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# S.K.P.

## SKP ENGINEERING COLLEGE

Tiruvannamalai – 606 611

DEPARTMENT
OF
ELECTRICAL
&
ELECTRONICS
ENGINEERING

EE 6411
ELECTRICAL
MACHINES
LAB-1

LAB MANUAL
FOR IV –
SEMESTER
(EEE)

NAME : ___________________________________

## SUBJECT NAME : ___________________________________

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S.K.P. Engineering College ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB – I

## DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING.

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

## 1. Open circuit and load characteristics of DC shunt generator- critical

resistance and critical speed.

## 2. Load characteristics of DC compound generator with differential and

cumulative connections.

## 3. Load test on DC shunt and compound motor.

4. Load test on DC series motor.
5. Swinburne’s test and speed control of DC shunt motor.
6. Hopkinson’s test on DC motor – generator set.
7. Load test on single-phase transformer and three phase transformers.
8. Open circuit and short circuit tests on single phase transformer.
9. Polarity Test and Sumpner’s test on single phase transformers.
10. Separation of no-load losses in single phase transformer.
11. Study of starters and 3-phase transformers connections
Extra Experiments:
1. Load characteristics of DC Series generator.
2. Scott Connection Test in a Single Phase Transformer. (Back to Back Test).

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S.K.P. Engineering College ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB – I

1. A. SWINBURNE’S TEST
AIM :
To estimate the total constant losses of a DC shunt machine by conducting no load
test and hence to predetermine its efficiency (i) when running as a generator (ii) when
running as a motor.

Apparatus Required:

Circuit Diagram:

## NAME PLATE DETAILS:

Rated Voltage =
Power rating = Voltage =
Rated Current = Current =
Rated Speed =
THEORY:

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S.K.P. Engineering College ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB – I

## A D.C motor is an electrical machine, which converts electrical energy to

mechanical energy whereas a D.C. generator converts a mechanical energy to electrical
energy.
When a D.C. voltage is applied across the motor the field magnets are excited. The
armature conductors are supplied with current. Therefore the driving torque is produced in
the armature, which starts to rotate. As the armature rotates the back emf is induced in it
which opposes the applied voltage.
The D.C. generator works on the principle of Faraday’s law of Electromagnetic
Induction which says that whenever a conductor is moved in a magnetic field it cuts the
magnetic flux and an emf is induced in the conductor.
By conducting the no-load test efficiency of the machine can be predicted both as a
motor and generator.

## PRECAUTIONS: (Not to be included in the Record)

1. While starting and stopping the machine the field circuit rheostat is kept at minimum
resistance position.
2. DPST switch is kept open initially.
3. The Load should be kept zero.

PROCEDURE:
1. The no load current is approximately 15% of the full load current. So the fuse rating
should be 15% of full load current.
2. The type and range of all meters are selected according to the rating of the motor.
3. The connections are made as per circuit diagram.
4. The armature rheostat is kept at maximum resistance position and field resistance is
kept at minimum resistance position initially.
5. Supply is given by closing DPST switch.
6. The stator handle is moved slowly from off to on position. The motor starts running
slowly.
7. Measure the speed of the machine using a tachometer. The machine should run at
rated speed.

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S.K.P. Engineering College ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB – I

## 8. The motor is brought to rated speed by adjusting the rheostat.

9. The rated Voltage and rated speed the current is drawn by the machine I o, the field
current If and armature voltage Vo is noted.
10. After taking the readings the field rheostat is brought to original position and
opening the DPST switch stops the machine.
11. The total losses of the machine and the efficiency for the machine when running as
both motor and generator are calculated.

OBSERVATION:
Vo (volts) Io (amp) If (amp) Speed N Va (v) Ia (Amp) Ra ()

Model Calculation:
No load power input = VoIo
No load armature copper loss = Io2Ra
Total constant losses Wc= VoIo - Io2R
To predetermine the efficiency when running as motor:
Power input = VLIL
Armature current Ia = IL-If
Armature copper loss = Ia2Ra
Total losses = Ia2Ra – Wc
Power output = input – total losses
%Efficiency = [Output /input] X 100
To predetermine the efficiency when running as generator:
Power output = VLIL
Armature current Ia = IL+If
Armature copper loss = Ia2Ra
Total losses = Ia2Ra + Wc
Power input = output + total losses
%Efficiency = [Output /input] X 100

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S.K.P. Engineering College ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB – I

RESULT :
Thus the Swinburne’s test was conducted on a D.C. shunt machine and its total
constant losses are estimated. The efficiency of the given machine is calculated
theoretically when running as both motor and generator.

## 1. B. SPEED CONTROL OF D.C. SHUNT MOTOR

AIM :

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S.K.P. Engineering College ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB – I

To determine the variation of speed with (i) armature voltage (Rheostatic control
method) and (ii) Field excitation (Flux control method).

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
SNO APPARATUS RANGE TYPE QTY
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

## Rated Voltage = EXCITATION :

Power rating = Voltage =
Rated Current = Current =
Rated Speed =
FUSE RATING:

THEORY:

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S.K.P. Engineering College ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB – I

A dc motor is an electrical machine that takes electrical energy and converts it into
mechanical energy.
The speed of the dc motor is given by the relation
V- Ia Ra
N= ------------ rpm.
K
From the above relation, the speed of the dc shunt motor can be varied by varying,
1. The voltage V applied to armature.
2. The armature circuit resistance Ra and
3. The flux 
The speed is nearly proportional to armature voltage if the
armature drop is small, while it is inversely proportional to the
flux  .

## PRECAUTIONS : (Not to be included in the Record)

1. While starting and stopping the machine the armature circuit rheostat is kept at
maximum resistance position and the field circuit rheostat is kept at minimum
resistance position.
2. DPST switch is kept open initially.

