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Study on the feasibility of wind turbine farm in Zaouiet Kounta, Algeria.

Dahmani Aissa a,b

(a) Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Batna, Algeria.

(b) M'sila gas turbine power plant BP 203 M4sila, Algeria.

aissa.dahman@gmail.com

Abstract The Algerian government is intending to install a huge capacity of electric generation from renewable resources.

The objective is to reach in 2030, an amount of 40% of the total production is the part of renewable energy. South-west Algeria has an interesting wind potential. Keberten, Adrar was installed a wind form of 10 MW. This paper presents the opportunity of installing a new wind farm in Zaouiet-Kounta. In order to optimize the matching between wind regime and wind turbine characteristics, concept of turbine performance index and

capacity factor were

Eight wind turbines were

studied. The best capacity factor (0.5408) is obtained for the maximum turbine performance index (0.3168). Cost analysis shows that the lowest cost of energy is 0.0229 €/kWh while the

highest is 0.0409 €/kW.

Index Terms turbine performance index, capacity factor, site matching, LCOE

I. INTRODUCTION

Wind energy is a promising alternative to pollutant micro- power plants in southern Algeria. Electric energy is provided by Diesel generators, although the tendency is their replacement by gas turbines. Even, the huge wind potential offered, it is still not exploited. In fact, the enormous solar potential shadowed the windy one. Due to its low potential the wind energy share will be around 3% of electricity production in 2030 [1]. Till now, only Kebeterne wind farm is installed. Several studies have been held to demonstrate the opportunities offered by wind energy. Evaluation of wind energy and economics evaluation was conducted in [2]. Authors aimed to select a site among five others to install a wind farm (18MW). In [3], an investigation on wind energy generation feasibility is demonstrated for Aoulef region, Adrar. The effect of both grid connection and the internal rate of return are analyzed. The assessment of both technical and economical wind farm is explained in [4]. The best cost of electricity by Kwh for the variety of wind turbines was 0.040$/Kwh. A competitive price compared to the one paid by the Algerian consumer. The first Algerian wind farm is installed at kaberten, however it is demonstrated in [5] that Zouia Kounta is more suitable because of the net electrical production and full load hours (40 Gwh and 4040 hrs respectively). In this paper, a case study on the feasibility of wind farm in Zaouiet Kounta, southern Algeria is presented. A selection of

Rachid Abdessemed a

(a) Department of Electrical Engineering

University of Batna, Algeria. rachid.abdessemed@gmail.com

wind turbines is conducted based on matching wind turbine

: cut-in, rated and furling or

cut-off speeds respectively, to specific site data. The goal is to maximize the energy produced by the wind turbine.

parameters namely

v

C

,

v

R

and

v

f

II. SITE PRESENTATION

Zaouiet Kounta (Latitude 27°13', longitude 0° 12'), is located 77 Kms south of Adrar. The local electric demand was fed essentially by diesel generator. Sonelgaz, the electric company adopted a new policy substituting the pollutant generators by gas turbines. A mobile power plant, consisting of 6 mobile gas turbines, 22 MW each, was installed in 2014. Next, 34 Mw was added to the previous capacity in 2015. The hybridization of power generation is assured by installing a photovoltaic power station of 6MW in 2014. The annual radiation on latitude angle is 3524.92 Kwh/m². The sunshine duration is 3428 Hours per year.

Based on Weibull probability density function, wind power density is estimated using the following equation:

P disp

1

A 2

c

3

  1

3

k

(1)

A: is the swept area (m²), ρ: is the air density (Kg/m 3 ), Γ: is the gamma function, c (m/sec) and k scale and shape factors respectively. For Zaouiet Kounta, they are equal to: 10.3 m/sec and 2.69 [5]. Wind power density: P pdw = 745.4 W/m 2 .

III. WIND TURBINE NORMALIZED CURVE.

The average electrical power of wind generator is [6]:

p

e ave

,

Where

by [6]:

p

eR

p

p

eR

e ave

,

CF

(2)

is the rated output power at rated speed given

0.5

C  

pR

mR

gR

Av

3

R

(3)

P Wind

P Wind Turbine (Cp)

Turbine (Cp)

Transmission mecη
Transmission
mecη

Generator

ηg

Fig. 1 Block Diagram of Wind Electric System. [7].

Where:

C pR

Coefficient of performance at rated speed,

mR

and

gR

mechanical

interface

efficiencies respectively.

and

generators

CF

by[8]:

the capacity factor, expressed for the cubic model

Fig. 2 shows the normalized capacity factor (CF) and

normalized power

reaches its maximum at normalized speed of 0.7 while the P N attains its maximum at a normalized speed equal to 2. Based on, choosing the rated speed giving the maximum CFleads to lose too much energy by the turbine under higher wind speeds. On the other hand, choosing the rated giving maximum of P N will result in loosing too much energy at lower speeds. Costs of necessary generator, circuit breaker, transformer… in the 2 nd case will increase. Meanwhile, because of the lower value of CFthey will be misused.

