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CHAPTER THREE

INSTALLATION DESIGN
3.1. Terms and definitions
3.2. Load estimation
3.3. General design procedure
3.4. Branch circuit design guidelines Residential Non-residential:
Schools, Office spaces, Industrial spaces
3.5. Load tabulation
3.6. Feeder capacity
3.7. Service Equipment and Switch Board Design
3.8. Cable size determination Design procedure and Calculation of
Voltage Drop
1
3.1. Terms and definitions
 Ampacity: current carrying capacity of electric conductors expressed in amperes.

 Appliance: utilization equipment.

 Branch circuit: the circuit conductor between the final over current device

protecting the circuit and the outlet(s).

 Demand factor: the ratio of the maximum demand of a system (part of a system, to

the total connected load of a system or the part of the system under consideration).

 Ground: a conductor connection, whether intentional or accidental, between an

electric circuit or equipment and the earth, or to some conducting body that serves

in place of the earth.

 Outlet: a point on the wiring system at w/c current is taken to the utilization

equipment 2
Cont.
 Feeder: all circuit conductors between the service equipment, or the generator

switchboard of an isolated plant, and the final branch circuit over current device.

 Lighting outlet: an outlet intended for direct connection of a lamp holder, a light

fixture, or a pendant cord terminating in a lamp holder.

 Receptacle: a contact device installed at the outlet for the connection of a single

attachment plug.

 Service: the conductor and equipment for delivering energy from electric supply

system to the wiring system of the premises served.

 Switch board: a large panel, frame or assembly of panels on which are mounted,

on the face or back or both, switches, over current and other protective devices,

buses, any usual instruments.


3
Electrical loads
The Electrical Load is the part or component in a circuit that converts
electricity into light, heat, or mechanical motion. Examples of loads are a
light bulb, resistor, or motor.
Electrical loads can be classified into various categories according to
various factors as follows:
According To Load Consumer Category
 Residential Electrical Loads (Dwelling Loads).
 Commercial Electrical Loads.
 Industrial Electrical Loads.
 Municipal/Governmental Electrical Loads (Street Lighting, Power
Required For Water Supply and Drainage Purposes, Irrigation Loads
And Traction Loads).
4
Cont.
According to Load Nature
• Resistive Electrical Loads.
• Capacitive Electrical Loads.
• Inductive Electrical Loads.
• Combination Electrical Loads.
According to Load Operation Time
• Continuous Electrical Loads: are loads where the maximum current
is expected to continue for 3 hours or more.
• Non-Continuous Electrical Loads.
According to number of Electrical Loads phases
• Single phase Electrical Loads.
• Three phase Electrical Loads. 5
Wiring design criteria
• Flexibility: wiring system design should incorporate sufficient flexibility in:

 branch circuitry,

 feeders, and

 Panels/distribution boards to accommodate all portable devices, patterns,


arrangements and locations of electric loads.

• Reliability:

 the utility’s service and

 the building’s electrical system.

• Safety: Avoid electrical hazards caused by

 misuse of equipment or

 equipment failure after installation.


6
Cont.
• Energy consideration: • Space allocation:

 limiting voltage drops, maintenance ease,

ventilation,
 power factor correction,
expandability,
 use of switches for
centrality,
control, etc.
limitation of access,
• Economic cost:
noise,
 initial cost and operating
space adequacy.
cost
7
3.2. Load estimation
• When initiating the wiring design of a building, it is important to be
able to estimate the total building load in order to plan such spaces as
transformer rooms and closet.

• This information is also required by the local power company well in


advance of the start of construction.

• Of course, an exact load total can be made after completing the


design.

• Such estimation can be made from the knowledge of the loads the
building uses.

8
Cont.
• The electrical loads in any facility can be categorized as:

a. Lighting

b. Miscellaneous power, which includes convenience outlets and small


motors

c. Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning

d. Plumbing or sanitary equipment: house water pump, air compressors, and


vacuum pumps etc.

e. Vertical transportation equipment: elevators, moving stairs, and


dumbwaiters

f. Kitchen equipment's

g. Special equipment

9
3.3. General design procedure
 The steps involved in the electrical wiring design of any facility are
outlined below.

 These may, in some instances, be performed in different order, or two


or more steps may be combined, but the procedure normally used is
that listed below.

1. Determine:

 The usage of all areas,

 Type and rating of all client furnished equipment including their


specific electric ratings (Current, voltage power, power factor,
efficiency, etc.)
10
Cont.
2. Calculate:

from other consultants, exact electrical rating of all the


equipment that are going to be installed in the building such as
elevators, kitchenware, motors, etc.

3. Make an electrical load estimate based on:

 the collected data,

 previously installed similar installation data and

 any other appropriate data.

11
Cont.
• Electrical Loads include
 Lighting
 Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning(HVAC)
 sanitary equipment: house water pump, air compressors, and vacuum
pumps etc.
 Vertical transportation equipment: elevators, moving stairs, and
dumbwaiters.
 Kitchen equipment(stove, oven, mitad, refrigerator)
 Miscellaneous power, which includes convenience outlets and small
motors.
 Electrical drives(motors)
12
Household loads…

13
Cont.
4. With the local electric utility, decide upon

a. the point of service entrance,

b. type of service run

c. metering location, and

d. building utilization voltage(three phase(380V)/single phase(220V)).