PROCEDURE:
ARMATURE CONTORL METHOD :
1. The connections are made as per circuit diagram.
2. The motor is started by closing DPST switch, the motor starts running slowly.
3. As the armature rheostat resistance is reduced gradually the motor picks up speed.
4. The field current is kept at one constant value by adjusting the filed rheostat.
5. The armature voltage is a varied in steps by varying the armature rheostat and
corresponding speed is noted down in each step. The readings are taken for speeds
below the rated value.
6. The experiment is repeated for different constant values of field current.
7. A set of graphs between armature voltage and speed are drawn for different constant
values of field current.
FIELD CONTROL METHOD :
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S.K.P. Engineering College ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB – I

## 1. The connections are made as per circuit diagram.

2. The motor is started by closing DPST switch, the motor starts running slowly.
3. As the field rheostat resistance is reduced gradually the motor picks up speed.
4. The armature voltage is kept at one constant value by adjusting the armature rheostat.
5. The Field current is a varied in steps by varying the field rheostat and corresponding
speed is noted down in each step. The readings are taken for speeds above the rated
value.
6. The experiment is repeated for different constant values of field current.
7. A set of graphs between armature voltage and speed are drawn for different constant
values of field current.

OBSERVATION :

## 1. ARMATURE VOLTAGE CONTROL

If = If=
Va N Va N

2. FIELD CONTROL
Va = Va =
If N If N

RESULT :
The speed control experiment is conducted on dc shunt machine by
(i)Armature voltage control method and (ii) Field control method.

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S.K.P. Engineering College ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB – I

## 2. LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF DC SERIES MOTOR

AIM:
To conduct a direct load test on the given DC series motor and to plot the following
performance characteristics.

1. Efficiency Vs Output
2. Toque Vs Output
3. Torque Vs Armature Current (Electrical characteristics)
4. Speed Vs Armature Current
5. Torque Vs Speed (Mechanical characteristics)
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No. APPARATUS TYPE RANGE QUANTITY
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

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S.K.P. Engineering College ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB – I

## NAME PLATE DETAILS:

 Rated Voltage =
 Rated Current =
 Rated Speed =
 Rated Rating =
THEORY:
Load test on motors is performed to know about the efficiency, torque are speed
characteristics, which enable us to select and appropriate motor for an application. The
torque equation of a DC motor is given by
Ta =[9.55 PZ/A] Ia N –m,
P, Z and A being constants the equation reduces to Ta = K1 I a
In a DC series motor as  is directly proportional to Ia the above equation can be rewritten
as Ta = K2 Ia2. Hence the torque is directly proportional to square of the armature current.
The speed of DC series motor is given by N = E g /K3 .As  is directly proportional to Ia
and Eg is approximately equal to the supply voltage and remains constant the equation can
be written as N = K4/ I a From the above relationship it is known that the speed is inversely
proportional to the armature current. When a series motor is started on no-load the
armature current ( I a ) drawn by the motor being very small, the motor will develop
dangerously high speed, which will permanently damage the motor. To prevent this
situation a series motor is always started on load. Generally, as a precaution these motors
are directly coupled to the load. From the speed Vs torque characteristics shown in figure,
it is clear that the machine is capable of developing a very high starting torque. Hence these
motors are suitable for electric traction works,

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Check whether the motor is loaded.
2. The Starter should be in OFF position before switch ON the DPST Switch.

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S.K.P. Engineering College ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB – I

PROCEDURE:
1. Circuit connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. After ensuring that the machine has some safe load and keeping the starter in its
OFF position, the main supply is switched ON.
3. The motor is started using 2 – point starter by slowly and carefully moving the
starter handle from its OFF to ON position.
speed are noted down in the tabular column.
At each start readings are noted down in the tabular column.
6. After the experiment is completed, the load is decreased to its initial safe load
condition and then the main supply is switched OFF.
CALCULATIONS:
r = C/2  Meters
r = ___________meters. (Where, C is Circumference of the Brake Drum)
1. The input to the motor = VL * IL Watts.
2. The torque developed by the motor is given by T = (S1 – S2 ) * r * 9.81 N-m
3. The output of the motor in watts = 2 NT / 60.
4. The efficiency of the motor = (Output / Input) * 100%

## VL IL S1-S2 N T O/P I/P

S1 (kg) S2 (kg) %
(V) (A) (kg) (rpm) (Nm) (W) (W)

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S.K.P. Engineering College ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB – I

RESULT:
The direct load test has been conducted on the given DC series motor and the
various performance characteristics are plotted.

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S.K.P. Engineering College ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB – I

## 3. A. LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF DC SHUNT MOTOR

AIM:
To conduct a direct load test on the given dc shunt motor to plot the performance
characteristics.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No. Apparatus Range Type Quantity
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

## Rated Voltage = EXCITATION :

Power rating = Voltage =
Rated Current = Current =
Rated Speed =

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S.K.P. Engineering College ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB – I

THEORY:
Load test on motor are performed to know about the efficiency, torque and speed
characteristics, which enable us to select an appropriate motor for on application.
The torque equation of a DC Motor is given by
Ta = 0.159 (PZ / A) * Ia N-m
P,Z,A being constant the equation reduces to Ta = K Ia
In a DC Shunt motor as is also a constant, then the torque is directly properties
armature current. The speed of a DC motor is given by N = K (V-IaRa) / 
Since  is constant, the speed is directly proportional to (V I a R a ) As the load on
motor increases, the drop Ia Ra through increases is negligible as Ra is very small and
the speed is nearly constant . hence a Dc shunt motor is considered as a constant speed
motor. If a DC shunt motor is started on load, it draws a heavy armature current, which in
turn will damage the machine itself. Hence DC shunt motors are always started on no-

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Check whether the motor is loaded.
2. The Starter should be in OFF position before switch ON the DPST Switch.
3. Check the position of the rheostat as specified.
4. The load on motor must be released initially.
PROCEDURE:
1. The circuit connections are made as per the circuit diagram .
2. Keeping the motor field rheostat in its minimum position and the starter in its OFF
position the main supply is switched ON to the circuit.
3. The motor is started using the three point starter by slowly and carefully moving the
starter handle from its OFF to ON position.
4. The motor is brought to its rated speed by gradually adjusting the field rheostat and
checked with the help of a tachometer.
5. Under this no load condition one set of readings are noted down in the tabular
columns.

