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Purchasing

 Management  
Andi  Cakravastia  
Faculty  of  Industrial  Technology  -­‐  ITB  
Pengadaan  
Purchasing?  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Ilustrasi  Proses  Pengadaan  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Stage  IV:  Strategic  Supply  
Management

Stage  III:
Proactive •  Supply  as  Competitive  
Weapon  
Stage  II: •  Supply  strategy  
Mechanical •  Professional  Staff   integrated  with  SBU  
•  Proactive  Approach   strategy  
•  Some  long-­‐term   •  Velocity:  Development  &  
•  Some  College  
contract   Production  
Education  
•  Measure  some  cost   •  Measures:  Continous  
•  Computer  
of  ownership   Improvement  
Processes  Paper  
•  Supplier   •  Optimize  Cost  of  
Stage  I: •  Transaction  
Considered   Ownership  or  Total  Cost  
Reactive Driven  
Resources   of  “outside  shop”  
•  Spot  Buy  System  
•  Reports  to  Higher   •  Supply  Strategy  
•  Measures  “Price  
Management   Centralized  
•  High  School   Reduction”  
Level   Education  
Process  Paper  
•  Reports  at  Low  
Level  
•  Some  Cross-­‐
Functional  Support  
•  Purchasing  Activity  
Decentralized  
•  •  Training  &   •  Data  Available  and  Used  
Pengadaan   •  Clerical  
Function  
•  Primary  Focus:  
Keep  Production  
• 
Education  Offered  
Purchasing  Power  
• 
• 
Supply  Base  by  Design  
Leverage  Supplier  
Running  
“in  Purchasing”  
dalam   •  Reactive/Crisis  
Mode   •  Tracks  Purchase  
Price  Variance  
•  Limited  Data   • 
Technology  
Monitor  Environment  
•  Reports  at   •  Some  Commodity   •  Manage  Relationship  
Organisasi   Very  Low  Level   •  Poor  Data  
Available  
Strategies   •  Value  Chain  Management  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


SUPPLY  MANAGEMENT
ACTIVITIES
PROCUREMENT
ACTIVITIES

•  Product  Design  
PURCHASING  ACTIVITIES •  PURCHASING  &  
•  Material   PROCUREMENT  
Specification   ACTIVITIES  
•  Material  Studies  and   •  Supplier  qualification  
•  Identification  of  
Values  Analysis   and  selection  teams  
Purchasing  Needs  
•  Market  Research   •  Partnering  &  Strategic  
•  Discussion  with  Sales  
•  PURCHASING   Alliances  
People  
Peran   •  Identification  of  Suppliers  
• 
ACTIVITIES  
Management  of  
•  Monitoring  of  Supply  
Environment  
•  Market  Studies  
Supplier  Quality  
Pengadaan   • 
• 
Negotiations  
Analysis  of  Proposal  
•  Purchase  of  Inbound  
•  Strategic  Materials  
Aqusition  Plan  
Transportation   •  Monitoring  of  Continous  
Selection  of  Supplier  
dalam   • 
•  Issuance  of  PO  
•  Management  of  
Investment   • 
Improvement  
Corporate  Strategic  
•  Contract  Administration  
Recovery   Planning  
Organisasi   •  Purchasing  Records  

Tac$cal Strategic
Focus Focus

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Siklus  Proses  Pengadaan  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Ilustrasi  Proses  Pembelian  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Public  and  Private  Procurement  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Exercise#1  
Proses  Pengadaan  Barang/Jasa  
Exercise#1  
Definisikan  bagian  dalam  organisasi/perusahaan  Bapak/Ibu  yang  melakukan  fungsi:  
•  Menggunakan  barang/jasa  
•  Mendefisikan  kebutuhan  barang/jasa  
•  Mengusulkan  kebutuhan  barang/jasa  
•  Melakukan  pembelian  barang/jasa  
•  Penerimaan  barang/pengawasan  pekerjaan  
•  Penyimpanan  barang  
•  Distribusi  barang  ke  pengguna  
•  Pembayaran  barang  
•  Manajemen  aset  

•  Tentukan  keterkaitan  dan  aliran  informasi/fisik/pembayaran  antar  bagian-­‐bagian  


diatas  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Perencanaan  Pengadaan  
Why  Planning?  
•  Procurement  has  an  impact  on  the  overall  organizations  outcome  and  results.  
•  Link  procurement  activities  and  priorities  to  the  overall  priorities  

•  Process  
•  Review  organization’s  mandate  and  strategy  
•  Analyze  Organizations’s  procurement  portfolio  
•  Analyze  procurement  function  and  capability  
•  Identify  Strategic  Procurement  Objectives  
•  Develop  and  implement  procurement  strategy  
•  Measure  result  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Objektif  Pengadaan  

