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ORGANIC LIGHT EMITTING TRANSISTOR

(OLET)
Alvin Fariz1 10215072 – Group 5
Group members : Rheza Pahlevi 10213045, Prayoga Anugerah 10214075, Perystito 10215033,
Enggar Lokheswara 10215088, Genadi Julfianto 10216049.

Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences Institut Teknologi Bandung,
Indonesia.

Email : 1alvin.fariz@s.itb.ac.id

Abstract
The potential of organic semiconductor-based devices for light generation has already been demonstrated by the
commercialization of display technologies based on organic LEDs (OLEDs). In terms of performance and
reliability, the OLED is by far the most developed organic technology. However, at high current densities, OLEDs
are susceptible to considerable exciton quenching, which decreases their efficiency. Organic light-emitting
transistor (OLET) is a transistor that emits light. OLETs represent a novel class of organic devices that combine
the current-modulating function of a transistor with light emission, and also offer efficiency increases. In this
paper we will discuss the first trilayer hetero structure approach for OLETs enabling simultaneous control of
electrode-induced photon losses, and exciton–metal and exciton–charge interactions. These devices are >100
times more efficient than the equivalent OLED, >2 times more efficient than the optimized OLED with the same
emitting layer and >10 times more efficient than any other reported OLETs.

Keyword : electroluminescence, external quantum effieciency, organic.

a novel class of organic devices that combine


I. Introduction the current-modulating function of a transistor
Recently high-performance optoelectronic with light emission, and also offer efficiency
devices based on organic semiconductors have increases.
been demonstrated, such as organic light
emitting diodes (OLED), thin film transistors
(TFT), and solar cells. These organic devices
show promise for low-cost, large-area and
flexible devices. The rapid progress of
development OLED for display technology has
been made in recent years. In terms of
performance and reliability, the OLED is the
most developed organic technology. However,
at high current densities, OLEDs are
Figure 1. Schematic representation organic light-
susceptible to exciton quenching, which
emitting transistor (OLET) and organic light-
decreases their efficiency. This disadvantage is
emitting diode (OLED). (a) A key difference in
an impediment to bright, efficient, and stable OLETs is that electron and hole charge transport
light sources. occur in-plane at the dielectric/organic interface.
Organic light-emitting transistor (OLET) (b) In OLEDs charges move vertically across the
is a transistor that emits light. OLETs represent organic layers [2].
In this paper we will discuss the first
trilayer hetero structure approach for OLETs
enabling simultaneous control of electrode-
induced photon losses, and exciton–metal and
exciton–charge interactions. OLET devices
with external quantum efficiency (EQEs) of 5%
are demonstrated, which exceeds the best
OLEDs based on the same emitting layer and
optimized transport layers (2.2%).

II. Theory and Method


The ambipolar OLET -which allows
transport of both positive (hole) and negative
(electron) charges- the ambipolar regime is
characterized by hole and electron
accumulation layers next to the source and
drain electrodes, respectively [3] (Fig. 1a). The
recombination of electron and hole currents
moving in-plane and controlled by the gate
electrode. Electroluminescence intensity is Figure 2. Trilayer OLET device structure and
tuned by the voltages at both the drain (VDS) and active materials forming the heterostructure. a,
Schematic representation of the trilayer OLET
the gate (VGS) electrodes.
device with the chemical structure of each material
The trilayer heterostructure OLETs used in
making up the device active region. The field-effect
this study (Fig. 2a) were fabricated on charge transport and the light-generation processes
glass/indium tin oxide (ITO; gate contact, are also sketched. b, Energy-level diagram of the
150nm)/PMMA (dielectric, 450nm) substrates. trilayer heterostructure. The energy values of the
The active region consists of the superposition HOMO and LUMO levels of each molecular
of three organic layers. The first, in contact with material are indicated together with the Fermi level
the PMMA dielectric, and the third layers are of the gold contacts [4].
field-effect electron-transporting (n-type, 7nm)
and hole transporting (p-type, 15nm) The curves shown in Fig. 3a and b were
semiconductors, respectively, whereas the obtained by operating the device within the
middle layer is a light-emitting host–guest unipolar regime (|VDS|=|VGS|) and correspond to
matrix (40nm). The device structure is the field-effect transport of only electrons and
completed by the deposition of the gold (source holes, respectively.
and drain, 50nm) contacts. To enable the Thus, Fig. 3a shows the charge transport
vertical charge diffusion process, the basis of taking place in the DFH-4T layer and Fig. 3b
the OLET electroluminescence mechanism, shows the charge transport occurring in the DH-
energetic compatibility between the materials 4T film. Light emission is collected in
forming the heterostructure is required [4]. correspondence of the electron transport (Fig.
3a). When charge carriers recombine at the
drain electrode through one, or more, upper
layers, a diode-like mechanism gives rise to
light emission. This process is characterized by
a linear correlation between the
electroluminescence and current intensity.
To verify whether improved interfacial laser diode. Electroluminescence spectra of
characteristics would increase the efficiency, in devices biased using a B1500A Agilent
this paper [4] they fabricated a trilayer OLET semiconductor device analyser were acquired
with the order of the two charge transport layers by a CS200 Konica Minolta spectro-radiometer
reversed. [4].
To enable a direct OLED versus OLET
experimental comparison they fabricated the III. Data result and discussion
device schematized in Fig. 5a, with the aim of When the device bias conditions allow
implementing the OLET trilayer active region simultaneous charge injection from both the
in an equivalent OLED structure. The layer source and drain electrodes (|V GS|<|VDS|) the
sequence, thickness and film growth parameters OLET is in the ambipolar operation regime,
are exactly those used for the OLET fabrication representative transfer curves of which are
and the electrodes are ITO (coated with a reported in Fig. 3c (linear scale). The strong
poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) unbalanced transport in the DFH-
layer, anode) and Au (cathode). As the 4T/Alq3:DCM/DH-4T heterostructures hinders
workfunctions of ITO/PEDOT and Au are the ‘V’ shape characteristic of ambipolar
similar, the charge injection conditions in the transistors operated in transfer mode.
OLED configuration mimics the OLET case Consequently, the ambipolar (Fig. 3c) and
where both the drain and source electrodes are unipolar (Fig. 3a) electrical transfer curves are
made of gold. Furthermore, they fabricated an very similar. However, despite the current
OLED with the structure ITO/PEDOT/DH- similarity, the comparison between Fig. 3a and
4T/Alq3:DCM/DFH-4T/LiF/Al. In this reverse c clearly shows that a new mechanism of
configuration, hole injection from ITO into the electroluminescence generation is taking place
DH-4T hole transport layer, and electron in these OLETs when operated in the ambipolar
injection from Al into the DFH-4T electron regime. The shaded area in Fig. 3c highlights
transport layer are optimized. the electroluminescence produced by the
Optoelectronic characterization of OLETs ambipolar current.
and OLEDs was carried out using a SUSS probe
station, adapted to carry out optoelectronic
investigations, coupled to a B1500A Agilent
semiconductor device analyser. An S1337
silicon photodiode (Hamamatsu) with a
sensitivity of 0.38AW −1 at 600nm was placed
directly in front of the devices and used for
simultaneous light intensity measurements. For
the EQE measurements the emitted photons
were collected through an Avantes AVA-
SPHERE 50-IRR integrating sphere and
measured by an Avantes AVA-SPEC 2048
calibrated spectrometer. The EQE was
calculated directly as the ratio between the total
emitted photons and the charge flow that
formed the drain current. Photoluminescence
spectra of the trilayer OLET devices were
collected in transmission mode by a
Hamamatsu multichannel optical analyser
(PMA11) after excitation of the device active
area with the 375nm emission of an Oxxius
Figure 3. Optoelectronic characteristics of the
trilayer OLET. a,b, Locus electrical curves of the
OLET in n-polarization (a) and in p-polarization
(b). During the n-polarization the
electroluminescence output power (magenta) is also
collected. c, In the transfer characteristic curves, the
source–drain current (IDS) is measured keeping the
drain–source potential constant at 90V, while
sweeping the gate-source potential from 0 to 90V
[4].