5. Determine the location and estimate the size of all required electric

equipment spaces including:

• Switchboard rooms,

• emergency equipment spaces


14
Cont.
6. Design the lighting scheme for the facility.

7. Locate all electrical apparatus including receptacles, switches, motors,


and other power consuming apparatus on the plan.

8. Make drawing showing all lightings, devices, and power equipment


circuit connection to the appropriate panel board.

9. Prepare the panel schedule (table). This table shows the load
distribution over the three phases(R, S, T) and the type of load which
is connected on each circuit. At this step, include the separate circuitry
for emergency equipment and for spare circuit.

15
Cont.
10. From the panel schedule (table) compute panel loads, and
make connection rearrangement so that you will be able
to do an optimum power balance over the three phases R,
S and T.

11. Prepare the riser diagram. This includes design of


distribution panels, switchboards, and service equipment.

12. Compute feeder sizes and all protective equipment


ratings

13. Cheek the preceding work.


16
3.4. Branch circuit design guidelines

 National Electric Code (NEC): A safety code


regarding the use of electricity. The NEC is
sponsored by the National Fire Protection Institute.

 It is also used by insurance inspectors and by many


government bodies regulating building codes.

17
3.4.1.Guidelines for Residential Installation
a. The NEC requires for residences sufficient circuitry to supply a load of
3w/sq.ft. in the building, excluding unfinished spaces such as porches,
garages, and basements.

b. The NEC requires a minimum of two 20-amp appliance branch circuits


to feed all the small appliance outlets in the kitchen, store, dining room,
family room etc.

• Furthermore, all kitchen outlets must be fed from at least two of these
circuits (which may also feed other appliance outlets). And avoid placing
all the lighting in a building on a single circuit.

18
Cont.
c. The NEC requires that at least one 20-amp circuit supply to be set for
laundry outlets. This requirement satisfies good practice. If electric
clothes dryer is anticipated an individual branch circuit should be supplied
to serve this load, via a heavy-duty receptacle.

d. Do not combine receptacles and switches into a single outlet except where
convenience of use dictates high mounting of receptacles.

e. Circuit the lighting and receptacles so that each room has parts of at least
two circuits. This includes basements and garages.

f. Supply at least one receptacle in the bathroom and one outside the house

g. Provide switch control for closet lights.

19
Cont.
h. In bedrooms supply two duplex outlets at each side of the bed location
to accommodate electric blanket, clocks, radios, lamps, and other such
appliances.
i. Since receptacles are counted as part of general lighting and no
additional load is included for them, no limit is placed on the number
of receptacle outlets that may be wired to a circuit. But for good
practice they should be limited to 6 on a 15-amp circuit and 8 on a 20-
amp circuit.
j. Kitchens should have a duplex appliance outlet every 36 in. of counter
space, but no less than two in addition to the normal wall outlets.

20
Cont.
k. A disconnecting means, readily accessible, must be provided
for electric ranges, cook tops, and ovens.

 It is better practice to utilize a small kitchen panel recessed


into a corner all to control the large kitchen appliances and to
provide completely safe, accessible disconnecting means.

 Such an arrangement can also be cheaper if the length of run


between the main panel and the kitchen is appreciable

21
3.4.2. Guidelines for Non-residential Installations
Schools

• Since schools comprise an assembly of varied use spaces, including


lecture hall, laboratory, shop, assembly, office, gymnasium, plus
special areas such as swimming pools, photographic labs, and so on, it
is not possible to generalize on branch circuit design considerations
except for the following:

i. To accommodate the opaque and film projectors frequently used in the


classroom, 20-amp outlets wired two receptacles on a circuit are placed
at the front and back of each such room. A similar receptacles, wired 6
or 8 to a circuit is placed on each remaining wall.

22
Cont.
ii. Light switching should provide:

 High-low levels for energy conservation and to permit low-level

lighting for film viewing. With fluorescent lighting this can be

accomplished by alternate ballast wiring and switching, thus

avoiding the high cost of dimming equipment.

 Separate switching of the lights on the window side of the room,

which is often lighted sufficiently by daylight.

iii. Provide appropriate outlets for all special equipment in labs, shops,

cooking rooms, and the like.


23
Cont.
iv. Use heavy-duty devices and key operated switches for public area
lighting (corridors, etc.), plastic instead of glass in fixtures, and vandal-
proof equipment wherever possible. All panels must be locked and
should be in locked closets.

v. The NEC requires sufficient branch circuitry to provide a minimum of


3 w/sq.ft for general lighting in schools. Unlike residential occupancy
this figure does not include receptacles. Receptacles are calculated
separately at 180 w each for ordinary convenience outlets.

vi. Keep lighting and receptacles completely separate when circuiting.

24
Office Space
i. In small office spaces (less than 400 sq .ft) provide either one outlet for every
40 sq .ft, or one outlet for every 10 linear ft of wall space, whichever is greater.
In larger office spaces, provide one outlet every 100 to 125 sq ft beyond the
initial 400 sq ft (10 outlets). These should comprise wall outlets spaced as
above plus floor outlets sufficient to make up the required total. In view of the
increasingly heavy loads of office machines, these receptacles should be
circuited at no more than 6 to a 20-amp branch circuit, and less if the equipment
to be fed so dictates.
ii. Corridors should have a 20-amp, 220-v outlet every 50 ft, to supply cleaning
and waxing machines.
iii. As with all non-residential buildings, convenience receptacles are figured at
180 w each.