P

N

for Zaouiet Kounta site. The CF

3  k   k  v  v    Normalized power
3
k
k
 v 
v 
Normalized power and capacity factor (p=0.259 and q=1.592)
CF
 
C
exp
 
C
v  
f
1.4
exp  
Capacity Factor
v
 
c
Normalized Power
R
c
  
1.2
1
0.8
3 
3
 
k
k
0.6
k
3
 v  
3
R
,
C
+
. 
v  
(4)
0.4
k
 ,
v 
c
k
c
 k
R
k
0.2
c
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
Capacity factor and Normalized Power

the incomplete gamma function.

The cut-in and cut-off speeds are expressed as a function of

rated

and q 1 . A survey of more than 120 available wind turbines with different rated power and different wind turbine speed parameters from different manufacturers demonstrate that

These

results are obtained with a very good confidence (95%) [9].

By substitution, the capacity factor can be expressed entirely in terms of normalized speed ( v c ) and Weibull

shape factor k :

speed:

v

C

p.v

R

and

v

f

q.v

R

.

Where:

p 1

0.252 p 0.266

and

1.906 q 1.998 .

R

0.252  p  0.266 and 1.906  q  1.998 . R CF  

CF

p

3

exp

  

p

v

R

c

k

  

v  

exp  

q

R

c

k

+

3

3

 

k

 

k

v

c

R

k

.

v

c

k

3

R

,

k

  p

v c  

k

3

R

,

k

(5)

To express the power in terms of normalized speed, we define the normalized average power as :

P

N

0.5 C

 

pR

mR

gR

Av

3

R

CF

0.5 C

 

pR

mR

gR

Ac

3

CF   v

c

R

3

(6)

Normalized Rated Speed (Vr/c)

Fig. 2 Normalized power and capacity factor.

From Fig. 2 it is clear that an increasing in P N is associated

a decreasing in (CF) and vice-versa. But it is expected that exist a value of normalized speed at which the product of

is maximum. At this value of ( v R c ) this product

falls between

produced is closer to its maximum at a higher CF[6]. An

) at which

alternative design procedure is to use ( v R c

i.e. r* P Nmax

normalized power is some per cent of P Nmax

where 0.5 r 1 [10].

Based on, the normalized turbine performance index is

defined as:

. At this point, the energy

(

CF

*

P

N

)

is defined as: . At this point, the energy ( CF * P N ) P

P

N ,max

and

CF

max

At this point, the energy ( CF * P N ) P N ,max and CF

TPI

P

N

. CF

P

N ,max

*

CF

max

(7)

Fig. 3 shows the turbine performance index (TPI). The (TPI) attains the maximum of 0.2927 at the normalized speed

of 1.1. The capacity factor value is 0.5408. Knowing c the scale factor, p and q the cut-in, rated and furling speeds are summarized in table 1. It can be seen that as r decrease, all the

parameters:

v

C

,

v

R

and

v

f

decrease also.

Turbine Performance Index (TSI)

0.35

0.3

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0

0

highest TPI surpassing 0.3 (0.3168 and 0.3048 respectively).

These values are obtained for the same value of the normalized

speed. It is noticed that these two turbines have quite the same

capacity factor (0.5408 and 0.5402). Compared to results in

capacity factor (0.5408 and 0.5402). Compared to results in 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Normalized

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

Normalized Rated Speed (vr/c)

Fig. 3 Turbine Performance Index.

table 2, the TPI's are equal in both cases. Speed parameters of

T4 are closer to those in table 2 than T2 ones. Nevertheless,

T2 is chosen because of both its lowest cut-in speed and its

highest cut-off speed. Indeed wind turbine must contain

enough power at cut-in speed to overcome all the system loses.

, means that

the wind turbine will run much time at the rated power. T3 has both the lowest TPI and CF (0.1976 and 0.4523)

Loses are fraction of

v

3

C

. The highest value of

v

f

Wind turbine parameters are calculated and summarized in table 1. Hence, it is possible to investigate the commercially available turbines that their characteristics correspond to those in able 1. It is noticeable that is impossible to manufacture turbine that corresponds exactly to each site wind regime.

Table 1: Wind turbine speed parameters

 

Wind Turbine Speed Parameters (p=0.259 and q=1.925)

 

Parameters

At

At

r=0.9

r=0.8

r=0.7

r=0.5

TPI max

PN max

 

1.100

2.00

1.40

1.30

1.20

1.00

11.33 20.6 14.42 13.39 12.36 10.3

11.33

20.6

14.42

13.39

12.36

10.3

 

2.930

5.34

3.73

3.47

3.2

2.67

 

21.81

39.66

27.76

25.79

23.79

19?83

P

N

0.719

0.949

0.944

0.887

0.811

0.611

CF

0.5402

0.1303

0.344

0.403

0.469

0.611

IV. CASE STUDY

Eight wind turbines are considered in this study. For uniformity in the comparison, these turbines have the same rated power (2000Kw). These turbines are denoted T1… T8, to avoid the use of trade names. Characteristics of the eight turbines are summarized in table 2. The cut-in speed ranges from 2m/s to 4m/s. rated speed varies between 10m/s and 16m/s. the cut-off speed varies between 28 m/s and 20m/s.

