (ampersand)

 &lt; to show < (less than)
 &gt; to show > (greater than)

You may find &nbsp; useful when spacing is important. For example, I started this
paragraph with "&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;" to give the first line a slight indentation. I also stuck
in several non-breaking spaces in the above unordered list to align the elements better.

3.1: Using square brackets in Everything

A specific "problem" with Everything is the inability to insert the square brackets, [ and ], without
forming a link. The best way that I've found to deal with this by using

 &#91; to show [ (left/opening square bracket)

 &#93; to show ] (right/closing square bracket)

3.2: Math symbols

There are many other cool symbols you can include using character entities, like ² ³ (superscript
2 (&sup2;) and 3 (&sup3;)), α × β ÷ γ ∫ δ ‾ ◊ ‰ € ∇ , but not all browsers support all these
characters, so you may want to just stick with & < > [ ] .
Of course, if you're feeling adventurous, a full list of character entities allowed in HTML 4 is
available from the W3C at
and in the writeup HTML symbol reference.

4: Lists

Sentence words:

 What
 if
 you
 want
 to
 list
 things?

Sure, you could use lots of <br />, but there is are some HTML tags that are dedicated to
creating lists that look nicer than brute forcing it. To create a list, one pair of tags are used once,
which specify which type of list to create, and another pair or two are used repeatedly for each
item in the list.

4.1: Numbered and Bulleted Lists

Creating a list that has bullets (which are basically dots) or numbers in front of each item
requires several steps.

1. First, decide if bullets or numbers are more appropriate for the given list.
2. Second, put in the appropriate tag.
o If you want bullets, like what is in front of this line, put in a <ul>. This stands for
unordered list.
o If you want numbers, like the steps in these instructions have, use the <ol> tag.
This means ordered list.
3. Third, put a <li> before each list item, and a closing </li> after each item.
4. Finally, close this list with either </ul> or </ol> (the closing tag should match whatever
opening tag you used).

To illustrate:
<li>This is [first]</li>
<li>This is [second]</li>
 This is first
 This is second

<li>This is [first]</li>
<li>This is [second]</li>
1. This is first
2. This is second

Notice that the only difference between an unordered (bulleted) and ordered (numbered) list is
only the main opening and closing list tags. (You may also notice that if you nest bulleted items, the bullet
may change.)

4.1.1: Numbers/Numerals/Outline

You can also use the <ol> tag to create outlines by adding the type attribute. To do this, instead
of a plain <ol> to start an ordered list, use <ol type="n"> instead. The n can be one of
several things, as shown below:

I. <ol type="I">
II. Please
A. <ol type="A">
B. don't
1. <ol type="1"> (default, if no "type" is given)
2. sneeze
a. <ol type="a">
b. on
i. <ol type="i">
ii. me.

The types do not have to be in that order; they can be nested multiple times, with any "type"
repeated any number of times.

4.2: Definition Lists

Definition lists are rarely used on the web, let alone Everything (except by me, who overuses
them), so I'll let you skip to the next chapter, if you so desire.
Since you may not have seen this tag set in use before, I'll first show you an example.

Fast but weak.
Slow but strong.
That would be me.
This code produced the above:
<dt>[A-Wing]</dt> <dd>[Fast] but [weak].</dd>
<dt>[B-Wing]</dt> <dd>[Slow] but [strong].</dd>
<dt>[N-Wing]</dt> <dd>That would be me.</dd>

To make a definition list, first put in the open and close tags: <dl> and </dl> . For each
definition, surround the definition term with <dt> and </dt>, and the definition definition (sic)
with <dd> and </dd>. The <dt> and <dd> tags may be repeated multiple times without having
the other, but normally (that means, check any dictionary), the term is first, and the definition[s]
I sometimes use these tags to list references I used - I put the reference name and author in the
term tags, and longer, more detailed explanation of the source, and my thoughts on it, in the
definition tags. This can be used with tags explained in the next chapter.