25
Cont.
• Stores: In stores, good practice requires at least one
convenience outlet receptacle for every 300 sq ft in addition to
outlets required for loads such as lamps, show windows, and
demonstration appliances.

• Industrial Spaces: These areas are so specialized that no


meaningful guidelines can be given.

26
Considerations and general rules affecting service equipment

• A home's electrical system has feeder wires that supply power to


the panel and branch circuits that leave the panel to power
devices.

• The service feeder is connected to the main breaker, which


supplies power to the electrical panel for distribution.

• The main breaker normally is a 100- or 200-amp two-pole


circuit breaker, which is the main disconnect for the power
supply of the breaker box enclosure.

27
Cont.
• Socket outlets must be mounted at a height above the floor or
work surface so as to minimize the risk of mechanical damage.
• The Building Regulations requires switches and socket outlets
in dwellings to be installed so that all persons, including those
whose reach is limited, can easily reach them.
• The recommendation is that they should be installed in
habitable rooms at a height of between 450 and 1200 mm
from the finished floor level.

28
Cont.

29
Location of electrical points in house wiring
1) Energy meter: The energy meter should be installed at a place which is easy
accessible to the consumer as well as to the meter reader . The height of the
meter should be 1.75 meter above floor. The meter should be installed in a
covered verandah such that the rain showers at an angle don’t damage the meter.
Its location should be in front verandah so that privacy of the owner is not
disturbed as the meter reader will be visiting for meter reading every month. The
other suitable place where there is no verandah is outside the wall, providing
protective covering.

2) Main switch: Its purpose is to isolate the supply to the building . It is normally
installed very close to the energy meter and should be readily accessible to the
consumer. The fuses are also provided inside main switch to interrupt the supply
due to short circuit current that may occur.
30
Cont.
3) Distribution board: The supply is given to main switch and then to main
distribution board for the purpose of distribution of electricity to various portions
of the house through sub circuits . Every sub circuit is protected by its individual
fuse or circuit breaker such that if one fuse or circuit breaker makes the circuit
off, the entire room is not plunged into darkness and the other circuit shall
maintain the supply to other parts.

4) socket outlet : 3 pin , 5A , socket outlets are used for general purpose , 15 A
socket outlets are used for higher loads ( such as electric mitad , stove , water
heater etc.) . The location of socket outlets should be such that its utility is most
convenient. If socket outlets in residential buildings are close to floor , the
children may get shock , for offices buildings , socket outlets are generally
installed close to floor . In bath rooms , 15 A socket outlets should be provided
2meter above floor. 31
Cont.
5) Lighting points : The lights should be so placed that these are most convenient
in their utility and control. For instance , when person has to go up stair, instead
of moving into darkness, he/she can switch on the light from starting point and
switch off at the end . The number of lighting pints are determined from the
size of room or hall .The main requirements that lighting points installed should
provide uniform illumination and minimum glare.

6) Fans: The rooms of an average size should have only one fan but the larger
rooms serving as drawing and dinning room two fans may be used. The ceiling
fans should be installed at an average height of 2.75meters above floor . The
connection of ceiling fans should be given through ceiling roses installed close to
fan hooks . The ceiling fans shouldn’t be installed in kitchen, bathrooms ,
toilets and small stores . The exhaust fan should be installed in big cook housed
about half meters below ceiling , it should be installed in kitchen. 32
Cont.
7) Switch boards : The switch boards should be convenient to operate and
adequately located . The switch board (box) must be provided inside a room close
to the entry door so that there is no difficulty in switching on the light during night
time . The height of switch board should be about 1.2 meters above floor.

8) Earth wire installation : Earthing means , the direct connection of all the metal
non current carrying parts of electrical equipment such as metallic frame work ,
electric motor body , main switch , distribution board , earth terminal of socket
outlet , metallic covering of cable and conduit pipes etc . The earth plate is buried in
the ground which have a good electrical connection to the surrounding earth . This
is all done to avoid electrics shock

• The supply authority provides earthing to its meter. Beyond the meter , earthing is
the responsibility of the owner of the house . The owner should make arrangement
of his own earthing system with an adequate electrode. 33
3.5. Load Tabulation
• While circuiting the loads, a panel schedule is drawn up which lists:
The circuit numbers
 Load description (the type of the load)
Wattage (actually in volt-amperes)
The current ratings
 Number of poles of the circuit-protective device feeding each circuit.
Electrical Load panel KVA =

No. Description (serves) A(mm2) Rated (A) Load (kw) Phases (for 3∅)
R S T
1 lighting 1 1.5 10 2.2
2 lighting 2
3
34
4
Cont.
• Spare circuits are included to the extent that the designer
considers them necessary and consonant with economy, but
normally no less than 20% of the number of active circuits.

