Sie sind auf Seite 1von 328

TEXTBOOK OF COMPLEMENTARY

AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE


Second Edition
Notice to readers: Our knowledge of medicine is constantly changing as a result of new
developments. The editors, authors, and publishers have taken every care to provide updated
information compatible with standards at the time of publication, but cannot be responsible
for any omissions or inadvertent errors, nor can they warrant that the work is accurate in every
respect. The readers are advised to consult with their health-care professionals before the use
of any complementary and alternative therapies.
TEXTBOOK OF COMPLEMENTARY
AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE
Second Edition

Edited by

Chun-Su Yuan MD PhD


Cyrus Tang Professor
Director, Tang Center for Herbal Medicine Research
University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine
Illinois, USA

Eric J Bieber MD
Chair, Obstetrics and Gynecology
Chief Medical Officer, Geisinger Wyoming Valley and Geisinger South Wilkes-Barre
Senior Vice President, Geisinger Health Systems
Wilkes-Barre/Danville, Pennsylvania, USA

Brent A Bauer MD
Director
Complementary and Integrative Medicine Program
Associate Professor of Medicine at Mayo Medical School
Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
’›œ ™ž‹•’œ‘Ž ’—ȱ2006 by Informa Healthcare, Telephone House, 69-77 Paul Street, London EC2A 4LQ, UK.
 

S’multaneously publ’shed ’n the USA by Informa Healthcare, ś2 anderb’lt AŸenue, 7th loor, e  or”,  ŗŖŖŗ7, USA.

Informa Healthcare ’s a trad’n d’Ÿ’s’on of Informa UK Ltd. e’stered ff’ceDZ ř7Ȯ4ŗ ort’mer Street, London ŗT ř H, UK.
e’stered ’n Enland and ales number ŗŖ729ś4.

#2Ŗ06 Informa Healthcare, e¡cept as other ’se ’nd’cated

No claim to original U.S. Government works

Reprinted material is quoted with permission. Although every effort has been made to ensure that all owners of copyright material
have been acknowledged in this publication, we would be glad to acknowledge in subsequent reprints or editions any omissions
brought to our attention.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any
means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, unless with the prior written permission of the publisher or in
accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of any licence permitting limited
copying issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London W1P 0LP, UK, or the Copyright Clearance
Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, USA (http://www.copyright.com/ or telephone 978-750-8400).

Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without
intent to infringe.

This book contains information from reputable sources and although reasonable efforts have been made to publish accurate
information, the publisher makes no warranties (either express or implied) as to the accuracy or fitness for a particular purpose of
the information or advice contained herein. The publisher wishes to make it clear that any views or opinions expressed in this book by
individual authors or contributors are their personal views and opinions and do not necessarily reflect the views/opinions of the
publisher. Any information or guidance contained in this book is intended for use solely by medical professionals strictly as a
supplement to the medical professional’s own judgement, knowledge of the patient’s medical history, relevant manufacturer’s
instructions and the appropriate best practice guidelines. Because of the rapid advances in medical science, any information or advice
on dosages, procedures, or diagnoses should be independently verified. This book does not indicate whether a particular treatment is
appropriate or suitable for a particular individual. Ultimately it is the sole responsibility of the medical professional to make his or her
own professional judgements, so as appropriately to advise and treat patients. Save for death or personal injury caused by the
publisher’s negligence and to the fullest extent otherwise permitted by law, neither the publisher nor any person engaged or employed
by the publisher shall be responsible or liable for any loss, injury or damage caused to any person or property arising in any way from
the use of this book.

A CIP record for this book is available from the British Library.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data available on application

ISBN-13: 97Ş-1-84214-297-4

Orders may be sent to: Informa Healthcare, Sheepen Place, Colchester, Essex CO3 3LP, UK
Telephone: +44 (0)20 7017 5540
Email: CSDhealthcarebooks@informa.com
Website: http://informahealthcarebooks.com/

For corporate sales please contact: CorporateBooksIHC@informa.com


For foreign rights please contact: RightsIHC@informa.com
For reprint permissions please contact: PermissionsIHC@informa.com

Printed and bound in the United Kingdom


Transferred to Digital Print 2011
Contents

List of contributors xi
Preface xvii
Acknowledgments xix
INTRODUCTION 1
Prevalence and impact of complementary and alternative medicine 3
on conventional medicine
B. A. Bauer, M. K. Ang-Lee, E. J. Bieber and C.-S. Yuan

SECTION I COMMONLY USED CAM THERAPIES 7

Dietary Supplements
1. Definitions and regulatory status 9
M. C. Lee
2. Commonly used herbal medicines 13
M. K. Ang-Lee and D. Basila
3. Overview of selected herbs 41
L. Dey and S. M. Wicks
4. Medicinal herbs of Latin America 45
D. Turner-Lloveras
5 Herbal medicine: identification, analysis, and evaluation strategies 51
C.-Z. Wang and Y. Shoyama
6. Ginseng: beneficial and potential adverse effects 71
J.-T. Xie, A. S. Attele and C.-S. Yuan
7. Green tea 91
D. D. McFadden
8. Evidence-based use of vitamin supplements 99
L. T. Shuster and J. Thielen
9. Herbal, food, and drug interactions 109
J. Moss

v
vi Textbook of Complementary and Alternative Medicine

10. The story of PC-SPES and prostate cancer 115


D. Sadava
11. Risks of ephedra-containing supplements 123
S. R. Mehendale, B. A. Bauer and C.-S. Yuan

Traditional Medical Systems and Therapies


12. Traditional Chinese Medicine 129
W. Xuan
13. Chinese herbal medicine and formulations 145
B. Xu
14. Acupuncture 157
Y. G. Wang
15. Tai Chi 177
S. Xutian, F. Sun and S. Tai
16. Qigong 199
N. J. Manek and C. Lin
17. Diet and nutrition in Traditional Chinese Medicine 211
M. E. Jones
18. Ayurvedic medical system of India 225
L. C. Mishra
19. Yoga 239
A. Sood
20. Homeopathy 247
T. Bark and D. Dwyer
21. Naturopathic medicine 257
D. Seely
22. Music therapy 271
D. S. Burns and S. L. Robb

Mind and Body Approaches


23. Meditation 281
H. Pokharna
24. Biofeedback 291
F. Shaffer and D. Moss
25. Religion, spirituality, and medicine 313
P. S. Mueller
26. Imagery 329
J. Aufenthie
27. Belief and the space of healing 337
S. Pessin

Energy Therapies
28. Energy medicine 347
F. M. Gulmen
Contents vii

29. Magnet therapy 357


W. C. Mundell
30. Healing touch 363
J. Aufenthie

Manipulative and Body-based Therapies


31. Chiropractic 369
R. E. Gay
32. Massage 379
D. J. Engen
33. Osteopathic medicine 387
D. P. Russo

SECTION II CAM THERAPIES FOR COMMON MEDICAL CONDITIONS 397

Cardiovascular Disease
34. Prevention and treatment with CAM therapies 399
M. J. Sorrentino
35. Lipid disorders 407
P. O. Szapary
36. Herbal antioxidants: potential and pitfalls 419
T. L. Vanden Hoek and Z.-H. Shao
37. Hawthorn 433
Z.-H. Shao and W.-T. Chang

Respiratory Disease
38. Asthma 441
C. R. Weiler
39. Chronic sinusitis 449
R. S. Ivker

Gastro-intestinal Disease
40. Irritable bowel syndrome: a perplexing pain for patients and physicians 461
J. Udani
41. Constipation 471
N. P. Sykes and M. Gibbs

Metabolic Diseases
42. Obesity 479
L. Dey and C.-S. Yuan
43. Type 2 diabetes 487
L. Dey and A. S. Attele
44. Osteoporosis 499
F. A. Yao, T. T. Brown and A. S. Dobs
viii Textbook of Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Genitourinary and Reproductive Diseases


45. Male and female sexual dysfunction 509
H. H. Aung and V. Rand
46. Benign prostatic hyperplasia 517
E. M. Gong and G. S. Gerber
47. Mood disorders, premenstrual syndrome, and mastalgia 529
E. J. Bieber and J. S. Gell
48. Perimenopause and menopause 537
E. J. Bieber and J. S. Gell
49. Infertility 551
E. J. Bieber
50. CAM therapies in pregnancy 557
S. Wachob and E. J. Bieber

Central Nervous System


51. Migraine and tension headaches 571
K. Peters
52. Insomnia 579
A. S. Attele and C.-S. Yuan
53. Dementia 587
W. P. Aleman and K. C. Fleming

Psychiatric Disorders
54. Anxiety disorders 595
W. Warner
55. Depression 603
S. L. Paolucci and S. J. Paolucci

Musculoskeletal Disorders
56. Chronic fatigue syndrome 619
W. Warner
57. Fibromyalgia syndrome 627
D. L. Wahner-Roedler
58. Osteoarthritis 635
L. R. Bergstrom and B. A. Bauer

Cancer and AIDS


59. Natural products and cancer 645
W. Sampson
60. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting 655
S. R. Mehendale, H. H. Aung and C.-S. Yuan
61. Cachexia associated with cancer and AIDS 661
M.-Y. Song, A. S. Dobs and T. T. Brown
62. Boost AIDS patients’ immune systems 671
J. A. Wu and C.-S. Yuan
Contents ix

Prevention and Special Populations


63. Preventive medicine 683
M. Hammerly
64. Pediatric population 693
N. A. Lass
65. Aging and geriatrics 705
N. G. Egger
66. RealAge and vitamins 717
M. F. Roizen
67. Herbal drug interactions in surgical patients 725
M. K. Ang-Lee, J. Moss and C.-S. Yuan
68. Sports medicine 737
P. J. Barrett

Ethical and Social Implications


69. Ethical implications for clinicians 753
P. S. Mueller and C. C. Hook
70. Information from the Internet: challenges for patients and physicians 765
B. A. Bauer and P. L. Elkin

Index 773
Contributors

W. Patricio Aleman PA Toni Bark MD LEEDAP


General Internal Medicine Department of Integrative Medicine
Mayo Clinic Good Shepherd Hospital
Rochester, MN Barrington, IL
USA USA

Michael K. Ang-Lee MD Patrick J. Barrett


Department of Anesthesia Pritzker School of Medicine
Western Washington Medical Group University of Chicago
Everett, WA Chicago, IL
USA USA

Anoja S. Attele DDS MD Daniel Basila


Department of Pathology Tang Center for Herbal Medicine Research
University of Illinois at Chicago University of Chicago
Chicago, IL Chicago, IL
USA USA

Judith Aufenthie RN MA CHTP CTC CHSMI Brent A. Bauer MD


Complementary and Integrative Medicine Complementary and Integrative Medicine Program
Mayo Clinic Mayo Clinic
Rochester, MN Rochester, MN
USA USA

Han H. Aung MD Larry R. Bergstrom MD FACP


Tang Center for Herbal Medicine Research General Internal Medicine
University of Chicago Mayo Clinic
Chicago, IL Rochester, MN
USA USA

xi
xii Textbook of Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Eric J. Bieber MD Peter L. Elkin MD


Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Laboratory of Biomedical Informatics
Geisinger Wyoming Valley and Geisinger South Department of Internal Medicine
Wilkes-Barre Mayo Clinic, College of Medicine
Geisinger Health Systems Rochester, MN
Wilkes-Barre/Danville, PA USA
USA
Deborah J. Engen BS CMT
Todd T. Brown MD Occupational Therapy
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism Mayo Clinic
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Rochester, MN
Baltimore, MD USA
USA
Kevin C. Fleming MD
Debra S. Burns PhD MT-BC FAMI General Internal Medicine
Indiana University School of Music Program at IUPUI Mayo Clinic
Indianapolis, IN Rochester, MN
USA USA

Wei-Tien Chang MD Ralph E. Gay MD


Department of Emergency Medicine Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
National Taiwan University Hospital Mayo Clinic
National Taiwan University College of Medicine Rochester, MN
Taiwan USA

Lucy Dey MD Jennifer S. Gell


Diabetes/Endocrine Section Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Chicago Medical School at Rosalind Franklin Geisinger Health Systems
University Danville, PA
VA Medical Center USA
North Chicago, IL
USA Glenn S. Gerber MD
Section of Urology
Adrian S. Dobs MD MHS Department of Surgery
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism University of Chicago
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Chicago, IL
Baltimore, MD USA
USA
Margaret Gibbs MSc MRPharmS
David Dwyer St. Christopher’s Hospice
American Renewable Sydenham, London
Chicago, IL UK
USA
Edward M. Gong MD
Norman G. Egger MD MS Section of Urology
General Internal Medicine Department of Surgery
Mayo Clinic University of Chicago
Rochester, MN Chicago, IL
USA USA
Contributors xiii

Funda M. Gulmen MS David D. McFadden MD MPH


College of Naturopathic Medicine General Internal Medicine
University of Bridgeport Mayo Clinic
Bridgeport, CT Rochester, MN
USA USA

Milt Hammerly MD Sangeeta R. Mehendale MD PhD


Catholic Health Initiatives Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care
Denver, CO and Tang Center for Herbal Medicine Research
USA University of Chicago
Chicago, IL
C. Christopher Hook MD USA
Division of Hematology
Mayo Clinic Lakshmi C. Mishra M Pharm PhD MD (Ayu)
Rochester, MN Ayurvedic Health Care Center
USA Sequoia Inc.
Rockville, MD
Robert S. Ivker DO ABHM FAAFP USA
American Board of Holistic Medicine
Littleton, CO Donald Moss PhD
USA Saybrook Graduate School
Psychological Services
Monica E. Jones LAc MAcOM Grand Haven, MI
Holistic Health Professionals USA
Neptune, NJ
USA Jonathan Moss MD PhD
Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care
Nancy A. Lass MD FAAP FCP and Institutional Review Board
Department of Medicine and Committee on Clinical University of Chicago
Pharmacology Chicago, IL
University of Chicago USA
Chicago, IL
USA Paul S. Mueller MD
General Internal Medicine
Mark C. Lee MD Mayo Clinic
General Internal Medicine Rochester, MN
Mayo Clinic USA
Rochester, MN
USA Will C. Mundell MD
General Internal Medicine
Chunyi Lin MA IQM Mayo Clinic
Spring Forest Healing Center Rochester, MN
St. Louis Park, MN USA
USA
Stephen J. Paolucci MD
Nisha J. Manek MD Division of Psychiatry
Rheumatology Geisinger Medical Center
Mayo Clinic Danville, PA
Rochester, MN USA
USA
xiv Textbook of Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Susan L. Paolucci MD David Sadava PhD


Division of Psychiatry Department of Biology
Geisinger Medical Center Keck Science Center
Danville, PA Claremont University
USA Claremont, CA
USA
Sarah Pessin PhD
Department of Philosophy Wallace Sampson MD
University of Denver Stanford University School of Medicine
Denver, CO and The Scientific Review of Alternative Medicine
USA Los Altos, CA
USA
Kenneth Peters MD
Northern California Headache Clinic Dugald Seely ND
Mountain View, CA Department of Clinical Epidemiology
USA Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine
Toronto, Ontario
Hemlata Pokharna PhD Canada
Department of Medicine
University of Chicago Fred Shaffer PhD
Chicago, IL Department of Psychology
USA Truman State University
Kirksville, MI
Victoria Rand MD USA
California Pacific Medical Center
San Francisco, CA Zuo-Hui Shao MD
USA Section of Emergency Medicine
Department of Medicine
Sheri L. Robb PhD MT-BC University of Chicago
Music Education/Music Therapy Chicago, IL
University of Missouri – Kansas City USA
Conservatory of Music
Kansas City, MO Yukihiro Shoyama PhD
USA Laboratory of Medicinal Resourses Regulation
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Michael F. Roizen MD FACP Kyushu University
Division of Anesthesia, Critical Care Medicine, Fukuoka
and Comprehensive Pain Management Japan
Cleveland Clinic
Cleveland, OH Lynne T. Shuster MD FACP
USA Women’s Health Clinic
Mayo Clinic
David P. Russo DO Rochester, MN
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation USA
Mayo Clinic
Rochester, MN
USA
Contributors xv

Mi-Yeon Song OMD PhD Daniel Turner-Lloveras


Department of Oriental Rehabilitation Medicine University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine
College of Oriental Medicine Chicago, IL
Kyung Hee University USA
Dongdaemun-gu
Seoul Jay Udani MD
Korea Northridge Hospital Integrative Medicine Program
and UCLA/Geffen School of Medicine
Amit Sood MD Northridge, CA
General Internal Medicine USA
Mayo Clinic
Rochester, MN Terry L. Vanden Hoek MD
USA Section of Emergency Medicine
Department of Medicine
Matthew J. Sorrentino MD FACC and the Emergency Resuscitation Center
Section of Cardiology University of Chicago
Department of Medicine Chicago, IL
University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine USA
Chicago, IL
USA Shari Wachob
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Feng Sun PhD MD Geisinger Health Systems
Department of Medicine Danville, PA
University of Alberta USA
Edmonton, Alberta
Canada Dietlind L. Wahner-Roedler MD
General Internal Medicine
Nigel P. Sykes MA FRCGP Mayo Clinic
St. Christopher’s Hospice Rochester, MN
and King’s College, London USA
UK
Chong-Zhi Wang PhD
Philippe O. Szapary MD Tang Center for Herbal Medicine Research
Cardiovascular Risk Intervention Program University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine
Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics Chicago, IL
University of Pennsylvania Health System USA
Philadelphia, PA
USA Yong Gao Wang MD MBA LAc
Department of Physiology
Shusheng Tai PhD Loyola University of Chicago
Department of Medicine Maywood, IL
University of Alberta USA
Edmonton, Alberta
Canada Wendy Warner MD FACOG ABHM
Medicine In Balance, LLC
Jacqueline Thielen MD Langhorne, PA
General Internal Medicine USA
Mayo Clinic
Rochester, MN
USA
xvi Textbook of Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Catherine R. Weiler MD Wen Xuan MD


Allergic Diseases Chicago First Chinese Acupuncture and Medical
Mayo Clinic Center
Rochester, MN Chicago, IL
USA USA

Sheila M. Wicks MD MBA Stevenson Xutian PhD


Tang Center for Herbal Medicine Research Department of Medicine
University of Chicago University of Alberta
Chicago, IL Edmonton, Alberta
USA Canada

Ji An Wu PhD Fay A. Yao BS


Department of Pharmaceuticals and New Technology Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Pharmaceutical Products Division Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Abbott Laboratories Baltimore, MD
Abbott Park, IL USA
USA
Chun-Su Yuan MD PhD
Jing-Tian Xie MD Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care
Tang Center for Herbal Medicine Research and Tang Center for Herbal Medicine Research
University of Chicago University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine
Chicago, IL Chicago, IL
USA USA

Bob Xu CMD MS
American Chinese Medical Association
and Center for Holistic and Herbal Therapy
Plainfield, IL
USA
Preface

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) com- general working knowledge of CAM and a familiarity
prises those health-care practices that are not currently with the potential benefits and adverse effects of com-
considered an integral part of conventional therapies. mon CAM therapies. By being informed, physicians can
People who use CAM therapies do so for a variety of rea- then inform their patients. Informed patients will be
sons. Many are seeking ways to improve their health and empowered to make informed choices or to reject CAM
well-being. Some use CAM as a means to increase a sense modalities. A collaborative approach between physicians
of control over health care. Others use CAM to relieve and patients is the key to ensuring that CAM fulfills its
the side-effects of conventional treatments. Yet many of potential of restoring the body, mind, and spirit of
the therapies and modalities being chosen have not been patients.
adequately studied. In many cases, the potential benefits The first edition of this book originated from a CAM
and risks remain only partially understood. course offered to medical students at the Pritzker School
Thus, we recognize the need to study CAM therapies of Medicine at the University of Chicago, and other pro-
to determine which are safe and effective and which fessional CAM meetings, organized by faculty members
might lack efficacy or be harmful. Fortunately, many at the University of Chicago for the continuing medical
CAM studies have been undertaken with increasing reg- education of practicing physicians. For this new edition,
ularity in the past ten years. These studies have begun to Dr Brent Bauer, Director of the Complementary and
answer many of the questions raised about the most Integrative Medicine Program at Mayo Clinic, joined
common therapies. However, patients and consumers our editorial team. Encouraged by the reception given to
have so far been unwilling to wait for science to ‘catch the first edition, we prepared the second edition to
up’ by undertaking such studies. The popularity of CAM incorporate the new research in the interim to continue
has risen sharply since the latter part of the twentieth to meet our readers’ needs. As a result, the second edition
century. This patient/consumer-driven movement affects has added more than 30 new chapters. It is our intention
all specialties of conventional medicine, influencing the to provide comprehensive, contemporary, and evidence-
decision making and practice of allopathic physicians. based CAM information in this text, which is designed
Often, medical professionals do not have an adequate for practicing physicians, medical students, other health-
background in CAM or they lack access to the growing care professionals and interested individuals.
body of evidence-based information that does exist. The work of this book was supported in part by
They are therefore unable to provide informed responses NIH/NCCAM grants AT002176 and AT002445, and
to CAM questions from their patients. It is vitally the Tang Foundation for Traditional Chinese Medicine
important for today’s medical professionals to have a Research.