5: Giving Credit Where Credit is Due

You've been hard at work on a great writeup that has lots of information summarized from many
different sources. Now, how do you give credit to those whose hard work you stole from used? If
you've half a brain (or more), you should've figured I'll explain how.

5.1: Block Quotations

One common situation is having a long quotation (one that takes up several lines). Simply
enclosing it in quotation marks isn't adequate; you want to indent it, as is proper. The way to do
just that is use the <blockquote> tag. The following paragraph is just plain text, with
<blockquote> before it, and </blockquote> after it.

Testing, testing, one, two, three. Hey - are you reading this? How did you do that? This
paragraph was encrypted with a very secure encryption algorithm! Hmmm... on second thought,
maybe you just got lucky and guessed every single word. Yeah, that makes a lot more sense.
Ok, now for the very important secret message: qpcjc pizza dodcp sleep dweez grrrr souxt pvnrt
hnmqo fumcm bzyfs ioctl wtbal xyzzy jvgiz sdram plsqw souix szbyl
To be really picky, the block quot[e]ation tag doesn't have to indent, but most browsers indent it
from the left and right margins, and put a little space above and below it.

5.2: Quotes

What if you have a short quotation? You can surround the text with the <q> tag (just a plain
letter "Q"). The main problem with this is that most browsers do not render this in any special
way, so you should also include something else, like quotation marks, to indicate a quotation.

To specify the source, surround the source with <cite> tag to indicate that it is a citation.
Graphical browsers usually render this in italics, which is usually what you would want, anyway.

This example of using <cite> and <q> tags:

"Everything 1 is now gone. Long live Everything 2!" - N-Wing
was created by this HTML:
"<q>Everything 1 is now gone. Long live Everything 2!</q>" - <cite>N-

6: Miscellaneous Tags

I'm not imaginative enough to figure out a better category name for the rest of the tags allowed
on E2, but if you can think of a better name, I would enjoy hearing it.

6.1: Outlines using heading levels

In the chapter about lists, I showed how to create an (indented) outline by using multiple <ol>
tags. That method works well if each level only has a sentence or two of text, but when the
bodies become paragraphs, it becomes a little unwieldy. The heading tags are good for this, as
their purpose was to serve as headers for larger bodies of text.

There are 6 levels of header tags, <h1> ... </h6> to <h6> ... </h6>, with <h1> being the highest
level header. Unlike most other tags explained in this guide, the header tags should not go
inside <p> and </p> tags (nor should paragraph tags be inside header tags) - paragraphs and
headings are considered to be different things. Further, heading tags should not be "skipped" -
for example, there should be no <h2> pair without a <h1> pair.

Here is an example of all 6 heading levels in use:

This has <h1> at the start, and </h1> at the end.

This is level 2. Before this text is <h2>, and after it is </h2>

You should be detecting a pattern by now. This line uses <h3> and

As you guessed, <h4> and </h4> are in use here.

Yup, </h5> ends this, and <h5> starts this. (Hee-hee, I'm being tricky now.)

<h6> and </h6> is the lowest heading level.

You may want to use these tags to change font size. This is bad for several reasons, probably
the most important for display reasons is that the heading tags end up on their own line. The
tags created for changing font size, <small> and <big>, are created for just that task. So if you
insist on using <h1>..<h6> to change the size, I'll have to smack you. Just a friendly warning.

6.2: Horizontal Rules

I will not make a joke about how being horizontal rules. Oops, too late.
The horizontal rule tag doesn't do any formatting, but rather puts a line across the page. The tag
is simply a single <hr /> (with no closing tag).
The (usually gray) line below:

was created with simply:

<hr />

Everything 2 also allows this tag to have the width attribute, which sets the width of the line.
The width can be specified in pixels (little fairy-like critters) or a relative width given as a
percentage. Using the percentage form is better, since it will look consistant, regardless of the
browser window's width.
For this line

of width 75 pixels, my HTML was as follows:

<hr width="75" />
But that probably looks a bit lame. This line

is a width of 75 percent, which means it should have a width of 3/4 of the thing it is in.
However, E2 currently strips out the % , leaving you back to the line of 75 pixels wide. This is a
known bug that certain people are too lazy to fix, although it has been a known problem for
many moons (*ahem* I'm talking about revolutions of the Earth's biggest natural satellite, I don't know what
you're thinking of, sheash.).

