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An Introduction to Ontology Engineering

C. Maria Keet

Version 1, 2018

An Introduction to Ontology Engineering

C. Maria Keet

Keywords: Ontology Engineering, Ontology, ontologies, Knowledge base, Descrip- tion Logics, OWL, Semantic Web, Ontology Development

Copyright © 2018 by Maria Keet

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial- ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0). To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/.

This textbook is typeset in L A T E X

The website for this textbook is http://www.meteck.org/teaching/OEbook/

Cover design by Maria Keet Cover photo (by the author): Drakensberg mountains, South Africa

Contents

Preface

 

vii

How to use the book

 

ix

 

0.1 Aims and Synopsis

 

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0.2 Content at a glance

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0.3 Assessment

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xii

1

Introduction

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1.1 What does an ontology look like?

 

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1.2 What is an ontology?

 

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1.2.1 The definition game

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1.2.2 Some philosophical notes on ontologies

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1.2.3 Good, not so good, and bad ontologies

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1.3 What is the usefulness of an ontology?

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1.3.1 Data and information system integration

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1.3.2 Ontologies as part of a solution to other problems

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1.3.3 Success stories .

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1.4 Outline and usage of the book

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1.5 Exercises .

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1.6 Literature and reference material

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Logic foundations for ontologies

 

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2

First order logic and automated reasoning in a nutshell

 

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2.1 First order logic syntax and semantics

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2.1.1 Syntax .

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2.1.2 Semantics

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2.2 Reasoning

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2.2.1 Introduction

 

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2.2.2 Basic idea

 

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2.2.3 Deduction, abduction, and induction

 

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2.2.4 Proofs with tableaux

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2.3 Exercises

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2.4 Literature and reference material

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3 Description Logics

 

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3.1 DL primer

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3.1.1 Basic building blocks of DL ontologies

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3.1.2 Constructors for concepts and roles

 

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3.1.3 Description Logic semantics

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3.2 Important DLs

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3.2.1 A basic DL to start with: ALC

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3.2.2 The DL SROIQ

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3.2.3 Important fragments of SROIQ

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3.3 Reasoning services

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3.3.1 Standard reasoning services

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3.3.2 Techniques: a tableau for ALC

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3.4 Exercises

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3.5 Literature and reference material

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4 The Web Ontology Language OWL 2

 

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4.1 Standardizing an ontology language .

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4.1.1 . 4.1.2 The OWL 1 family of languages .

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4.2.1 New OWL 2 features

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4.2.2 OWL 2 Profiles

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4.2.3 OWL 2 syntaxes

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4.2.4 Complexity considerations for OWL .

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4.3 OWL in context .

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4.3.1 OWL and the Semantic Web .

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4.3.2 The Distributed ontology, model, and specification language

 

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4.3.3 Common Logic

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4.4 Exercises

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4.5 Literature and reference material

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II

Developing good ontologies

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5

Methods and Methodologies

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5.1 Methodologies for ontology development

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5.1.1 Macro-level development methodologies .

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5.1.2 Micro-level development

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5.2 Methods to improve an ontology’s quality

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5.2.1

Logic-based methods: explanation and justification

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Philosophy-based methods: OntoClean to correct a taxonomy 103

 

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5.2.4 Heuristics: OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner OOPS!

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5.2.5 Tools

 

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5.3 Exercises

 

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5.4 Literature and reference material

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6 Top-down Ontology Development

 

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6.1 Foundational ontologies .

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6.1.1 Typical content of a foundational ontology

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6.1.2 Several foundational ontologies

 

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6.1.3 Using a foundational ontology

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6.2 Part-whole relations

 

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6.2.1 Mereology

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6.2.2 Modelling and reasoning in the context of ontologies

 

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6.3 Exercises

 

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6.4 Literature and reference material

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7 Bottom-up Ontology Development

 

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7.1 Relational databases and related ‘legacy’ KR

 

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7.2 From spreadsheets to OWL

 

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7.3 Thesauri .

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7.3.1 Converting a thesaurus into an ontology

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7.3.2 Avoiding ontologies with SKOS

 

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7.4 Text processing to extract content for ontologies .

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7.5 Other semi-automated approaches .

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7.6 Ontology Design Patterns

 

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7.7 Exercises

 

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7.8 Literature and reference material

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III

Advanced topics in ontology engineering

 

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8 Ontology-Based Data Access

 

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8.1 Introduction: Motivations

 

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8.2 OBDA design choices

 

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8.3 An OBDA Architecture .

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8.4 Principal components

 

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8.5 Exercises

 

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8.6 Literature and reference material

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9 Ontologies and natural languages

 

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9.1 Toward multilingual ontologies .

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