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EPF 3107 MICROBIOLOGY AND SAFE FOOD PROCESSING Department of Food Process and Engineering Dr. Noor

EPF 3107

MICROBIOLOGY AND SAFE

FOOD PROCESSING

Department of Food Process and Engineering Dr. Noor Zafira Noor Hasnan

Food Preservation

Food Preservation 2

Learning outcome

Students will be able to understand, recognize and

explain the different preservation technique for the available food products in market.

Students will be able to understand, recognize and explain the production method involved.

Our scope for learning

Chilled

food

Frozen

food

Dried

food

Canned

food

Aseptically

packaged

food

FROZEN FOOD

FROZEN Food

Introduction

Microbial consideration

Production method

Ingredients to produce frozen food products

Processing method for frozen food products

Primary processing

Secondary processing

Packaging inc. coding and labeling

Finished product storage and distribution

Process control and validation

Introduction

Introduction 7

Example of frozen food products:

Example of frozen food products: 8
Example of frozen food products: 8
Example of frozen food products: 8
Example of frozen food products: 8

Principle of freezing

The process involves lowering the product temperature generally to -18 °C or below

Moisture is changed to ice

Freezing slows the metabolism of food and the microbe Stop the growth of microorganisms and the chemical changes that affect quality or cause food to spoil

Nevertheless, some microbe can grow within the freezer range but at an extremely slow rate

Preserve taste, texture and nutritional value

Extended shelf life (shelf life is longer than chilled food products)Typically frozen food have shelf life of 6 months to two years, chilled food 1- 6 weeks

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Freezing curve

Sensible cooling above freezing Latent heat of fusion zone First nucleation All liquid is frozen
Sensible
cooling
above
freezing
Latent heat of
fusion zone
First
nucleation
All liquid is frozen
Sensible
cooling
below
freezing

Types of freezing

1. Fast freezing : Quick or fast freezing occurs at 25ºC or

less in a short time. Ice crystals are small and do not

damage food cells

2. Slow freezing : occurs at -24 ºC or above. Ice crystals are

big and damage the food cells causing loss of texture,

nutrients, colour & flavour on thawing.

Slow freezing is more harmful to the microbe but more

damage to food’s quality

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What happen to microorganism during freezing

The water activity of food decrease , a w , decreases as temperature drops the necessity of refrigeration (interact temperature with a w factor)

This affects the transport of nutrients from food into the interior cell of microorganism since water mobility in food is

decreased growth of bacteria, fungi and mold is not

supported

They are not able to divide themselves as they try to adapt themselves to growth condition with limited water activity:

o extending the lag phase and time to produce toxin for spore

former

ratereduce the maximum population densitiesfood is stable and preserved

log phase is suppressed, decrease microorganism’s growth

Microorganism related to chilled food

Microorganism related to chilled food They still can survive and grow at low temperature ! 15
Microorganism related to chilled food They still can survive and grow at low temperature ! 15
Microorganism related to chilled food They still can survive and grow at low temperature ! 15

They still can survive and grow at low temperature !

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Microorganism

The toxin of C. botulinum and S. aureus are not destroyed during freezing. food poison is possible when we eat frozen food containing pre-formed toxin before the freezing process takes place

Parasitic protozoa, tapeworm, roundworm are killed when freezing.

Yeast and mold cannot grow in freezing temperature but can survive and will start to bloom again when the temperature of food rise to 10-35°C

Listeria, Clostridium and Bacillus bacteria are not killed but stop growing during freezing.

Healthy people are unlikely to get sick from eating foods contaminated

with Listeria. Rather, adults older than 65, people with weakened immune systems and pregnant women are at higher risk for illness and the sickness can be fatal.

Microorganism

In brief, Freezing does not destroy spoilage organisms; it only stops their growth temporarily. During the freezing process, microbial growth can occur under the

following circumstances:

when freezing does not take place rapidly;

when freezer temperature

is above -18°C

following circumstances: • when freezing does not take place rapidly; • when freezer temperature is above
Why Do We See More Frozen Foods Entering The Market? 18
Why Do We See More Frozen Foods Entering The Market?
Why Do We See
More Frozen Foods
Entering The Market?

Trend for frozen food

Consumer demand for higher quality food frozen food is expected to have more freshness and “naturalthan food that undergone heat treatment freezing process is less severe than heat treatment

Nutritional and sensory (color, texture, taste) quality

are better

Consumer are busier than before looking for convenience food products such as frozen food less time required to cook/prepare

Longer storage time

Yet, expensive since the use of energy is high

Why do some manufacturer choose to chill while others choose to freeze?? Think in term

Why do some manufacturer

choose to chill while others

choose to freeze??

Think in term of time required, energy use, technology

requirement, operational and

investment cost, product price, shelf-life, temperature of

storage, consumer’s

preference?

PRODUCTION OF FROZEN FOOD

General Production Method

Receiving of raw ingredient

General Production Method Receiving of raw ingredient Raw material storage Production processes Packing, coding and

Raw material storage

Method Receiving of raw ingredient Raw material storage Production processes Packing, coding and labeling Finished

Production processes

of raw ingredient Raw material storage Production processes Packing, coding and labeling Finished product storage at

Packing, coding and labeling

storage Production processes Packing, coding and labeling Finished product storage at -18 ° C or below

Finished product storage at -18°C or below

and labeling Finished product storage at -18 ° C or below Shipping -18°C or below Focus

Shipping -18°C or below

storage at -18 ° C or below Shipping -18°C or below Focus is to take care

Focus is to take care of our

raw material’s quality

(ingredients)

-There are primary and secondary processes -Use of hurdle technologies-There are

primary and secondary processes -Use of hurdle technologies There are primary, secondary and tertiary packaging Focus
primary and secondary processes -Use of hurdle technologies There are primary, secondary and tertiary packaging Focus

There are primary, secondary and

tertiary packaging

Focus is to maintain the quality of our frozen product and ensure its shelf life

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The consideration during processes are similar

to that of chilled food, it is just the temperature….

Raw materials to produce frozen food products must

have good quality quality assurance similar to chilled food

Temperature of frozen food products is maintained

at minimally -18°C throughout the supply chain

(storage, transport, at retailer)

Process along the supply chain have to be

controlled, validate and verified (similar to chilled

food)

Coding and labelling at packaging

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DJ74f35_XJw

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DJ74f35_XJw 24

THAWING

Bacteria won't grow in the freezer, but freezing

won't kill them. So whatever was in your food

when you froze, it will be there again when

you thaw it

Thawing the frozen food

When thawing at warm temperature and the product surface is

allowed to stay above 5°C for a long period microbes can grow,

spores of Clostridium botulinum can grow and produce toxin.

Thawing of poultry produces drip and accumulate around the product ideal for microbe’s growth

Hence, thaw correctly: Thaw in fridge/refrigerator/chiller where

temperature is maintained below 5°C before the food is prepared practice in factory when they deal with frozen raw material to be used during production

Or submerge the frozen food (encased in packaging) in

cold water maintained below 5°C, the water should be replaced when it warms up e.g by adding ice cubes

NEVER THAW AT ROOM TEMPERATURE ESP FOR A LONG PERIOD

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Packaging consideration

PROPERTIES

Strong.

Water proof.

Vapour proof.

Grease proof.

Easy to use.

Sealable.

EXAMPLES

Strong, polythene freezer bags.

Aluminium containers.

Aluminium foil.

Freezer paper.

Waxed cartons.

Plastic boxes with tight

lids.

END OF LECTURE

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