• Ultimate  objective  of  procurement  is  to  add  


value  to  the  organization  in  fulfilling  its  goals  
and  objectives  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Spend  Analysis  
•  Analyse  past  and  projected  procurement  expenditure  or  
spend  for  goods/services/works  
•  Important  question:  
•  Were  there  special  events  affecting  the  historic  spend  that  will  
not  be  repeated?  
•  Are  there  anticipated  special  events  that  will  affect  future  spend?  
•  Are  there  event  happening  in  the  external  environment  tht  are  
likely  to  affect  spend  profile?  
•  Are  there  strategic  organizational  issues  that  are  likely  to  affect  
spend?  
Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  
Risk  Analysis  

•  How  critical  the  g/s/w  are  to  the  organization?  

•  Risk  =  probability  to  occur  x  magnitude  


•  Factors:  
•  Nature  of  supply  market  
•  Probability  of  supply  failure  
•  Strategic  important  to  the  organization  
•  Impact  to  the  organization  of  supply  failure  
•  Complexity  of  procurement  relationship  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Procurement  Profile  
Risiko  
Strategic:
Pasokan Bottleneck  Item Objektif:
Objektif: Menurunkan  Risiko  &  
Menurunkan  Risiko   Biaya  melalui  
Manajemen  Hubungan  
Pasokan dengan  Penyedia

Routine  Products Leverage  Product:


Objektif: Objektif:
Menurunkan  Biaya   Menurunkan  total  
Transaksi pengeluaran

Pengeluaran  Rela$f

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Strategies  
•  Routine:  
 Minimize  administrative  effort  

•  Leverage  
 Total  cost  reduction  and  high  service  level    from  suppliers  

•  Bottleneck  

 Reduce  organization’s  market  vulnerability  and  to  secure  ongoing  supply  


•  Strategic  

 Manage  relationship  and  performance  through  regime  and  systems  which  


 are  essential  to  secure  value  for  money  and  recude  risk  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Performance  Measure  
•  Efficiency  of  the  competitive  process  
   Number  of  compliant  bids  and  proposals,  number  of  supplier  involved  in  
 the  competition,  etc.  
•  Cost  Reduction  
 Level  of  saving  achieved,  reduction  of  stock  holdings,  number  of  stock  out,  
 etc  
•  Supplier  Management  
 Number  of  new  suppliers  involved  in  the  competition,  numbers  of  late/
 damage/inadequate  deliveries,  level  of  quality  achieved,  etc  
•  Efficiency  on  internal  system  and  process  
 Number  of  LTA,  reduction  in  transaction  cost,  internal  customer  
satisfaction,  etc  
•  Procurement  management  
 %  of  procurement  officer  certified,  number  of  staff  days  for  trainning  
Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  
Exercise#2:  
PROCUREMENT  PROFILE  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Exercise#2  

•  Berikan  contoh  procurement  profile  untuk  organisasi  Bapak/Ibu  


•  Tentukan  strategi  dan  ukuran  performansi  pengadaan  untuk  sebuah  barang/jasa/
pekerjaan  di  setiap  kuadran  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Procurement  Catalogue  
Objek  Pengadaan  

• Pekerjaan  Konstruksi  
• Jasa  Konsultansi,  dan  
• Barang/Jasa  Lainnya.  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Catalogue  
 A  cataloue,  in  electronic  or  paper  format,  is  a  document  created  by  the  supplier  
to  describe  its  products  and/or  services,  their  price  and  potentially,  additional  
information  to  facilitate  the  ordering  process  
 

[European  Comission,  2009]  


Standarisasi  Katalog  

[European  Comission,  2009]  


Jenis  Katalog  
Deskripsi  Barang:..............   Deskripsi  Barang:..............  

Feature   Value   Merek  :..............  


Tipe:  ..............  
F1   F1N1/F1N2/....F1Nn  
Feature   Value  

F2   F2N1/F2N2/....F2Nn  
F1   F1N1  
F2   F2N1  
.   .  
.   .  
.   .  
.   .  
.   .  
.   .  
Fm   FmN1/FnN2/....FmNn  
Fm   FmN1  
TIPE  1:   TIPE  2:  
User  menentukan  spesifikasi  barang  yang   User  menentukan  merek  dan  tipe  barang  yang  
dibutuhkan   akan  dibeli  
Ilustrasi  Katalog  Tipe  1  