6.3: Saying Less

If you want to use a shorter form of a word or phrase, you would use an abbreviation or
acronym. However, if your reader does not know what the full version is, they may end up
confused. One way to solve the problem on Everything 2 is create a link from the abbreviation
or acronym. Of course, if there are multiple expansions, or there are no writeups on that topic
yet, your reader may still be confused. The HTML solution is the <abbr> and <acronym> tags.
Simply surround your shortened form with the appropriate tag, and set the title attribute to the
full version.

Of course, an example helps:

What is the predominant fs used on the LAN?
was created by:
What is the predominant [fs|<abbr title="file system">fs</abbr>]
used on the [LAN|<acronym title="Local Area Network">LAN</acronym>]?
Most browsers do not display these tags differently, but some provide a "tool tip" that displays
when you hover the mouse pointer over an abbreviation or acronym. On Everything, I also form
a link from the shortened version (as demonstrated above), so it makes the short version more
obvious, and allows the user to easily find out more detailed information.

7: EOF: Index and Information

7.1: Index

(Links in this index lead to individual chapters.)

<abbr> ... </abbr> - 6.3
title attribute - 6.3
<acronym> ... </acronym> - 6.3
title attribute - 6.3
<b> ... </b> - 2.1.1
<big> ... </big> - 2.2
<blockquote> ... </blockquote> - 5.1
<br /> - 1.2
<code> ... </code> - 2.4.1
<dd> ... </dd> - 4.2
<del> ... </del> - 2.5.1
<dl> ... </dl> - 4.2
<dt> ... </dt> - 4.2
<em> ... </em> - 2.1.2
<h1> ... </h1> - 6.1
<h2> ... </h2> - 6.1
<h3> ... </h3> - 6.1
<h4> ... </h4> - 6.1
<h5> ... </h5> - 6.1
<h6> ... </h6> - 6.1
<hr /> - 6.2
<i> ... </i> - 2.1.1
<ins> ... </ins> - 2.5.1
<kbd> ... </kbd> - 2.4.1
<li> ... </li> - 4.1
<ol> ... </ol> - 4.1
type attribute - 4.1.1
<p> ... </p> - 1.3
<pre> ... </pre> - 2.4.2
<q> ... </q> - 5.2
<s> ... </s> - 2.5.2
<samp> ... </samp> - 2.4.1
<small> ... </small> - 2.2
<strike> ... </strike> - 2.5.2
<strong> ... </strong> - 2.1.2
<sub> ... </sub> - 2.3.1
<sup> ... </sup> - 2.3.1
<tt> ... </tt> - 2.4.1
<u> ... </u> - 2.1.1
<ul> ... </ul> - 4.1
<var> ... </var> - 2.3.2
^H - 2.5.2
abbreviation - 6.3
acronym - 6.3
centered - 1.3.1
justified - 1.3.1
left - 1.3.1
right - 1.3.1
ASCII art - 2.4.2
align - 1.3.1
title - 6.3
type - 4.1.1
big - 2.2
block quotation - 5.1
bold - 2.1.1, 2.1.2
break - 1.2
bulleted list - 4.1
center alignment - 1.3.1
code - 2.4.1
code sample - 2.4.1
HTML - 1.1
definition definition - 4.2
definition list - 4.2
definiton term - 4.2
deleted - 2.5.1
emphasis - 2.1.2
fixed-width - 2.4
font size - 2.2
headings - 6.1
horizontal line - 6.2
horizontal rule - 6.2
defined - 1.1
index - 7.1
inline - 2.4.1
inserted - 2.5.1
italics - 2.1.1, 2.1.2
justified alignment - 1.3.1
keyboard - 2.4.1
left alignment - 1.3.1
horizontal - 6.2
bulleted - 4.1
definition - 4.2
numbered - 4.1
ordered - 4.1
unordered - 4.1
logical styles - 2.1.3
markup language - 1.1
monospace - 2.4
N-Wing - 7.3
nesting tags - 2.1.1
new line - 1.2
numbered list - 4.1
ordered list - 4.1
outline - 4.1.1, 6.1
paragraph - 1.3
paragraph alignment - 1.3.1
physical styles - 2.1.3
pictures - 2.4.2
poem - 1.2, 1.3.1
pre-formatted - 2.4.2
quotation - 5.1, 5.2
recommendation - 2.1.1, 2.5.1
right alignment - 1.3.1
sample - 2.4.1
size - 2.2
small - 2.2
starting new line - 1.2, 1.3
strikethrough - 2.5.2
strong - 2.1.2
logical - 2.1.3
physical - 2.1.3
subscript - 2.3.1
superscript - 2.3.1
tag - 1.1
abbr - 6.3
acronym - 6.3
b - 2.1.1
big - 2.2
blockquote - 5.1
br - 1.2
code - 2.4.1
dd - 4.2
del - 2.5.1
dl - 4.2
dt - 4.2
em - 2.1.2
h1 - 6.1
h2 - 6.1
h3 - 6.1
h4 - 6.1
h5 - 6.1
h6 - 6.1
hr - 6.2
i - 2.1.1
ins - 2.5.1
kbd - 2.4.1
li - 4.1
ol - 4.1
p - 1.3
pre - 2.4.2
q - 5.2
s - 2.5.2
samp - 2.4.1
small - 2.2
strike - 2.5.2
strong - 2.1.2
sub - 2.3.1
sup - 2.3.1
tt - 2.4.1
u - 2.1.1
ul - 4.1
var - 2.3.2
nesting - 2.1.1
teletype text - 2.4.1
title attribute - 6.3
type attribute - 4.1.1
underline - 2.1.1
unordered list - 4.1
variable - 2.3.2