• Finally, spaces are left for future circuit breakers, in


approximately the same quantity as the number of spare
circuits, but always to round off the total number of circuits

35
In calculating panel loads, the following rules apply:
i. Each specific appliance, device, lighting fixture, or other load is taken at its
nameplate rating, except certain kitchen and laundry appliances for which
the NEC allows a demand factor. (See NEC Article 220.)

ii. Each convenience outlet, in other than residential spaces, is counted as1.5
amp (180 W).

iii. Loads for special areas and devices such as show window lighting, heavy-
duty lamp holders, and multi outlet assemblies are taken at the figures
given in NEC Article 220.

iv. Spare circuits are figured at approximately the same load as the
average active circuits.
36
Cont.
• Note:
1. In calculating total panel load, no demand factors may be applied
except specifically stated in the NEC. This is because feeders are
calculated for maximum load to be carried, i.e. 100% demand
factor is used.

2. The phase loads have to be approximately equally distributed over


the three phases (if a three-phase supply is utilized in an
installation). It is the responsibility of the designer (or contractor)
to circuit the loads so that the phases are as closely balanced in
load as possible.
37
3.6. Feeder Capacity
• The electric line (cable) that is running from the main distribution line to each
sub distribution board is known as Feeder. To achieve economy, the panel feeder
must accommodate the initial load plus some portion of the future load. One or
more of the following procedures provides spare capacity in feeders:
a) Provide feeder for initial plus spare, with properly sized conduit.
b) Provide feeder for initial plus spare, with conduit oversized by one size. Some
additional cost is used incase large load expansion is anticipated.
c) Provide for initial load plus spare, with an empty conduit for future. This method
is expensive because of high conduit cost, and it is infrequently advisable.
d) Provide feeder (and conduit) capacity initially, to handle the entire eventual load.
This method is most expensive-requiring initial outlay for no return-and is rarely
used.
38
National Electrical Code (NEC) requirements
a. With respect to minimum loads, NEC specifies that the power
supply can be increased by 25% if loads are continuous (3 or
more hours) thus allowing for breakers to heat up in panels while
carrying continuous load, and

b. Requirement (a) is waived for circuit breakers which are ambient


compensated, that is, are rated to carry 100% load. Since we have
established 80% of the breaker rating as maximum load, we have
already accounted for this factor in circuitry, but must keep it in
mind in feeder calculation.
39
Cony.
• In small office spaces (less than 400 sq ft) provide either one
outlet for every 40 sq ft, or one outlet for every 10 linear ft of
wall space, whichever is greater.
• In larger office spaces, provide one outlet every 100 to 125 sq
ft beyond the initial 400 sq ft (10 outlets).
• In stores, good practice requires at least one convenience outlet
receptacle for every 300 sq ft in addition to outlets required for
loads such as lamps, show windows, and demonstration
appliances.

40
Riser Diagrams
• A power riser diagram is a type of diagram that illustrates the proper installation
of service level electrical components.
• Used to design electrical power distribution system for buildings
• Depict an interconnection among the main components that comprise a power
distribution system which include:
 Utility transformer,
 metering,
 service entrance,
 sub-panels(distribution boards),
 large motors,
 HVAC equipment,
 emergency generator system,
 elevator equipment etc. 41
Cont.
• The service entrance cable runs from the local utility company to
the meter socket

42
Cont.
• LP-lighting subpanels,
• RP-receptacle panel board
•EP-Emergency panel board

43
3.7. Service Equipment and Switch Board Design

 The main switchboard constitutes a combination of service equipment


and feeder switchboard.

 The service equipment portion of the board comprises the metering and
the main switches feeding risers, motor control center (MCC), roof
machine room, and elevators.

 The switches of the largest extent possible the motor loads (elevators, air-
conditioning equipment, basement power, etc.) should be separated from
the lighting switches, to minimizes lighting fluctuations resulting from
motor starting and yields simpler maintenance. Also, the size of the main
switch is reduced. 44
Cont.
 Other considerations and general rules affecting service equipment are
listed below.
a) A building may be supplied at one point by either a single set or
parallel sets of service conductors.
b) Service drops may generally be not less than No. 8 AWG and service
entrance conductors or underground service conductors not less than
No. 6 AWG.
c) All equipment used for service including cable, switches, meters, and
so on, shall be approved for that purpose.
d) It is recommended that a minimum of 100-amp, 3-wire, 220/380 v
service be provided for all individual residences.
45
Cont.
e) No service switch smaller than 60 amp or circuit breaker frame smaller than 50
amp shall be used.

f) In multiple occupancy buildings tenants must have access to their own


disconnect means.

g) All building equipment shall be connected on the load side of the service
equipment except that service fuses, metering, fire alarm, and signal equipment
and equipment serving emergency systems may be connected ahead of the main
disconnect.

• In computing a size for the service equipment bus a total is taken of the various
feeder loads. Although application of a Diversity Factor to this total is
permissible, good practice dictates the use of a unity Diversity Factor in order to
provide a measure of spare capacity in the service equipment.
46
3.8. Cable size determination Design procedure and Calculation of
Voltage Drop

 The correct choice of cable size for any installation is dependent upon
fundamental aspects of :

 Environmental conditions and characteristics of protection,

 Current-carrying capacity of the cable and

 Voltage drop of the cable.

 When current flows through a conductor, the resistance offered by the conductor
produces heat. The increase in heat is proportional to the cable resistance which in
turn depends upon the cross-sectional area of the cable.