Chun-Su Yuan
Eric J. Bieber
Brent A. Bauer

xvii
Acknowledgments

This text was born of our hope that you, the reader, will value in this project and his continuing desire to dissem-
gain from the experience of its many contributors. We inate medical knowledge. Additionally, Pam Lancaster
have attempted to cover broad areas, often including has spent countless hours with the editors in finalizing
topics that may or may not be familiar, to present a sense the text. We also thank Simon Harper for the cover
of the current state of the art. The broadly defined field design and Kate Lancaster for the original drawings.
of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) con- Finally, we thank our families for allowing us to take
tinues to expand at a rapid pace. Given that most physi- time away from our precious minutes with them. To my
cians practicing today have not received formal training parents, Chengye Yuan and Zhenkun Wang, my wife,
in CAM, we conceived this text both as a tool to develop Xiaoyu Wang, and daughter, Amanda, for your guidance
a knowledge of CAM and as a reference for those who and inspiration (CSY). To my wife, Edie, and my chil-
have experience in some areas of CAM. dren, Brandon and Andrew, your untiring love has given
The contributors have spent countless hours to pro- me the support and enthusiasm to chase my dreams. To
vide current information. Without their input and ener- my parents, George and Audrey, and sister, Kris, your
gies this final product could not exist. We sincerely constant encouragement to pursue knowledge in a tire-
appreciate the time spent and the wisdom shared in less fashion and an unrelenting belief in me as a human
bringing this project to fruition. being laid the foundation for all that I have and will
Many other individuals are also responsible for this accomplish (EJB). To my mother, Nancee, my wife,
text. We thank Nick Dunton, Head of Medical Publish- Kristin, and my children, Jonathan, Elizabeth, and
ing, Informa Healthcare, for his vision in seeing the David, with love, respect, and gratitude (BAB).

Chun-Su Yuan
Eric J. Bieber
Brent A. Bauer

xix
References

Commonly used herbal medicines 2

37. Turner RB, Bauer R, Woelkart K, et al. An evaluation of


Echinacea angustifolia in experimental rhinovirus
infections. N Engl J Med 2005; 353: 341–8

38. Mengs U, Clare CB, Poiley JA. Toxicity of Echinacea


purpurea. Acute, subacute and genotoxicity studies.
Arzneimittelforschung 1991; 41: 1076–81

39. Gallo M, Sarkar M, Au W, et al. Pregnancy outcome


following gestational exposure to echinacea: a prospective
controlled study. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160: 3141–3

40. Huntley AL, Thompson Coon J, Ernst E. The safety of


herbal medicinal products derived from Echinacea species: a
systematic review. Drug Safety 2005; 28: 387–400

41. Gallo M, Koren G. Can herbal products be used safely


during pregnancy? Focus on echinacea. Can Fam Physician
2001; 47: 1727–8

42. Tsui B, Dennehy CE, Tsourounis C. A survey of dietary


supplement use during pregnancy at an academic medical
center. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001; 185: 433–7

43. Mullins RJ, Heddle R. Adverse reactions associated with


echinacea: the Australian experience. Ann Allergy Asthma
Immunol 2002; 88: 42–51

44. Mullins RJ. Echinacea-associated anaphylaxis. Med J


Aust 1998; 168: 170–1

45. Boullata JI, Nace AM. Safety issues with herbal


medicine. Pharmacotherapy 2000; 20: 257–69

46. Miller LG. Herbal medicinals: selected clinical


considerations focusing on known or potential drug–herb
interactions. Arch Intern Med 1998; 158: 2200–11

47. Krapp K, Longe JL. The Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative


Medicine, Volume 2. Detroit, MI: Gale Group, 2001

48. World Health Organization. Herba Ephedra. WHO


Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Vol 1. Geneva:
World Health Organization, 1999: 145–53

49. Blanck HM, Khan LK, Serdula MK. Use of nonprescription


weight loss products: results from a multistate survey. J
Am Med Assoc 2001; 286: 930–5

50. Bucci LR. Selected herbals and human exercise


performance. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 72: 624S–36S

51. Greenway FL. The safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical


and herbal caffeine and ephedrine use as a weight loss
agent. Obes Rev 2001; 2: 199–211

52. Blanck HM, Khan LK, Serdula MK. Use of nonprescription


weight loss products: results from a multistate survey. J
Am Med Assoc 2001; 286: 930–5

53. Astrup A, Breum L, Toubro S, et al. The effect and


safety of an ephedrine/caffeine compound compared to
ephedrine, caffeine, and placebo in obese subjects on an
energy restricted diet: a double blind trial. Int J Obes
1992; 16: 269–77

54. Astrup A, Toubro S, Cannon S, et al. Thermogenic


synergism between ephedrine and caffeine in healthy
volunteers: a doubleblind, placebo-controlled study.
Metabolism 1991; 40: 323–9

55. Boozer CN, Nasser JA, Heymsfield SB, et al. An herbal


supplement containing ma huang-guarana for weight loss: a
randomized, double-blind trial. Int J Obes 2001; 25: 316–24

56. Bucci LR. Selected herbals and human exercise


performance. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 72: 624s–36s

57. Bell DG, Jacobs I, Zamecnik J. Effects of caffeine,


ephedrine and their combination on time to exhaustion
during highintensity exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 1998; 77:
427–33 58. Young R, Gabryszuk M, Glennon RA. Ephedrine and
caffeine mutually potentiate one another’s amphetamine-like
stimulus effects. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1998; 61: 169–73
59. Nightingale SL. From the Food and Drug Administration.
J Am Med Assoc 1996; 275: 1534 60. Gurley BJ, Gardner SF,
Hubbard MA. Content versus label claims in
ephedra-containing dietary supplements. Am J Health Syst
Pharm 2000; 57: 963–9 61. Hoffman BB, Lefkowitz RJ.
Catecholamines, sympathomimetic drugs, and adrenergic
receptor antagonists. In Hardman JG, Gilaman AG, Limbird
LE, eds. Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of
Therapeutics, 9th edn. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1996:
199–248 62. White LM, Gardner SF, Gurley BJ, et al.
Pharmacokinetics and cardiovascular effects of ma-huang
(Ephedra sinica) in normotensive adults. J Clin Pharmacol
1997; 37: 116–22 63. Gurley BJ, Gardner SF, White LM, Wang
PL. Ephedrine pharmacokinetics after the ingestion of
nutritional supplements containing Ephedra sinica (ma
huang). Ther Drug Monit 1998; 20: 439–45 64. Haller CA,
Benowitz NL. Adverse cardiovascular and central nervous
system events associated with dietary supplements
containing ephedra alkaloids. N Engl J Med 2000; 343:
1833–8 65. Haller CA, Benowitz NL. Adverse cardiovascular
and central nervous system events associated with dietary
supplements containing ephedra alkaloids. N Engl J Med
2000; 343: 1833–8 66. Nightingale SL. From the Food and
Drug Administration. J Am Med Assoc 1997; 278: 15 67.
Zaacks SM, Klein L, Tan CD, et al. Hypersensitivity
myocarditis associated with ephedra use. J Toxicol Clin
Toxicol 1999; 37: 485–9 68. Powell T, Hsu FF, Turk J,
Hruska K. Ma-huang strikes again: ephedrine
nephrolithiasis. Am J Kidney Dis 1998; 32: 153–9 69. Straus
SE. Herbal medicines–what’s in the bottle? N Engl J Med
2002; 347: 1997–8 70. Lee MK, Cheng BW, Che CT, et al.
Cytotoxicity assessment of ma-huang (ephedra) under
different conditions of preparation. Toxicol Sci 2000; 56:
424–30 71. Marcus DM, Grollman AP. Botanical medicines–the
need for new regulations. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 2073–6
72. Gurley BJ, Gardner SF, Hubbard MA. Content versus label
claims in ephedra-containing dietary supplements. Am J
Health Syst Pharm 2000; 57: 963–9 73. FDA. Final rule
declaring dietary supplements containing ephedrine
alkaloids adulterated because they present an unreasonable
risk. Federal Register Docket No 1995N-0304. 11 February
2004 74. Christensen NJ, Galbo H. Sympathetic nervous
activity during exercise. Annu Rev Physiol 1983; 45: 139–53
75. Eisenhofer G, Rundqvist B, Friberg P. Determinants of
cardiac tyrosine hydroxylase activity during
exercise-induced sympathetic activation in humans. Am J
Physiol 1998; 274: R626–34 76. Anastasio GD, Harston PR.
Fetal tachycardia associated with maternal use of
pseudoephedrine, an over-the-counter oral decongestant. J
Am Board Fam Pract 1992; 5: 527–8 77. Dollery C. In
Therapeutic Drugs, Volume 1. New York, NY: Churchill
Livingstone, 1991 78. Koscielny J, Klussendorf D, Latza R,
et al. The antiatherosclerotic effect of Allium sativum.
Antherosclerosis 1999; 144: 237–49

79. Stevinson C, Pittler MH, Ernst E. Garlic for treating


hypercholesterolemia: a meta-analysis of randomized
clinical trials. Ann Intern Med 2000; 133: 420–9

80. Warshafsky S, Kamer RS, Sivak SL. Effect of garlic on


total serum cholesterol. A meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med
1993; 119: 599–605
81. Mader FH. Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with
garlic-powder tablets. Evidence from the German Association
of General Practitioners’ multicentric placebo-controlled
double-blind study. Arzneimittelforschung 1990; 40: 1111–16

82. Gardner CD, Chatterjee LM, Carlson JJ. The effect of a


garlic preparation on plasma lipid levels in moderately
hypercholesterolemic adults. Atherosclerosis 2001; 154:
213–20

83. Berthold HK, Sudhop T, von Bergmann K. Effect of a


garlic oil preparation on serum lipoproteins and
cholesterol metabolism: a randomized controlled trial. J Am
Med Assoc 1998; 279: 1900–2

84. Isaacsohn JL, Moser M, Stein EA, et al. Garlic powder


and plasma lipids and lipoproteins: a multicenter,
randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 1998;
158: 1189–94

85. McCrindle BW, Helden E, Conner WT. Garlic extract


therapy in children with hypercholesterolemia. Arch Pediatr
Adolesc Med 1998; 152: 1089–94

86. Gebhardt R. Multiple inhibitory effects of garlic


extracts on cholesterol biosynthesis in hepatocytes. Lipids
1993; 28: 613–19

87. Steiner M, Lin RS. Changes in platelet function and


susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with
administration of aged garlic extract. J Cardiovasc
Pharmacol 1998; 31: 904–8

88. Kannar D, Wattanapenpaiboon N, Savige GS, Wahlqvist ML.


Hypocholesterolemic effect of an enteric-coated garlic
supplement. J Am Coll Nutr 2001; 20: 225–31

89. Ali M, Al-Qattan KK, Al-Enezi F, et al. Effect of


allicin from garlic powder on serum lipids and blood
pressure in rats fed with a high cholesterol diet.
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2000; 62: 253–9

90. Silagy CA, Neil HA. A meta-analysis of the effect of


garlic on blood pressure. J Hypertens 1994; 12: 463–8

91. Ziaei S, Hantoshzadeh S, Rezasoltani P, Lamyian M. The


effect of garlic tablet on plasma lipids and platelet
aggregation in nulliparous pregnants at high risk of
preeclampsia. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2001; 99:
201–6

92. Mohammad SF, Woodward SC. Characterization of a potent


inhibitor of platelet aggregation and release reaction
isolated from Allium sativum (garlic). Thromb Res 1986; 44:
793–806

93. Ariga T, Oshiba S, Tamada T. Platelet aggregation


inhibitor in garlic [letter]. Lancet 1981; 1: 150–1

94. Boullin DJ. Garlic as a platelet inhibitor [letter].


Lancet 1981; 1: 776–7

95. Srivastava KC. Evidence for the mechanism by which


garlic inhibits platelet aggregation. Prostaglandins Leukot
Med 1986; 22: 313–21

96. Apitz-Castro R, Escalante J, Vargas R, Jain MK. Ajoene,


the antiplatelet principle of garlic, synergistically
potentiates the antiaggregatory action of prostacyclin,
forskolin, indomethacin and dipyridamole on human
platelets. Thromb Res 1986; 42: 303–11

97. Apitz-Castro R, Ledezma E, Escalante J, Jain MK. The


molecular basis of the antiplatelet action of ajoene:
direct interaction with the fibrinogen receptor. Biochem
Biophys Res Commun 1986; 141: 145–50 98. Makheja AN, Bailey
JM. Antiplatelet constituents of garlic and onion. Agents
Actions 1990; 29: 360–3 99. Harenberg J, Giese C, Zimmerman
R. Effect of dried garlic on blood coagulation,
fibrinolysis, platelet aggregation and serum cholesterol
levels in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia.
Atherosclerosis 1988; 74: 247–9 100. Chutani SK, Bordia A.
The effect of fried versus raw garlic on fibrinolytic
activity in man. Atherosclerosis 1981; 38: 417–21 101.
Kim-Park S, Ku DD. Garlic elicits a nitric oxide-dependent
relaxation and inhibits hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction
in rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2000; 27: 780–6 102.
Das I, Khan NS, Sooranna SR. Potent activation of nitric
oxide synthase by garlic: a basis for its therapeutic
applications. Curr Med Res Opin 1995; 13: 257–63 103. Kaye
AD, De Witt BJ, Anwar M, et al. Analysis of responses of
garlic derivatives in the pulmonary valscular bed of the
rat. J Appl Physiol 2000; 89: 353–8 104. Lawson LD, Ransom
DK, Hughes BG. Inhibition of whole blood
platelet-aggregation by compounds in garlic clove extracts
and commercial garlic products. Thromb Res 1992; 65: 141–56
105. Dorant E, van den Brandt PA, Goldbohm RA, et al.
Garlic and its significance for the prevention of cancer in
humans: a critical view. Br J Cancer 1993; 67: 424–9 106.
Lawson LD, Wang ZJ. Pre-hepatic fate of the organosulfur
compounds derived from garlic (Allium sativum). Planta Med
1993; 59: A688–9 (abstract) 107. Lachmann G, Lorenz D,
Radeck W, Steiper M. [The pharmacokinetics of S35 labeled
garlic constituents alliin, allicin, and vinyldithiine].
Arzneimittelforschung 1994; 44: 734–43 108. Egen-Schwind C,
Eckard R, Jekat FW, Winterhoff H. Pharmacokinetics of
vinyldithiins, transformation products of allicin. Planta
Med 1992; 58: 8–13 109. Rose KD, Croissant PD, Parliament
CF, Levin MB. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma with
associated platelet dysfunction from excessive garlic
ingestion: a case report. Neurosurgery 1990; 26: 880–2 110.
Anon. Garlic. In Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J,
eds. Herbal Medicine – Expanded Commission E Monographs,
1st edn. Newton, MA: Integrative Medical Communications,
2000: 139–48 111. Agarwal KC. Therapeutic actions of garlic
constituents. Med Res Rev 1996; 16: 111–24 112. Le Bars PL,
Katz MM, Berman N, et al. A placebo-controlled,
double-blind, randomized trial of an extract of Ginkgo
biloba for dementia. North American EGb Study Group. J Am
Med Assoc 1997; 278: 1327–32 113. Oken BS, Storzbach DM,
Kaye JA. The efficacy of Ginkgo biloba on cognitive
function in Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 1998; 55:
1409–15 114. Kurtz A, Van Baelen B. Ginkgo biloba compared
with cholinesterase inhibitors in the treatment of
dementia: a review based on meta-analyses by the cochrane
collaboration. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2004; 18: 217–26
115. Nathan PJ, Tanner S, Lloyd J, et al. Effects of a
combined extract of Ginkgo biloba and Bacopa monniera on
cognitive function in healthy humans. Hum Psychopharmacol
2004; 19: 91–6

116. Cieza A, Maier P, Poppel E. Effects of Ginkgo biloba


on mental functioning in healthy volunteers. Arch Med Res
2003; 34: 373–81

117. Canter PH, Ernst E. Multiple n = 1 trials in the


identification of responders and non-responders to the
cognitive effects of Ginkgo biloba. Int J Clin Pharmacol
Ther 2003; 41: 354–7

118. Canter PH, Ernst E. Ginkgo biloba: a smart drug? A


systematic review of controlled trials of the cognitive
effects of ginkgo biloba extracts in healthy people.
Psychopharmacol Bull 2002; 36: 108–23

119. Nathan PJ, Ricketts E, Wesnes K, et al. The acute


nootropic effects of Ginkgo biloba in healthy older human
subjects: a preliminary investigation. Hum Psychopharmacol
2002; 17: 45–9
120. Moulton PL, Boyko LN, Fitzpatrick JL, Petros TV. The
effect of Ginkgo biloba on memory in healthy male
volunteers. Physiol Behav 2001; 73: 659–65

121. Stough C, Clarke J, Lloyd J, Nathan PJ.


Neuropsychological changes after 30-day Ginkgo biloba
administration in healthy participants. Int J
Neuropsychopharmacol 2001; 4: 131–4

122. Kennedy DO, Scholey AB, Wesnes KA. The dose-dependent


cognitive effects of acute administration of Ginkgo biloba
to healthy young volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl)
2000; 151: 416–23

123. Rigney U, Kimber S, Hindmarch I. The effects of acute


doses of standardized Ginkgo biloba extract on memory and
psychomotor performance in volunteers. Phytother Res 1999;
13: 408–15

124. Ernst E. [Ginkgo biloba in treatment of intermittent


claudication. A systemic research based on controlled
studies in the literature]. Fortschr Med 1996; 114: 85–7

125. Bartlett H, Eperjesi F. An ideal ocular nutritional


supplement? Ophthal Physiol Opt 2004; 24: 339–49

126. Evans JR. Ginkgo biloba extract for age-related


macular degeneration. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000:
CD001775

127. Issing W, Klein P, Weiser M. The homeopathic


preparation Vertigoheel versus Ginkgo biloba in the
treatment of vertigo in an elderly population: a
double-blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial. J
Altern Complement Med 2005; 11: 155–60

128. Schneider B, Klein P, Weiser M. Treatment of vertigo


with a homeopathic complex remedy compared with usual
treatments: a meta-analysis of clinical trials.
Arzneimittelforschung 2005; 55: 23–9

129. Cesarani A, Meloni F, Alpini D, et al. Ginkgo biloba


(EGb 761) in the treatment of equilibrium disorders. Adv
Ther 1998; 15: 291–304

130. Ernst E, Stevinson C. Ginkgo biloba for tinnitus: a


review. Clin Otolaryngol 1999; 24: 164–7

131. Wheatley D. Triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial of


Ginkgo biloba in sexual dysfunction due to antidepressant
drugs. Hum Psychopharmacol 2004; 19: 545–8

132. Kang BJ, Lee SJ, Kim MD, Cho MJ. A placebo-controlled,
double-blind trial of Ginkgo biloba for
antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. Hum
Psychopharmacol 2002; 17: 279–84