[www.bhinneka.com,  2010]  
Ilustrasi  Katalog  Tipe  2  

[www.bhinneka.com,  2010]  
Exercise#3  
Catalogue  
Exercise#3  

•  Kembangkan  katalog  tipe  1  dan  tipe  2  untuk  sebuah  produk:  


•  Nama/Deskripsi  Barang  
•  Feature-­‐feature  yang  akan  dimasukan  dalam  katalog  
•  Nilai  untuk  setiap  feature  
Sourcing  &  Selection  
Objektif  

•  Minimize  Purchasing  Cost  


•  Minimize  Transaction  Cost  
•  Minimize  Total  Cost  of  Ownership  
•  Maximiza  Value  for  Money  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Klasifikasi  Objek  Pengadaan  
Barang  
Operasional  
Jenis  
Barang  Capital  

Obyek  Pengadaan  
Barang  Publik  
Sifat  
Barang  Privat  

Make  to  Stock  


Proses  
Make  to  Order  

Barang  Standar  
Spesifikasi  
Barang  Non  
Standar  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Market  Characteristic  

• Number  of  suppliers  


• Nature  of  competition  
• Supply  chain  structure  
• Price  mechanism  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Metoda  Pemilihan  Supplier  

• Pembelian  
• Penunjukan    
• Seleksi  
• Tender/Lelang  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Jumlah  &  Metoda  Pemilihan  Supplier  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Metoda  Pemasukan  Penawaran  

• Satu  Sampul  
• Dua  Sampul  
• Dua  Tahap  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Metoda  Pemasukan  Penawaran  &  
Spesifikasi  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Mekanisme  Evaluasi  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Mekanisme  Evaluasi  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Penilaian  Performansi  Supplier  

• Kriteria  Penilaian  
• Metoda  Penilaian  
• Kategori  Performansi  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Buyer  –  Supplier  Relationship  

Arm’s  Length  Relationship Collaborative  Relationship

Partnership  
Traditional   Certified Strategic
Vendors Type  
Suppliers Suppliers Alliances
Relationship

Lower  Value  Added Higher  Value  Added


Rela$onship Rela$onship

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Contract  
Agreement  
 
 “An  agreement  involves  an  exchange  of  promises  or  goods”  

 
 [Uher  &  Davenport,  2002]  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Contract  

 “An  agreement  between  two  or  more  parties,  especially  one  that  is  written  and  
enforceable  by  law”  
 [Merriam-­‐Webster  Dictionary]  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Agreement  &  Contract  

“An  agreement  that  is  legally  binding  is  a  ‘contract’”  

 
[Uher  &  Davenport,  2002]  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Elements  of  Contract  
•  There  must  be  an  intention  to  create  a  legal  relationship.  
•  There  must  be  offer  and  acceptance.  

•  There  must  be  valuable  consideration.  


•  The  parties  must  have  legal  capacity  to  contract.  

•  There  must  be  a  genuine  consent  by  the  parties.  

•  The  legality  of  the  object  of  the  agreement  must  be  ensured.  
•  The  terms  of  the  contract  must  be  sufficiently  certain.  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Jenis  Kontrak  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Tipe  Kontrak  &  Risiko  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Risk  Management  Process  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Risk  Response  

• Ignore  
• Reduce  
• Transfer  
• Manage  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Contract  Management  Process  
 
Phase  1:  Preaward  

1.  Procurement     2.  Solicitation   3.  Solicitation  


Buyer  
Planning   Planning    
Make-­‐or-­‐Buy  Decision  

1.Presales   2.  Bid/no-­‐Bid   3.  Bid/Proposal  


Seller  
Activity   Decision  Making   Preparation  
Bid  Decision  

Phase  2:  Award   Phase  3:  Postaward  


4.  Source   Contract  Award   5.  Contract   6.  Contract  Closeout/
Buyer   Selection   Administration   Termination  

4.  Contract   Contract  Award  


Seller   5.  Contract   6.  Contract  Closeout/
Negotiation  
Administration   Termination  
and  Formation  
Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  
Buyer’s  Steps  
1.  Procurement  Planning   2.  Solicitation  Planning   3.  Solicitation  
Input   Input   Input  
•  Scope  Statement   •  Procurement  management  plan   •  Procurement  Document  
•  Product  Description   •  Statement  of  Work   •  Qualified  Seller  Lists  
•  Procurement  Resources   •  Other  Procurement  Planning   Tools  and  Techniques  
•  Market  Condition   Output   •  Bidders’  Conferences  
•  Other  Planning  Output   Tools  and  Techniques   •  Advertising  
•  Constraints   •  Standard  Forms   Output  
•  Assumption   •  Expert  Judgement   •  Proposals  
Tools  and  Techniques   Output  
•  Make-­‐or-­‐Buy  Analysis   •  Procurement  Documents  
•  Expert  Judgement   •  Evaluation  Criteria  
•  Contract  Type  Selection   •  Statement  of  Work  Updates  
•  Risk  Management  Process  
•  Contract  T/C  
Output  
•  Procurement  Management  Plan  
•  Statement  of  Work  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Buyer’s  Steps  
4.  Source  Selection   5.  Contract  Administration   6.  Contract  Closeout  or  Termination  