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S.K.P. Engineering College ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB – I

6. The load on the motor is increased in steps gradually and at each step, all the meter
readings and the motor speed are recorded in the tabular column. The above
procedure is repeated until the motor is loaded to its rated current.
7. Pour some water to the brake drum after every load.
8. After the experiment is completed, the load on motor is gradually decreased to
minimum and the rheostat is brought back to its original position and then the main
supply is switched OFF.
CALCULATIONS:
1. r = C/2  Meters
r = ___________meters. (Where, C is Circumference of the Brake Drum)
5. The input to the motor = VL* IL Watts.
6. The torque developed by the motor is given by T = (S1 – S2 ) * r * 9.81 N-m
7. The output of the motor in watts = 2 NT / 60.
8. The efficiency of the motor = (Output / Input) * 100%

## VL IL S1-S2 N T O/P I/P

S1 (kg) S2 (kg) %
(V) (A) (kg) (rpm) (Nm) (W) (W)

MODEL GRAPH :

RESULT:
The direct load test has been conducted the given DC shunt motor and the various
performance characteristics are plotted.

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S.K.P. Engineering College ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB – I

## 3. B. LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF DC COMPOUND MOTOR

AIM:
To conduct the brake load test on dc compound motor and to draw the various
characteristic curves.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.NO APPARATUS TYPE RANGE QUANTITY
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

## Rated Voltage = EXCITATION :

Power rating = Voltage =
Rated Current = Current =
Rated Speed =
Fuse Rating:

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S.K.P. Engineering College ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB – I

THEORY:
A D.C. motor is an electrical machine which converts electrical energy into
mechanical energy. Compound Motors have both series and shunt windings. If series
excitation helps the shunt excitation i.e. series flux is in the same direction, then the motor
is said to be cumulatively compounded. If on the other hand, series field opposes the shunt
field, then the motor is said to be differentially compounded. The characteristics of such
motors lie in between those of shunt and series motors. In compound motors, due to shunt
windings speed will not become excessively high but due to series windings, it will be able
to take heavy loads. Compound wound motors have greatest applications with loads that
require high starting torques or pulsating loads. Industrial applications of cumulatively
compound motor are punching, shearing and planning machines, lifts, mine hoists, pumps
and power fans, rolling mill, trolley buses and large printing presses. Because of speed
instability, differential compound motors are no longer used in practice. It is only used in
battery boosters, experimental and research works

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Check whether the motor is loaded.
2. The Starter should be in OFF position before switch ON the DPST Switch.
3. Check the position of the rheostat as specified.
4. The load on motor must be released initially.
PROCEDURE:
1. The circuit connections are made as per the circuit diagram .
2. Keeping the motor field rheostat in its minimum position and the starter in its
OFF position the main supply is switched ON to the circuit.
3. The motor is started using the three point starter by slowly and carefully moving
the starter handle from its OFF to ON position.
4. The motor is brought to its rated speed by gradually adjusting the field rheostat
and checked with the help of a tachometer.
5. Under this no load condition one set of readings are noted down in the tabular
columns.

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S.K.P. Engineering College ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB – I

6. The load on the motor is increased in steps gradually and at each step, all the
meter readings and the motor speed are recorded in the tabular column. The
above procedure is repeated until the motor is loaded to its rated current.
7. Pour some water to the brake drum after every load.
8. After the experiment is completed, the load on motor is gradually decreased to
minimum and the rheostat is brought back to its original position and then the
main supply is switched OFF.
CALCULATIONS:
1. r = C/2  Meters
r = ___________meters. (Where, C is Circumference of the Brake Drum)
2. Input Power = VL* IL Watts.
3. Torque T = (S1 – S2 ) * r * 9.81 N-m
4. Output Power = 2 NT / 60.
5. % Efficiency = (Output / Input) x 100

## VL IL S1-S2 N T O/P I/P

S1 (kg) S2 (kg) %
(V) (A) (kg) (rpm) (Nm) (W) (W)

MODEL GRAPH :

RESULT:
The direct load test has been conducted the given DC compound motor and the
various performance characteristics are plotted.

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S.K.P. Engineering College ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB – I

## 4. O.C. AND S.C. TESTS ON A SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER

AIM:
To conduct the open circuit test and short circuit test on a single-phase transformer and
hence to predetermine the efficiency and regulation and also to draw the equivalent circuit
as referred to H.V side.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:-

## S. No. Apparatus Range Type Quantity

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

THEORY:
The actual performance characteristics of transformers can be obtained by conducting a
direct load test on them. When this has to be performed on large rating transformers, the
loads of the required size may not be available, and the power consumed during this test
will be very large as the transformers are loaded up to 120% of their capacity. The time
required to perform such a test is also more. The same performance characteristics can be
obtained by comparatively easier methods, which are known as indirect methods or
predetermination techniques. To predetermine the efficiency and regulation of
transformers, the open circuit test {(to determine the core loss (iron loss or constant loss)}
and short circuit test [to determine the full load copper loss (variable loss)] are carried out.
Assuming the output and load power factor, the efficiency at different loads are computed.
The regulating on full load for different assumed load power factors can also be computed.
The data obtained from these tests are also useful to find the equivalent circuit parameters.
The results obtained from these tests are almost closer to the actual values obtained by

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S.K.P. Engineering College ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB – I

## NAME PLATE DETAILS :

 Power =

 Voltage =

 Current =

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
OC Test:

FUSE RATING

SC Test:

FUSE RATING

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S.K.P. Engineering College ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB – I

## PRECAUTIONS: (Not to be included in the Record)

1. Keep the autotransformer in its minimum position at the time of starting.
PROCEDURE:
I) O.C. TEST:
1. The circuit connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. Keeping the Secondary winding open and the autotransformer in its minimum
position the main supply is switched ON.
3. By slowly and carefully adjusting the autotransformer, the rated voltage (230V) is
applied to Primary winding of the transformer.
4. Under this condition the readings are noted down.
5. After the experiment is completed, the autotransformer is slowly brought back to
minimum position and then the main supply is switched OFF.