133. Cohen AJ, Bartlik B. Ginkgo biloba for


antidepressantinduced sexual dysfunction. J Sex Marital
Ther 1998; 24: 139–43

134. Roncin JP, Schwartz F, D’Arbingny P. EGb 761 in


control of acute mountain sickness and vascular reactivity
to cold exposure. Aviat Space Environ Med 1996; 67: 445–52
135. Smith PF, Zheng Y, Darlington CL. Ginkgo biloba
extracts for tinnitus: more hype than hope? J
Ethnopharmacol 2005; 100: 95–9 136. Rejali D, Sivakumar A,
Balaji N. Ginkgo biloba does not benefit patients with
tinnitus: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind
trial and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Clin
Otolaryngol Allied Sci 2004; 29: 226–31 137. Hilton M,
Stuart E. Ginkgo biloba for tinnitus. Cochrane Database
Syst Rev 2004; 2: CD003852 138. Schneider D, Schneider L,
Shulman A, et al. Gingko biloba (Rokan) therapy in tinnitus
patients and measurable interactions between tinnitus and
vestibular disturbances. Int Tinnitus J 2000; 6: 56–62 139.
DeBisschop M. Ginkgo ineffective for tinnitus. J Fam Pract
2003; 52: 766–9 140. Jung F, Mrowietz C, Kiesewetter H,
Wenzel E. Effect of Ginkgo biloba on fluidity of blood and
peripheral microcirculation in volunteers.
Arzneimittelforschung 1990; 40: 589–93 141. Maitra I,
Marcocci L, Droy-Lefaix MT, Packer L. Peroxyl radical
scavenging activity of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761.
Biochem Pharmacol 1995; 49: 1649–55 142. Hoyer S, Lannert
H, Noldner M, Chatterjee SS. Damaged neuronal energy
metabolism and behavior are improved by Ginkgo biloba
extract (EGb 761). J Neural Transm Gen Sect 1999; 106:
1171–88 143. Huguet F, Tarrade T. Alpha 2-adrenoceptor
changes during cerebral ageing. The effect of Ginkgo biloba
extract. J Pharm Pharmacol 1992; 44: 24–7 144. Chung KF,
Dent G, McCusker M, et al. Effect of a ginkgolide mixture
(BN 52063) in antagonising skin and platelet responses to
platelet activating factor in man. Lancet 1987; 1: 248–51
145. Oyama Y, Fuchs PA, Katayama N, Noda K. Myricetin and
quercetin, the flavonoid constituents of Ginkgo biloba
extract, greatly reduced oxidative metabolism in both
resting and Ca2+ loaded brain neurons. Brain Res 1994; 635:
125–9 146. Cheung F, Siow YL, Chen WZ, O K. Inhibitory
effect of Ginkgo biloba on the expression of inducible
nitric oxide synthase in endothelial cells. Biochem
Pharmacol 1999; 58: 1665–73 147. Lamant V, Mauco G, Braquet
P, et al. Inhibition of the metabolism of platelet
activating factor (PAF-acether) by three specific
antagonists from Ginkgo biloba. Biochem Pharmacol 1987; 36:
2749–52 148. Kornecki E, Ehrlich YH. Neuroregulatory and
neuropathological actions of the ether–phospholipid
platelet-activating factor. Science 1988; 240: 1792–4 149.
Akisu M, Kultursay N, Coker I, Huseyinov A.
Platelet-activating factor is an important mediator in
hypoxic ischemic brain injury in the newborn rat.
Flunarizine and Ginkgo biloba extract reduce PAF
concentration in the brain. Biol Neonate 1998; 74: 439–44
150. Birkle DL, Kurian P, Braquet P, Bazan NG.
Platelet-activating factor antagonist BN 52021 decreases
accumulation of free polyunsaturated fatty acid in mouse
brain during ischemia and electroconvulsive shock. J
Neurochem 1988; 51: 1900–5 151. Umegaki K, Shinozuka K,
Watarai K, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract attenuates the
development of hypertension in deoxycorticosterone
acetate-salt hypertensive rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol
2000; 27: 277–82

152. Sloley BD, Urichuk LJ, Morley P, et al. Identification


of kaempferol as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor and
potential neuroprotectant in extracts of Ginkgo biloba
leaves. J Pharm Pharmacol 2000; 52: 451–9

153. Pardon MC, Joubert C, Perez-Diaz F, et al. In vivo


regulation of cerebral monoamine oxidase activity in
senescent controls and chronically stressed mice by
long-term treatment with Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761).
Mech Ageing Dev 2000; 113: 157–68

154. Fowler JS, Wang GJ, Volkow ND, et al. Evidence that
Ginkgo biloba extract does not inhibit MAO A and MAO B in
living human brain. Life Sci 2000; 66: PL141–6

155. Watson DG, Oliveira EJ. Solid-phase extraction and gas


chromatography–mass spectrometry determination of
kaempferol and quercetin in human urine after consumption
of Ginkgo biloba tablets. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl
1999; 723: 203–10

156. Anon. Ginkgo. In Mills S, Bone K, eds. Principles and


Practice of Phytotherapy. New York, NY: Churchill
Livingstone, 2000: 404–17

157. Koch E. Inhibition of platelet activating factor


(PAF)-induced aggregation of human thrombocytes by
ginkgolides: considerations on possible bleeding
complications after oral intake of Ginkgo biloba extracts.
Phytomedicine 2005; 12: 10–16

158. Destro MW, Speranzini MB, Cavalheiro Filho C, et al.


Bilateral haematoma after rhytidoplasty and blepharoplasty
following chronic use of Ginkgo biloba. Br J Plast Surg
2005; 58: 100–1

159. Rowin J, Lewis SL. Spontaneous bilateral subdural


hematomas associated with chronic Ginkgo biloba ingestion.
Neurology 1996; 46: 1775–6

160. Vale S. Subarachnoid haemorrhage associated with


Ginkgo biloba. Lancet 1998; 352: 36

161. Gilbert GJ. Ginkgo biloba [letter]. Neurology 1997;


48: 1137

162. Matthews MK Jr. Association of Ginkgo biloba with


intracerebral hemorrhage [letter]. Neurology 1998; 50:
1933–4

163. Rosenblatt M, Mindel J. Spontaneous hyphema associated


with ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract [letter]. N Engl J
Med 1997; 336: 1108

164. Fessenden JM, Wittenborn W, Clarke L. Gingko biloba: a


case report of herbal medicine and bleeding postoperatively
from a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Am Surg 2001; 67: 33–5

165. Bressler R. Herb–drug interactions: interactions


between Ginkgo biloba and prescription medications.
Geriatrics 2005; 60: 30–3

166. Bartlett H, Eperjesi F. Possible contraindications and


adverse reactions associated with the use of ocular
nutritional supplements. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2005; 25:
179–94

167. Ciocon JO, Ciocon DG, Galindo DJ. Dietary supplements


in primary care. Botanicals can affect surgical outcomes
and follow-up. Geriatrics 2004; 59: 20–4

168. Williamson EM. Drug interactions between herbal and


prescription medicines. Drug Safety 2003; 26: 1075–92

169. Abebe W. Herbal medication: potential for adverse


interactions with analgesic drugs. J Clin Pharm Ther 2002;
27: 391–401
170. Brekham II, Dardymov IV. New substances of plant
origin which increase nonspecific resistance. Annu Rev
Pharmacol 1969; 9: 419–30

171. Chong SK, Oberholzer VG. Ginseng – is there a use in


clinical medicine? Postgrad Med J 1988; 64: 841–6 172.
Hartz AJ, Bentler S, Noyes R, et al. Randomized controlled
trial of Siberian ginseng for chronic fatigue. Psychol Med
2004; 34: 51–61 173. Wang BX, Cui JC, Liu AJ, Wu SK.
Studies on the anti-fatigue effect of the saponins of stems
and leaves of Panax ginseng (SSLG). J Trad Chin Med 1983;
3: 89–94 174. Yang G, Yu Y. Immunopotentiating effect of
traditional Chinese drugs – ginsenoside and glycyrrhiza
polysaccharide. Proc Chin Acad Med Sci Peking Union Med
Coll 1990; 5: 188–93 175. Helms S. Cancer prevention and
therapeutics: Panax ginseng. Altern Med Rev 2004; 9: 259–74
176. Chang YS, Seo EK, Gyllenhaal C, Block KI. Panax
ginseng: a role in cancer therapy? Integr Cancer Ther 2003;
2: 13–33 177. Shin HR, Kim JY, Yun TK, et al. The
cancer-preventive potential of Panax ginseng: a review of
human and experimental evidence. Cancer Causes Control
2000; 11: 565–76 178. Shin HR, Kim JY, Yun TK, et al. The
cancer-preventive potential of Panax ginseng: a review of
human and experimental evidence. Cancer Causes Control
2000; 11: 565–76 179. Zhou W, Chai H, Lin PH, et al.
Molecular mechanisms and clinical applications of ginseng
root for cardiovascular disease. Med Sci Monit 2004; 10:
RA187–92 180. Chen X. Cardiovascular protection by
ginsenosides and their nitric oxide releasing action. Clin
Exp Pharmacol Physiol 1996; 23: 728–32 181. Vuksan V,
Sievenpiper JL, Koo VY, et al. American ginseng (Panax
quinquefolius L) reduces postprandial glycemia in
nondiabetic subjects and subject with type 2 diabetes
mellitus. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160: 1009–13 182. Lieberman
HR. The effects of ginseng, ephedrine, and caffeine on
cognitive performance, mood and energy. Nutr Rev 2001; 59:
91–102 183. Cho YK, Sung H, Lee HJ, et al. Long-term intake
of Korean red ginseng in HIV-1-infected patients:
development of resistance mutation to zidovudine is
delayed. Int Immunopharmacol 2001; 1: 1295–305 184. Hong B,
Ji YH, Hong JH, et al. A double-blind crossover study
evaluating the efficacy of Korean red ginseng in patients
with erectile dysfunction: a preliminary report. J Urol
2002; 168: 2070–3 185. Choi YD, Rha KH, Choi HK. In vitro
and in vivo experimental effect of Korean red ginseng on
erection. J Urol 1999; 162: 1508–11 186. Bahrke MS, Morgan
WP. Evaluation of the ergogenic properties of ginseng.
Sports Med 1994; 18: 229–48 187. Bahrke MS, Morgan WP.
Evaluation of the ergogenic properties of ginseng: an
update. Sports Med 2000; 29: 113–33 188. Vogler BK, Pittler
MH, Ernst E. The efficacy of ginseng. A systematic review
of randomised clinical trials. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1999;
55: 567–75 189. Anon. Ginseng. In Blumenthal M, Busse WR,
Goldberg A, et al., eds. The Complete German Commission E
Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines, 1st edn.
Boston, MA: Integrative Medical Communications, 1998 190.
Attele AS, Wu JA, Yuan CS. Ginseng pharmacology: multiple
constituents and multiple actions. Biochem Pharmacol 1999;
58: 1685–93 191. Benishin CG, Lee R, Wang LCH, Liu HJ.
Effects of ginsenoside Rb1 on central cholinergic
metabolism. Pharmacology 1991; 42: 223–9

192. Yamaguchi Y, Haruta K, Kobayashi H. Effects on


ginsenosides on impaired performance induced in the rat by
scopolamine in a radial-arm maze. Psychoneuroendocrinology
1995; 20: 645–53

193. Lim JH, Wen TC, Matsuda S, et al. Protection of


ischemic hippocampal neurons by ginsenoside Rb1, a main
ingredient of ginseng root. Neurosci Res Suppl 1997; 28:
191–200

194. Takemoto Y, Ueyama T, Saito H, et al. Potentiation of


nerve growth factor-mediated nerve fiber production in
organ cultures of chicken embryonic ganglia by ginseng
saponins: structure–activity relationship. Chem Pharm Bull
(Tokyo) 1984; 32: 3128–33

195. Mogil JS, Shin YH, McCleskey EW, et al. Ginsenoside


Rf, a trace component of ginseng root, produces
antinociception in mice. Brain Res 1998; 792: 218–28

196. Nah JJ, Hahn JH, Chung S, et al. Effect of


ginsenosides, active components of ginseng, on
capsaicin-induced pain-related behavior. Neuropharmacology
2000; 39: 2180–4

197. Suh HW, Song DK, Huh SO, Kim YH. Modulatory role of
ginsenosides injected intrathecally or
intracerebroventricularly in the production of
antinociception induced by kappa-opioid receptor agonist
administered intracerebroventricularly in the mouse. Planta
Med 2000; 66: 412–17

198. Huong NT, Matsumoto K, Yamasaki K, et al.


Majonoside-R2, a major constituent of Vietnamese ginseng,
attenuates opioidinduced antinociception. Pharmacol Biochem
Behav 1997; 57: 285–91
199. Kimura T, Saunders PA, Kim HS, et al. Interactions of
ginsenosides with ligand-bindings of GABA(A) and GABA(B)
receptors. Gen Pharmacol 1994; 25: 193–9

200. Yuan CS, Attele AS, Wu JA, Liu D. Modulation of


American ginseng on brainstem GABAergic effects rats. J
Ethnopharmacol 1998; 62: 215–22

201. Tsang D, Yeung HW, Tso WW, Peck H. Ginseng saponins:


influence of neurotransmitter uptake in rat brain
synaptosomes. Planta Med 1985; 3: 221–4

202. Gillis CN. Panax ginseng pharmacology: a nitric oxide


link. Biochem Pharmacol 1997; 54: 1–8

203. Siegel RK. Ginseng abuse syndrome. Problems with the


panacea. J Am Med Assoc 1979; 241: 1614–15

204. Zhan Y, Xu XH, Jiang YP. [Protective effects of


ginsenoside on myocardial ischemic and reperfusion
injuries]. Chung Hau I Hsueh Tsa Chih 1994; 74: 626–8

205. Yun TK. Experimental and epidemiological evidence of


the cancer-preventive effects of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer.
Nutr Rev 1996; 54: S71–81

206. Yun YS, Moon HS, Oh YR, et al. Effect of red ginseng
on natural killer cell activity in mice with lung adenoma
induced by urethane and benzo(a)pyrene. Cancer Detect Prev
Suppl 1987; 1: 301–9

207. Kim JY, Germolec DR, Luster MI. Panax ginseng as a


potential immunomodulator: studies in mice. Immunopharmacol
Immunotoxicol 1990; 12: 257–76

208. Kenarova B, Neychev H, Hadjiivanova C, Petkov VD.


Immunomodulating activity of ginsenoside Rg1 from Panax
ginseng. Jpn J Pharmacol 1990; 54: 447–54

209. Scaglione F, Cattaneo G, Alessandria M, Cogo R.


Efficacy and safety of the standardised Ginseng extract
G115 for potentiating vaccination against the influenza
syndrome and protection against the common cold. Drugs Exp
Clin Res 1996; 22: 65–72 210. Chen SE, Sawchuk RJ, Staba
EJ. American ginseng. III. Pharmacokinetics of ginsenosides
in the rabbit. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 1980; 5:
161–8 211. Hopkins MP, Androff L, Benninghoff AS. Ginseng
face cream and unexplained vaginal bleeding. Am J Obstet
Gynecol 1988; 159: 1121–2 212. Palop-Larrea V,
Gonzalvez-Perales JL, Catalan-Oliver C, et al.
Metrorrhagia and ginseng [letter]. Ann Pharmacother 2000;
34: 1347–8 213. Greenspan EM. Ginseng and vaginal bleeding
[letter]. J Am Med Assoc 1983; 249: 2018 214. Punnonen R,
Lukola A. Oestrogen-like effect of ginseng. Br Med J 1980;
281: 1110 215. Jones BD, Runikis AM. Interaction of ginseng
with phenelzine [letter]. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1987; 7:
201–2 216. Ryu SJ, Chien YY. Ginseng-associated cerebral
arteritis. Neurology 1995; 45: 829–30 217. Janetzky K,
Morreale AP. Probable interaction between warfarin and
ginseng. Am J Health-Sys Pharm 1997; 54: 692–3 218. Kimura
Y, Okuda H, Arichi S. Effects of various ginseng saponins
on 5-hydroxytryptamine release and aggregation in human
platelets. J Pharm Pharmacol 1988; 40: 838–43 219. Kuo SC,
Teng CM, Lee JC, et al. Antiplatelet components in Panax
ginseng. Planta Med 1990; 56: 164–7 220. Park HJ, Lee JH,
Song YB, Park KH. Effects of dietary supplementation of
lipophilic fraction from Panax ginseng on cGMP and cAMP in
rat platelets and on blood coagulation. Biol Pharm Bull
1996; 19: 1434–9 221. Anon. Ginseng. In Gruenwald J,
Brendler T, Jaenicke C, eds. PDR for Herbal Medicines, 2nd
edn. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, 2000: 346–51
222. Anon. Kava. Lancet 1988; 2: 258–9 223. Cawte J.
Parameters of kava used as a challenge to alcohol. Aust N Z
J Psychiatry 1986; 20: 70–6 224. Cawte J. Macabre effects
of a ‘cult’ for kava [editorial]. Med J Aust 1988; 148:
545–6 225. Mathews JD, Riley MD, Fejo L, et al. Effects of
the heavy usage of kava on physical health: summary of a
pilot survey in an aboriginal community. Med J Aust 1988;
148: 548–55 226. Herberg KW. [Effect of Kava-Special
Extract WS 1490 combined with ethyl alcohol on
safety-relevant performance parameters.] Blutalkohol 1993;
30: 96–105 227. Ernst E. The risk–benefit profile of
commonly used herbal therapies: ginkgo, St. John’s wort,
ginseng, echinacea, saw palmetto, and kava. Ann Intern Med
2002; 136: 42–53 228. Geier FP, Konstantinowicz T. Kava
treatment in patients with anxiety. Phytother Res 2004; 18:
297–300 229. Lehrl S. Clinical efficacy of kava extract WS
1490 in sleep disturbances associated with anxiety
disorders. Results of a multicenter, randomized,
placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. J Affect
Disord 2004; 78: 101–10 230. Gastpar M, Klimm HD. Treatment
of anxiety, tension and restlessness states with kava
special extract WS 1490 in general practice: a randomized
placebo-controlled double-blind multicenter trial.
Phytomedicine 2003; 10: 631–9 231. Volz HP, Kieser M.
Kava-kava extract WS 1490 versus placebo in anxiety
disorders – a randomized placebo-controlled 25week
outpatient trial. Pharmacopsychiatry 1997; 30: 1–5 232.
Neuhaus W, Ghaemi Y, Schmidt T, Lehmann E. [Treatment of
perioperative anxiety in suspected breast carcinoma with a
phytogenic tranquilizer.] Zentralbl Gynakol 2000; 122:
561–5

233. Sun J. Morning/evening menopausal formula relieves


menopausal symptoms: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med
2003; 9: 403–9

234. De Leo V, La Marca A, Morgante G, et al. Evaluation of


combining kava extract with hormone replacement therapy in
the treatment of postmenopausal anxiety. Maturitas 2001;
39: 185–8

235. De Leo V, La Marca A, Lanzetta D, et al. [Assessment


of the association of kava-kava extract and hormone
replacement therapy in the treatment of postmenopause
anxiety]. Minerva Ginecol 2000; 52: 263–7

236. Witte S, Loew D, Gaus W. Meta-analysis of the efficacy


of the acetonic kava-kava extract WS1490 in patients with
non-psychotic anxiety disorders. Phytother Res 2005; 19:
183–8

237. Pittler MH, Ernst E. Kava extract for treating


anxiety. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003; 1: CD003383

238. Stevinson C, Huntley A, Ernst E. A systematic review


of the safety of kava extract in the treatment of anxiety.
Drug Safety 2002; 25: 251–61

239. Pittler MH, Ernst E. Efficacy of kava extract for


treating anxiety: systematic review and meta-analysis. J
Clin Psychopharmacol 2000; 20: 84–9

240. Wheatley D. Medicinal plants for insomnia: a review of


their pharmacology, efficacy and tolerability. J
Psychopharmacol 2005; 19: 414–21

241. Jussofie A, Schmiz A, Hiemke C. Kavapyrone enriched


extract from Piper methysticum as modulator of the GABA
binding site in different regions of rat brain.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1994; 116: 469–74

242. Keledjian J, Duffield PH, Jamieson DD, et al. Uptake


into mouse brain of four compounds present in the
psychoactive beverage kava. J Pharm Sci 1988; 77: 1003–6

243. Rasmussen AK, Scheline RR, Solheim E, Hansel R.


Metabolism of some kava pyrones in the rat. Xenobiotica
1979; 9: 1–16
244. Bilia AR, Scalise L, Bergonzi MC, Vincieri FF.
Analysis of kavalactones from Piper methysticum
(kava-kava). J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci
2004; 812: 203–14

245. Cote CS, Kor C, Cohen J, Auclair K. Composition and


biological activity of traditional and commercial kava
extracts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2004; 322: 147–52

246. Cheng D, Lidgard RO, Duffield PH, et al.


Identification by methane chemical ionization gas
chromatography/mass spectrometry of the products obtained
by steam distillation and aqueous extraction of commercial
Piper methysticum. Biomed Environ Mass Spectrom 1988; 17:
371–6

247. Klohs MW. Chemistry of kava. Psychopharmacol Bull


1967; 4; 10

248. Meyer HJ. Pharmacology of kava – 1. Psychopharmacol


Bull 1967; 4: 10–11

249. Buckley JP, Furgiuele AR, O’Hara MJ. Pharmacology of


kava – 2. Psychopharmacol Bull 1967; 4: 11–12

250. Hu L, Jhoo JW, Ang CY, et al. Determination of six


kavalactones in dietary supplements and selected functional
foods containing Piper methysticum by isocratic liquid
chromatography with internal standard. J AOAC Int 2005; 88:
16–25

251. Backhauss C, Krieglstein J. Extract of kava (Piper


methysticum) and its methysticin constituents protect brain
tissue against ischemic damage in rodents. Eur J Pharmacol
1992; 215: 265–9

