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Prof. Dr.-Ing.

Volker Hinrichsen
M.Sc. Katarina Samuelsson

www.hst.tu-darmstadt.de

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Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 -1-
Contact Persons

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Volker Hinrichsen


FG Hochspannungstechnik
S3|10 313
Tel. 16-2529
E-mail: hinrichsen@hst.tu-darmstadt.de

M.Sc. Katarina Samuelsson


FG Hochspannungstechnik
S3|10 208 (only Thursday)
Tel. 16-70943
E-mail: samuelsson@hst.tu-darmstadt.de

www.hst.tu-darmstadt.de

Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 -2-
Contents
1. Chapter Fundamentals of EMC 1
2. Chapter Fundamentals of EMC 2 [Sch] Kap. 1
3. Chapter Fundamentals of EMC 3
4. Chapter Sources of emission 1 [Sch] Kap. 2
Sources of emission 2, Coupling mechanisms and counter
5. Chapter [Sch] Kap. 2, 3
measures 1
6. Chapter Coupling mechanisms and counter measures 2
[Sch] Kap. 3
7. Chapter Coupling mechanisms and counter measures 3
8. Chapter Components for noise suppression [Sch] Kap. 4
9. Chapter Electromagnetic shields [Sch] Kap. 5
10. Chapter Elektromagnetic interference of biological systems div.
11. Chapter EMC measuring and test techniques *)
VDE-Prüfstelle

*) VDE-Prüfstelle Offenbach (incl. Lab Tour)

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Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 -3-
Organisation

Lecture dates….

Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 -4-
Organization

Slides will be available for download at www.hst.tu-darmstadt.de

Username: student
PW: vorlesung

Consultation hours:
Mrs. Samuelsson: Thursdays; on appointment
Prof. Hinrichsen: on appointment

Exercises: Dates to be determined

Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 -5-
Literature – Schwab Vorlage
Vorlage für
für Vorlesung
Vorlesung

Can be lent from FG Hochspannungstechnik


(ca. 20 samples)

Also available for download from Springer Verlag!

[Sch] Adolf J. Schwab


Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit
Springer, 4. Auflage 1996, 460 S.
ISBN 3-540-60787-0
Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 -6-
Literature – Paul
Can be lent from FG Hochspannungstechnik
(ca. 10 samples)

[Paul] Clayton R. Paul


Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility
(Wiley Series in Microwave and Optical Engineering)
Wiley & Sons; 2nd ed. (10. February 2006), 1016 pp.
ISBN 978-0471755005
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Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 -7-
Literature – Rodewald
Can be lent from FG Hochspannungstechnik
(ca. 5 samples)

[R] Arnold Rodewald


Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit
Grundlagen Experimente Praxis
Viewegs Fachbücher der Technik, 1995, 235 S.
ISBN 3-528-04924-3
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Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 -8-
Literature – Peier
Can be lent from FG Hochspannungstechnik
(ca. 10 samples)

[P] Dirk Peier


Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit
Problemstellung und Lösungsansätze
Hüthig, 1996, 222 S.
ISBN 3-7785-2472-0
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Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 -9-
Literature – Habiger
Can be lent from FG Hochspannungstechnik
(ca. 5 samples)

[H] Ernst Habiger


Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit
Grundzüge ihrer Sicherstellung in der Geräte- und Anlagentechnik
Hüthig, 3. Auflage, 1998, 248 S.
ISBN 3-7785-2092-X
Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 - 10 -
Literature – Further English Language Books
Can be checked in FG Hochspannungstechnik library

Bernhard Keiser
Principles of Electromagnetic Compatibility
Artech House Inc; 3rd Edition (28. February 1987), 383 pp.
ISBN 978-0890062067
Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 - 11 -
Literature – Further English Language Books
Can be checked in FG Hochspannungstechnik library

David A. Weston
Electromagnetic Compatibility - Principles and Applications
Marcel Dekker Inc; Revised and Expanded Edition (December 2000), 840 pp.
ISBN 978-0824788896
Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 - 12 -
Literature – Further English Language Books
Can be checked in FG Hochspannungstechnik library

Jasper Goedbloed
Electromagnetic Compatibility
Prentice-Hall; 1st English Language Edition (Februar 1993), 380 pp.
ISBN 978-0132492935
Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 - 13 -
Other literature
• H. J. Forst (Herausgeber), Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit, VDE-Verlag Berlin, 1991
• H. R. Schmeer (Herausgeber), Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit, VDE-Verlag Berlin,
1990
• Zentrum für Forschung und Technologie der VEB Elektroprojekt und Anlagenbau, Berlin,
Handbuch Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit, VDE-Verlag Berlin, 1987
• D. Stoll, EMC – Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit, Elitera Verlag Berlin, 1976
• J. Wilhelm, EMV, VDE-Verlag Berlin, 1981
• J. Wiesinger, P. Hasse, Handbuch für Blitzschutz und Erdung, Pflaum Verlag, VDE-
Verlag, 1982
• G. Durcansky, EMV-gerechtes Gerätedesign, Franzis-Verlag, 1991
• F. Pigler, Blitzschutz elektronischer Anlagen; Grundlagen und praktische Lösungen,
Franzis-Verlag, 1998