## 1. The circuit connections are made as per the circuit diagram.

2. Short circuiting the Primary winding and keeping the autotransformer in its
minimum position, the main supply is switched ON.
6. By slowly and carefully adjusting the autotransformer the rated current (13A) is
applied to Secondary winding of the transformer.
3. Under this condition readings are noted down.
4. After the experiment is completed, the autotransformer is brought back to its
minimum position and main supply is switched OFF.

TABULATION :

O.C TEST
Primary Primary Wattmeter Secondary
Voltage Current Obs. Act Voltage

S.C. TEST
Primary Primary Wattmeter Secondary
Voltage Current Obs. Act Current

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Formula:
Core loss: Wo = VoIo cos o
Wo Wo
cos o = ------- o = cos-1 -------
V o Io V o Io

## I = Io cos o (Amps) I = Io sin o (Amps)

V0 V0 Wsc
Xo = ------- 
Ro = -------  Ro2 = ------- 
I Isc2
I
Vsc
Zo2 = ------- 
Isc Xo2 = ( Zo2 - Ro22)1/2

R02 X02 V2
Ro1 =Now
------- 
a graph is plotted -------  the percentage
Xo1 = between regulation
K= ------- = 1 and P.F as shown in
K2 K2 V1
figure which is known as the regulation graph.
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT:

RESULT:

The O.C and S.C tests are conducted on the single phase transformer and the
efficient and regulation graphs and also the equivalent circuit as referred to H.V side are
drawn.

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S.K.P. Engineering College ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB – I

## 5. OPEN CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTICS AND LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF

SEPARATELY EXCITED DC SHUNT GENERATOR

AIM:
To obtain the O.C.C and Load Characteristics of the given DC shunt generator by
separately excited.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.no. Apparatus Range Type Quantity
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

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S.K.P. Engineering College ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB – I

## NAME PLATE DETAILS:

D.C. GENERATOR: D.C. MOTOR:
 Rated Voltage : Rated Voltage :
 Rated Current : Rated Current :
 Rated Speed : Rated Speed :
 Power Rating : Power rating :
 Field Voltage : Field Voltage :
 Field Current : Field Current :

THEORY:
A D.C. generator requires an excitation circuit to generate an induced voltage.
Depending on whether the excitation circuit consumes power from the armature of the
machine or from separately required power supply, the generators may be classified as self
excited or separately excited generators respectively

The induced EMF in a DC generator is given by the equation Eg = PZN/ 60A volts.
Since P,Z and A are constants the above equation can be rewritten as E g = KN. If the speed
of the generator is also maintained constant then Eg =K1 , but the flux is directly
proportional to the field current, hence Eg = K2 If. From the above equation it is clear that
the induced EMF is directly proportional to the field current when speed is maintained
constant. The plot between the induced EMF and the field current is known as open circuit
characteristics of the DC generator. The typical shape of this characteristic is shown in
figure.

The induced EMF when the field current is zero is known as residual voltage. This
EMF is due to the presence of a small amount of flux retained in the field poles of the
generator called residual flux. Once the O.C.C is obtained the parameters such as critical
field resistance, critical speed and the maximum voltage to which the machine can build up
can be determined. If required the O.C.C at a different speeds can also be obtained.
Critical speed is minimum speed below which the generator shunt fails to excite.

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S.K.P. Engineering College ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB – I

## PRECAUTIONS: (Not to be included in the Record)

1. Keep the motor field rheostat at minimum resistance position and generator field
rheostat at maximum resistance position.
2. The SPST switch is kept open at the time of starting the experiment.
3. The Load Should be OFF Position
PROCEDURE:
1. The circuit connections are made as per the circuit diagram in the shown figure.
2. Keeping the motor field rheostat in its minimum position, generator field rheostat in
maximum position; and the starter in its OFF position, the main supply is switched
ON to the circuit.
3. The motor is started using the 3-point starter by slowly and carefully moving the
starter handle from its OFF to ON position,
4. The motor is brought to its rated speed by adjusting its rheostat and checked with
the help of a tachometer.
5. Now the Potential divider is varied in steps and at each step the field current (I f) and
the corresponding induced EMF (Eg) are recorded in the tabular column. This
procedure is continued until the generator voltage reaches its rated Voltage value.
6. After the experiment is completed the various rheostats are brought back to their
original position in sequence and then main supply is switched OFF.

TABULAR COLUMNS:
S. No. SPEED Field current Generator voltage
(RPM) If (amps) Eg (volts)

MODEL CALCULATION:
To calculate critical resistance Rc and Critical speed NC
N Critical / N Rated = E critical / E Rated

## b) LOAD TEST ON A DC SHUNT GENERATOR

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S.K.P. Engineering College ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB – I

THEORY:

## A D.C. Generator works on the principle of Faraday’s law of electro magnetic

induction which says that, “whenever a conductor is moved in magnetic field, an emf is
generated in it”. “The magnitude of induced emf is directly proportional to the rate of
change of flux”. The voltage equation for a DC shunt generator is given; by VL= Eg – IaRa,
Under no load condition; since Ia is negligibly small, from the above equation, the terminal
voltage (VL) is the no; load induced EMF (Eg), As the load on the generator increases, the
load current and hence the armature current increases due to armature reaction the induced
emf in the armature decreases. Also increased armature current causes increase in laRa
drop. Hence the terminal voltage decreases with increasing load. The plot between the
terminal voltage (VL) and load current (IL) is known as the external or load characteristics.
The plot between the induced EMF (Eg) and the armature current (Ia) is known as the
internal or total characteristics. The typical graph of internal and external characteristics is
shown in model graph.

## PRECAUTIONS: (Not to be included in the Record)

1. Keep the motor field rheostat at minimum resistance position and generator field
rheostat at maximum resistance position.
2. The SPST switch is kept open at the time of starting the experiment.
3. The Load Should be OFF Position
PROCEDURE:

## 1. The circuit connections are made as per the circuit diagram.

2. Keeping the motor field rheostat in its minimum position, generator field rheostat in
maximum position and the starter in its OFF position, the main supply is switched
ON to the circuit.
3. The motor is started using the 3-point starter by slowly and carefully moving the
starter handle from its OFF to ON position.
4. The motor is brought to its rated speed by adjusting its field rheostat and checked
with the help of the tachometer.