 Since overheating damages the insulation, the conductor size must be of adequate
size to prevent this from occurring.
47
Cont.
 Plunging into calculations of cable size is of little value unless the type of
cable and its method of installation is known. This in turn will depend on
the installation’s environment.
 At the same time, we would need to know whether the supply was single
or three phases, the type of earthing arrangements, and so on. Here then is
our starting point.
 Having ascertained all the necessary details, we can decide on an
installation method, the type of cable, and how we will protect against
electric shock and over currents.
 We would now be ready to begin the calculation part of the design
procedure.
48
Cont.
 Basically there are eight stages in such a procedure. These are,
 Determine the design current Ib .
 Select the rating of the protection In .
 Select the relevant rating factors from the standard tables
 Divide In by the relevant correction factors(CFs) to give tabulated
cable current carrying capacity It
 Choose a cable size to suit It .
 Check the voltage drop.
 Check for shock risk constraints.
 Check for thermal constraints.

49
Design current (Ib)
 It is the rating of the electrical apparatuses to be operated.

 It is estimated by the manufacturer or it has been calculated.

 For equipment having a power factor PF and an efficiency (ɳ), Ib will be


calculated as follows:
Single phase:
Ib = P/(V*PF*ɳ)
Three phase:
Ib = P/ (3*VL*PF*ɳ)
Where P is the power rating of the equipment in kW, V is the phase
to neutral supply voltage and VL is the line to line voltage of the supply.

50
Nominal setting of protection
 Having determined we must now select the nominal rating of the
protection in such that > . This value may be taken from IEE
regulations.

 Standard ratings of both fuse and circuit breakers are;

6, 10, 16, 20, 25, 32,35, 40,50, 63, 80, 100,110, 125,
150,160, 175, 200, 225, 250, 300, 350....

Example: If the calculated value of is 13.5A the selected value of


In should be the nearest standard rating that is 16A circuit breaker.

Note: Inmay be replaced by the design current , if the circuit is not


expected to be overloaded.
51
Tabulated cable current carrying capacity Iz
 Having chosen the relevant correction factors, current carrying capacity Iz of the
cable is found from the nominal rating of the protection In as follows:

Conductor Current carrying capacity:

Iz= In/(relevant CFs)

Where, relevant CFs = × × × , I =rating of the protection

 The EBCS-10 regulation lists all the cable sizes, current carrying capacity and

voltage drops of various types of cables.

 For cable sizes see Annex B of EBCS-10 on pages

90,92,94,96,98,100,102,104,106,108,110,112, 114,116, 117,118, 121, 122, 125,

127, 129, 131, 133, 135, 137, 139, for both ac and dc circuits operating at

different ambient temperatures. 52


Correction factors (CF)
 When a cable carries its full load current, it can become
warm.
 This is no problem unless its temperature rises further due to
other influences, in which case the insulation could be
damaged by over heating. These other influences are:
 high ambient temperature (Ca)
 cable grouped together closely(Cg)
Correction Factors(CF)
 un-cleared over currents(Cf) and affect the cable current
 contact with thermal insulation(Ci). carrying capacity (size).

53
a. Ambient temperature Ca
 Is a rating factor for surrounding temperature of the equipment to be used where
T is above c since, the cable rating in the IEE regulations are on an
ambient temperature of C, and hence it is only above this temperature that
an adverse correction is needed.

 The cable ratings quoted in the EBCS-10 are based on an ambient temperature
of 30°C. And above this temperature an adverse correction is needed. (Available
on EBCS-10 page 112)

54
Cont.

55
b. Grouping Cg
 Is a rating factor to be used where the cable is grouped /touched with other
cables. When cables are grouped together they impart heat to each other.
Therefore the more cables there are the more heat they will generate, thus
increasing the temperature of each cable. IEE regulation also gives factors for
such groupings of the same cable sizes.

 EBCS-10 tables A.1, A.2 and A.3 of the standard give factors for such groups of
cables or circuits.

 It should be noted that the figures given are for cables of the same size, and hence
no correction need be made for cables grouped at the outlet of a domestic
consumer unit, for example, where there is a mixture of different sizes.

 A typical situation where correction factors need to be applied would be in the


calculation of cable sizes for a lighting system in a large factory.
56
c. Protection by BS 3036 fuse ( )
 Is a rating factor for the type of protective device.

 There are many different types and sizes of fuse, all designed to perform
a certain function.

 BS 3036 fuses have a high fusing factor and, as a result, when this type
of fuse is used a correction factor of 0.725 must always be applied.
Hence 0.725 is the correction factor to be used when semi-enclosed fuses
are used.
In≤0.725Iz or Iz≥In/0.725
(where Iz the current carrying capacity/rating of the
conductor).
The tabulated current-carrying capacity It is such that, It ≥Iz.
57
d. Thermal insulation Ci
 Is a factor for use where a conductor is surrounded by the thermal
insulation and can be found from table.
 The use of thermal insulation in buildings, in the forms of cavity wall
filling, roof space blanketing, and so on. is now standard.
 Since the purpose of such materials is to limit the transfer of heat, they
will clearly affect the ability of a cable to dissipate the heat build up
within it when in contact with them.
 Therefore, there may be a need to derate cables to account for heat
retention.
 If a cable is totally surrounded by thermal insulation for more than 0.5
m, a factor of 0.5 must be applied to the tabulated clipped direct ratings.
58
Cont.
Length of Cable (mm) in Thermal Derating Factor(up to 10mm2)
Insulation

50 0.89

100 0.81

200 0.68

400 0.55

>=500 0.50

For cables shorter than 0.5m, derating factors shown in Table above
should be applied.