7.2: Thanks

Following are some people that pointed out some errors in this and/or contributed in some other
way. If I forgot to list you here, it is probably because I don't like you. (Actually, you just slipped
my mind. Sorry. (/msg me))

baffo(???) and others

for giving more detailed information for individual writeups on tags: abbr acronym b big
blockquote br cite code dd del dl dt em h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 h6 hr i ins kbd li ol p pre q s
samp small strike strong sub sup tt u ul var
General Wesc
for reminding me of "justify" in <p align="justify"> (go me, for having a response time of
"only" about 3.5 months)
for reminding me to look up what the "tt" in the <tt> tag really meant
pointed out I strong-ed the wrong letters in the expansion of kbd
other people who pointed out problems, but I forgot to write down who they were (sorry)
7.3: Guide Information

guide creation
guide updated
updates/changes since last time (2001.01.31.n3) (Yes, over a year; can we say "slacker"?)
chapter on entities moved earlier
added width attribute for hr tag
more whining about how limited E2's HTML is
more bad puns and jokes
guide author
Did you like this? Hate this (actually, if you hated this, why did you read this far?)? Have
a question? Have a suggestion? If so, you can send me a message by typing
/msg N-Wing Your_Message
in the chatterbox, and hitting the "Talk" button, or using the talk area in my homenode.
Or, if you aren't a registered user here (why not? it doesn't cost anything), you can try
email: mzn504nhg2ouu5001 AT sneakemail DOT com
generator information
updated 2002.04.09.n2
on April 13, 2002 at 5:01:08 AM EDT
source file editor
source file size
52113 bytes
945 lines

(idea) by everyone (1.8 mon) (print) ? 1 C! Wed Jan 12 2000 at 2:05:01

Look at this stuff! My fingers hurts!