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S.K.P. Engineering College ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB – I

5. The generator field rheostat is slowly decreased until the generator voltage is equal
to its rated value. The No Load voltage and the field current are noted in the tabular
column.
6. Switch ON the Load and Increase gradually in steps one by one. At each steps the
7. This procedure is continued until the generator is loaded to its rated Current value.
8. Once the experiment is completed the load on the generator is gradually decreased,
the various rheostats are brought back to their original position in sequence and the
main supply is switched OFF.
TABULAR COLUMN:

MODEL GRAPH:

E, VL
E (V)
(V)
E vs Ia

VL vs IL

## If (amps) Ia, IL (amps)

RESULT :
Thus the O.C.C and Load Characteristics of the given separately excited DC shunt
generator was obtained and the characteristics are plotted.

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S.K.P. Engineering College ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB – I

## 8. LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF DC COMPOUND GENERATOR

AIM:
To conduct the direct load test on the given DC Compound generator in the
following modes:
i. Cumulative Connection.
ii. Differential Connection.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No. Apparatus Range Type Quantity
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

## NAME PLATE DETAILS:

D.C COMPOUNDGENERATOR D.C. COMPOUND MOTOR
Rated Voltage: Rated Voltage:
Rated Current: Rated Current:

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S.K.P. Engineering College ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB – I

## Rated Speed: Rated speed:

Power Rating: Power rating:
Field Voltage: Field Voltage:
Field Current: Field Current:

Fuse Rating:

THEORY:
As the load as a shunt generator increases the terminal voltage decreases due to armature
reaction and also due to drop in the armature resistance. It is desired that the terminal
voltage remains constant at all load conditions. To achieve this an extra field winding is
incorporated in series with the armature, in addition to the main field windings. If the flux
due to this extra series field winding aids the main field flux then the connection is said to
be cumulative on the other hand if the two fluxes oppose each other, then it is said to be
differentially connected. If the shunt field winding is connected directly across the
armature then it is said to be connected as short shunt, else if it connected directly across
the series combinations of armature and the extra series field winding then it is in long
shunt connection.
PRECAUTIONS:

## 1. The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position.

2. The alternator field rheostat should be kept at maximum resistance position.
PROCEDURE:
1. The circuit connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. Keeping the various Rheostats in their respective indicated positions and the load
switch open the main supply is switched ON.
3. The motor is started using 3-point starter by slowly and carefully moving the starter
handle from its OFF to ON position.
4. The motor is brought to its rated speed by adjusting its Motor field rheostat and the
same is checked with the help of a tachometer.
5. The generator voltage is gradually increased to its rated value by adjusting its
Generator field rheostat and a set of no-load readings are noted down in the tabular
column.

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6. The load switch is now closed and the load is increased in gradual steps and at each
step the readings are noted down.
7. This procedure is continued until the load current is equal to the rated current of the
generator.
8. After the experiment is completed the load on the generator is gradually decreased
to minimum and the various rheostats are brought back to their initial position and
then the main supply is switched OFF.

## For Differential Generator:

1. The circuit connections are made as per the circuit diagram.

2. Keeping the various Rheostats in their respective indicated positions and the load
switch open the main supply is switched ON.

3. Inter Change the Series Coil Terminal(S, SS) and follow the above procedure as it
is.

Model Graph

TABULAR COLUMN:

## COMPOUND VL IL If Ia Ia (Ra+Rsc) Eg = VL+Ia(Ra+Rsc)

TYPE (V) (A) (A) (A) (V)
CUMULATIVE

## COMPOUND VL IL If Ia Ia (Ra-Rsc) Eg = VL+Ia(Ra-Rsc)

TYPE (V) (A) (A) (A) (V)
DIFFERENTIAL

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RESULT:
The Load Characteristics been conducted on the given DC compound generator
and hence the external characteristics and internal characteristics are plotted for all the
modes of operation.

## 7. (A). LOAD TEST ON A SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER

AIM:

To conduct a direct load test on the given single phase transformer to determine the
efficiency and regulation at different load conditions.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:-
S.No. Apparatus Type Range Quantity
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

## NAME PLATE DETAILS:

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S.K.P. Engineering College ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB – I

 KVA Rating =
 Rated H.V side Voltage =
 Rated L.V side Voltage =

Fuse Rating:

THEORY:

Direct load test is conducted to determine the efficiency characteristics and regulation
characteristics of the given transformer. An ideal transformer is supposed to give constant
secondary voltage irrespective of the load current . But practically the secondary voltage
decreases as the transformer is loaded due to primary and secondary impedance drops.
Since these drops are dependent on load current this variation in terminal voltage is

PRECAUTIONS:

## 1. The Auto transformer should be kept in Minimum position.

2. The Load Should is kept in OFF position.

PROCEDURE:

1. The circuit connections are made as per the circuit diagram as shown in figure.
2. Keeping the autotransformer in its minimum position and the DPST switch in
open position, the main supply is switched ON.
3. By slowly and carefully operating the Auto transformer the rated voltage is
applied to the Primary side of the transformer.
4. Under this no-load condition one set of readings are recorded in the tabular
column.
5. Switch on the load and gradually increased steps by step and the each step of all
meter readings are noted down in the tabular column.
6. The procedure is continued until the current reach the rated current.

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7. The procedure is completed, the load is decreased to its minimum the auto
transformer is brought, back to its original position and then the main supply is
switched OFF.

TABULAR COLUMN:
Efficiency Regulation
S. Wp Wp Input Output
Vp Ip Vs Is
No Power Power
Obs Act Obs Act

FORMULA:

FORMULA USED:

## OUTPUT POWER =V2 * I2

EFFICIENCY =OUTPUT/INPUT

## Where, V2’ is No Load voltage in secondary side.

RESULT:

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S.K.P. Engineering College ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB – I

The direct load test has been conducted on the given 1-phase transformer and the
percentage efficiency and regulation are determined at different load condition and hence
the efficiency and regulation graphs are drawn.