(Hinweis: Literatur zur elektromagnetischen Beeinflussung biologischer Systeme siehe VL 10)

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Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 - 14 -
Definition of the term Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)

"Voltages and currents and their effects are principally not limited to the
conductors and components where they are intentionally present, but
they would also emit energy to their ambiance.
It is, therefore, principally impossible to design and operate any
electrical circuit exclusively with its intended currents and voltages. In
addition, various unintended electrical phenomena have to be tolerated
and taken into account."
Translation according to [R]

Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 - 15 -
Definition of the term Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)

When designing an electrical device the following has to be regarded [R]:

• On the one hand, the provided and intentionally generated


currents and voltages have to fulfill their intended tasks as good as
possible.

• On the other hand, the circuit has to be laid out such that it tolerates
the unintended but principally unavoidable parasitic effects
without being self disturbed and without disturbing others.

Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 - 16 -
Definition of the term Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)

Basically only a problem of radio broadcasting:


- Definition of allowed transmission frequencies and power
- Other electrical consumers were not allowed to impair radio reception

With the emergence of electronics and micro-electronics increasing


quantities of devices and systems which would impair others and of such
that are affected by others.

Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 - 17 -
Definition of the term Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
To date's definition of EMC according to the standards (VDE 0870):
"Ability of an electrical device to operate satisfactorily in its
electromagnetic environment, without disturbing this environment -
including other devices - to an unacceptable extent"

"An
"An electric
electric circuit
circuit behaves
behaves electromagnetically compatible ifif itit
electromagnetically compatible

•• tolerates
tolerates its
its self
self generated
generated as well as any unintended external
phenomena,
phenomena, i.e.i.e. ifif itit is
is not
not susceptible
susceptible to
to them,
them, and
and ifif itit

• behaves compatible to neighbored equipment, i.e. if it does not stress


its neighbors by any unacceptable and unintended phenomena."

Translation acc. to [R]

Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 - 18 -
Definition of the term Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)

Typical sources or emitters:


• automobile ignition systems
• fluorescent lamps
• electrical motors
• power electronics
• switching contacts
• atmospheric discharges
• ….. Typical receptors or receivers:
• radio and TV sets
• automation systems
• process measuring and
and control
control systems
systems
• pacemakers
• automobile micro-electronics
• data processing systems
• biological systems
• …..

Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 - 19 -
Definition of the term Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
A problem just at 50 Hz ….

3
1

4
2

1,2 is part of a 220 V power supply system.


If 3,4 is also a 220 V power supply system with load resistance < 1kΩ,
the induced voltage does not count.
But if 3,4 is, e.g., a signal line with a high-ohmic receiver, operating at
voltages in the mV range, the induced voltage may take unacceptably
high values.
Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 - 20 -
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)

Definition of EMI according to VDE 0870:

"Impact of electromagnetic factors to electrical circuits, systems or


creatures"

Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 - 21 -
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)

EMI Irreversible impacts


Destruction of
Destruction of electronic
electronic components
components
•• by
by Electrostatic
Electrostatic discharges
discharges (ESD)
(ESD)
•• by
by overvoltages
overvoltages caused
caused by
by lightning
lightning
(Lightning
(Lightning Electromagnetic
Electromagnetic Pulse:
Pulse:
LEMP)
LEMP)
•• …

Reversible impacts
•• poor
poor audio
audio quality
quality during
during phone
phone calls
calls
•• "clicks" by switching on electric apparatuses
"clicks" by switching on electric apparatuses
•• …

Interferences
Interferences that
that cause
cause just
just Interferences that cause
acceptable deterioration of unacceptable malfunction or
functionality unreasonable inconvenience or
impairment
Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 - 22 -
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)

Generic interference model

Coupling
Source Receptor
mechanism
(Emitter) (Receiver)
(Path)

Model will be refined in the course of the lecture …..

Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 - 23 -
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)

Source Receptor
(Emitter) (Receiver)

System 1 System 2
Intersystem interference

Source Receptor
(Emitter) (Receiver)

System
Intrasystem interference
Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 - 24 -
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)

Source Receptor
(Emitter) (Receiver)

System
Intrasystem interference

Examples:
Examples:
•• parasitic
parasitic feedback
feedback inin multi-stage
multi-stage amplifiers
amplifiers
•• status
status change
change of
of signals
signals on
on neighbored
neighbored data
data lines
lines
•• inductive
inductive voltage
voltage drops
drops caused
caused by by changes
changes ofof currents
currents in
in power
power supply
supply lines
lines
•• self
self induced
induced voltages
voltages during
during switching
switching of
of relays
relays and
and contactors
contactors

Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 - 25 -
EMI – Prevention, Remedies

Basically, satisfactory EMC can always be achieved by measures at the

• Source: shielding, frequency spectrum limitation, power limitation,


directional antennas, ….