59
Application of correction factors
• Some or all of the onerous conditions just out lined may
affect a cable along its whole length or parts of it, but not
all may affect it at the same time. If all conditions are to
appear at the same time consider all correction factors,
otherwise take the worst.
• Having chosen the relevant correction factors, we now
apply them to the nominal rating of the protection as
divisors in order to calculate the current carrying
capacity of the cable.

60
Selection of cable size
 Having established the current carrying capacity I of the cable
to be used, it now remains to choose a cable to suit that value.
The IEE regulation also list all the cable sizes, current carrying
capacity and voltage drops of varies types of cables.

 The cable to be installed must be suitable-for the purpose and


the location it is intended. High temperature, mechanical impact,
corrosive substances and presents of water may all do damage to
cables. Before deciding on the type of cable we want to install,
we must assess the situation and select a cable type that can
withstand a given hazard.
61
Cont.
 For example, if a cable is to be installed in a very hot location, then an
ordinary Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) insulated cable would not be a wise
choice. A mineral insulated cable, or similar should be selected.
 Likewise, if a cable is in a location where it is likely to be exposed to
mechanical damage (impact), armoured cable should be used.
Alternatively the cable should be protected by conduit or trunking.
 In short, the type of cable used for a given installation must be suitable
for this special installation. Care must be taken in selecting a suitable
cable type.
 Once the type of cable is selected, we must now decide on the size of the
conductors. A too small conductor will result in: overheating, high
voltage drop and high power loss.
62
Calculation of Voltage drop
 The resistance of a conductor increases as the length increases and/ or the
cross-sectional area decreases.

 Associated with an increased resistance is a drop in voltage, which means


that a load at the end of a long, thin cable will not have the full supply
voltage available.

 The EBCS-10 requires that the voltage drop V should not be so excessive
that equipment does not function safely.

 The voltage drop should not exceed 4% of the nominal voltage i.e. a drop
of no more than 3% of the nominal voltage for a lighting circuit and 5%
for a power circuit will satisfy the load requirements.

63
Cont.
 For single-phase 230 V, the voltage drop for lighting should not exceed 3% of
230 V = 6.9 V and for power circuit should not exceed 5% of 230 V = 11.5V for
three-phase 400V, the voltage drop should not exceed 20 V.

 The voltage drop(in volts) of a cable with length L meters carrying rated
current Ib, is:

= ∗ ∗
1000

From which, maximum cable length is determined to be


Where mV= voltage drop per unit length in mV from EBCS-10
table
L=total length of the cable being considered
Ib=design current(maximum load current)
64
Cont.
For example, the voltage drop on a circuit supplied from a 220 V source by a
16.0 mm2 two-core copper cable 23 m long, clipped direct and carrying a design
current of 33 A, will be:

× × ( )
Cable voltage drop ( )= (mv from IEE Regulation)

× × ( ) . × ×
= = =2.125V

As we have just seen, the maximum volt drop for a 220 V installation is 8.8V, so
we can determine the maximum length of the cable by transposing this formula:

× . ×
Max length = = =95m
× . ×

There are other constraints, however, that may not permit such a length.

65
Cont.
 The mV value of standard size conductors is presented in EBCS-10
on page 93,95 97, 101,103,105,107 ,109,111 and113 ,119,, 120,
123, 124, 126, 128, 130, 132, 134, 136, 138 and 140 for copper and
aluminum conductors used in both ac and dc circuits operating at
different temperature.

66
Demand factor
 In normal operating conditions the power consumption of a load is
sometimes less than that indicated as its nominal power rating.
 The demand factor is the ratio of the maximum demand on a system to the
total connected load of the system. This factor is also called factor of
power utilization

Maximum demand load


Demand factor =
Total load connected
 Demand factor is a percentage by which the total connected load on a
service or feeder is multiplied to determine the greatest probable load that
the feeder will be called upon to carry.

 The demand factor is based on the assumption that the whole of the
connected load will not be turned on at the same time. 67
Cont.
 Demand factors are generally used for determining the capacity and cost
of the power equipment required for serving a given load.

Connected load

 It is the Sum of all the loads connected to the electrical system, usually
expressed in watts(KW, or MW).

 Connected load can be calculated by adding together the name-plate


ratings of all the electrical devices in the installation.

Maximum demand

 It is the greatest of all demands that have occurred during a specified


period of time such as 5 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes or one hour.
For utility billing purposes the period of time is generally one month.
68
Cont.

69
Cont.
• As every single load or group of loads in a circuit are not operating simultaneously, and

normally working under partial load, the power demand factor is always less than 1.0.

Type of load DF estimate

1. Lighting Circuits 0.7-0.9

2. Heating loads

2.1. Water Heaters 0.2-0.3

2.2. Ovens/stoves 0.2

2.3. Electric Iron 0.3

3. Motor Loads 0.7-0.9

4. Office equipment 0.3-0.5

5. General purpose SOs 0.2-0.5


70
Diversity Factor
 Diversity factor is a factor which is applied to sub main and main cables
and their associated gears to reduce:

a) The cross sectional area if the cable conductor, and

b) The capacity of the switch gears.