## 7. (B). LOAD TEST ON THREE PHASE TRANSFORMER

AIM:
To find the Efficiency of the given three phase transformer.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No Apparatus Range Type Qty
1.
2.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

## NAME PLATE DETAILS:

 Power rating __

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 Frequency __
 Primary voltage __
 Secondary Voltage __

Fuse Rating:

PRECAUTIONS:

## 1. The Auto transformer should be kept in Minimum position.

2. The Load Should is kept in OFF position.

PROCEDURE:

1. The circuit connections are made as per the circuit diagram as shown in figure.
2. Keeping the autotransformer in its minimum position and the DPST switch in
open position, the main supply is switched ON.
3. By slowly and carefully operating the Auto transformer the rated voltage is
applied to the Primary side of the transformer.
4. Under this no-load condition one set of readings are recorded in the tabular
column.
5. Switch on the load and gradually increased steps by step and the each step of
readings are noted down in the tabular column.
6. The procedure is continued until the current reach the rated current.
7. The procedure is completed, the load is decreased to its minimum the auto
transformer is brought, back to its original position and then the main supply is
switched OFF.

TABULAR COLUMN:

S. W1 W2 Input Output
V1 I1 V2 I2 Efficiency Regulation
No Power Power
Obs Act Obs Act

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MODEL CALCULATION:-
Input power = W1 + W2Watts
Output power = √3 V2 I2Watts
%Efficiency = (output / Input) x 100
%Regulation = (VNL - VL) / VL
RESULT:
Thus the direct load test has been conducted on the given 3-phase transformer and
the efficiency and regulation are determined at different load condition.
8. SEPARATION OF NO LOAD LOSSES ON A SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER
AIM:
To separate the no load losses on a single-phase transformer and to determine the
constants.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No Apparatus Range Type Qty
1.
2.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

## NAME PLATE DETAILS:

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 Power rating =
 Frequency =
 Primary voltage =
 Secondary Voltage =
 Current =
FUSE RATING:

THEORY:
The core losses of the transformer depend upon the frequency and the maximum
flux density. The core losses Pi is made up of two paths a) Hysteresis loss Wh and b) eddy
current loss We.Total core loss is given by Pi = Wh + We .If the experiment is carried out for
different frequencies by adjusting speed of the motor by altering the field rheostat. A graph
is plotted for Pi/f Vs f.In the graph the slope gives the constant K2 and the y-intercept on the
graph y-axis gives the value constant K1. Pi/f = K2f + K1

PRECAUTIONS:

## 1. The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position.

2. The alternator field rheostat should be kept at maximum resistance position.

PROCEDURE
1. The connections are made as per circuit diagram.
2. The supply DPST is closed and motor is started using three-point starter.
3. The motor is brought to rated speed (1500 rpm) by adjusting field rheostat.
4. The alternator DPST is closed and potential divider is adjusted so as to bring the
phase neutral voltage across the alternator as 230V.
5. The readings in all the meters are noted.
6. The speed is varied so as to vary the frequency and again the meter readings are
taken down.

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7. The above procedure is repeated for different frequencies and the readings are
tabulated.
MODEL CALCULATION:
From the graph,
K2=AB/BC
K1= OD
Pi/f = K2f + K1
RESULT:
Thus the separation of no load losses on a 1 transformer is conducted & the values
of constants are determined.

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## 9.(A) POLARITY TEST ON SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER

AIM:
To determine the polarity of a single phase transformer

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

## S. No. Name of the Apparatus Range Type Quantity

1 Voltmeter (0 -600)V MI 1
2 Wires - - Req.

PRECAUTION:
1. Auto transformer must be kept in minimum position while switching on and
switching off the supply.
2. Transformer should be operated under rated values.

PROCEDURE:
1.Connect the circuit as shown circuit diagram.
2.Switch on the single phase AC supply.
3.Record the voltages V1V2 and V3. In Case V3< V1 polarity is subtractive.
4.Repeat the step 3 after connecting terminals A1 and a2. In case V3> V1 polarity is
5.Switch of the supply.

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TABULAR COLOUMN:
Subtractive polarity:

S. No V1 V2 V3 V3= V2- V1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

S. No V1 V2 V3 V3= V2+ V1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

RESULT:
Thus the Polarity of a given single phase Transformer is determined by
conducting a polarity test.

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## 9. (B) SUMPNER’S TEST

AIM:
To conduct Sumpner’s test two identical single-phase transformers and hence to
predetermine the % efficiency and also to draw the efficiency versus output
characteristics.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No. Apparatus Range Type Quantity

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

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## NAME PLATE DETAILS:

Primary voltage =
KVA rating =
Secondary voltage =

FUSE RATING:

THEORY:
Sumpner’s test is also an indirect test for the predetermination of efficiency and
regulation of single-phase transformer. This test is also known as Heat run test or Back-
to-Back test or regenerative test. The efficiency regulation and equivalent circuit
parameters determined by this test are more accurate than those obtained by O.C. and S.C
tests. This test takes in to account the losses due to temperature rise and also reflects near
to actual full load conditions. The actual temperature rise of the transformer under any
load condition can also be predetermined accurately. This test requires two identical
transformers of same voltage and KVA ratings. In this test the primaries of the two
transformers are connected in parallel and the two secondaries in series opposition.
PRECAUTIONS:

1. Keep the Auto Transformer in their minimum position at the time of starting.

## 2. The SPST Switch should be open at the time of starting.

PROCEDURE:
1. The circuit connections are made as per the circuit diagram.

2. Keeping the Auto Transformer in the minimum position and the SPST in the open
position the main supply is switched on to the primary circuit.