• Coupling path: shielding, filtering, topology of conductors, optical


transmission, …

• Receptor: shielding, filtering, circuit layout, ….

Primarily, EMC of the source should be aimed at


Æ Primary measures
before
Æ Secondary measures
have to be taken on a plurality of receptors.

Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 - 26 -
EMI – Prevention, Remedies

Minimum!
KN

KP

Kp .… cost of preventive measures, taken in advance


KN …. cost of rework during commissioning
WEMB …Probability of occurrence of EMI

Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 - 27 -
Quantitative description of EMC

The quantities of interest for EMC/EMI, such as


• Voltage
• Current
• Field strength
• Power
are usually expressed in logarithmic ratios.

Advantages of logarithmic notation:


• simple compilation over many orders of magnitude
• multiplicative relations will become additive relations:
⎛x⎞
lg ( x ⋅ y ) = lgx + lgy lg ⎜ ⎟ = lgx − lgy
⎝ y⎠
• Ratios even over several orders of magnitude can be expressed as
distances (e.g. signal-to-noise distance).

Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 - 28 -
Quantitative description of EMC
Two kinds of logarithmic ratios:

Levels refer system quantities to a fixed reference value, e.g. in


case of voltages to U0 = 1 µV.
Æ Examples: - voltage level
- current level
- power level

Ratios compare input and output quantities of a system and


serve for quantification of its transfer characteristics. Thus, these
ratios represent logarithmic values of transfer factors.
Æ Examples: - line attenuation
- shielding attenuation
- gain
- common/opposed-mode attenuation

Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 - 29 -
Quantitative description of EMC

For both ratios:

1. The quantities must be expressed in the frequency domain, i.e.


complex amplitudes, amplitude densities etc.

2. Only the magnitudes (peak or r.m.s. values) of the quantities are


used (not the phase information).

Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 - 30 -
Levels by decimal logarithm: "log10" and "lg", respectively

Ux
Voltage level: udB = 20 ⋅ lg dBµV (reference value: U0 = 1 µV)
U0

Ix
Current level: idB = 20 ⋅ lg dBµA (reference value: I0 = 1 µA)
I0

Ex
E-field level: EdB = 20 ⋅ lg dBµV/m (reference value: E0 = 1 µV/m)
E0

Hx
H-field level: H dB = 20 ⋅ lg dBµA/m (reference value: H0 = 1 µA/m)
H0

Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 - 31 -
Levels by decimal logarithm: "log10" and "lg", respectively

Px
Power level: pdB = 10 ⋅ lg dBpW (reference value: P0 = 1 pW)
P0

Notes:
1. History: Originally, the term
"Bel" was only applied
to power ratios:
Px
pdB = lg B or: Alexander Graham Bell, 1847-1922
P0
P
pdB = 10 ⋅ lg x dB
P0

2. As the levels are actually ratios, they are, strictly speaking,


figures without units. Therefore, the "dB" is no real unit, though it
is used like a unit.
Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 - 32 -
Levels by decimal logarithm: "log10" and "lg", respectively

Gain (amplification) and Attenuation:

Gain G = P2/P1

Attenuation a = 1/G = P1/P2

In logarithmic notation:
P2
GdB = 10 ⋅ lg dB
P1
If power P2 is dissipated in resistor R2 and power P1 is dissipated in
resistor R1, and if R2 = R1 ("matching"), then:
2
P2 U 22 R2 ⎛U ⎞ ⎛U ⎞
GdB = 10 ⋅ lg = 10 ⋅ lg 2 = 10 ⋅ lg ⎜ 2 ⎟ = 20 ⋅ lg ⎜ 2 ⎟
P1 U 1 R1 ⎝ U1 ⎠ R = R 1 2
⎝ U1 ⎠ R = R
1 2

Note: irrespective from the different factors same dB values!!


Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 - 33 -
Levels by decimal logarithm: "log10" and "lg", respectively
U2
Voltage gain: = 10Gu 20 dB

U1
dB
3 6 10 20 40 60 80 100 120
value
U2/U1 √2 2 3,16 10 100 1000 104 105 106

dB
-3 -6 - 10 - 20 - 40 - 60 - 80 - 100 - 120
value
U2/U1 0,71 0,5 0,316 0,1 0,01 0,001 10-4 10-5 10-6

P2 10 dB
= 10 p
G
Power gain:
P1
dB
3 6 10 20 40 60
value
P2/P1 2 3,98 10 100 104 106

dB
-3 -6 - 10 - 20 - 40 - 60
value
P2/P1 0,5 0,25 0,1 0,01 10-4 10-6

Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 - 34 -
Levels by natural logarithm: "ln"
Levels/ratios can also be expressed by the
natural (Neper's) logarithm instead of the
decimal logarithm:
Ux 1 P
uNp = ln Np pNp = ln x Np
U0 2 P0

1 Neper (Np) thus corresponds to


John Napier, 1550-1617, Scotland
a ratio of Uxx/U00 = e. inventor of the slide-rule

Conversion from Neper to Decibel and vice versa:


Ux U Voltage
ln Np = 20 ⋅ lg x dB ratio
Np value dB value
U0 U0
10:1 2.3 20
1 Np = 8,686 dB
100:1 4.6 40

1 dB = 0,115 Np 1000:1 6.9 60

Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 - 35 -
Noise level and Noise distance
Absolute levels: Relative levels:
Signal
Signal level
level
100% value of the Signal-to-noise distance
wanted signal Difference of signal level
Signal-to-noise
and noise threshold level
distance
Noise threshold level
Lowest percentage value
Noise threshold
of the wanted signal that level Noise immunity margin
is perceived as noise if Noise Difference of noise
exceeded at the immunity margin threshold level and
Noise
receptor. noise level
level

Noise level Usually frequency dependant!


Percentage value of a
noise variable.
Upper limit of accepted
noise levels = boundary
Typical
Typical values
values of
of signal-to-noise distances for
signal-to-noise distances for analogue
analogue systems:
systems:
values for transmission Metrology:
Metrology: 40
40 dB
dB (corr.
(corr. to
to meas.
meas. uncertainty
uncertainty of
of << 1%)
1%)
noise Radio/TV:
Radio/TV: 30…60
30…60 dB dB
Telephony:
Telephony: 10
10 dB
dB

Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 - 36 -
Noise level and Noise distance

In many cases, a statistical


Level
approach has to be chosen
The compatibility level is
ascertained such that it is not
Noise immunity exceeded with a probability of, e.g.,
95%, and that the noise threshold
Noise threshold level
levels of the devices (receptors)
Compatibility level are always higher than this level.
It depends on the importance of
Noise variable the device how much the noise
threshold level should be above the
Probability density compatibility level (Æ immunity
margin).

Assessment of compatibility level for a certain noise variable

Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 - 37 -
Noise level and Noise distance

Digital systems are characterized by the fact that


• they are not disturbed at all below a certain level, and that
• they are definitely disturbed above a certain level.
disturbed above

Differentiation between static and dynamic noise immunity:

For noise variables that last longer than the signal delay time of the circuit,
noise immunity is defined by the static signal-to-noise distance.

With decreasing noise impulse time duration higher noise amplitudes can
be accepted.

Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 - 38 -
Noise level and Noise distance
Static signal-to-noise distance of digital systems

USt …… noise voltage


UeB …… input voltage of circuit B
UaA …… output voltage of circuit A

Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 - 39 -
Noise level and Noise distance
Static signal-to-noise distance of digital systems

UaL,max and UaH,min


are the manufacturer's
guaranteed voltage values
for the "Low" and "High"
state.
Allowed "High"
voltage range UeL,max and UeH,min
are the "allowed" voltage
Switching Forbidden values for unambiguous
threshold voltage range
recognition of the "Low" and
Allowed "Low" "High" state.
voltage range

Minimum or worst-case "Low" state: UStL


StL
= |UeL,max
eL,max
– UaL,max
aL,max
|
signal-to-noise distances: "High" state: UStH
StH
= |UeH,min
eH,min
– UaH,min
aH,min
|
Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 - 40 -
Noise level and Noise distance
Static signal-to-noise distance of digital systems
Operating
Family Type
voltage / V

Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 - 41 -
Noise level and Noise distance
Dynamic signal-to-noise distance of digital systems

Families

Destruction energy WSt

. .
But: Risk of dielectric or thermal destruction at very short impulses of high amplitudes!!

Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 - 42 -
Noise level and Noise distance
Dynamic signal-to-noise distance of digital systems
Short rise and fall times and high clock rates would tighten the EMC
problems of digital circuits as the capacitive and inductive coupling
paths generally exhibit frequency dependant transfer characteristics.

Family Type
In
In order
order to
to achieve
achieve high
high noise
noise
immunity
immunity ofof an
an electronic
electronic circuit,
circuit,
switching
switching and
and processing
processing speeds
speeds
should
should not
not be
be chosen
chosen higher
higher
than
than absolutely necessary for
absolutely necessary for
their
their proper
proper function.
function.

Fachgebiet
Hochspannungstechnik
EMC / Chapter 1 - 43 -