252. Heinze HJ, Munthe TF, Steitz J, Matzke M.


Pharmacopsychological effects of oxazepam and kava-extract
in a visual search paradigm assessed with event-related
potentials. Pharmacopsychiatry 1994; 27: 224–30 253. Munte
TF, Heinze HJ, Matzke M, Steitz J. Effects of oxazepam and
an extract of kava roots (Piper methysticum) on
eventrelated potentials in a word recognition task.
Neuropsychobiology 1993; 27: 46–53 254. Jamieson DD,
Duffield PH, Cheng D, Duffield AM. Comparison of the
central nervous system activity of the aqueous and lipid
extract of kava (Piper methysticum). Arch Int Pharmacodyn
Ther 1989; 301: 66–80 255. Davies LP, Drew CA, Duffield P,
et al. Kava pyrones and resin: studies on GABA(A), GABA(B),
and benzodiazepine binding sites in rodent brain. Pharmacol
Toxicol 1992; 71: 120–6 256. Friese J, Gleitz J. Kavain,
dihydrokavain and dihydromethysticin non-competitively
inhibit the specific binding of [3H]batrachotoxinin-A
20-α-benzoate to receptor site 2 of voltagegated Na +
channels. Planta Med 1998; 64: 458–9 257. Magura EI,
Kopanitsa MV, Gleitz J, Peters T, Krishtal OA. Kava extract
ingredients, (+)-methystin and (±)-kavain inhibit
voltage-operated Na(+)-channels in rat CA1 hippocampal
neurons. Neuroscience 1997; 81: 345–51 258. Gleitz J,
Friese J, Beile A, et al. Anticonvulsive action of
(±)kavain estimated from its properties on stimulated
synaptosomes and Na + channel receptor sites. Eur J
Pharmacol 1996; 315: 89–97 259. Gleitz J, Beile A, Peters
T. (±)-Kavain inhibits veratridine-activated
voltage-dependent Na(+) channels in synaptosomes prepared
from rat cerebral cortex. Neuropharmacology 1995; 34:
1133–8 260. Baum SS, Hill R, Rommelspacher H. Effect of
kava extract and individual kavapyrones on neurotransmitter
levels in the nucleus accumbens of rats. Prog
Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 1998; 22: 1105–20 261.
Schelosky L, Raffauf C, Jendroska K, Poewe W. Kava and
dopamine antagonism [letter]. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry
1995; 58: 639–40 262. Pepping J. Kava: Piper methysticum.
Am J Health-Syst Pharm 1999; 56: 957–8 263. Clouatre DL.
Kava kava: examining new reports of toxicity. Toxicol Lett
2004; 150: 85–96 264. Almeida JC, Grimsley EW. Coma from
the health food store: interaction between kava and
alprazolam. Ann Intern Med 1996; 125: 940–1 265. Norton SA,
Ruze P. Kava dermopathy. J Am Acad Dermatol 1994; 31: 89–97
266. Pittler MH, Ernst E. Efficacy of kava extract for
treating anxiety: systematic review and meta-analysis. J
Clin Psychopharmacol 2000; 20: 84–9 267. Russmann S,
Lauterburg BH, Helbling A. Kava hepatotoxicity. Ann Intern
Med 2001; 35: 68–9 268. Escher M, Desmeules J, Giostra E,
Mentha G. Hepatitis associated with kava, a herbal remedy
for anxiety. Br Med J 2001; 322: 139 269. Anon. Kava kava.
In Gruenwald J, Brendler T, Jaenicke C, eds. PDR for Herbal
Medicines, 2nd edn. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics
Company, 2000: 443–6 270. Boerth J, Strong KM. The clinical
utility of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) in cirrhosis of
the liver. J Herb Pharmacother 2002; 2: 11–17 271. Bean P.
The use of alternative medicine in the treatment of
hepatitis C. Am Clin Lab 2002; 21: 19–21

272. Tanamly MD, Tadros F, Labeeb S, et al. Randomised


doubleblinded trial evaluating silymarin for chronic
hepatitis C in an Egyptian village: study description and
12-month results. Dig Liver Dis 2004; 36: 752–9

273. Arteel G, Marsano L, Mendez C, et al. Advances in


alcoholic liver disease. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol
2003; 17: 625–47

274. Giese LA. Milk thistle and the treatment of hepatitis.


Gastroenterol Nurs 2001; 24: 95–7

275. Saller R, Meier R, Brignoli R. The use of silymarin in


the treatment of liver diseases. Drugs 2001; 61: 2035–63

276. Ferenci P, Dragosics B, Dittrich H, et al. Randomized


controlled trial of silymarin treatment in patients with
cirrhosis of the liver. J Hepatol 1989; 9: 105–13

277. Lang I, Nekam K, Deak G, et al. Immunomodulatory and


hepatoprotective effects of in vivo treatment with free
radical scavengers. Ital J Gastroenterol 1990; 22: 283–7

278. Salmi HA, Sarna S. Effect of silymarin on chemical,


functional, and morphological alterations of the liver. A
doubleblind controlled study. Scand J Gastroenterol 1982;
17: 517–21

279. Magliulo E, Gagliardi B, Fiori GP. [Results of a


double blind study on the effect of silymarin in the
treatment of acute viral hepatitis, carried out at two
medical centres (author’s transl).] Med Klin 1978; 73:
1060–5

280. Rambaldi A, Jacobs BP, Iaquinto G, Gluud C. Milk


thistle for alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver
diseases. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; 18: CD003620

281. Pares A, Planas R, Torres M, et al. Effects of


silymarin in alcoholic patients with cirrhosis of the
liver: results of a controlled, double-blind, randomized
and multicenter trial. J Hepatol 1998; 28: 615–21

282. Bunout D, Hirsch S, Petermann M, et al. [Controlled


study of the effect of silymarin on alcoholic liver
disease]. Rev Med Chil 1992; 120: 1370–5

283. Trinchet JC, Coste T, Levy VG, et al. [Treatment of


alcoholic hepatitis with silymarin. A double-blind
comparative study in 116 patients.] Gastroenterol Clin Biol
1989; 13: 120–4

284. Saller R, Meier R, Brignoli R. The use of silymarin in


the treatment of liver diseases. Drugs 2001; 61: 2035–63

285. Tasduq SA, Peerzada K, Koul S, et al. Biochemical


manifestations of anti-tuberculosis drugs induced
hepatotoxicity and the effect of silymarin. Hepatol Res
2005; 31: 132–5

286. Agoston M, Orsi F, Feher E, et al. Silymarin and


vitamin E reduce amiodarone-induced lysosomal
phospholipidosis in rats. Toxicology 2003; 190: 231–41

287. Kosina P, Kren V, Gebhardt R, et al. Antioxidant


properties of silybin glycosides. Phytother Res 2002;
16(Suppl 1): S33–9

288. Dehmlow C, Murawski N, de Groot H. Scavenging of


reactive oxygen species and inhibition of arachidonic acid
metabolism by silibinin in human cells. Life Sci 1996; 58:
1591–600

289. Bindoli A, Cavallini L, Siliprandi N. Inhibitory


action of silymarin of lipid peroxide formation in rat
liver mitochondria and microsomes. Biochem Pharmacol 1977;
26: 2405–9

290. Feher J, Lang I, Nekam K, et al. Effect of silibinin


on the activity and expression of superoxide dismutase in
lymphocytes from patients with chronic alcoholic liver
disease. Free Radic Res Commun 1987; 3: 373–7

291. Tuchweber B, Sieck R, Trost W. Prevention of silybin


of phalloidin-induced acute hepatoxicity. Toxicol Appl
Pharmacol 1979; 51: 265–75 292. Magliulo E, Carosi PG,
Minoli L, Gorini S. Studies on the regenerative capacity of
the liver in rats subjected to partial hepatectomy and
treated with silymarin. Arzneimittelforschung 1973; 23:
161–7 293. Shalan MG, Mostafa MS, Hassouna MM, et al.
Amelioration of lead toxicity on rat liver with Vitamin C
and silymarin supplements. Toxicology 2005; 206: 1–15 294.
Pepping J. Milk thistle: Silybum marianum. Am J Health-Syst
Pharm 1999; 56: 1195–7 295. Riley TR 3rd, Bhatti AM.
Preventive strategies in chronic liver disease: part I.
Alcohol, vaccines, toxic medications and supplements, diet
and exercise. Am Fam Physician 2001; 64: 1555–60 296.
Jacobs BP, Dennehy C, Ramirez G, et al. Milk thistle for
the treatment of liver disease: a systematic review and
meta-analysis. Am J Med 2002; 113: 506–15 297. Walti M,
Neftel KA, Cohen M, et al. [Radioimmunologic detection of
IgE and IgG antibodies against drugs. Conclusions after
experience with over 1200 patients.] Schweiz Med Wochenschr
1986; 116: 303–5 298. Gong EM, Gerber GS. Saw palmetto and
benign prostatic hyperplasia. Am J Chin Med 2004; 32: 331–8
299. Berry SL, Coffey DS, Walsh PC, Ewing LL. The
development of human benign prostatic hyperplasia with age.
J Urol 1984; 132: 474–9 300. Buck AC. Phytotherapy for the
prostate. Br J Urol 1996; 78: 325–36 301. Gerber GS,
Fitzpatrick JM. The role of a lipido-sterolic extract of
Serenoa repens in the management of lower urinary tract
symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. BJU
Int 2004; 94: 338–44 302. Wilt T, Ishani A, Stark G, et al.
Serenoa repens for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Cochrane
Database Syst Rev 2000; (2) CD001423 303. Gerber GS. Saw
palmetto for the treatment of men with lower urinary tract
symptoms. J Urol 2000; 163: 1408–12 304. Gerber GS, Zagaja
GP, Bales GT, et al. Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) in men
with lower urinary tract symptoms: effects on urodynamic
parameters and voiding symptoms. Urology 1998; 51: 1003–7
305. Anon. Saw palmetto berry. In Blumenthal M, Goldberg A,
Brinckmann J, eds. Herbal Medicine – Expanded Commission E
Monographs, 1st edn. Newton, MA: Integrative Medical
Communications, 2000: 335–40 306. Iehle C, Delos S, Guirou
O, et al. Human prostatic steroid 5 alpha-reductase
isoforms – a comparative study of selective inhibitors. J
Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1995; 54: 273–9 307. Plosker GL,
Brogden RN. Serenoa repens (Permixon). A review of its
pharmacology and therapeutic efficacy in benign prostatic
hyperplasia. Drugs Aging 1996; 9: 379–95 308. Di Silverio
F, D’Eramo G, Lubrano C, et al. Evidence that Serenoa
repens extract displays an antiestrogenic activity in
prostatic tissue of benign prostatic hypertrophy patients.
Eur Urol 1992; 21: 309–14 309. Vacher P, Prevarskaya N,
Skyrma R, et al. The lipidosterolic extract from Serenoa
repens interferes with prolactin receptor signal
transduction. J Biomed Sci 1995; 2: 357–65 310.
Paubert-Braquet M, Cousse H, Raynaud JP, et al. Effect of
the lipidosterolic extract of Serenoa repens (Permixon) and
its major components on basic fibroblast growth
factor-induced proliferation of cultures of human prostate
biopsies. Eur Urol 1998; 33: 340–7

311. Vacherot F, Azzouz M, Gil-Diez-de-Medina S, et al.


Induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation
by the lipodosterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr,
Permixon) in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Prostate 2000;
45: 259–66

312. Goepel M, Hecker U, Krege S, et al. Saw palmetto


extracts potently and noncompetitively inhibit human
alpha-1-adrenoceptors in vitro. Prostate 1999; 38: 208–15

313. Brue W, Hagenlocer M, Redl K, et al.


[Anti-inflammatory activity of sabal fruit extracts
prepared with supercritical carbon dioxide. In vitro
antagonists of cyclooxygenase and 5lipooxygenase
metabolism.] Arzneimittelforschung 1992; 42: 547–51

314. Paubert-Braquet M, Mencia Huerta JM, Cousse H, Braquet


P. Effect of the lipidic lipidosterolic extract of Serenoa
repens (Permixon) on the ionophore A23187-stimulated
production of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) from human
polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent
Fatty Acids 1997; 57: 299–304

315. Cheema P, El-Mefty O, Jazieh AR. Intraoperative


haemorrhage associated with the use of extract of saw
palmetto herb: a case report and review of literature. J
Intern Med 2001; 250: 167–9

316. Linde K, Knuppel L. Large-scale observational studies


of hypericum extracts in patients with depressive disorders
– a systematic review. Phytomedicine 2005; 12: 148–57

317. Whiskey E, Werneke U, Taylor D. A systematic review


and meta-analysis of Hypericum perforatum in depression: a
comprehensive clinical review. Int Clin Psychopharmacol
2001; 16: 239–52

318. Kim HL, Streltzer J, Goebert D. St. John’s wort for


depression: a meta-analysis of well-defined clinical
trials. J Nerv Ment Dis 1999; 187: 532–8

319. Linde K, Ramirez G, Mulrow CD, et al. St John’s wort


for depression – an overview and meta-analysis of
randomised clinical trials. Br Med J 1996; 313: 253–8

320. Williams JW Jr, Mulrow CD, Chiquette E, et al. A


systematic review of newer pharmacotherapies for depression
in adults: evidence report summary. Ann Intern Med 2000;
132: 743–56

321. Hippius H. St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum) – a


herbal antidepressant. Curr Med Res Opin 1998; 14: 171–84

322. Gaster B, Holroyd J. St John’s wort for depression: a


systematic review. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160: 152–6

323. Stevinson C, Ernst E. Hypericum for depression. An


update of the clinical evidence. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol
1999; 9: 501–5

324. Josey ES, Tackett RL. St. John’s wort: a new


alternative for depression? Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999;
37: 111–19
325. Kelly BD. St. John’s wort for depression: what’s the
evidence? Hosp Med 2001; 62: 274–6

326. Linde K, Mulrow CD, Berner M, Egger M. St John’s wort


for depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;2: CD000448

327. Linde K, Berner M, Egger M, Mulrow C. St John’s wort


for depression: meta-analysis of randomised controlled
trials. Br J Psychiatry 2005; 186: 99–107

328. Shelton RC, Keller MB, Gelenberg A, et al.


Effectiveness of St John’s wort in major depression: a
randomized controlled trial. J Am Med Assoc 2001; 285:
1978–86

329. Shultz V. Clinical trials with hypericum extracts in


patients with depression – results, comparisons,
conclusions for therapy with antidepressant drugs.
Phytomedicine 2002; 9: 468–74

330. Trautmann-Sponsel RD, Dienel A. Safety of hypericum


extract in mildly to moderately depressed outpatients: a
review based on data from three randomized,
placebo-controlled trials. J Affect Disord 2004; 82: 303–7
331. Rodriguez-Landa JF, Contreras CM. A review of clinical
and experimental observations about antidepressant actions
and side effects produced by Hypericum perforatum extracts.
Phytomedicine 2003; 10: 688–99 332. Gupta RK, Moller HJ.
St. John’s Wort. An option for the primary care treatment
of depressive patients? Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci
2003; 253: 140–8 333. Vitiello B. Hypericum perforatum
extracts as potential antidepressants. J Pharm Pharmacol
1999; 51: 513–17 334. Deltito J, Beyer D. The scientific,
quasi-scientific and popular literature on the use of St.
John’s wort in the treatment of depression. J Affect Disord
1998; 51: 345–51 335. Nangia M, Syed W, Doraiswamy PM.
Efficacy and safety of St. John’s wort for the treatment of
major depression. Public Health Nutr 2000; 3: 487–94 336.
Field HL, Monti DA, Greeson JM, Kunkel EJ. St. John’s wort.
Int J Psychiatry Med 2000; 30: 203–19 337. Muller WE,
Singer A, Wonnemann M, Hafner U, Rolli M, Schafer C.
Hyperforin represents the neurotransmitter reuptake
inhibiting constituent of hypericum extract.
Pharmacopsychiatry 1998; 31 (Suppl 1): 16–21 338. Cott JM.
In vitro receptor binding and enzyme inhibition by
Hypericum perforatum extract. Pharmacopsychiatry 1997; 30
(Suppl 2): 108–12 339. Verotta L, Appendino G, Jakupovic J,
Bombardelli E. Hyperforin analogues from St. John’s wort
(Hypericum perforatum). J Nat Prod 2000; 63: 412–15 340.
Tian R, Koyabu N, Morimoto S, et al. Functional induction
and de-induction of P-glycoprotein by St. John’s wort and
its ingredients in a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line.
Drug Metab Dispos 2005; 33: 547–54 341. Calapai G, Crupi A,
Firenzuoli F, et al. Serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine
involvement in the antidepressant action of Hypericum
perforatum. Pharmacopsychiatry 2001; 34: 45–9 342. Franklin
M, Chi J, McGavin C, et al. Neuroendocrine evidence for
dopaminergic actions of hypericum extract (LI 160) in
healthy volunteers. Biol Psychiatry 1999; 46: 581–4 343.
Apaydin S, Zeybek U, Ince I, et al. Hypercium
triquetrifolium Turra extract exhibits antinociceptive
activity in the mouse. J Ethnopharmacol 1999; 67: 307–12
344. Kubin A, Wierrani F, Burner U, et al. Hypericin – the
facts about a controversial agent. Curr Pharm Des 2005; 11:
233–53 345. Bladt S, Wagner H. Inhibition of MAO by
fractions and constituents of hypericum extract. J Geriatr
Psychiatry Neurol 1994; 7 (Suppl 1): S57–9 346. Thiede HM,
Walper A. Inhibition of MAO and COMT by hypericum extracts
and hypericin. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 1994; 7 (Suppl
1): S54–6 347. Kerb R, Brockmoller J, Staffeldt B, et al.
Single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of hypericin
and pseudohypericin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1996; 40:
2087–93 348. Biber A, Fischer H, Romer A, Chatterjee SS.
Oral bioavailability of hyperforin from hypericum extracts
in rats and human volunteers. Pharmacopsychiatry 1998; 31
(Suppl 1): 36–43 349. Beckman SE, Sommi RW, Switzer J.
Consumer use of St. John’s wort: a survey on effectiveness,
safety, and tolerability. Pharmacotherapy 2000; 20: 568–74

350. Schulz V. Incidence and clinical relevance of the


interaction and side effects of Hypericum preparations.
Phytomedicine 2001; 8: 152–60

351. Brown TM. Acute St. John’s wort toxicity [letter]. Am


J Emerg Med 2000; 18: 231–2

352. Lantz MS, Buchalter E, Giambanco V. St. John’s wort


and antidepressant drug interactions in the elderly. J
Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 1999; 12: 7–10

353. Stevinson C, Ernst E. Can St. John’s wort trigger


psychoses? Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004; 42: 473–80

354. Barbenel DM, Yusufi B, O’Shea D, Bench CJ. Mania in a


patient receiving testosterone replacement postorchidectomy
taking St. John’s wort and sertraline. J Psychopharmacol
2000; 14: 84–6

355. Moses EL, Mallinger AG. St. John’s wort: three cases
of possible mania induction. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2000;
20: 115–17

356. Nierenberg AA, Burt T, Matthews J, Weiss AP. Mania


associated with St. John’s wort. Biol Psychiatry 1999; 46:
1707–8

357. Mannel M. Drug interactions with St John’s wort:


mechanisms and clinical implications. Drug Safety 2004; 27:
773–97

358. Bilia AR, Gallori S, Vincieri FF. St. John’s wort and
depression: efficacy, safety and tolerability – an update.
Life Sci 2002; 70: 3077–96

359. Obach RS. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes


by constituents of St. John’s wort, an herbal preparation
used in the treatment of depression. J Pharmacol Exp Ther
2000; 294: 88–95

360. Ernst E. Second thoughts about safety of St. John’s


wort. Lancet 1999; 354: 2014–16

361. Piscitelli SC, Burstein AH, Chaitt D, et al. Indinavir


concentrations and St. John’s wort. Lancet 2000; 355: 547–8

362. Yue QY. Bergquist C, Gerden B. Safety of St. John’s


wort [letter]. Lancet 2000; 355: 576–7

363. Mai I, Stormer E, Bauer S, et al. Impact of St John’s


wort treatment on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus and
mycophenolic acid in renal transplant patients. Nephrol
Dial Transplant 2003; 18: 819–22

364. Ernst E. St John’s Wort supplements endanger the


success of organ transplantation. Arch Surg 2002; 137:
316–19

365. Turton-Weeks SM, Barone GW, Gurley BJ, et al. St


John’s wort: a hidden risk for transplant patients. Prog
Transplant 2001; 11: 116–20

366. Moschella C, Jaber BL. Interaction between


cyclosporine and Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort)
after organ transplantation. Am J Kidney Dis 2001; 38:
1105–7

367. Breidenbach T, Hoffmann MW, Becker T, et al. Drug


interaction of St. John’s wort with cyclosporin [letter].
Lancet 2000; 355: 1912
368. Ruschitzka F, Meier PJ, Turina M, et al. Acute heart
transplant rejection due to Saint John’s wort [letter].
Lancet 2000; 355: 548–9

369. Mai I, Stormer E, Bauer S, et al. Impact of St John’s


wort treatment on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus and
mycophenolic acid in renal transplant patients. Nephrol
Dial Transplant 2003; 18: 819–22

