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(12) INTERNATIONAL APPLICATION PUBLISHED UNDER THE PATENT COOPERATION TREATY (PCT) (19) World Intellectual Property Organization International Bureau (43) International Publication Date NH A (10) International Publication Number WO 2014/025765 A2 13 February 2014 (13.02.2014) WIPO! PCT (S1)tnteratona Patent Chasitenon (Gt) Designs Sexes (nies ohervise indicted, for ery Main 118\200891) fond ration praction meats) AEs AG. Aly AN NO. Atv AU AZ BA, bin BG, ll, BN, BRC DW BN C2) eran EON en te ee er Oe Be Bee esters at DO, DZ, EC, . GH, GM, GT, (22) teratoma Fig Date HN. 0, EN, KP awit 2013 05082013) Kaz LA LG, w LU, LY, MAC MD, ME, MG. Mi, MAW Dg A 2 Nas NOW NTN, NE, (25) Filing Language: English on PA, PE, PL, PT, QA, RO, RS, RU, RW, S: (26) Pebtcnton Language: Fagin SC 3D, SE. SG, SKC. SL: SM: ST SV. SY, THT, TM, (20) Peart Dat a SUg19939 6 August 201206082012) US (84) Desgonted States (anes othervise indicated, for every (7H Apptient: UNIVERSITY oF ataMtE [USUSK 1981"? Bruty mina proncton mathe ARIPO GOW. Cll AW rv Avenue Suite 10, Lacton Coue"C234, Miami, GM KI ERC LS MW. A NA KW. SD. Uy 82.12, Poste UG, 2M 2). Parson (AN AZ, DY. ROL RZ, RUT ee i si avense. TMi tuiope (ALL AT BE CHLCY. CZ Diy DR: re tO. Lecttion codes Cost Mian; Fe(Us) Save. FE;ES. FLFR, GB’GR, HR. HU, IE is, Tr, LT, LU, LV. Haba, Justin, C2 16809 SW_S4h Cou, Mire, FLMC: MK. MT-I; NO-PL PT RO, RS, SE, SSK, SM, HEZ, data + Minar Ti), OAPI MF B,C, CO, Ci, CM GA, GN, GQ. OW 3 RMLMLIMR ts SN. 1-4) $75) Agents MATOS, Peer, A. al; Maloy & Maloy: PL paginas Atomeye For Applicant, 2800 Tid Avenue, Nam PETS cos) wth iternasinal serch report an be republished om recep of tha por (Re 48.58) {Eo Tie SVSTINS AND METHODS FOR ADAPTIVE NFURAT DECODING WO 2014/025765 A2 lll FIGURE (7) Abstract: This invention is drocted toa system and, method for adaptive neural decoding of a user” A plural- ity of imerconnected processing units comprising sensory nodes, hidden nodes, and ourput nodes forms a thre lay fr network, The sensory nodes receive signals from a neural vector and outputs signals 10 the hidden nodes. ‘The hidden nodes sre connected 10 the sensory nodes, ‘and the output nodes to the hidden nodes through each of ‘synaptic’ connection having an individual synaptic Weight, The hidden and outpnt nodes are individually configured to calculate a probability hased on its synaptic Weights, and output a signal based on the probability ‘The output signal of the ouput node having the highest probability is tansmitted 10 the environment. A feedback Signal i received by’a feedback module based on the out Di signal, and associated synaptic weight (3) are altered ‘hase on the feedback signal 10 15 20 25 30 35 WO 2014025765 PCT/US2013/053772 Description SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR ADAPTIVE NEURAL DECODING Statement Regarding Federally-Sponsored Research and Development This invention was made with U.S. government support under grant number N66001-10-C-2008 and W31P4Q-12-C-0200 awarded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The U.S. government may have certain rights in the invention. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Field of the Invention The present invention relates to adaptive neural decoding and interfaces between the brain and machines. More specifically, the invention concerns automatically adjusting neural mapping for adaptive learning of neural decoders and neuroprosthetics. Additionally, the present invention is also directed to responsive neurorehabilitation through the use of adaptive neural decoders. Description of the Related Art Neural decoding involves the reconstruction of stimuli from information that is represented in the brain by networks of neurons, in order to convert the impulses of the brain into actions that can be performed in the subject‘s environment. with neural decoding, thought can drive mechanical motion of objects in the environment, such as neuroprosthetic devices. A neural decoder is a device made up of a plurality of synthetic neurons or nodes that process impulses and convey information to other nodes further downstream by “firing” an action potential. Ideally, the pattern of synthetic neurons or nodes models the decision-making process in the brain, in order to convert neural impulses to commands for action to be taken in an environment. Neural decoding can be particularly useful in medical cases in which a person’s control of a limb or extremity has been reduced or is gone entirely. For instance, neural decoding can assist in rehabilitation of arm, hand, leg, or foot movement, such 10 15 20 25 30 35 WO 2014025765 PCT/US2013/053772 as following injury or impairment due to a medical condition such as Parkinsons, full or partial paralysis, and muscle wasting diseases or conditions. It can also be used for neuroprosthetic control, such as to replace an amputated arm, leg, hand, or foot. However, many challenges still remain. For example, central nervous system (CNS) injuries, such as spinal cord injuries, impair the ability of the brain to communicate with and direct the body. Physical therapy is often used, but it does not fully engage the CNS, only affecting the brain indirectly and not quantitatively. Therefore, the connection between the brain and body is not fully restored, which is needed for successful rehabilitation. In addition, the way the brain produces intent adapts and changes over time, a phenomenon called neural plasticity. It is a complicated and constantly ongoing process, and is influenced by numerous factors. Being able to account for and adapt to this ever-changing neural landscape is critical for successful neural decoding, but as yet remains only rudimentarily achieved. For instance, machines can “learn” to adapt to changes or perturbations, but the various approaches to machine learning all fall short of ideal. There are currently three main machine learning paradigms: supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning methods. In supervised learning approaches, the controller or converter of neural impulses to the machine needs a detailed copy of the desired response to compute a low-level feedback for adaptation. For example, in the case of reaching tasks, the desired response would be the trajectory of arm movements or the location of the target in the environment. There have been attempts to “infer” a desired response so that supervised learning approaches can be used, however these approaches do not exactly match the user's intent and may not be feasible in unstructured environments such as those encountered during daily living. Moreover, these static neural decoding algorithms assume stationary input/output relationships, limiting their usefulness since they cannot easily adapt to perturbations in the input space.