A quantitative analysis of the optical


properties of the trilayer OLET shows that the
OLET light outcoupling efficiency is ∼27%,
which is 30% higher than that of the typical
OLED structure (20%).
By implementing the DH-4T thin film
(7nm) as a first layer in contact with the PMMA
and the DFH-4T thin film (25nm) as a top layer,
a maximum EQE exceeding 5% and a
Figure 4. EQE as a function of the applied gate
symmetric EQE profile peaking at the position
voltage for the two trilayer heterostructure OLET
of maximum ambipolarity (Fig. 4b) is obtained. configurations. a, The bottom layer and the top layer
are thin films of DHF-4T and DH-4T, respectively.
b, the layer configuration of a is reversed. The
transfer curves with the drain–source current (IDS)
plotted on a logarithmic scale are also reported. IDS
is measured keeping the drain-source potential
constant at 90V, while sweeping the gate-source
potential from 0 to 90V [4].

The optoelectronic characteristics of the


first OLED device (Fig. 5b) follow a typical L–
I–V OLED behaviour and exhibit a maximum
EQE of ∼0.012% (Fig. 5c). Therefore, the
control over the quenching and loss
mechanisms results in an organic
electroluminescence-generating device with
two orders of magnitude higher efficiency. The
EQE of the second OLED is <0.01% (Fig. 5f),
which is about 500 times lower than that of the
corresponding OLET.

Figure 5. Device structure and optoelectronic


characteristics of the trilayer OLED in direct and
reverse configurations. a, Schematic structure of the
trilayer OLED in the direct configuration. b,
Optoelectronic characteristics of the OLED
sketched in a. c, EQE of the direct heterostructure
OLED. d, Schematic structure of the trilayer OLED
in the reverse configuration. e, Optoelectronic
characteristics of the OLED sketched in d. f, EQE of
the reverse heterostructure OLED [4].

IV. Conclusion
I have shown the advantages of using an
OLET versus an OLED configuration, and
enabled OLETs with the highest efficiency
reported so far. These devices are >100 times
more efficient than the equivalent OLED, >2×
more efficient than the optimized OLED with
the same emitting layer and >10 times more
efficient than any other reported OLETs. The
new trilayer heterostructure field-effect concept
unravels the full potential of the light-emitting
field-effect technology and restricts the
limitation of OLEDs to only materials-related
issues. Improvements in the top-layer field-
effect mobility at high current density coupled
to the use of triplet emitters will enable OLETs
with even higher EQE and brightness. OLETs
also offer an easily processed device
architecture that naturally avoids pinholes and
shorts between injection contacts, which are
among the main technological problems faced
by OLEDs.

V. Acknowledgement
I would like to like to show my gratitude
to my supervisor, Prof. Dr. Toto Winata, who
guide me for this paper. To the author of the
papers that I use as references. I also thank to
my partners group for their comments on an
earlier version so I can make the content of the
paper better.

VI. References
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Zambianchi, M. Durso, M. Gazzano,
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Molecular tailoring of new
thieno(bis)imide-based
semiconductors for single layer
ambipolar light emitting transistors,
Chem. Mater. 25, p. 668, 2013.
[4] R. Capelli, S. Toffanin, G. Generali,
H. Usta, A. Facchetti, and M.
Muccini, Organic light-emitting
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