Table 3: Performance of selected wind turbines

 

TPI

CF

r (m/s)

T1

0.2366

0.4653

0.7708

T2

0.3168

0.5408

0.6835

T3

0.1976

0.4523

0.744

T4

0.3048

0.5402

0.6946

T5

0.2543

0.4682

0.7749

T6

0.2482

0.533

0.7801

T7

0.2896

0.5391

0.7065

T8

0.2972

0.5402

0.6928

IV. 1 COST ANALYSIS:

The viability of any power plant depends on its ability to generate energy at the low operating cost [11]. The cost of generated electricity for a wind turbine depends on several factors which include: the site specific factors; cost of wind turbine, and its economic life span; operating and maintenance costs; electricity tariff and incentives and exemptions [12]. The cost of wind turbine is generally 74% of the total project cost and is determined as follows:

C

wt

C

spe

P

R

(8)

According to [13], the specific costs are given in terms of minimum and maximum prices for 2015 and 2030.

Table 4. Initial costs.[13]

Table 2: Wind turbine characteristics.

 

v

C

(m/s)

v

R

(m/s)

v

f

(m/s)

T1

 

4

 

16

 

25

T2

 

2

 

13

 

28

T3

 

3

 

15

 

21

T4

 

3.5

 

12

 

25

T5

 

3

 

12

 

20

T6

 

3.5

 

12.5

 

25

T7

 

3.5

 

10

 

20

T8

 

4

 

14

 

23

Computations are done for each turbine. The normalized speed is varied from 0 to 3 in interval of 0.1. Capacity factor and performance index are calculated for each step. Results are summarized in table 3. It is found that T2 d T4 have the

/kW

Onshore wind turbine

Min/Max 2015

1000/1800

Min/Max 2030

950/1700

The initial investment cost (I C ) is the sum of costs of

different components. The investment is given as [2]:

.

I

C

C

wt

C

st

C

en

C

ci

C

tr

C

el

C

misc

(9)

Where C wt is the cost of the wind turbine, C st is the study cost,

C en the engineering cost, C ci is the civil work and installation cost, C tr is cost of transport, C el is cost of electricity connection, C misc is miscellaneous cost. The unit cost of energy using levelized cost of energy (LCOE) can be estimated using equation (10):

LCOE

CRF

E WT

I

C

C

om esc

Cost/kWh

(10)

Where E WT is the annual energy output of the turbine in kilowatt hour, CRF and C om(esc) are the capital recovery factor and present worth of the annual cost throughout the lifetime of WT, and are expressed as:

CRF

C

om esc

1

1

r r

n

n

r 1

C

om

r

_

e

om

 

1

   1 1   e r

om

n

    

(11)

(12)

Where C om , e om , n, r, are the operation and maintenance cost

for the first year, escalation rate of operation and maintenance costs, useful lifetime of turbine and discount rate, respectively. For the case study the following assumptions are taken into consideration:

1. Inflation rate was taken 12%

2. Interest rate was taken as 8%

3. The life time is considered to be 20 year.

4. Maintenance cost cannot be calculated in a straight

forward manner as they are not fixed, however it has been reported that the annual operation and maintenance costs vary from 1% to 7% of the initial cost and 2% to 16% of the wind turbine cost. In this study O&M cost is assumed to be 7% of the initial cost of the turbine installation system (System price /lifetime) According to cost analysis represented in Fig. 4 it is seen

that for 2030:

T2 has the best expected best cost per kWh. This cost varies between minimum of 0.0229 €/kWh and a maximum of 0.0409 €/kWh. T3 has the highest expected cost per kWh. This cost lies between 0.0273 €/kWh and 0.0489 €/kWh. The best mean value of LCOE is: 3.19 ct€/kWh. For comparison, it is reported in [15] that best bid recorded in Morocco was as low as 2.2ct €/kWh.

best bid recorded in Morocco was as low as 2.2ct €/kWh. Fig. 4 Minimum and maximum

Fig. 4 Minimum and maximum LCOE expected for 2030

V. CONCLUSION.

This paper has presented he opportunity has offers wind potential in Zaouiet Kounta. The analysis based on optimum matching of site wind regime and turbine characteristics lead to the best turbine performance index (TPI) which leads in turn to the optimum capacity factor. Eight turbines with the rated power but with different parameters were investigated. Cost analysis was carried out. The best LCOE ranges between 0.0229 €/kWh and 0.0409 €/kWh according to the minimum and maximum specific turbine costs.

The huge program adopted by the Algerian government intends to export 10000MW to Europe. This energy has to be competitive in term of LCOE. This paper demonstrates that it is possible to reach this objective.

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