3. The Auto Transformer on the primary side is slowly adjusted the voltmeter
indicates rated voltage (115v).

4. Polarity checks: This is to check whether the two secondary are connected in
series opposition or not. The reading of voltmeter connected across the SPST
Switch is observed. If it indicates zero then the secondary are connected with
proper polarity instead if it indicated twice the secondary voltage (460v), it

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indicates wrong polarity. If the polarity is wrong then the Auto Transformer on
the primary side is slowly brought back to its minimum position and the main
supply is switched off and the terminal connections of any one of the two
secondary windings are interchanged and then the main supply is switched on.
By adjusting the Auto Transformer the rated voltage is applied again to the two
primaries connected in parallel. The voltmeter connected across the SPST will
now indicate zero and then the SPST switch is closed.

5. Now the supply is switched ON to the Auto Transformer on the secondary sides.

6. By operating this Auto Transformer slowly and carefully, the rated current is
made to flow through the two secondary connected in series opposition.

7. All the meter readings are now noted down in a tabular column as shown below.

8. After the experiment is completed, the Auto Transformer on the secondary and
primary sides are back to their minimum position in sequence and the main
supplies are switched OFF.

## Voc Ioc Woc (T) Vsc Isc Wsc (T)

(Volts) (Amps) (Watts) (Volts) (Amps) (Watts)
Obs Act Obs Act

FORMULA USED:
Core loss =Wo
Copper Loss= full load cu loss X (1/x)2
Total loss =Core loss +Cu loss
Output = V2 I2 Cosφ
Input= output + total loss
% Efficiency = output/input *100

## POWER FACTOR ON NO LOAD:

CosΦ=(Wo/VoIo)
Working component IW=IO*CosΦ
Magnetizing component Iμ =IO*SinΦ
Resistance Ro= Vo/Iw in Ω

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## FOR SHORT CIRCUIT TEST:

Equivalent resistance R01= Wsc / Isc
2 in Ω
Equivalent impedance Z01= Vsc / Isc in Ω
Equivalent leakage reactance X 2 2 01= √(Z01 -R01 ) in Ω
Voltage ratio= V2/V1
R02=K2*R01
X02=K2*X01

PERCENTAGE OF REGULATION
Lagging PF = (I2R02 CosΦ+ I2X02 SinΦ)/ V2
Leading PF = (I2R02 CosΦ- I2X02 SinΦ)/ V2

TABULAR COLUMN:
IL (A) V2 WI (W) WC (W) W (W) O/P (W) I/P (W) %
(V)

RESULT:
The Sumpner’s test has been performed on the given pair of identical transformers
and the % efficiency of each transformer is predetermined and also the efficiency graphs
are plotted.

## 10. HOPKINSON’S TEST

AIM:

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S.K.P. Engineering College ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB – I

## To conduct Hopkinson’s test on a pair of identical DC machines to pre-determine

the efficiency of the machine as generator and as motor.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No. Apparatus Range Type Quantity
(0-1)A MC 1
1 Ammeter
(0-20) A MC 2
(0-300) V MC 1
2 Voltmeter
(0-600)V MC 1
Wire
3 Rheostats 1250, 0.8A 2
Wound
4 Tachometer (0-3000) rpm Digital 1
5 Resistive Load 5KW,230V - 1
6 Connecting Wires 2.5sq.mm. Copper Few

## NAME PLATE DETAILS

FUSE RATING

PRECATUIONS:

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1. The field rheostat of the motor should be in the minimum position at the time
of starting and stopping the machine.
2. The field rheostat of the generator should be in the maximum position at the
time of starting and stopping the machine.
3. SPST switch should be kept open at the time of starting and stopping the
machine.
PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. After checking the minimum position of field rheostat of motor, maximum
position of field rheostat of generator, opening of SPST switch, DPST switch
is closed and starting resistance is gradually removed.
3. The motor is brought to its rated speed by adjusting the field rheostat of the
motor.
and SPST switch is closed.
5. By adjusting field rheostats of motor and generator, various Ammeter
6. The rheostats and SPST switch are brought to their original positions and
DPST switch is opened.

TABULAR COLUMN:
MOTOR GENERATOR
S. No VL IL
IF IA IF IA

As MOTOR:

Motor stray
I2 I3 Total Input
V I1 Armature Field losses Output Effici
S. (Am (Am Losses Power
(Vo (Am Cu Loss Loss /2 Power ency
W (Watts
No. lts) ps) ps) ps) W (Watts) (Watts) (Watts (Watts) %
(Watts) )
)

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As GENERATOR:

Motor stray
I2 I3 Total Input
V I1 Armature Field losses Output Effici
S. (Am (Am Losses Power
(Vo (Am Cu Loss Loss /2 Power ency
W (Watts
No. lts) ps) ps) ps) W (Watts) (Watts) (Watts (Watts) %
(Watts) )
)

FORMULAE:
Input Power = VI1 watts
Motor armature cu loss = (I1+ I2)2 Ra watts
Generator armature cu loss = I22 Ra watts
Total Stray losses W = V I1 - (I1+I2)2 Ra + I22 Ra watts.
Stray loss per machine = W/2 watts.

As MOTOR:
Input Power = Armature input + Shunt field input
= (I1+ I2) V + I3V = (I1+I2+I3) V
Total Losses = Armature Cu loss + Field loss + stray loss
= (I1 + I2)2 Ra + VI3 + W/2 watts
Input power – Total Losses
Efficiency % = ------------------------------------- x 100%
Input Power
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As GENERATOR:
Output Power = VI2 watts
Total Losses = Armature Cu loss+ Field Loss + Stray loss
= I22 Ra + VI4 + W/2 watts
Output power

## Efficiency % = -------------------------------------- x 100%

Output Power+ Total Losses
MODEL GRAPH:

As a Generator

As a Motor

## OUTPUT POWER P0 (W)

RESULT:
Thus Hopkinson’s test is conducted on a pair of identical DC machines the
efficiency of the machine as generator and as motor are pre-determined.

## 11.(A). STUDY OF D.C MOTOR STARTERS

AIM:
To study the different kinds of D.C motor starters
APPARATUS REQUIRED :

## S. No. Name of the apparatus Quantity

1 Two Point starter 1
2 Three Point starter 1
3 Four Point starter 1
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THEORY :-
The value of the armature current in a D.C shunt motor is given by
Ia = (V – Eb) / Ra
Where V = applied voltage .
Ra= armature resistance.
Eb = Back .e.m.f.