370. Johne A, Brockmoller J, Bauer S, et al.


Pharmacokinetic interaction of digoxin with an herbal
extract from St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum). Clin
Pharmacol Ther 1999; 66: 338–45

371. Anon. St. John’s wort. In Blumenthal M, Goldberg A,


Brinckmann J, eds. Herbal Medicine – Expanded Commission E
Monographs, 1st edn. Newton, MA: Integrative Medical
Communications, 2000: 359–66 372. Wheatley D. Medicinal
plants for insomnia: a review of their pharmacology,
efficacy and tolerability. J Psychopharmacol 2005; 19:
414–21 373. Anon. I read that the herbal supplement
valerian helps people with insomnia fall asleep. Is
valerian safe, and does it actually work? Mayo Clin Health
Lett 2004; 22: 8 374. Shohet D, Wills RB, Stuart DL.
Valepotriates and valerenic acids in commercial
preparations of valerian available in Australia. Pharmazie
2001; 56: 860–3 375. Goppel M, Franz G. Stability control
of valerian ground material and extracts: a new HPLC-method
for the routine quantification of valerenic acids and
lignans. Pharmazie 2004; 59: 446–52 376. Schumacher B,
Scholle S, Holzl J, et al. Lignans isolated from valerian:
identification and characterization of a new olivil
derivative with partial agonistic activity at A(1)
adenosine receptors. J Nat Prod 2002; 65: 1479–85 377.
Wasowski C, Marder M, Viola H, et al. Isolation and
identification of 6-methylapigenin, a competitive ligand
for the brain GABA(A) receptors, from Valeriana wallichii.
Planta Med 2002; 68: 934–6 378. Houghton PJ. The scientific
basis for the reputed activity of valerian. J Pharm
Pharmacol 1999; 51: 505–12 379. Mikell JR, Ganzera M, Khan
IA. Analysis of sesquiterpenes in Valeriana officinalis by
capillary electrophoresis. Pharmazie 2001; 56: 946–8 380.
Gao XQ, Bjork L. Valerenic acid derivatives and
valepotriates among individuals, varieties and species of
Valeriana. Fitoterapia 2000; 71: 19–24 381. Dominguez RA,
Bravo-Valverde RL, Kaplowitz BR, Cott JM. Valerian as a
hypnotic for Hispanic patients. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor
Psychol 2000; 6: 84–92 382. Hendriks H, Bos R, Allersma DP,
et al. Pharmacological screening of valerenal and some
other components of essential oil of Valeriana officinalis.
Planta Med 1981; 42: 62–8 383. Leuschner J, Muller J,
Rudmann M. Characterization of the central nervous
depressant activity of a commercially available valerian
root extract. Arzneimittelforschung 1993; 43: 638–41 384.
Sakamoto T, Mitani Y, Nakajima K. Psychotropic effects of
Japanese valerian root extract. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo)
1992; 40: 758–61 385. Hazelhoff B, Malingre TM, Meijer DKF.
Antispasmodic effects of valeriana compounds: an in-vivo
and in-vitro study on the guinea-pig ileum. Arch Int
Pharmacodyn Ther 1982; 257: 274–87 386. Herrera-Arellano A,
Luna-Villegas G, Cuevas-Uriostegui ML, et al.
Polysomnographic evaluation of the hypnotic effect of
Valeriana edulis standardized extract in patients suffering
from insomnia. Planta Med 2001; 67: 695–9 387.
Vonderheid-Guth B, Todorova A, Brattstrom A, Dimpfel W.
Pharmacodynamic effects of valerian and hops extract
combination (Ze 91019) on the quantitative-topographical
EEG in healthy volunteers. Eur J Med Res 2000; 5: 139–44
388. Leathwood PD, Chauffard F. Aqueous extract of valerian
reduces latency to fall asleep in man. Planta Med 1985; 2:
144–8 389. Balderer G, Borbely AA. Effect of valerian on
human sleep. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1985; 87: 406–9

390. Leathwood PD, Chauffard F. Quantifying the effects of


mild sedatives. J Psychiat Res 1982/83; 17: 115–22

391. Leathwood PD, Chauffard F, Heck E, Munoz-Box R.


Aqueous extract of valerian root (Valeriana officinalis L.)
improves sleep quality in man. Pharmacol Biochem Behav
1982; 17: 65–71

392. Donath F, Quispe S, Diefenbach K, et al. Critical


evaluation of the effect of valerian extract on sleep
structure and sleep quality. Pharmacopsychiatry 2000; 33:
47–53

393. Granger RE, Campbell EL, Johnston GA. (+)- And


(-)-borneol: efficacious positive modulators of GABA action
at human recombinant alpha1beta2gamma2L GABA(A) receptors.
Biochem Pharmacol 2005; 69: 1101–11

394. Ortiz JG, Nieves-Natal J, Chavez P. Effects of


Valeriana officinalis extracts on [ 3 H]flunitrazepam
binding, synaptosomal [ 3 H]GABA uptake, and hippocampal [
3 H]GABA release. Neurochem Res 1999; 24: 1373–8

395. Santos MS, Ferreira F, Cunha AP, et al. Synaptosomal


GABA release as influenced by valerian root extract –
involvement of the GABA carrier. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther
1994; 327: 220–31 396. Santos MS, Ferreira F, Cunha AP, et
al. An aqueous extract of valerian influences the transport
of GABA in synaptosomes [letter]. Planta Med 1994; 60:
278–9 397. Garges HP, Varia I, Doraiswamy PM. Cardiac
complications and delirium associated with valerian root
withdrawal [letter]. J Am Med Assoc 1998; 280: 1566–7 398.
Kuhlmann J, Berger W, Podzuweit H, Schmidt U. The influence
of valerian treatment on ‘reaction time, alertness and
concentration’ in volunteers. Pharmacopsychiatry 1999; 32:
235–41 399. Hadley S, Petry JJ. Valerian. Am Fam Physician
2003; 67: 1755–8 400. Anon. Valerian. In Gruenwald J,
Brendler T, Jaenicke C, eds. PDR for Herbal Medicines, 2nd
edn. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, 2000: 783–6
401. Andreatini R, Leite JR. Effect of valepotriates on the
behavior of rats in the elevated plus-maze during diazepam
withdrawal. Eur J Pharmacol 1994; 260: 233–5
Medicinal herbs of Latin America 4

1. Duke J, Vasquez R. Amazonian Ethnobotanical Dictionary.


Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1994

2. Duke J. The Green Pharmacy: The Ultimate Compendium Of


Natural Remedies From The World’s Foremost Authority On
Healing Herbs. New York, NY: St Martin’s Paperbacks, 1998

3. Frank H, Comhaire AM. The role of food supplements in


the treatment of the infertile man. Reprod BioMed Online
2003; 7: 385–91

4. Gonzales GF, Gasco M, Córdova A, et al. Effect of


Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on spermatogenesis in male rats
acutely exposed to high altitude (4340 m). J Endocrinol
2004; 180: 87–95

5. Zheng BL, Kim CH, Rogers L, et al. Effect of a lipid


extract from Lepidium meyenii on sexual behavior in mice
and rats. Urology 2000; 55: 598–602

6. Gonzales GF, Cordova A, Vega K, et al. Effect of


Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on sexual desire and its absent
relationship with serum testosterone levels in adult
healthy men. Andrologia 2002; 34: 367–72 7. Oshima M,
Yeunhwa G, Tsukuda S. Effects of Lepidium meyenii Walp and
Jatropha macrantha on blood levels of estradiol-17 beta,
progesterone, testosterone and the rate of embryo
implantation in mice. J Vet Med Sci 2003; 65: 1145–6 8.
Ruiz-Luna AC, Salazar S, Aspajo MJ, et al. Lepidium meyenii
(Maca) increases litter size in normal adult female mice.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2005; 3: 16 9. Chung F, Rubio J,
Gonzales C, et al. Dose–response effects of Lepidium
meyenii (Maca) aqueous extract on testicular function and
weight of different organs in adult rats. J Ethnopharmacol
2005; 98: 143–7 10. Bermejo JEH, León J, eds. Neglected
crops: 1492 from a different perspective. Plant Production
and Protection Series No. 26. Rome, Italy: FAO, 1994:
165–79 11. Bustos-Obregón E, Yucra S, Gonzales GF. Lepidium
meyenii (Maca) reduces spermatogenic damage induced by a
single dose of malathion in mice. Asian J Androl 2005; 7:
71–6 The alkaloids taspine and 3,4-O-dimethylcedrusin are
considered to be the active principles of dragon’s blood
sap. They are responsible for the anticancer and
anti-inflammatory activities, respectively, as well as for
wound-healing properties. It has also been reported that
taspine is the cytotoxic substance of dragon’s blood and
that it shows cytotoxicity as a plant metabolite 46 .
Dragon’s blood acts as an antioxidant by scavenging peroxyl
and hydroxyl radicals at high concentrations. Safety
Dragon’s blood is generally safe. No drug interactions with
dragon’s blood have been reported. Evidence suggests that
taspine is a cytotoxic constituent of dragon’s blood and
therefore the plant should be used in moderation 46 . Use
during pregnancy or by nursing mothers is not recommended.
Preparations and dosage The recommended dosage of the
standardized extract of SP-303 is 250–500 mg, two to four
times daily or as needed 37 . Recommended dosages for
tinctures range from 10–30 drops up to three times daily,
and for dry extracts 20–60 mg mixed in water three times
daily. For sores apply externally.

secretory diarrhea by 21% without causing post

treatment constipation 37 . Extracts of dragon’s blood have


been shown to have

antiviral activity against influenza 45 , parainfluenza, and

the herpes simplex viruses I and II 46 . In a multicenter,

double-blind, placebo-controlled study, a topical prepa

ration of SP-303 was used to treat recurrent genital her

pes lesions in patients with AIDS. Viral culture showed

50% of the treated group and 19% of the placebo

treated patients became culture-negative at the end of

the 21-day trial 47 .

Phytochemistry and pharmacology

Dragon’s blood contains several simple phenols, diter

penes 46 , proanthocyanidins, phytosterols, the lignan 3,4

O-dimethylcedrusin 46 , and the alkaloid taspine 41 . These

last two compounds have antiviral and wound healing

properties that can potentially be useful in treating the

viral sores caused by herpes 46 . The extract SP-303 is an


effective medicine for those

suffering from diarrhea because it inhibits CFTR


mediated chloride secretion which is the primary cause

of diarrhea via cAMP-dependent hyperactivation of

CFTR. Currently, no drug treatments are available that

specifically target and block the CFTR chloride ion

channel 37 .

12. Cisneros FJ, Jayo M, Niedziela L. An Uncaria tomentosa


(cat’s claw) extract protects mice against ozone-induced
lung inflammation. J Ethnopharmacol 2005; 96: 355–64

13. Jurgensena S, DalBo S, Angers P, et al. Involvement of


5-HT2 receptors in the antinociceptive effect of Uncaria
tomentosa. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2005; 81: 466–77

14. Riva L, Coradini D, Di Fronzo G, et al. The


antiproliferative effects of Uncaria tomentosa extracts and
fractions on the growth of breast cancer cell line.
Anticancer Res 2001; 21: 2457–61

15. Piscoya J, Rodriguez Z, Bustamante SA, et al. Efficacy


and safety of freeze-dried cat’s claw in osteoarthritis of
the knee: mechanisms of action of the species Uncaria
guianensis. Inflammat Res 2001; 50: 442–8

16. Lemaire I, Assinewe V, Cano P, et al. Stimulation of


interleukin1 and -6 production in alveolar macrophages by
the neo-tropical liana Uncaria tomentosa (Una de gato). J
Ethnopharmacol 1999; 64: 109–15

17. Akesson Ch, Pero RW, Ivars F. C-Med 100, a hot water
extract of Uncaria tomentosa, prolongs lymphocyte survival
in vivo. Phytomedicine 2003; 10: 23–33

18. Mur E, Hartig F, Eibl G, Schirmer M. Randomized double


blind trial of an extract from the pentacyclic
alkaloid-chemotype of Uncaria tomentosa for the treatment
of rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 2002; 29: 678–81

19. Aquino R, De Feo V, De Simone F, et al. Plant


metabolites. New compounds and anti-inflammatory activity
of Uncaria tomentosa. J Nat Product 1991; 54: 453–9

20. Muhammad I, Dunbar D, Khan R, et al. Investigation on


uña de gato I. 7-Deoxyloganic acid and 15N NMR
spectroscopic studies on pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids
from Uncaria tomentosa. Phytochemistry 2001; 57: 781–5

21. Sandoval M, Okuhama NN, Zhang XJ, et al.


Antiinflammatory and antioxidant activities of cat’s claw
(Uncaria tomentosa and Uncaria guianensis) are independent
of their alkaloid content. Phytomedicine 2002; 9: 325–37

22. Akesson C, Lindgren H, Pero RW, et al. An extract of


Uncaria tomentosa inhibiting cell division and NF-kappa B
activity without inducing cell death. Int Immunopharmacol
2003; 3: 1889–900

23. Reinhard KH. Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) D.C.: cat’s


claw, una de gato, or saventaro. J Altern Complement Med
1999; 5: 143–51

24. Foster S. Herbs for Your Health. Loveland, CO:


Interweave Press, 1996: 18–19

25. Henman AR. Guarana (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis):


ecological and social perspective on an economic plant of
the central Amazon basin. J Ethnopharmacol 1982; 6: 311–38

26. Campos AR, Barros AI, Santos FA, Rao VS. Guarana
(Paullinia cupana Mart.) offers protection against gastric
lesions induced by ethanol and indomethacin in rats.
Phytother Res 2003; 17: 1199–202

27. Bydlowski SP, D’Amico EA, Chamone DA. An aqueous


extract of guarana (Paullinia cupana) decreases platelet
thromboxane synthesis. Braz J Med Biol Res 1991; 24: 421–4

28. Antunes E, Gordo WM, de Oliveira JF, et al. The


relaxation of isolated rabbit corpus cavernosum by the
herbal medicine Catuama and its constituents. Phytother Res
2001; 15: 416–21

29. Miura T, Tatara M, Nakamura K, Suzuki I. Effect of


guarana on exercise in normal and epinephrine-induced
glycogenolytic mice. Biol Pharm Bull 1998; 21: 646–8 30.
Espinola EB, Dias RF, Mattei R, Carlini EA. Pharmacological
activity of Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) in laboratory
animals. J Ethnopharmacol 1997; 55: 223–9 31. Kennedy DO,
Haskell CF, Wesnes KA, Scholey AB. Improved cognitive
performance in human volunteers following administration of
guarana (Paullinia cupana) extract: comparison and
interaction with Panax ginseng. Pharmacol Biochem Behav
2004; 79: 401–11 32. Benoni H, Dallakian P, Taraz K.
Studies on the essential oil from guarana. Z Lebensm Unters
Forsch 1996; 203: 95–8 33. Morton JF. Widespread tannin
intake via stimulants and masticatories, especially
guarana, kola nut, betel vine, and accessories. Basic Life
Sci 1992; 59: 739–65 34. Haller CA, MD, Jacob P, Benowitz
N. Short-term metabolic and hemodynamic effects of ephedra
and guarana combinations. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2005; 77:
560–71 35. Spinella M. Herbal medicines and epilepsy: the
potential for benefit and adverse effects. Epilepsy Behav
2001; 2: 524–32 36. Fischer H, Machen TE, Widdicombe JH, et
al. A novel extract SB-300 from the stem bark latex of
Croton lechleri inhibits CFTR-mediated chloride secretion
in human colonic epithelial cells. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;
93: 351–7 37. DiCesare D, DuPont HL, Mathewson JJ, et al. A
double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of
SP-303 (Provir) in the symptomatic treatment of acute
diarrhea among travelers to Jamaica and Mexico. Am J
Gastroenterol 2002; 97: 2585–8 38. Holodniy M, Koch J,
Mistal M, et al. A double blind, randomized,
placebo-controlled phase II study to assess the safety and
efficacy of orally administered SP-303 for symptomatic
treatment of diarrhea in patients with AIDS. Am J
Gastroenterol 1999; 94: 3267–73 39. Ubillas R. SP-303, an
antiviral oligomeric proanthocyanidin from the latex of
Croton lechleri (Sangre de Drago). Phytomedicine 1994; 1:
77–106 40. Miller MJS, MacNaughton WK, Zhang X-J. Treatment
of gastric ulcers and diarrhea with the Amazonian herbal
medicine sangre de grado. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver
Physiol 2000; 279: G192–200 41. Vaisberg A, Milla M, Planas
M, et al. Taspine is the cicatrizant principle in sangre de
grado extracted from Croton lechleri. Planta Med 1989; 55:
140–3 42. Pieters L, de Bruyne T, Claeys M, et al.
Isolation of a dihydrobenzofuran lignan from South American
dragon’s blood (Croton spp.) as an inhibitor of cell
proliferation. J Nat Prod 1993; 56: 899–906 43. Styczynski
J, Wysocki M. Alternative medicine remedies might stimulate
viability of leukemic cells. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2006; 46:
94–8 44. Lopes MI, Saffi J, Echeverrigaray S, et al.
Mutagenic and antioxidant activities of Croton lechleri sap
in biological systems. J Ethnopharmacol 2004; 95: 437–45
45. Sidwell R, Huffman J, Moscon B, et al. Influenza
virusinhibitory effects of intraperitoneally and
aerosol-administered SP-303, a plant flavonoid.
Chemotherapy 1994; 40: 42–50 46. Chen ZP, Cai Y, Phillipson
JD. Studies on the antitumor, antibacterial and
wound-healing properties of dragon’s blood. Planta Medica
1994; 60: 541–5 47. Orozco-Topete R, Sierra-Madero J,
Cano-Dominguez C. Safety and efficacy of Virend for topical
treatment of genital and anal herpes simplex lesions in
patients with AIDS. Antiviral Res 1997; 35: 91–103
Herbal medicine: identification, 5
analysis, and evaluation strategies

43. Sun Y, Li W, Fitzloff JF, van Breemen RB. Liquid


chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry of
terpenoid lactones in Ginkgo biloba. J Mass Spectrom 2005;
40: 373–9

44. Tanaka H, Shoyama Y. Development of ELISA-analysis


methods for the quantification of bioactive natural
products in plants, phytomedicines, and in humans and
similar. Phytomedicine 1998; 5: 397–415

45. Tanaka H, Fukuda N, Shoyama Y. Formation of monoclonal


antibody against a major ginseng component, ginsenoside Rb1
and its characterization. Cytotechnology 1999; 29: 115–20

46. Fukuda N, Tanaka H, Shoyama Y. Applications of ELISA,


Western blotting and immunoaffinity concentration for
survey of ginsenosides in crude drugs of Panax species and
traditional Chinese herbal medicines. Analyst 2000; 125:
1425–9

47. Hadley SK, Petry JJ. Medicinal herbs: a primer for


primary care. Hosp Pract 1999; 34: 105–6

48. Anon. Good manufacturing practices: supplementary


guidelines for the manufacture of herbal medicinal
products. WHO Technical Report Series No 863. Geneva: World
Health Organization, 1996: 109–13

49. Anon. Quality control methods for medicinal plant


materials. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1998: 1–122

50. Barnes J. Quality, efficacy and safety of complementary


medicines: fashions, facts and the future. Part I.
Regulation and quality. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 55:
226–33

51. Ang-Lee MK, Moss J, Yuan CS. Herbal medicines and


perioperative care. J Am Med Assoc 2001; 286: 208–16

52. Techen N, Crockett SL, Khan IA, Scheffler BE.


Authentication of medicinal plants using molecular biology
techniques to complement conventional methods. Curr Med
Chem 2004; 11: 1391–401

53. Ohtake N, Nakai Y, Yamamoto M, et al. Separation and


isolation methods for analysis of the active principles of
Sho-saiko-to (SST) oriental medicine. J Chromatogr B 2004;
812: 135–48