Input   Input   Input  


•  Proposals   •  Contract   •  Completion  of  Work  
•  Work  Results  
•  Evaluation  Criteria   •  Contract  Documentation  or  
•  Change  Requests  
•  Evaluation  Standard   •  Invoices  and  Payments   •  Termination  Notice  
•  Organizational  Policies   •  Contract  Administration    Policies   Tools  and  Techniques  
Tools  and  Techniques   Tools  and  Techniques   •  Compliance  Verification  
•  Contract  Negotiation   •  Contract  Analysis  &  Planning   •  Contract  Documentation  
•  Weighting  System   •  Preperformance  Conference   •  Contract  Closeout  Checklist  or  
•  Performance  Measuring  and  Reporting  
•  Screening  System   •  Termination  
•  Payment  System  
•  Independent  Estimates   •  Change  Control  System   Output  
Output   •  Dispute  Management  System   •  Product/Service  Completion  
•  Contract   Output   •  Acceptance  and  Final  Payment  
•  Documentation   •  Contract  Closeout  or  Termination  
•  Contract  Changes   Documents  
•  Payment  
•  Documented  Lesson  Learned  
•  Completion  of  Work  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Seller’s  Steps  
1.  Procurement  Planning   2.  Bid/No  Bid  Decision  Making   3.  Bid/Proposal  Preparation  
Input   Input   Input  
•  Customer  Identification   •  Solicitation   •  Solicitation  
•  Customer  Needs  Determination   •  Buyer  Specific  Information   •  Analysis  of  Solicitation  
•  Evaluation  of  Competitors   •  Competitive  Analysis  Report   •  Competitive  Analysis  Report  
Tools  and  Techniques   •  Seller’s  Strategic  Objective  &  Plan   •  Past  Proposals  
•  Proactive  Sales  Management   Tools  and  Techniques   Tools  and  Techniques  
•  Market  Research   •  Risk  Assessment   •  Compliance  Matrix  
•  Competitive  Analysis   •  Opportunity  Assessment   •  Standard  T/C  
Output   •  Risk  Management  Team  Process   •  Past  Proposals  
•  Potential  &  Existing  Customer  List   Output   •  Lesson-­‐Learned  Database  
•  Customer  Focused  Sales  Plan   •  Bid/No  Bid  Decision   •  Executive  Summary  
•  Competitive  Analysis  Report   •  Justification  Document  for  Bid/No   Output  
Bid  Decision   •  Bid  Proposal  
•  Supporting  Documentation  
•  Oral  Presentation  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Buyer’s  Steps  
4.  Contract  Negotiation  &  Formation   5.  Contract  Administration   6.  Contract  Closeout  or  Termination  

Input   Input   Input  


•  Solicitation   •  Contract   •  Completion  of  Work  
•  Work  Results  
•  Bid  or  Proposal   •  Contract  Documentation  or  
•  Change  Requests  
•  Buyer’s  Source  Selection  Process   •  Invoices  and  Payments   •  Termination  Notice  
•  Seller’s  Past  Performance   •  Contract  Administration    Policies   Tools  and  Techniques  
•  Previous  Contract   Tools  and  Techniques   •  Compliance  Verification  
•  Competitive  Analysis  Report   •  Contract  Analysis  &  Planning   •  Contract  Documentation  
Tools  and  Techniques   •  Preperformance  Conference   •  Contract  Closeout  Checklist  or  
•  Performance  Measuring  and  Reporting  
•  Contract  Negotiation  Process   •  Termination  
•  Payment  System  
•  Highly  Skilled  Negotiatiors   •  Change  Control  System   Output  
•  Market  &  Industry  Practice   •  Dispute  Management  System   •  Product/Service  Completion  
•  Legal  Review   Output   •  Acceptance  and  Final  Payment  
Output   •  Documentation   •  Contract  Closeout  or  Termination  
•  Contract  or   •  Contract  Changes   Documents  
•  Payment  
•  Walk  Away   •  Documented  Lesson  Learned  
•  Completion  of  Work  

Purchasing  Management|IAPI  EXPO  -­‐  2015|AC  


Terima  Kasih