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for

Fracture Mechanics

by

1

Chapter 2

Prob 2.1:

a)

2

P 1 P

P 1 3 P

4 P 3 P

No load is carried by Part 2 and Part 4 . There is no strain energy stored in them.

The total strain energy per unit width stored in Part 1 and Part 3 is

L P

2

a P

2

P 2 ( L − a) P 2 a

U =∫ dx + ∫ dx = +

a 2A E 0 2A E 2 A1 E 2 A3 E

1 3

A1 = h , A3 = h / 3

Thus the total strain energy is

3aP 2 P 2 ( L − a)

U= +

2 Eh 2 Eh

Finally, the energy release rate is

1 ∂U P2

G= =

2 ∂a 2 Eh

dWe = 0 since dδ = 0, then energy released due to the crack extension is

1

dWs = −dU = P 2 dS

2

2da

dS =

hE

P 2 da

⇒ dWs =

Eh

1 dWs P2

G= =

2 da 2hE

2

b)

2 2, 4

P 1 3 P

P P

3

4 P/2

No load is carried by Part 1. There is no strain energy stored in it.

The total strain energy per unit width stored in Part 1 and Part 3 is

2

a P ( P 2) 2 P2a P 2a

U =∫ +2 dx = +2

0 2 AE 2 AE 2 AE 8 AE

A=h/3

Thus the total strain energy is

3aP 2 3aP 2 9 P 2 a

U= +2 =

2 Eh 8Eh 4 Eh

Finally, the energy release rate is

1 ∂U 9 P 2

G= =

2 ∂a 8Eh

Based on the fixed end boundary condition, we can have dWe = 0 ⇒ dWs = -dU

Thus the energy released due to the crack extension is

1 P 1

dWs = − dU = 2 ( ) 2 dS1 + P 2 dS 2

2 2 2

−3da 3da

dS1 = , dS 2 =

2hE hE

2

3P da

⇒ dWs =

4 EA

Eventually, the energy release rate is

1 dWs 9 P 2

G= =

2 da 8Eh

3

Prob 2.2:

a) Symmetric case

2 2

a M a ( Px ) P 2a 3 th 3

U1 = U 2 = ∫ dx = ∫ dx = , I1 =

0 2 EI 0 2 EI 6 EI 12

So the total strain energy is

P 2a 3 4P 2a 3

U = U1 + U 2 + U 3 = =

3EI Eth 3

The energy release rate is given by

1 dU 12 P 2 a 2

GI = =

t da Eh 3t 2

b) Anti-symmetric case

a ( Px )

2

P 2a 3 th 3

U1 = U 2 = ∫ dx = , I1 =

0 2 EI

1 6 EI 1 12

L (2 Px ) 2 2P 2 3 2th 3

U3 = ∫ dx = (L − a 3 ) , I3 =

a 2 EI 3 3EI 3 3

So the total strain energy is

P2

U = U1 + U 2 + U 3 = ( L3 + 3a 3 )

12 EI

The energy release rate is given by

1 dU 9 P 2 a 2

GII = = 2 3

t da Et h

4

Prob 2.3:

Since the structure is symmetric (both loading and geometry), we can represent the given

cracked beam as two cracked beams as shown in Figure 1.

M is the moment needed to ensure zero slope at the location where we made the free

body cut.

Assuming that the beam marked "1" is a cantilever beam with a tip load P/2, the slope

at the tip is given by

θP =

( P 2) a2

2 EI

The slope at the tip of a cantilever subjected to a tip moment is given by

Ma

θM = −

EI

To ensure that the system shown in Figure 1 accurately represents the actual center

cracked structure with a mid-section load, we need to satisfy

θ p + θM = 0

( P 2 ) a 2 − Ma = 0 Pa

⇒M =

2 EI EI 4

The moment distribution along the length of beam 1 is

P Pa

M ( x) = x − (x=0 being the tip of the cantilever beam).

2 4

The strain energies can be written as

a a 2

M ( x)2 dx 1 Px Pa P 2 a3

U1 = U 2 = ∫

2 EI ∫0 2

= − dx =

0

2 EI 4 96 EI

and U3 = 0. The total strain energy is therefore,

2 3

Pa

U = U1 + U 2 + U 3 =

48EI

5

Strain energy release rate can be calculated as

2 2

1 dU P a

G= =

t da 16 EIt

−10 4

The moment of inertia for the specified dimensions is, I = 4.7 ×10 m

The crack will propagate if G ≥ Gc . Hence, we can calculate the minimum load Pmin

required to propagate the crack as given below.

2 2

P a

G = Gc = min

16 EIt

16 EItGc

⇒ Pmin = 2

= 216 N

a

6

Prob 2.4:

Total distance d moved by the loading point is given by

d δ = Elastic extension + peeled off length

= ε ( L + da ) − ε L + da

= da (1 + ε )

P

= da 1 + ; assuming unit width

At

Work done by the external force is therefore,

P

dWe = Pd δ = P 1 + da

Et

Change in strain energy is given by

dU = U L + da

−U L

1 P P 1 P P

= ( L + da ) A − ( L) A

2 A EA 2 A EA

2

P da

=

2 Et

Hence,

dWs = dWe − dU

P

= P 1 + da

2 Et

7

Strain energy release rate is given by

dWs P

G= = P 1 +

da 2 Et

8

Prob 2.5:

dδ

Let the crack extend by da as shown above. The incremental displacement can be written

as

Pda

dδ = , taking unit width

Et

Work done by external force,

2

P da

dWe = Pdδ =

Et

Change in strain energy is given by

dU = U L + da − U L

1 P P 1 P P

= ( L + da ) A − ( L) A

2 A EA 2 A EA

2

P da

=

2 Et

Hence,

2

P da

dWs = dWe − dU =

2 Et

Strain energy release rate is

2

dWs P

G= = .

da 2 Et

In this case, dWs = dU .

9

Comparing Prob 2.4 and 2.5

As seen in the two problems above, the strain energy release rate and the strain energy

gained by the film are not equal for prob 2.4 and are equal for prob 2.5. This is due to

nature of the P-δ curves shown in Figure 4. In prob 2.4, the nature of the loading makes

the system non-conservative. It should also be noted that for the same load P, prob 2.4

has a higher G and hence it is easier to propagate the crack in prob 2.4 than in prob 2.5.

P P

Pda

Pda

da Et

Et

δ δ

PL P ( L + da ) PL P ( L + da )

+ da

Et Et Et Et

Prob 2.4 Prob 2.5

10

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