54. Van Beek TA. Chemical analysis of Ginkgo biloba leaves


and extracts. J Chromatogr A 2002; 967: 21–55 55. Van Beek
TA, Bombardelli E, Morazzoni P, Peterlongo F. Ginkgo biloba
L. Fitoterapia 1998; 69: 195–244 56. Loew D, Kaszkin M.
Approaching the problem of bioequivalence of herbal
medicinal products. Phytother Res 2002; 16: 705–11 57.
Suffness M, Pezzuto JM. Assays related to cancer drug
discovery. In Hostettmann K, ed. Methods in Plant
Biochemistry, Vol. 6, Assays for Bioactivity. London:
Academic Press, 1991: 53–71 58. Vlietinck AJ, Apers S.
Biological screening methods in the search of
pharmacologically active natural products. In Tringali C,
ed. Bioactive Compounds from Natural Sources: Isolation,
Characterization and Biological Properties. London: Taylor
& Francis Inc., 2001: 1–29 59. Hazra B, Das Sarma M, Sanyal
U. Separation methods of quinonoid constituents of plants
used in Oriental traditional medicines. J Chromatogr B
2004; 812: 259–75 60. Wen D, Liu Y, Li W, Liu H. Separation
methods for antibacterial and antirheumatism agents in
plant medicines. J Chromatogr B 2004; 812: 101–17 61. Tsao
R, Deng Z. Separation procedures for naturally occurring
antioxidant phytochemicals. J Chromatogr B 2004; 812: 85–99
62. Fang F, Sang S, Chen KY, et al. Isolation and
identification of cytotoxic compounds from bay leaf (Laurus
nobilis). Food Chem 2005; 93: 497–501 63. Bernstein A,
Breitman M. Genetic ablation in transgenic mice. Mol Biol
Med 1989; 6: 523–30 64. Xie JT, Aung HH, Wu JA, et al.
Effects of American ginseng berry extract on blood glucose
levels in ob/ob mice. Am J Chin Med 2002; 30: 187–94 65.
Fuzzati N. Analysis methods of ginsenosides. J Chromatogr B
2004; 812: 119–33 66. Fukuda N, Tanaka H, Shoyama Y.
Isolation of the pharmacologically active saponin
ginsenoside Rb1 from ginseng by immunoaffinity column
chromatography. J Nat Prod 2000; 63: 283–5
Ginseng: beneficial and potential 6
adverse effects

1. Hu SY. A contribution to our knowledge of ginseng. Am J


Chin Med 1977; 5: 1–23

2. Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J. Ginseng root,


Newton, MA: Integrative Medicine Communications, 2000:
170–7

3. Yun T. Panax ginseng – a non-organ-specific cancer


preventive? Lancet Oncol 2001; 2: 49–55

4. Huang KC. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. Boca Raton,


FL: CRC Press, 1999: 17–51

5. Phillipson JD, Anderson LA. Ginseng-quality, safety and


efficacy? Pharmacol J 1984; 232: 161–5

6. Vogler BK, Pittler MH, Ernst E. The efficacy of ginseng.


A systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Eur J
Clin Pharmacol 1999; 55: 567–75

7. Barnes AS, Powell-Griner E, McFann K, Nahin RL.


Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults.
Adv Data 2004; 343: 1–19

8. Mills S, Bone K, Corrigan D, et al. Principles and


practice of phytotherapy. Modern herbal medicine. In
Ginseng (Panax ginseng C Meyer). Edinburgh: Churchill
Livingstone, 2000: 418–32

9. Chang YS, Seo EK, Gyllenhaal C, Block KI. Panax ginseng:


a role in cancer therapy (review). Integr Cancer Ther 2003;
2: 13–33

10. Kaneko H, Nakanishi K. Proof of the mysterious efficacy


of ginseng: basic and clinical trials: clinical effects of
medical ginseng, Korean red ginseng: specifically, its
anti-stress action for prevention of disease. J Pharmacol
Sci 2004; 95: 158–62

11. Shao ZH, Xie JT, Vanden Hoek TL, et al. Antioxidant
effects of American ginseng berry extract in cardiomyocytes
exposed to acute oxidant stress. Biochim Biophys Acta 2004;
1670: 165–71

12. Bae JW, Lee MH. Effect and putative mechanism of action
of ginseng on the formation of glycated hemoglobin in
vitro. J Ethnopharmacol 2004; 90: 137–40
13. Lee FC. Facts about Ginseng. Elizabeth, NJ: Hollyn
International Corp, 1992

14. Gillis CN. Panax ginseng pharmacology: a nitric oxide


link? Biochem Pharmacol 1997; 54: 1–8

15. Morgan A, Cupp MJ. Panax ginseng. In Cupp MJ, ed.


Toxicology and Clinical Pharmacology of Herbal Products.
Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2002: 141–53

16. Harkey MR, Henderson GL, Gershwin ME, et al.


Variability in commercial ginseng products: an analysis of
25 preparations. Am J Clin Nutr 2001; 73: 1101–6

17. Li W, Fitzloff JF. Determination of 24


(R)-pseudoginsenoside F11 in North American ginseng using
high performance liquid chromatography with evaporative
light scattering detection. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2001; 25:
257–65 18. Sierpina VS. Ginseng. In Integrative Health
Care, Complementary and Alternative Therapies for the Whole
Person. Philadelphia, PA: F. D. Davis Company, 2001: 134–5
19. Yuan CS, Wu JA, Lowell T, Gu M. Gut and brain effects
of American ginseng root on brainstem neuronal activities
in rats. Am J Chin Med 1998; 26: 47–55 20. Ng TB, Wang H.
Panaxagin, a new protein from Chinese ginseng possesses
anti-fungal, anti-viral, translation-inhibiting and
ribonucease activities. Life Sci 2001; 68: 739–49 21.
Nishijo H, Uwano T, Zhong YM, Ono T. Proof of the
mysterious efficacy of ginseng: basic and clinical trials:
effects of red ginseng on learning and memory deficits in
an animal model of amnesia. J Pharmacol Sci 2004; 95:
145–52 22. Qiao C, Den R, Kudo K, et al. Ginseng enhances
contextual fear conditioning and neurogenesis in rats.
Neurosci Res 2005; 51: 31–8 23. Tachikawa E, Kudo K. Proof
of the mysterious efficacy of ginseng: basic and clinical
trials: suppression of adrenal medullary function in vitro
by ginseng. J Pharmacol Sci 2004; 95: 140–4 24. Yoshikawa
M, Murakami T, Yashiro K, et al. Bioactive saponins and
glycosides. XI. Structures of new dammaranetype triterpene
oligoglycosides, quinquenosides I, II, III, IV, and V, from
American ginseng, the roots of Panax quinquefolium L. Chem
Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1998; 46: 647–54 25. Saito H, Tsuchiya
M, Naka S, Takagi K. Effects of Panax ginseng root on
conditioned avoidance response in rats. Jpn J Pharmacol
1977; 27: 509–16 26. Tsang D, Yeung HW, Tso WW, Peck H.
Ginseng saponins: influence on neurotransmitter uptake in
rat brain synaptosomes. Planta Med 1985; 3: 221–4 27.
Benishin CG. Actions of ginsenoside Rb 1 on choline uptake
in central cholinergic nerve endings. Neurochem Int 1992;
21: 1–5 28. Benishin CG, Lee R, Wang LC, Liu HJ. Effects of
ginsenoside Rb 1 on central cholinergic metabolism.
Pharmacology 1991; 42: 223–9 29. Yamaguchi Y, Haruta K,
Kobayashi H. Effects of ginsenosides on impaired
performance induced in the rat by scopolamine in a
radial-arm naze. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1995; 20: 645–53
30. Yamaguchi Y, Higashi M, Kobayashi H. Effects of oral
and intraventricular administration of ginsenoside Rg 1 on
the performance impaired by scopolamine in rats. Biomed Res
1996; 17: 487–90 31. Perry EK. The cholinergic hypothesis –
ten years on. Br Med Bull 1986; 42: 63–9 32. Takemoto Y,
Ueyama T, Saito H, et al. Potentiation of nerve growth
factor-mediated nerve fiber production in organ cultures of
chicken embryonic ganglia by ginseng saponins:
structure–activity relationship. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo)
1984; 32: 3128–33

33. Salim KN, McEwen BS, Chao HM. Ginsenoside Rb 1


regulates ChAT, NGF and trkA mRNA expression in the rat
brain. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 1997; 47: 177–82

34. Lim JH, Wen TC, Matsuda S, et al. Protection of


ischemic hippocampal neurons by ginsenoside Rb 1 , a main
ingredient of ginseng root. Neurosci Res 1997; 28: 191–200

35. Wen TC, Yoshimura H, Matsuda S, et al. Ginseng root


prevents learning disability and neuronal loss in gerbils
with 5-minute forebrain ischemia. Acta Neuropathol (Berl)
1996; 91: 15–22

36. Zhang Y, Liu T. Protective effects of total saponins of


P ginseng on ischemia–reperfusion injury in rat brains.
Chin J Pharmacol Toxicol 1994; 8: 7–12

37. Li JQ, Zhang JT. Effects of age and ginsenoside Rg 1 on


membrane fluidity of cortical cells in rats. Acta Pharm Sin
1997; 32: 23–7

38. Jiang XY, Zhang JT, Shi CZ. Mechanism of action of


ginsenoside Rb 1 in decreasing intracellular Ca 2+ . Yao
Xue Xue Bao 1996; 31: 321–6

39. Liu M, Zhang JT. Protective effects of ginsenoside Rb 1


and Rg 1 on cultured hippocampal neurons. Yao Hsueh Hsueh
Pao – Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica 1995; 30: 674–8

40. Kimura T, Saunders PA, Kim HS, et al. Interactions of


ginsenosides with ligand-bindings of GABAA and GABAB
receptors. Gen Pharm 1994; 25: 193–9
41. Yuan CS, Attele AS, Wu JA, Liu D. Modulation of
American ginseng on brainstem GABAergic effects in rats. J
Ethnopharmacol 1998; 62: 215–22

42. Takagi K, Saito H, Tsuchiya M. Pharmacological studies


of Panax ginseng root: pharmacological properties of a
crude saponin fraction. Jpn J Pharmacol 1972; 22: 339–46

43. Bhargava HN. Inability of cyclo (LEU-GLY) to facilitate


the development of tolerance to and physical dependence on
morphine in the rat. Life Sci 1980; 27: 117–23

44. Kim HS, Kang JG, Oh KW. Inhibition by ginseng total


saponin of the development of morphine reverse tolerance
and dopamine receptor supersensitivity in mice. Gen
Pharmacol 1995; 26: 1071–6

45. Nah SY, Park HJ, McCleskey EW. A trace component of


ginseng that inhibits Ca 2+ channels through a pertussis
toxin-sensitive G protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995; 92:
8739–43

46. Yoon SR, Nah JJ, Shin YH, et al. Ginsenosides induce
differential antinociception and inhibit substance P
induced-nociceptive response in mice. Life Sci 1998; 62: PL
319–25

47. Tokuyama S, Takahashi M. Pharmacological and


physiological effets of ginseng on actions induced by
opiods and psychostimulants. Jpn J Pharmacol 2001; 117:
195–201

48. Cicero AFG, Bandieri E, Arletti R. Orally administered


Panax notoginseng influence on rat spontaneous behaviour. J
Ethnopharmacol 2000; 73: 387–90

49. Choi S, Jung S, Kim C, et al. Effect of ginsenosides on


voltagedependent Ca 2+ channel subtypes in bovine
chromaffin cells. J Ethnopharmacol 2001; 74: 75–81

50. Liu D, Li B, Liu Y, et al. Voltage-dependent inhibition


of brain Na + Channels by American ginseng. Eur J Pharmcol
2001; 413: 47–54

51. Han KH, Choe SC, Kim HS, et al. Effect of red ginseng
on blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension
and white coat hypertension. Am J Chin Med 1998; 26:
199–209 52. Ding DZ, Shen TK, Cui YZ. Effects of red
ginseng on the congestive heart failure and its mechanism.
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 1995; 15: 325–7 53. Kaku
T, Miyata T, Uruno T, et al. Chemico-pharmacological
studies on saponins of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer. II.
Pharmacological part. Arzneimittelforschung 1975; 25:
539–47 54. Awang DVC. The anti-stress potential of North
American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.). J Herbs Spices
Med Plants 1998; 6: 87–91 55. Sung J, Han KH, Zo JH, et al.
Effects of red ginseng upon vascular endothelial function
in patients with essential hypertension. Am J Chin Med
2000; 28: 205–16 56. Jeon BH, Kim CS, Kim HS, et al. Effect
of Korean red ginseng on blood pressure and nitric oxide
production. Acta Pharmacol Sinica 2000; 21: 1095–100 57.
Lee DC, Lee MO, Kim CY, Clifford DH. Effect of ether,
ethanol and aqueous extracts of ginseng on cardiovascular
function in dogs. Can J Comp Med 1981; 45: 182–7 58.
Sengupta S, Toh SA, Sellers LA, et al. Modulating
angiogenesis: the yin and the yang in ginseng. Circulation
2004; 110: 1219–25 59. Toda N, Kazuhide A, Fujioka H,
Okamura T. Ginsenoside potentiates NO-mediated neurogenic
vasodilatation of monkey cerebral arteries. J
Ethnopharmacol 2001; 76: 109–13 60. Facino RM, Carini M,
Aldini G, et al. Panax ginseng administration in the rat
prevents myocardial ischemia–reperfusion damage induced by
hyperbaric oxygen: evidence for an antioxidant
intervention. Planta Med 1999; 65: 614–19 61. Zhan Y, Xu
XH, Jiang YP. Effects of ginsenosides on myocardial
ischemia/reperfusion damage in open-heart surgery patients.
Med J China 1994; 74: 626–8 62. Mei B, Wang YF, Wu JX, Chen
WZ. Protective effects of ginsenosides on oxygen free
radical induced damages of cultured vascular endothelial
cells in vitro. Yao Xue Xue Bao 1994; 29: 801–8 63. Chen X,
Gillis CN, Moalli R. Vascular effects of ginsenosides in
vitro. Br J Pharmacol 1984; 82: 485–91 64. Kim ND, Kang SY,
Park JH, Schini-Kerth VB. Ginsenoside Rg 3 mediates
endothelium-dependent relaxation in response to
ginsenosides in rat aorta: role of K + channels. Eur J
Pharmacol 1999; 367: 41–9 65. Li Z, Chen X, Niwa Y, et al.
Involvement of Ca 2+ -activated K + channels in
ginsenosides-induced aortic relaxation in rats. J
Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2001; 37: 41–7 66. Chen X, Lee TJ.
Ginsenosides-induced nitric oxide-mediated relaxation of
the rabbit corpus cavernosum. Br J Pharmacol 1995; 115:
15–18 67. Zhang FL, Chen X. Effects of ginsenosides on
sympathetic neurotransmitter release in pithed rats. Acta
Pharmacol Sin 1987; 8: 217–20 68. Tachikawa E, Kudo K,
Kashimoto T, Takahashi E. Ginseng saponins reduce
acetylcholine-evoked Na + influx and catecholamine
secretion in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. J Pharmacol
Exp Ther 1995; 273: 629–36 69. Cross CE, Halliwell B,
Borish ET, et al. Oxygen radicals and human disease. Ann
Intern Med 1987; 107: 526–45 70. Das DK. Cellular,
biochemical, and molecular aspects of reperfusion injury.
Ann NY Acad Sci 1994; 723: 116–27 71. Chen X.
Cardiovascular effects of ginsenosides and their
nitric-oxide mediated antioxidant actions. In Packer L, MG
Traber W Xin, eds. Proceedings of the International
Symposium on Natural Antioxidants. Champaign, IL: AOCS,
1996: 485–98

72. Han BH, Han YN, Park MH. Chemical and biochemical
studies on antioxidant components of ginseng. In Chang HM,
HW Yeung, WW Tso A Koo, eds. Advances in Chinese Medicinal
Materials Research. Singapore: World Scientific Press,
1995: 485–98

73. Kitts DD, Wijewickreme AN, Hu C. Antioxidant properties


of a North American ginseng extract. Mol Cell Biochem 2000;
203: 1–10

74. Maffei Facino R, Carini M, Aldini G, et al. Panax


ginseng administration in the rat prevents myocardial
ischemia–reperfusion damage induced by hyperbaric oxygen:
evidence for an antioxidant intervention. Planta Med 1999;
65: 614–19

75. Chen X, Gillis CN. Effect of free radicals on pulmonary


vascular response to acetylcholine. J Appl Physiol 1991;
71: 821–5

76. Rimar S, Gillis CN. Nitric oxide and experimental lung


injury. In Zapol WM KD Bloch, eds. Nitric Oxide and the
Lung. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, 1997: 165–83

77. Kim H, Chen X, Gillis CN. Ginsenosides protect


pulmonary vascular endothelium against free radical-induced
injury. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1992; 189: 670–6

78. Zhang D, Yasuda T, Yu Y, et al. Ginseng extract


scavenges hydroxyl radical and protects unsaturated fatty
acids from decomposition caused by iron-mediated lipid
peroxidation. Free Radical Biol Med 1996; 20: 145–50

79. Nakagima S, Uchiyama Y, Yoshida K, et al. The effects


of ginseng radix rubra on human vascular endothelial cells.
Am J Chin Med 1998; 26: 365–73

80. Li J, Huang M, Teoh H, Man RY. Panax quinquefolium


saponins protect low density lipoproteins from oxidation.
Life Sci 1999; 64: 53–62

81. Patel RP, McAndrew J, Sellak H, et al. Biological


aspects of reactive nitrogen species. Biochim Biophys Acta
1999; 1411: 385–400

82. Wink DA, Hanbauer I, Krishna MC, et al. Nitric oxide


protects against cellular damage and cytotoxicity from
reactive oxygen species. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993; 90:
9813–17

83. Kimata H, Sumida N, Matsufuji N, et al. Interaction of


saponin of bupleuri radix with ginseng saponin:
solubilization of saikosaponin-a with chikusetsusaponin V
(= ginsenosideRo). Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1985; 33:
2849–53

84. Chang MS, Lee SG, Rho HM. Transcriptional activation of


Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase genes by panaxadiol
ginsenosides extracted from Panax ginseng. Phytother Res
1999; 13: 641–4

85. Ota T, Fujikawa-Yamamoto K, Zong ZP, et al.


Plant-glycoside modulation of cell surface related to
control of differentiation in cultured B16 melanoma cells.
Cancer Res 1987; 47: 3863–7

86. Wakabayashi C, Murakami K, Hasegawa H, et al. An


intestinal bacterial metabolite of ginseng protopanaxadiol
saponins has the ability to induce apoptosis in tumor
cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1998; 246: 725–30

87. Mochizuki M, Yoo YC, Matsuzawa K, et al. Inhibitory


effect of tumor metastasis in mice by saponins,
ginsenoside-Rb 2 , 20(R)- and 20(S)-ginsenoside-Rg 3 , of
red ginseng. Biol Pharm Bull 1995; 18: 1197–202

88. Kim YS, Kim DS, Kim SI. Ginsenoside Rh 2 and Rh 3


induce differentiation of HL-60 cells into granulocytes:
modulation of protein kinase C isoforms during
differentiation by ginsenoside Rh 2 . Int J Biochem Cell
Biol 1998; 30: 327–38 89. Ota T, Maeda M, Odashima S, et
al. G1 phase-specific suppression of the CdK2 activity by
ginsenoside Rh 2 in cultured murine cells. Life Sci 1997;
60: 39–44 90. Hasegawa H, Sung JH, Matsumiya S, Uchiyama M.
Main ginseng saponin metabolites formed by intestinal
bacteria. Planta Med 1996; 62: 453–7 91. Karikura M, Miyase
T, Tanizawa H, et al. Studies on absorption, distribution,
excretion and metabolism of ginseng saponins. VII.
Comparison of the decomposition modes of ginsenoside-Rb 1
and -Rb 2 in the digestive tract of rats. Chem Pharm Bull
(Tokyo) 1991; 39: 2357–61 92. Tode T, Kikuchi Y, Kita T, et
al. Inhibitory effects by oral administration of
ginsenoside Rh2 on the growth of human ovarian cancer cells
in nude mice. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 1993; 120: 24–6 93.
Kim HS, Lee EH, Ko SR, et al. Effects of ginsenosides Rg 3
and Rh 2 on the proliferation of prostate cancer cells.
Arch Pharm Res 2004; 27: 429–35 94. Yun TK, Kim SH, Lee YS.
Trial of a new medium-term model using benzo(a)pyrene
induced lung tumor in newborn mice. Anticancer Res 1995;
15: 839–45 95. Yun TK. Experimental and epidemiological
evidence of the cancer preventive effects of Panax ginseng
C. A. Meyer. Nutrition Rev 1996; 54: S71–S81 96. Yun T,
Choi S. Preventive effect of ginseng intake against various
human cancers: a case study on 1987 pairs. Cancer Epidem
Biomarker Prev 1995; 4: 401–8 97. Perry P, Evans HJ.
Cytological detection of mutagen-carcinogen exposure by
sister chromatid exchange. Nature 1975; 258: 121–5 98.
Nitta H, Matsumoto K, Shimizu M, et al. Panax ginseng
extract improves the performance of aged fischer 344 rats
in radial maze task but not in operant brightness
discrimination task. Biol Pharm Bull 1995; 18: 1286–8 99.
Zhu JH, Takeshita T, Kitagawa I, Morimoto K. Suppression of
the formation of sister chromatid exchanges by low
concentrations of ginsenoside Rh 2 in human blood
lymphocytes. Cancer Res 1995; 55: 1221–3 100. Cho SW, Cho
EH, Choi SY. Ginsenosides activate DNA polymerase from
bovine placenta. Life Sci 1995; 57: 1359–65 101. Yun YS,
Moon HS, Oh YR, et al. Effect of red ginseng on natural
killer cell activity in mice with lung adenoma induced by
urethane and benzo(a)pyrene. Cancer Detection Prev 1987; 1:
301–9 102. Kim JY, Germolec DR, Luster MI. Panax ginseng as
a potential immunomodulator: studies in mice.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 1990; 12: 2578 103. Kenarova
B, Neychev H, Hadjiivanova C, Petkov VD. Immunomodulating
activity of ginsenoside Rg 1 from Panax ginseng. Jpn J
Pharmacol 1990; 54: 447–54 104. Park KM, Kim YS, Jeong TC,
et al. Nitric oxide is involved in the immunomodulating
activities of acidic polysaccharide from Panax ginseng.
Planta Med 2001; 67: 122–6 105. Cho YK, Sung H, Lee HJ, et
al. Long-term intake of Korean red ginseng in
HIV-1-infected patients: development of resistance mutation
to zidovudine is delayed. Int Immunopharmacol 2001; 1:
1295–305 106. Ackerknecht EH. A Short History of Medicine,
Baltimore/London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982 107.
Xie JT, Mehendale S, Yuan CS. Ginseng and diabetes. Am J
Chin Med 2005; 33: 397–404