In practice the value of the armature resistance for 2 to 3 h.p. motor is the order of 1
ohms and at the instant of starting the value of the back e.m.f. is zero volts. There fore
under starting conditions the value of the armature current is very high. This high inrush
current at the time of starting may damage the motor. To protect the motor from such
dangerous current the D.C motors are always started using starters.

## The types of D.C motor starters are

i. Two point starters
ii. Three Point Starters
iii. Four Point starters

## The functions of the starters are

i. It protects the from dangerous high spee
ii. It protects the motor from overloads.

 TWO POINT STARTERS :- It is used for starting a d.c. series motors which
has the problem of over speeding due to the loss of load from its shaft. Here for
starting the motor the control arm is moved in clock – wise direction from its OFF
position to the ON position against the spring tension. The control arm is held in
the ON position by the electromagnet E. The exciting coil o the hold-on
electromagnet E is connected in series with the armature circuit. If the motor
loses its load, current decreases and hence the strength of the electromagnet also
decreases. The control arm returns to the OFF position due to the spring tension,

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Thus preventing the motor from over speeding. The starter also returns to the OFF
position when the supply voltage decreases appreciably. L and F are the two
points of the starter which are connected with the motor terminals.

##  THREE POINT STARTER :- It is used for starting the shunt or compound

motor. The coil on the hold on electromagnet E is connected in series with the
shunt field coil. In the case of disconnection in the field circuit the control arm
will return to its OFF position due to spring tension. This is necessary because
the shunt motor will over speed if it loses excitation. The starter also returns to
the OFF position in case of low voltage supply or complete failure of the supply.
The protection is therefore is called No Volt Release (NVR).
Over load protection :- when the motor is over loaded it draws a heavy current. This
heavy current also flows through the exciting coil of the over load electromagnet (OLR).
The electromagnet then pulls an iron piece upwards which short circuits the coils of the
NVR coil. The hold on ;magnet gets de-energized and therefore the starter arm returns to
the OFF position, thus protecting the motor against overload. L, A and F are the three
terminals of the three point starter.

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 FOUR POINT STARTER :- The connection diagram of the four point starter is
shown in fig 3. In a four point starter arm touches the starting resistance, the
current from the supply is divided into three paths. One through the starting
resistance and the armature, one through the field circuit, and one through the
NVR coil. A protective resistance is connected in series with the NVR coil.
Since in a four point starter the NVR coil is independent of the of the field ckt
connection, the dc motor may over speed if there is a break in the field circuit. A
D.C motor can be stopped by opening the main switch. The steps of the starting
resistance are so designed that the armature current will remain within the current
limits and will not change the torque developed by the motor to a great extent.

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9. B. A.C. STARTERS
1. AUTO – TRANSFORMER STARTING:

## An auto transformer starter consists of an auto transformer and a switch as shown

in the fig. When the switch S is put on START position, a reduced voltage is applied
across the motor terminals. When the motor picks up speed, say to 80 per cent of its
normal speed, the switch is put to RUN position. Then the auto-transformer is cut out of
the circuit and full rated voltage gets applied across the motor terminals.
The circuit diagram in the fig is for a manual auto-transformer starter. This can be
made push button operated automatic controlled starter so that the contacts switch over
from start to run position as the motor speed picks up to 80% of its speed. Over-load
protection relay has not been shown in the figure. The switch S is air-break type for small
motors and oil break type for large motors. Auto transformer may have more than one
tapping to enable the user select any suitable starting voltage depending upon the
conditions.
Series resistors or reactors can be used to cause voltage drop in them and thereby
allow low voltage to be applied across the motor terminals at starting. These are cut out
of the circuit as the motor picks up speed.

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## 2. STAR- DELTA METHOD OF STARTING:

The starter phase windings are first connected in star and full voltage is connected
across its free terminals. As the motor picks up speed, the windings are disconnected
through a switch and they are reconnected in delta across the supply terminals. The
current drawn by the motor from the lines is reduced to as compared to the current it
would have drawn if connected in delta. The motor windings, first in star and then in
delta the line current drawn by the motor at starting is reduced to one third as compared
to starting current with the windings delta-connected.
In making connections for star-delta starting, care should be taken such that
sequence of supply connections to the winding terminals does not change while changing
from star connection to delta connection. Otherwise the motor will start rotating in the
opposite direction, when connections are changed from star to delta. Star-delta starters
are available for manual operation using push button control. An automatic star – delta
starter used time delay relays (T.D.R) through which star to delta connections take place
automatically with some pre-fixed time delay. The delay time of the T.D.R is fixed
keeping in view the starting time of the motor.

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## 3. FULL VOLTAGE OR DIRECT –ON-LINE

STARTING:

When full voltage is connected across the stator terminals of an induction motor,
large current is drawn by the windings. This is because, at starting the induction motor
behaves as a short circuited transformer with its secondary, i.e. the rotor separated from
the primary, i.e. the stator by a small air-gap.
At starting when the rotor is at standstill, emf is induced in the rotor circuit
exactly similar to the emf induced in the secondary winding of a transformer. This
induced emf of the rotor will circulate a very large current through its windings. The
primary will draw very large current from the supply mains to balance the rotor ampere-
turns. To limit the stator and rotor currents at starting to a safe value, it may be necessary
to reduce the stator supply voltage to a low value. If induction motors are started direct-
on-line such a heavy starting current of short duration may not cause harm to the motor
since the construction of induction motors are rugged. Other motors and equipment
connected to the supply lines will receive reduced voltage. In industrial installations,
however, if a number of large motors are started by this method, the voltage drop will be
very high and may be really objectionable for the other types of loads connected to the

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system. The amount of voltage drop will not only be dependent on the size of the motor
but also on factors

## 4. ROTOR RESISTANCE STARTER:

In a slip-ring (wound rotor) induction motor, resistance can be inserted in the rotor circuit
via slip rings ,so as to increase the starting torque.

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