Note: all browsers don't understand all of these, some browsers don't understand any of these, and no browsers
understand all of these (at least, ones that I know of).
(See HTML symbol reference for a more complete list --mcc)

&lt; --» <

&gt; --» >
&amp; --» &
&quot; --» "
&Aacute; --» Á
&Acirc; --» Â
&Agrave; --» À
&Aring; --» Å
&Atilde; --» Ã
&Auml; --» Ä
&Ccedil; --» Ç
&ETH; --» Ð
&Eacute; --» É
&Ecirc; --» Ê
&Egrave; --» È
&Euml; --» Ë
&Iacute; --» Í
&Icirc; --» Î
&Igrave; --» Ì
&Iuml; --» Ï
&Ntilde; --» Ñ
&Oacute; --» Ó
&Ocirc; --» Ô
&Ograve; --» Ò
&Oslash; --» Ø
&Otilde; --» Õ
&Ouml; --» Ö
&THORN; --» Þ
&Uacute; --» Ú
&Ucirc; --» Û
&Ugrave; --» Ù
&Uuml; --» Ü
&Yacute; --» Ý
&aacute; --» á
&acirc; --» â
&aelig; --» æ
&oelig; --» œ
&agrave; --» à
&aring; --» å
&atilde; --» ã
&auml; --» ä
&ccedil; --» ç
&eacute; --» é
&ecirc; --» ê
&egrave; --» è
&eth; --» ð
&euml; --» ë
&iacute; --» í
&icirc; --» î
&igrave; --» ì
&iuml; --» ï
&ntilde; --» ñ
&oacute; --» ó
&ocirc; --» ô
&ograve; --» ò
&oslash; --» ø
&otilde; --» õ
&ouml; --» ö
&szlig; --» ß
&thorn; --» þ
&uacute; --» ú
&ucirc; --» û
&ugrave; --» ù
&uuml; --» ü
&yacute; --» ý
&yuml; --» ÿ
&AElig; --» Æ
&OElig; --» Œ
&reg; --» ®
&copy; --» ©
&trade; --» ™
&pound; --» £
&laquo; --» «
&raquo; --» »
&plusmn; --» ±
&deg; --» °
&cent; --» ¢
&curren; --» ¤
&yen; --» ¥
&ordm; --» º
&sup1; --» ¹
&sup2; --» ²
&sup3; --» ³
&ordf; --» ª
&sect; --» §
&frac14; --» ¼
&frac12; --» ½
&frac34; --» ¾
&micro; --» µ
&para; --» ¶
&brvbar; --» ¦
&iexcl; --» ¡
&iquest; --» ¿
&middot; --» ·
&uml; --» ¨
&acute; --» ´
&cedil; --» ¸
&mdash; --» —
&ndash; --» –
&macr; --» ¯
&not; --» ¬
&bull; --» •
&hellip; --» …

(idea) by amelinda (1.3 y) (print) ? 1 C! Thu Apr 20 2000 at 6:07:05

Maybe this should go under a philosophy node, but I have to disagree with N-Wing about one
thing. (thanks for writing that helpful guide, tho!)
There is nothing wrong with header tags.
Really! What is the big need for having some parts of your text, in the middle of a line, be larger
than the surrounding text? Header tags are very handy for, well, making headers. You want to
split your writeup into handy sections (for nodes with more than one meaning), <hr> is pretty
handy, or you can title each section with <h3> (I find h3 is about the right size for this).

But then, I like lynx. I am really happy with the idea that What You See Is Not What You Get or,
more accurately, What You See Should Not Necessarily Be What You Get. <font> tags and
physical styles are introductions into the original HTML, created by anal people used to
Microsoft Word and PageMaker who just couldn't let go of their need to totally control layout.

Why can't it be more about the content and less about the layout?

ObWhine: Why can't we all just get along?