108. Wang C. Advances in study of pharmacology of ginseng.


Acta Pharmaceut Sin 1965; 12: 477–586

109. Wang C. Recent advances in study of pharmacology of


ginseng. Acta Pharmaceut Sin 1980; 15: 312–20
110. Bensky D, Gamble A. Ginseng. In Chinese Herbal
Medicine, Materia Medica. Seattle, WA: Eastland Press,
1993: 314–17

111. Kimura M. Hypoglycemic component in ginseng radix and


its insulin release. In Proceedings of the 3rd
International Ginseng Symposium. Korean Ginseng Research
Institute, Seoul, Korea, 1980: 37–8

112. Kimura M, Waki I, Tanaka O, et al. Pharmacological


sequential trials for the fractionation of components with
hypoglycemic activity in alloxan diabetic mice from ginseng
radix. J Pharmacobio-Dyn 1981; 4: 402–9

113. Kimura M, Suzuki J. The pattern of action of blended


Chinese traditional medicines to glucose tolerance curves
in genetically diabetic KK-CAy mice. J Pharmacobio-Dyn
1981; 4: 907–15

114. Kimura M, Suzuki J, Koizumi T. Glucose tolerance


curves in genetically diabetic KK-CAy mice: the
pharmacokinetic analysis for humping effect. J
Pharmacobio-Dyn 1981; 4: 149–61

115. Kimura M, Waki I, Chujo T, et al. Effects of


hypoglycemic components in ginseng radix on blood insulin
level in alloxan diabetic mice and on insulin release from
perfused rat pancreas. J Pharmacobio-Dyn 1981; 4: 410–17

116. Yokozawa T, Kobayashi T, Oura H, Kawashima Y. Studies


on the mechanism of the hypoglycemic activity of
ginsenosideRb2 in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Chem Pharm
Bull (Tokyo) 1985; 33: 869–72

117. Kimura I, Nakashima N, Sugihara Y, et al. The


antihyperglycaemic blend effect of traditional chinese
medicine byakko-kaninjinto on alloxan and diabetic KK-CA(y)
mice. Phytother Res 1999; 13: 484–8

118. Kwan HJ, Wan JK. Clinical study of treatment of


diabetes with power of the steamed insam (ginseng) produced
in Kaesong, Korea. Tech Inf 1994; 6: 33–5

119. Sotaniemi EA, Haapakoski E, Rautio A. Ginseng therapy


in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Diabetes Care
1995; 18: 1373–5

120. World Health Organization. Radix ginseng. In WHO


Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants (Volume 1). Malta,
Geneva, 1999: 168–82

121. Vuksan V, Sievenpiper JL, Koo VY, et al. American


ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L) reduces postprandial
glycemia in nondiabetic subjects and subjects with type 2
diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160: 1009–13

122. Vuksan V, Stavro MP, Sievenpiper JL, et al. Similar


postprandial glycemic reductions with escalation of dose
and administration time of American ginseng in type 2
diabetes. Diabetes Care 2000; 23: 1221–6

123. Attele AS, Zhou YP, Xie JT, et al. Antidiabetic


effects of Panax ginseng berry extract and the
identification of an effective component. Diabetes 2002;
51: 1851–8

124. Xie JT, Aung HH, Wu JA, et al. Effects of American


ginseng berry extract on blood glucose levels in ob/ob
mice. Am J Chin Med 2002; 30: 187–94

125. Xie JT, Zhou Y-P, Dey L, et al. Ginseng berry reduces
blood glucose and body weight in db/db mice. Phytomedicine
2002; 9: 254–8

126. Xie JT, Mehendale A, Wang A, et al. American ginseng


leaf: ginsenoside analysis and hypoglycemic activity.
Pharmacol Res 2004; 49: 113–17 127. Xie JT, Wu JA,
Mehendale S, et al. Anti-hyperglycemic effect of the
polysaccharides fraction from American ginseng berry
extract in ob/ob mice. Phytomedicine 2004; 11: 182–7 128.
Dey L, Xie JT, Wang A, et al. Anti-hyperglycemic effects of
ginseng: comparison between root and berry. Phytomedicine
2003; 10: 600–5 129. Odashima S, Ohta T, Kohno H, et al.
Control of phenotypic expression of cultured B16 melanoma
cells by plant glycosides. Cancer Res 1985; 45: 2781–4 130.
Kim HS, Hwang SL, Oh S. Ginsenoside Rc and Rg 1
differentially modulate NMDA receptor subunit mRNA levels
after intracerebroventricular infusion in rats. Neurochem
Res 2000; 25: 1149–54 131. Banthorpe DV. Terpenoids. In
Natural Products. Essex: Longman Scientific and Technical,
1994: 331–9 132. Ourisson G, Crabbe P, Rodic OR.
Tetracyclic Triterpenes. San Francisco, CA: Holden-Day
Publisher, 1964 133. Boar RB. Terpenoids and Steroids.
Dorking, UK: Bartholomew Press, 1983 134. Shibata S, Tanaka
O, Shoji J, Saito H. Chemistry and pharmacology of Panax.
Econ Medicin Plant Res 1985; 1: 217–83 135. Heftmann E,
Mosetting E. Biochemistry of Steroids. London: Reinhold
Publishing Corporation, 1960 136. Bastiaanse EM, Hold KM,
Van der Laarse A. The effect of membrane cholesterol
content on ion transport processes in plasma membranes.
Cardiovasc Res 1997; 33: 272–83 137. Lee YJ, Chung E, Lee
KY, et al. Ginsenoside-Rg 1 , one of the major active
molecules from Panax ginseng, is a functional ligand of
glucocorticoid receptor. Mol Cell End 1997; 133: 135–40
138. Chung E, Lee KY, Lee YJ, et al. Ginsenoside Rg 1
down-regulates glucocorticoid receptor and displays
synergistic effects with cAMP. Steroids 1998; 63: 421–4
139. Soldati F, Sticher O. HPLC separation and quantitative
determination of ginsenosides from Panax ginseng, panax
quinquefolium and from ginseng drug preparations. Planta
Med 1980; 38: 348–57 140. Islam MR, Mahdi JG, Bowen ID.
Pharmacological importance of stereochemical resolution of
enantiomeric drugs. Drug Safety 1997; 17: 149–65 141. Kudo
K, Tachikawa E, Kashimoto T, Takahashi E. Properties of
ginseng saponin inhibition of catecholamine secretion in
bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Eur J Pharmacol 1998; 341:
139–44 142. Shiao MS, Lin LJ. Two new triterpenes of the
fungus Ganoderma lucidum. J Nat Prod 1987; 50: 886–91 143.
Wang CN, Chen JS, Shiao MS, Wang CT. Activation of human
platelet phospholipases C and A2 by various oxygenated
triterpenes. Eur J Pharmacol 1994; 267: 33–42 144. Odani T,
Tanizawa H, Takino Y. Studies on the absorption,
distribution, excretion and metabolism of ginseng saponins.
III. The absorption, distribution and excretion of
ginsenoside Rb1 in the rat. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1983;
31: 1059–66 145. Hasegawa H, Sung JH, Matsumiya S, et al.
Reversal of daunomycin and vinblastine resistance in
multidrug-resistant P388 leukemia in vitro through enhanced
cytotoxicity by triterpenoids. Planta Med 1995; 61: 409–13
146. Rilfors L, Hauksson JB, Lindblom G. Regulation and
phase equilibria of membrane lipids from Bacillus
megaterium and Acholeplasma laidlawii strain A containing
methyl-branched acyl chains. Biochemistry (Mosc) 1994; 33:
6110–20

147. Goldberg EM, Zidovetzki R. Synergistic effects of


diacylglycerols and fatty acids on membrane structure and
protein kinase C activity. Biochemistry (Mosc) 1998; 37:
5623–32

148. Schroeder F, Jefferson JR, Kier AB, et al. Membrane


cholesterol dynamics: cholesterol domains and kinetic
pools. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1991; 196: 235–52

149. Mas-Oliva J, Santiago-Garcia J. Cholesterol effect on


thermostability of the (Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ )-ATPase from cardiac
muscle sarcolemma. Biochem Int 1990; 21: 233–41

150. Kirkwood A, Pritchard JR, Schwarz SM, et al. Effect of


lowdensity lipoprotein on endothelial cell membrane
fluidity and mononuclear cell attachment. Am J Physiol
1991; 260: C43–9

151. Pederson PL, Carafoli E. Ion motive ATPases. Ubiquity,


properties, and significance to cell function. Trends
Biochem Sci 1987; 12: 146–50

152. Wehling M. Specific, nongenomic actions of steroid


hormones. Annu Rev Physiol 1997; 59: 365–93

153. Brann DW, Hendry LB, Mahesh VB. Emerging diversities


in the mechanism of action of steroid hormones. J Steroid
Biochem Mol Biol 1995; 52: 113–33

154. Pastan I, Gottesman MM. Multidrug resistance. Annu Rev


Med 1991; 42: 277–86

155. Gudi R, Nolan JP, Frangos JA. Modulation of GTPase


activity of G proteins by fluid shear stress and
phospholipid composition. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998; 95:
2515–19

156. Mogil JS, Shin YH, McCleskey EW, et al. Ginsenoside


Rf, a trace component of ginseng root, produces
antinociception in mice. Brain Res 1998; 792: 218–28

157. Sherr CJ. G1 phase progression: cycling on cue. Cell


1994; 79: 551–5

158. Zidovetzki R, Lester DS. The mechanism of activation


of protein kinase C: a biophysical perspective. Biochim
Biophys Acta 1992; 1134: 261–72

159. Nishizuka Y. The role of protein kinase C in cell


surface signal transduction and tumour promotion. Nature
1984; 308: 693–8

160. McEwan IJ, Almlof T, Wikstrom AC, et al. The


glucocorticoid receptor functions at multiple steps during
transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II. J Biol Chem
1994; 269: 25629–36

161. Kim YH, Park KH, Rho HM. Transcriptional activation of


the Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase gene through the AP2 site
by ginsenoside Rb 2 extracted from a medicinal plant, Panax
ginseng. J Biol Chem 1996; 271: 24539–43

162. Rohrer DC. 3D molecular similarity methods: in search


of a pharmacophore. In Codding PW, ed. Structure-based Drug
Design. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998:
65–76

163. Attele AS, Wu JA, Yuan CS. Ginseng pharmacology:


multiple constituents and multiple actions. Biochem
Pharmacol 1999; 58: 1685–93

164. Kim YK, Guo Q, Packer L. Free radical scavenging


activity of red ginseng aqueous extracts. Toxicology 2002;
172: 149–56

165. Yuan CS, Wang X, Wu JA, et al. Effect of Panax


quinquefolius L. on brainstem neuronal activities:
comparison between Wisconsin-cultivated and
Illinois-cultivated roots. Phytomedicine 2001; 8: 178–83

166. Singh B, Saxena AK, Chandan BK, et al. Adaptogenic


activity of a novel, withanolide-free aqueous fraction from
the roots of Withania somnifera Dun. Phytother Res 2001;
15: 311–18 167. Ernst E. The risk–benefit profile of
commonly used herbal therapies: ginkgo, St. John’s wort,
ginseng, echinacea, saw palmetto, and kava. Ann Intern Med
2002; 136: 42–53 168. Bent S, Ko R. Commonly used herbal
medicines in the United States: a review. Am J Med 2004;
116: 478–85 169. Siegel RK. Ginseng abuse syndrome.
Problems with the panacea. J Am Med Assoc 1979; 241:
1614–15 170. Dega H, Laporte JL, Frances C, et al. Ginseng
as a cause for Stevens–Johnson syndrome. Lancet 1996; 347:
1344 171. Faleni R, Soldati F. Ginseng as cause of
Stevens–Johnson syndrome? Lancet 1996; 348: 267 172.
Nocerino E, Amato M, Izzo A. The aphrodisiac and
adaptogenic properties of ginseng. Fitoterapia 2002; 71:
S1–S5 173. Ang-Lee MK, Moss J, Yuan CS. Herbal medicines
and perioperative care. J Am Med Assoc 2001; 286: 208–16
174. Yuan CS, Wu JA, Osinski J. Ginsenoside variability in
American ginseng samples [Comment]. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;
75: 600–1 175. Yuan CS, Wei G, Dey L, et al. Brief
communication: American ginseng reduces warfarin’s effect
in healthy patients: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann
Intern Med 2004; 141: 23–7 176. Izzo AA, Di Carlo G,
Borrelli F, Ernst E. Cardiovascular pharmacotherapy and
herbal medicines: the risk of drug interaction. Int J
Cardiol 2005; 98: 1–14 177. Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE.
Rational Phytotherapy – A Physicians’ Guide to Herbal
Medicine, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1998 178. Brekhman II,
Dardymov IV. New substances of plant origin which increase
nonspecific resistance. Annu Rev Pharmacol 1969; 9: 419–30
179. Wang BX, Cui JC, Liu AJ. The action of ginsenosides
extracted from the stems and leaves of Panax ginseng in
promoting animal growth. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao – Acta
Pharmaceut Sin 1982; 17: 899–904 180. Saito H, Morita M,
Takagi K. Pharmacological studies of Panax ginseng leaves.
Jpn J Pharmacol 1973; 23: 43–56 181. Aphale AA, Chhibba AD,
Kumbhakarna NR, et al. Subacute toxicity study of the
combination of ginseng (Panax ginseng) and ashwagandha
(Withania somnifera) in rats: a safety assessment. Ind J
Physiol Pharmacol 1998; 42: 299–302 182. Popov IM, Goldwag
WJ. A review of the properties and clinical effects of
ginseng. Am J Chin Med 1973; 1: 263–70 183. Hess FG Jr,
Parent RA, Stevens KR, et al. Effects of subchronic feeding
of ginseng extract G115 in beagle dogs. Food Chem Toxicol
1983; 21: 95–7 184. Sorokina E, Aksiuk IN, Kirpatovskaia
NA, Levitskaia AB. Experimental animal study of the safety
of biologically active food supplement obtained from
ginseng root. Vopr Pitan 2000; 69: 53–6 185. Miller LG.
Herbal medicinals: selected clinical considerations
focusing on known or potential drug–herb interactions. Arch
Intern Med 1998; 158: 2200–11 186. Awang DVC. Clinical
trial of ginseng. Altern Therap Women’s Health 2002; 4:
17–24 187. Bucci LR. Selected herbals and human exercise
performance. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 72: 624S–36S 188. Hammond
TG, Whitworth JA. Adverse reactions to ginseng. Med J Aust
1981; 1: 492 189. Carabin IG, Burdock GA, Chatzidakis C.
Safety assessment of Panax ginseng. Int J Toxicol 2000; 19:
293–301

190. Greenspan EM. Ginseng and vaginal bleeding. J Am Med


Assoc 1983; 249: 2018

191. Hopkins MP, Takahashi M, Otake K. Isolation and


hypoglycemic activity of eleutherans A, B, C, D, E, F, and
G: glycans of Eleutherococcua senticosus roots. J Nat Prod
1986; 49: 293–7

192. Oshima Y, Sato K, Hikino H. Isolation and hypoglycemic


activity of quinquefolans A, B, and C, glycans of Panax
quinquefolium roots. J Nat Prod 1987; 50: 188–90

193. Becker BN, Greene J, Evanson J, et al. Ginseng-induced


diuretic resistance. J Am Med Assoc 1996; 276: 606–7

194. Janetzky K, Morreale AP. Probable interaction between


warfarin and ginseng. Am J Health Syst Pharm 1997; 54:
692–3

195. Zhang GD. Progress in the chemical constituents and


analytical methods of Panax ginseng (author’s transl). Yao
Xue Xue Bao 1980; 15: 375–84 196. Mosby’s Drug Guide, 4th
edn. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby, 2001 197. Tatro DS. Drug
Interaction Facts. St Louis, MO: Wolters Kluwer Company,
2001 198. Skidomore-Roth L. Handbook of Herbs and Natural
Supplements. St. Louis, MO: Mosby, 2001 199. Cui J, Garle
M, Eneroth P, Bjørkhem I. What do commercial ginseng
preparations contain? Lancet 1994; 344: 134 200. Awang DVC.
Maternal use of ginseng and neonatal androgenization. J Am
Med Assoc 1991; 265: 1828 201. Windrum P, Hull DR, Morris
TCM. Herb–drug interactions. Lancet 2000; 355: 1019–20
Green tea 7

1. History of tea: China,


www.gol127.com/HistoryTeaChina.html

2. Rietveld A. Antioxidant effects of tea. J Nutr 2003;


133: 3285S

3. Liao S, Dang MT, Hiipakka RA. Evidence-based medicinal


action of male hormones and green tea catechins, In Yuan
CS, Bieber EJ, eds. Textbook of Complementary and
Alternative Medicine. London: Parthenon, 2003: 59

4. Siddiqui IA. Antioxidants of the beverage tea in


promotion of human health. Antioxid Redox Signal 2004; 6:
571

5. Heber D. Herbal preparations for obesity: are they


useful? Prim Care Clin Office Pract 2003; 30: 441–63

6. Hirata K, Shimada K, Watanabe H. Black tea increases


coronary flow velocity reserve in healthy male subjects. Am
J Cardiol 2004; 93: 1384–8

7. Cheng TO. Will green tea be even better than black tea
to increase coronary flow velocity reserve? Am J Cardiol
2004; 94: 1223

8. www.gol127.com/HistoryTeaChina.html

9. Fields H. Take two tea bags and call me. US News World
Report 24 January 2005: 58–9

10. Yuan CS, Bieber EJ, eds. Textbook of Complementary and


Alternative Medicine. London: Parthenon, 2003

11. Kim S. Antibacterial effect of water-soluble tea


extracts. J Food Prot 2004; 67: 2608–12

12. Kawaii KN, Tsuno N, Kitayama J, et al. Epigallocatechin


gallate, the main component of tea polyphenol, binds to CD4
and interferes with gp120 binding. J Allergy Clin Immunol
2003; 134: 49–54

13. Nance C, Shearer WT. Is green tea good for HIV-1


infection? J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003; 112: 851–3

14. Rietveld A. Antioxidant effects of tea. J Nutr 2003;


133: 3285S
15. Mukhtar H, Ahmad N. Tea polyphenols: prevention of
cancer and optimizing health. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71(6
Suppl): 1698S–702S

16. Jian L. Protective effect of green tea against prostate


cancer: a case–control study in southeast China. Int J
Cancer 2004; 108: 130–5

17. Kamat AM. Chemoprevention of bladder cancer. Urol Clin


N Am 2002; 29: 157–68

18. Gupta S, Mukhtar H. Green tea and prostate cancer. Urol


Clin N Am 2002; 29: 49–57

19. Morris K. Tea chemicals confirmed as cancer-busting


compounds. Lancet Oncol 2002; 3: 262 20. Koizumi Y, Tsubono
Y, Nakay N. No association between green tea and risk of
gastric cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003; 12:
472–3 21. Suzuki Y, Tsubono Y. Green tea and the risk of
breast cancer. Br J Cancer 2004; 90: 1361 22. Bushman JL.
Green tea and cancer in humans: a review of the literature.
Nutr Cancer 1998; 31: 151 23. Borelli F. Green tea and
gastrointestinal cancer risk. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004;
19: 497 24. Morley N, Clifford T, Salter L. The green tea
polypheno (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and green tea can
protect human cellular DNA from ultraviolet and visible
radiation-induced damage. Photodermatol Photoimmunol
Photomed 2005; 21: 15–22 25. Srinivasan P, Sabitha KE.
Therapeutic efficacy of green tea polyphenos on cellular
thiols in 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxideinduced oral
carcinogenesis. Chemico Biol Interact 2004; 149: 81–7 26.
Laurie SA, Miller VA. Phase I study of green tea extract in
patients with advanced lung cancer. Cancer Chemother
Pharmacol 2005; 55: 33–8 27. Siddiqui IA, Afaq F.
Antioxidants of the beverage tea in promotion of human
health. Antioxid Redox Signal 2004; 6: 571–82 28. Hirano R,
Momiyama Y. Comparison of green tea intake in Japanese
patients with and without angiographic coronary artery
disease. Am J Cardiol 2002; 90: 1150–3 29. Lee W, Min WK,
Chun S, Lee YW. Long-term effects of green tea ingestion on
atherosclerotic biological markers in smokers. Clin Biochem
2005; 38: 84–7 30. Aneja R, Hake PW, Burroughs TJ.
Epigallocatechin, a green tea polyphenol, attenuates
myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury in rats. Mol Med
2004; 10: 55–62 31. Nagaya N, Yamamoto H, Uematsu M, et al.
Green tea reverses endothelial dysfunction in healthy
smokers. Br Heart J 2004; 90: 1485 32. Suzuki M, Tabuchi M,
Ikeda M, et al. Protective effects of green tea catechins
on cerebral ischemic damage. Med Sci Monitor 2004; 10:
BR166 33. Chen Z, Li Y, Zhao LC, et al. A study on the
association between tea consumption and stroke (in
Chinese). Zhonghau Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2004; 25: 66
34. Hara Y, Matsuzaki T, Suzuki T. Green tea controls high
blood pressure. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 1987; 61: 803