Sum of individual maximum demands


Diversity factor =
Maximum system demand

 For example, the total lighting load in a dwelling house is rarely


switched on at a time. Thus, it can be taken that if the total lighting load
is 1000W during the life of the installation, only 66% of the load (660W)
will be switched on at any one time. The factor in this instance is 0.66.

71
Cont.
 In the case of lighting for each type of installation, it will be
noticed that the more the total lighting load is likely to
switched on over definite periods, the smaller is the payment/
allowance made for diversity.
 In a domestic installation, it is estimated that some two- thirds
(0.66) of the lighting load will be ON at any one time. In a
hotel, the figure is 75%(0.75), and in a shop, where almost all
the lights are ON for most of the time when the shop is open,
the figure is 90% (0.90).

72
Difference between demand and diversity factor
 Most of the electrical engineers confuse between the demand and
diversity factors, to solve this confusion, don't forget that:

The Demand factor must be applied to each individual


load, with particular attention to electric motors, which are
very rarely operated at full load.

The Diversity Factor is applied to each group of loads


(e.g. being supplied from a distribution or sub-distribution
board).

73
Cont.
Example:Consider that a feeder supplies five users with the following
load conditions:
• On Monday, user one reaches a maximum demand of 100 amps;
• on Tuesday, two reaches 95 amps;
• on Wednesday, three reaches 85 amps;
• on Thursday, four reaches 75 amps;
• on Friday, five reaches 65 amps.
• The feeder’s maximum demand is 250 amps.
Calculate the Diversity Factor for this feeder?
Solution:
The diversity factor can be determined as follows:
sum of total demands
Diversity factor =
maximum demand on feeder
(100+95+85+75+65)A 420
= = = 1.68
250 A 250 74
Final circuit fed from wiring to which diversity applies:
 lighting

 heating

 cooking appliances which are permanently connected

 motors (other than lifting motors)

 instantaneous-type water heater

 thermostatically controlled water heater

 floor-warming installation

 thermal-storage space-heating installation

 13A fused socket outlets and appliance fed there from and

 Other socket outlets such as 15A sockets


75
Electric power(Wattage) value of domestic appliances
• All current-consuming electrical apparatus is given a rating which
indicates the amount of power it will consume. Some typical loadings of
domestic appliances are given in Table below.

76
Electrical Installation design steps
1 Determine the types of electrical loads(residential, Industrial or commercial
electrical loads).

2 Make an electrical load estimation based on areas involved, building data, and
any other related data.

3 Calculate the dimensions(areas) of the given room.

4 Use the recommended illumination from EBCS-10 for each room.

5 Select the appropriate type of lamps, lighting schemes and consider the factors
required for lighting schemes .

6 Use the luminous flux according to the type of selected lamp from recommended
data.

7 Calculate the number of lamps required to produce the required illumination.

77
Cont.
8. Calculate the power consuming for each loading and their power demand by
taking in to account the diversity factor.

9. Determine the rating(design current I ) of the electrical apparatuses to be


operated.
10. Determine the rating of the protection(the breaker size I ) for each loading.
11. By choosingthe relevant correction factors (CFs) select the feeder cable size for
each loadingfrom the recommended data to suit the cable current carrying
capacity(I ).
12. Compute the feeder cable size for the sub distribution board(SDB) and Main
distribution board(MDB).
13. Circuit all lighting, devices, and power equipment to the appropriate panels,
and prepare the panel/distribution board schedule table.

78
Distribution/Panel board schedule
While circuiting the loads, a panel schedule is drawn up which lists:
 The circuit numbers
 Load description (the type of the load)
 Wattage (actually in Watt)
 The current ratings
 Number of poles of the circuit-protective device feeding each circuit and
the like.

79
Cont.

80
Installation drawings
Lighting layout diagram

82
Cont.

83
Socket outlet layout diagram
Signal load layout diagram
Worked examples
1. From EBCS-10. Table B.1, select cables of suitable current-
carrying capacity for the following loads and conditions (p.v.c.
cables into screwed conduit).

a) 230 V single-phase sub-mains of lighting load totaling 10.5 kW,


length of run 10 m, average ambient temperature 250C, demand
factor 66%.

b) 400 V balanced 3-phase power circuit. Load 18.65 kW,


efficiency, 80%, power factor 0.69. Average temperature 300C.
Length of run is 100 m.

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Solution
1 (a)

i. Design current/Current drawn by load = Power/Voltage

= 10.5 * 1000/230= 45.65 A

 Allowing for diversity, maximum current through cables = 45.65 *


.66 = 30.13 A

ii. Rating of protection In=32 A rated circuit breaker can be selected

Therefore In=32A

12/31/2018 89
Cont.
iii. Relevant correction factor for ambient temperature from EBCS-10
Table A.4 for 250C is 1.03.

 Therefore the required cable rating:

Iz = 32/1.03 = 31.1 A

 From Table B.1, choose a 4 mm2 conductor which carries 32A

 Allowable Voltage drop = (mV/Am) * Ib * l

From table B.2 voltage drop for 4mm2 conductor size = 11mv/Am

Voltage drop on cable = 11 mv/Am * 28.8 A * 10 m = 3.168 V

Maximum allowable voltage drop = 3% of 230 V = 6.9V.

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Cont.
 As the actual voltage drop is less than the allowable maximum voltage
drop, selected size will be 4 mm2
 If BS 3036 fuse is chosen for protection, this fuse type requires a
correction factor of 0.725.
In = 32 Amp
 Therefore the load current will be :
Iz = In/CF CF- Correction Factors.
Ca = 1.03, Cf = 0.725
 Required cable rating Iz = 32 Amp/1.03 * 0.725= 42.85 Amp.
 From Table B.1, 10mm2 conductor carries 57 A. Take 10mm2 area
conductor.
12/31/2018 91
Cont.
 Testing for Voltage drop = (mV/A.m) * Ib * l

 Voltage drop on cable = 4.4 mv/Am * 28.8 A * 10 m = 1.27 V

Maximum allowable voltage drop = 3% of 230 V = 6.9V.

 Since the actual voltage drop is less than the allowable maximum

voltage drop, selected size is 10 mm2.

 Observe the conductor size difference in using Circuit breaker and fuses.

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Solution 1(b)
 Efficiency = Output/Input

= kW * 1000 /3VI cos

80/100 = 18.65 * 1000/3 * 400 * Ib * 0.69

Ib = 18.65 * 1 000 * 100 /3 * 400 * 80 * 0.69 = 48.77 A

 50 A circuit-breaker can used for protection.

→ In = 50 Amp

12/31/2018 93
Cont.
 The current carrying capacity of the cable will be :

→ Iz = In/CF Correction Factors, CF = 1 because Ca = 1.

→ Iz = 50 A

 Choose 16 mm2 cable which is capable of carrying up to 68 A.


 Testing for Voltage drop:

 Maximum voltage drop = 5% of 400 V = 20V.

 Voltage drop on the cable = (mV/Am) * I * l

= 2.4 * 48.77 * 100

= 11.7 V less than allowable voltage drop for 16mm2


12/31/2018 94
Cont.
 If 50 A BS 3036 fuse can used for protection → In = 50 A

→ Correction factor for the fuse is Cf = 0.725


→ capacity of the cable Iz = In / CF = In / Cf

→ Iz = 50 A / 0.725 = 68.966 A

 From table B.3 select 25mm2 cable which carries 89 A

 Testing for Voltage drop:

Voltage drop on the cable = (mV/Am) * Ib * l

= 1.55 * 48.77 * 100

= 7.6 V this is much less than the allowable voltage drop.


So 25mm2 is the right choice.
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Example 2
 A 30 m run of twin and earth p.v.c. non-armored four touching copper
cables are situated in an ambient temperature of 350C and in a pvc
conduit. Determine the minimum size of cable to supply a 230-V, 10-
kW single phase load if protection is provided by:
a. Miniature circuit-breaker (MCB)
b. Rewirable fuse.

Solution (a)
 Design current Ib = P/V
Ib = 10000/230 = 43.48 A.
 For Ib = 41.67 A. 50-Amp m.c.b. is adequate for protection

12/31/2018 96
Cont.
 In = 50 A. And from Table A.4 correction factor for 350C = 0.94

 From table A.1, Correction factor for cables group together is 0.75

 Ca = 0.94, → Cg = 0.75

 Required cable current rating Iz = 50/0.94 x 0.75 = 70.9 A → Iz = 70.9 A

 From Table B.3 (for multi core cable) 25mm2 cable carries 90A.

Testing for Voltage drop:

 Maximum voltage drop = 3% of 230 V = 6.9V

 Voltage drop on the cable = (mV/Am) * I * l

= (1.75 mV/A m) * 41.67 A * 30m

= 2.28V this is within the allowable voltage drop.

 So, the chosen cable whose size is of 25mm2.


12/31/2018 97
Solution 2(b)
 Design current Ib = 41.67 A.

 Assume that a rewirable fuse type that requires a correction factor


of 0.725 is used. So Cf = 0.725 → In = 50 A.

 Required cable rating Iz=50/0.94*0.75 * 0.725 = 97.8 A

 From Table B.3 (for multi core cable) 35 mm2 cable carries 111
Amp.

12/31/2018 98
Cont.
 Testing for Voltage drop:

 Voltage drop on the cable = (mV/Am) * I * l

=(mV/Am)*41.67A*30m
=1.25*43.48*30=1.63<5.5V

 Hence, choose cable size of 35mm2.

 Note once again the considerable economic savings which can be


gained by fitting an m.c.b. or correct cartridge fuse in place of the
rewirable type.

12/31/2018 99
Problem
• An apartment having 6 individual rooms each 3.5mX2.5m (see figure
below) is to be installed with the following loads: Ventilator (500W),
Fridge (1kW), Stove (2kW), six 60W lamps, and five socket outlets.

i. Locate lamps and sockets on the apartment layout.

ii. Calculate the sub-feeder cable size for one room if the average ambient
temperature of the local area is taken as 35oC and five groups of
circuits are running together in a conduit with it. The length of run is
15m and protection is by MCB.

iii. Calculate the main feeder size

iv. Choose the rating of the MCB and the branch circuits breakers.

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102