35. Maron DJ, Lu GP, Cai NS, Wu ZG. Cholesterol-lowering


effect of a theaflavin-enriched green tea extract. Arch
Intern Med 2003; 163: 1448–53

36. Dulloo AG, Duret C. Efficacy of a green tea extract


rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24
hr energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans. Am J
Clin Nutr 1999; 70: 1040–5

37. Komatsu T, Nakamori M. Oolong tea increases energy


metabolism in Japanese females. J Med Investigat 2003; 50:
170–5 38. Nagao T, Komine Y. Ingestion of a tea rich in
catechins leads to a reduction in body fat and
malondialdehyde-modified LDL in men. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;
81: 122–9 39. Wu LY. Effect of green tea supplementation on
insulin sensitivity in Sprague–Dawley rats. J Agric Food
Chem 2004; 52: 643–8 40. Chinese cuisine, the miracle of
green tea. www.About. com 41. Fields H. Take two tea bags
and call me. US News World Report 25 January 2005: 58
Evidence-based use of vitamin 8
supplements

8. Rapola JM, Virtamo J, Haukka JK, et al. Effect of


vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of angina
pectoris. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. J
Am Med Assoc 1996; 275: 693–8

9. Virtamo J, Rapola JM, Ripatti S, et al. Effect of


vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence or primary
nonfatal myocardial infarction and fatal coronary heart
disease. Arch Intern Med 1998; 158: 668–75

10. Morris CK, Carson S. Routine vitamin supplementation to


prevent cardiovascular disease: a summary of the evidence
for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med
2003; 139: 56–70

11. Rapola JM, Virtamo J, Ripatti S, et al. Randomized


trial of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements on
incidence of major coronary events in men with previous
myocardial infarction. Lancet 1997; 349: 1715–20

12. Kris-Etherton PM, Lichtenstein AH, Howard BV, et al.


For the Nutrition Committee of the American Heart
Association Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and
Metabolism. Antioxidant vitamin supplements and
cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2004; 110: 637–41

13. Hunter DJ, Manson JE, Colditz GA, et al. A prospective


study of intake of vitamins C, E and A and the risk of
breast cancer. NEJM 1993; 329: 234–40

14. Zhang S, Hunter DJ, Forman MR, et al. Dietary


carotenoids and vitamins A, C, and E and risk of breast
cancer. JNCI 1999; 91: 547–9

15. US Preventive Services Task Force. Routine vitamin


supplementation to prevent cancer and cardiovascular
disease: recommendations and rationale. Ann Intern Med
2003; 139: 51–5

16. Omenn GS, Goodman GE, Thornquist MD, et al. Effects of


combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer
and cardiovascular disease. NEJM 1996; 334: 1150–5

17. Melhus H, Michaelsson K, Kindmark A, et al. Excessive


dietary intake of vitamin A is associated with reduced bone
mineral density and increased risk of hip fracture. Ann
Intern Med 1998; 129: 770–8
18. Michaelsson K, Lithell H, Vessby B, Mehus H. Serum
retinol levels and the risk of fracture. NEJM 2003; 348:
287–94

19. Crandall BF, Corson VL, Evans MI, et al. American


College of Medical Genetics statement on folic acid:
fortification and supplementation. Am J Med Genet 1998; 78:
381

20. MRC Vitamin Study Research Group. Prevention of neural


tube defects: results of the Medical Research Council
Vitamin Study. Lancet 1991; 338: 131–7

21. Honein MA, Paulozzi LJ, Mathews TJ, et al. Impact of


folic acid fortification on the US food supply on the
occurrence of neural tube defects. J Am Med Assoc 2001;
285: 2981–6

22. Hackam DG, Anand SS. Emerging risk factors for


atherosclerotic vascular disease: a critical review of the
evidence. J Am Med Assoc 2003; 290: 932–40

23. Brouwer IA, vanDusseldorp M, West CE, et al. Dietary


folate from vegetables and citrus fruit decreases plasma
homocysteine concentrations in humans in a dietary
controlled trial. J Nutr 1999; 129: 1135–9

24. Collaboration HLT. Lowering blood homocysteine with


folic acid based supplements: meta-analysis of randomized
trials. Br Med J 1998; 316: 894–8

25. Selhub J, Jacques PF, Wilson PW, et al. Vitamin status


and intake as primary determinants of homocysteinemia in an
elderly population. J Am Med Assoc 1993; 270: 2693–8 26.
Rimm EB, Willett WC, Hu FB, et al. Folate and vitamin B6
from diet and supplements in relation to risk of coronary
heart disease among women. J Am Med Assoc 1998; 279: 359–64
27. Morrison HI, Schaubel D, Desmeules M, Wigle DT. Serum
folate and risk of fatal coronary heart disease. J Am Med
Assoc 1996; 275: 1893–6 28. Verhaar MD, Stroes E, Rabelink
TJ. Folates and cardiovascular disease. Arterioscler Thromb
Vasc Biol 2002; 22: 6–13 29. Fairfield KM, Fletcher RH.
Vitamins for chronic disease prevention in adults:
scientific eeview. J Am Med Assoc 2002; 287: 3116–26 30.
Giovannucci E, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, et al. Multivitamin
use, folate, and colon cancer in women in the Nurses’
Health Study. Ann Intern Med 1998; 129: 517–24 31. Su LJ,
Arab L. Nutritional status of folate and colon cancer risk:
evidence from NHANES 1 epidemiologic follow-up study. Ann
Epidemiol 2001; 11: 65–72 32. Institute of Medicine, Food
and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamin A,
Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron,
Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc.
Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001 33. Ross AC.
Vitamin A and retinoids. In Shils ME, Olson J, Shike M,
Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 9th
edn. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1999 34.
http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/folate.asp, accessed on 9
August 2005 35. Lindenbaum J, Rosenberg IH, Wilson PW, et
al. Prevalence of cobalamin deficiency in the Framingham
elderly population. Am J Clin Nutr 1994; 60: 2–11 36.
Carmel R. Cobalamin, the stomach, and aging. Am J Clin Nutr
1997; 66: 750 37. Lindenbaum J, Healton EB, Savage DG, et
al. Neuropsychiatric disorders caused by cobalamin
deficiency in the absence of anemia or macrocytosis. NEJM
1988; 318: 720 38. Malouf R, Grimley Evans J, Areosa Sastre
A. Folic acid with or without vitamin B12 for cognition and
dementia. Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews 2005 39.
Vitamin B12. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database.
www.naturaldatabase.com, accessed on 25 February 2005 40.
Ames BN. DNA damage from micronutrient deficiencies is
likely to be a major cause of cancer. Mutat Res 2001; 475:
7–20 41. Mason JB, Levesque T. Folate: effects on
carcinogenesis and the potential for cancer
chemoprevention. Oncology 1996; 10: 1727–36 42. Blount BC,
Mack MM, Wehr CM, et al. Folate deficiency causes uracil
misincorporation into human DNA and chromosome breakage:
implications for cancer and neuronal damage. Proc Natl Acad
Sci USA 1997; 94: 3290–5 43. Zhang SM, Willett WC, Selhub
J, et al. Plasma folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12,
homocysteine, and risk of breast cancer. JNCI 2003; 95:
373–80 44. Wu K, Helslsouer KJ, Comstock GW, et al. A
prospective study on folate, B12, and pyridoxal
5′-phosphate (B6) and breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol
Biomarkers Prev 1999; 8: 209–17 45. Tucker KL, Rich S,
Rosenberg I, et al. Plasma vitamin B12 concentrations
relate to intake source in the Framingham Offspring Study.
Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71: 514–22 46. Pauling L. Vitamin C
and the Common Cold. San Francisco: WH Freeman & Co, 1970

47. Douglas RM, D-Souza R, Chalker EB, Treacy B. Vitamin C


for preventing and treating the common cold. The Cochrane
Database of Systematic Reviews 2005; 1

48. Enstrom JE, Kanim LE, Klein MA. Vitamin C intake and
mortality among a sample of the United States population.
Epidemiology 1992; 3: 194–202

49. Khaw KT, Bingham S, Welch A, et al. Relation between


plasma ascorbic acid and mortality in men and women in
EPIC-Norfolk prospective study: a prospective population
study. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and
Nutrition. Lancet 2001; 357: 657

50. Osganian SK, Stampfer MJ, Rimm E, et al. Vitamin E


consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease in men.
NEJM 1993; 328: 1450

51. Morris CD, Carson S. Routine vitamin supplementation to


prevent cardiovascular disease: a summary of the evidence
for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med
2003; 139: 56–70

52. Hodis HN, Mack WJ, LaBree L, et al. Serial coronary


angiographic evidence that antioxidant vitamin intake
reduces progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis. J
Am Med Assoc 1995; 273: 1849–54

53. Tomoda H, Yoshitake M, Morimoto K, Aoki N. Possible


prevention of post-angioplasty restenosis by ascorbic acid.
Am J Card 1996; 78: 1284–6

54. Won Lee KW, Lee HJ, Surh Y-J, Lee CY. Vitamin C and
cancer chemoprevention: reappraisal. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;
78: 1074–8

55. Holick MF. Vitamin D: importance in the prevention of


cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis.
Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 79: 362–71

56. Garland FC, Garland CF, Gorham ED, Young JF. Geographic
variation in breast cancer mortality in the United States:
a hypothesis involving exposure to solar radiation. Prev
Med 1990; 19: 614–22

57. Ahonen MH, Tenkanen L, Teppo L, et al. Prostate cancer


risk and prediagnostic serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels
(Finland). Cancer Causes Control 2000; 11: 847–52

58. Hanchette CL, Schwartz, GG. Geographic patterns of


prostate cancer mortality. Evidence for a protective effect
of ultraviolet radiation. Cancer 1992; 70: 2861–9

59. Martinez ME, Willett WC. Calcium, vitamin D, and


colorectal cancer: a review of the epidemiologic evidence.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 1998; 7: 163–8

60. Garland C, Shekelle RB, Barrett-Connor E, et al.


Dietary vitamin D and calcium and risk of colorectal
cancer: a 19-year prospective study in men. Lancet 1985; 1:
307–9

61. Freedman DM, Dosemeci M, McGlynn K. Sunlight and


mortality from breast, ovarian, colon, prostate and
non-melanoma skin cancer: a composite death certificate
based case-control study. Occup Environ Med 2002; 59:
258–62

62. Mawer EB, Walls J, Howell A, et al. Serum


1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D may be related inversely to disease
activity in breast cancer patients with bone metastases. J
Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997; 82: 118–22

63. Janowsky EC, Lester GE, Weinberg CR, et al. Association


between low levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and breast
cancer risk. Public Health Nutr 1999; 2: 283–91

64. Grau MV, Baron JA, Sandler RS, et al. Vitamin D,


calcium supplementation, and colorectal adenomas: results
of a randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 2003; 23: 1765–71
65. Shin MJ, Homes, MD, Hankinson SE, et al. Intake of
dairy products, calcium and vitamin D and risk of breast
cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002; 94: 1301–10 66. John EM,
Schwartz GG, Dreon DM, Koo J. Vitamin D and breast cancer
risk: the NHAMESI epidemiologic follow up study, 1971–1975
to 1992. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1999; 8: 399–406
67. Grant WB. An ecologic study of dietary and solar
ultraviolet-B links to breast carcinoma mortality rates.
Cancer 2002; 94: 272–81 68. Grant WB. An estimate of
premature cancer mortality in the United States due to
inadequate doses of solar ultraviolet-B radiation. Cancer
2002; 94: 1867–75 69. Posner G. Low-calcemic vitamin D
analogs (deltanoids) for human cancer prevention. J Nutr
2002; 132: 3802S–3S 70. Hayes CE, Cantorna MT, DeLuca HF.
Vitamin D and multiple sclerosis. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med
1997; 216: 21–7 71. Keen H, Ekoe JM. The geography of
diabetes mellitus. Br Med J 1984; 40: 359–65 72. Lawrence
JS, Behrend T, Bennett PH, et al. Geographical studies of
rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 1996; 25: 425–32 73.
Cantorna MT, Hayes CE, DeLuca HF.
1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol inhibits the progression of
arthritis in murine models of human arthritis. J Nutr 1998;
128: 68–72 74. Mathieu C, Waer M, Laureys J, et al.
Prevention of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice by 1,25
dihydroxyvitamin D3. Diabetologia 1994; 37: 552–8 75.
Lemire JM, Archer DC, Beck L, Spiegelberg H.
Immunosuppresive actions of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3:
preferential inhibition of Th1 functions. J Nutr 1995; 125:
1704S–8S 76. Munger KL, Zhand SM, O-Reilly E, et al.
Vitamin D intake and incidence of multiple sclerosis.
Neurology 2004; 62: 60–5 77.
www.atihealthnet.com/pages/Arthid.html, accessed on 9
August 2005 78. Looker AC, Dawson-Hughes B, Calvo MS, et
al. Serum 25hydroxyvitamin D status of adolescents and
adults in two seasonal subpopulations from NHANES III. Bone
2002; 30: 771–7 79. Welsh J. Vitamin D and breast cancer:
insights from animal models. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 80:
1721S–4S 80. Weaver CM, Fleet JC. Vitamin D requirements:
currrent and future. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 80: 1735S–9S 81.
US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research
Service. 2004 USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard
Reference, Release 16-1. Nutrient Data Laboratory home
page, www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp 82. Rabins P, Blacker
D, Bland W, et al. Practice Guideline for the Treatment of
Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias of
Late Life. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association;
1997. Accessed at www.psych.org /psych_pract/
treatg/pg/pg_dementia_32701.cfm 83. Doody RS, Stevens JC,
Beck C, et al. Practice parameter: management of dementia
(an evidence-based review). Report of the Quality Standards
Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.
Neurology 2001; 56: 1154–66 84. Stampfer MJ, Hennekens CH,
Manson JE, et al. Vitamin E consumption and the risk of
coronary disease in women. NEJM 1993; 328: 1444–9 85. Rimm
EB, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A, et al. Vitamin E consumption
and the risk of coronary heart disease in men. NEJM 1993;
328: 1450–6

86. Kushi LH, Folsom AR, Prineas Rj, et al. Dietary


antioxidant vitamins and death from coronary heart disease
in postmenopausal women. NEJM 1996; 334: 1156–62

87. Muntwyler J, Hennekens CH, Manson JE, et al. Vitamin


supplement use in a low-risk population of US male
physicians and subsequent cardiovascular mortality. Arch
Intern Med 2002; 162: 1472–6

88. Stephens NG, Parsons A, Schofield PM, et al. Randomised


controlled trial of vitamin E in patients with coronary
disease: Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study (CHAOS). Lancet
1996; 347: 781–6

89. Dietary supplementation with n-polyunsaturated fatty


acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: results of
the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio
della Sopravvivenza nell-Infart Miocardico. Lancet 1999;
354: 447–55 90. Miller ER, Pastor-Barriuso R, Dalal D, et
al. Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E supplementation
may increase all-cause mortality. Ann Intern Med 2005; 142:
37–46 91. Losonczy KG, Harris TB, Havlok RJ. Vitamin E and
vitamin C supplement use and risk of all-cause and coronary
heart disease mortality in older persons. Am J Clin
Nutrition 1996; 64: 190–6 92. Barringer TA, Kirk JK,
Santaniello AC, et al. Effect of a multivitamin and mineral
supplement on infections and quality of life: a randomized,
double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med
2003; 138: 365–71 93. Chandra RK. Effect of vitamin and
trace-element supplementation on immune responses and
infection in elderly subjects. Lancet 1992; 340: 1124–7
Herbal, food, and drug interactions 9

34. Erkola O, Rautoma P, Meretoja OA. Mivacurium when


preceded by pancuronium becomes a long-acting muscle
relaxant. Anesthesiology 1996; 84: 562–5

35. Neville LF, Gnatt A, Loewenstein Y, et al.


Intramolecular relationships in cholinesterases revealed by
oocyte expression of sitedirected and natural variants of
human BCHE. EMBO J 1992; 11: 1641–9

36. Harris FW, Cockburn T. Alleged poisoning by potatoes.


Analyst 1918; 43: 133–7 37. Morris SC, Lee TH. The toxicity
and teratogenicity of Solanaceae glycoalkaloids,
particularly those of the potato (Solanum tuberosum): a
review. Food Technol Aust 1984; 36: 118–24 38. Hansen A.
Two fatal cases of potato poisoning. Science 1925; 61:
340–1 39. McGehee DS, Krasowski MD, Fung DL, et al.
Cholinesterase inhibition by potato glycoalkaloids slows
mivacurium metabolism. Anesthesiology 2000; 93: 510–19
The story of PC-SPES and prostate 10
cancer

39. Ades T, Gansler T, Miller M, Rosenthal DS. PC-SPES:


current evidence and remaining questions. CA J Clin 2001;
51: 199–204

40. Lock M, Loblaw DA, Chjoo R, Imrie K. Disseminated


intravascular coagulation and PC-SPES: a case report and
literature review. Can J Urol 2001; 8: 1326–9

41. Weinrobe MC, Montgomery B. Acquired bleeding diathesis


in a patient taking PC-SPES. N Engl J Med 1998; 345:
1213–14

42. Schiff JD, Ziecheck WS, Choi B. Pulmonary embolus


related to PC-SPES use in a patient with PSA recurrence
after radical prostatectomy. Urology 2002; 59: 444

43. Oh WK. The evolving role of estrogens in prostate


cancer. Clin Prost Cancer 2002; 1: 81–8

44. Ko R, Wilson RD, Loscutoff S. PC-SPES. Urology 2003;


61: 1292

45. Sovak M, Seligson A, Konas M, et al. Herbal composition


PCSPES for management of prostate cancer: identification of
active principles. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002; 94: 1275–81

46. Physician’s Desk Reference, Vol. 57. Montvale, NY:


Thomson Publishing Co., 2003

47. Guns ES, Goldenberg SL, Brown PN. Mass spectral


analysis of PC-SPES confirms the presence of
diethylstilbesterol. Can J Urol 2002; 9: 1684–8

48. Wadsworth T, Poonyagariyagom H, Sullivan E, et al. In


vivo effect of PC-SPES on prostate cancer growth and
hepatic CYP3A expression in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther
2003; 306: 187–94 49. Bigler D, Gulding KM, Dann R, et al.
Gene profiling and promoter reporter assays: novel tools
for comparing the biological effects of biological extracts
on human prostate cancer cells and understanding their
mechanisms of action. Oncogene 2003; 22: 1261–72 50. Sadava
D, Winesburg J. Contaminants of PC-SPES are not responsible
for cytotoxicity in human small-cell lung carcinoma cells.
Cancer Lett 2005; 220: 171–5 51. Barrett S, Herbert V. The
Vitamin Pushers: How the Health Food Industry is Selling
America a Bill of Goods. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books,
1994 52. Barrett S. Major recommendations from the Dietary
Supplement Commission. Nutrit Forum 1997; 14: 28–33 53. But
PP. Herbal poisoning caused by adulterated or erroneous
substitutes. J Trop Med Hyg 1994; 97: 371–4 54. Stifman NR,
Obermeyer WR, Aloi BK, et al. Contamination of botanical
dietary supplements by digitalis. N Engl J Med 1998; 339:
806–11 55. Ahmed MT, Loutfy N, Yousef Y. Contamination of
medicinal herbs with organophosphorus insecticides. Bull
Environ Contam Toxicol 2001; 66: 421–6
Risks of ephedra-containing 11 supplements

10. United States House of Representatives. Adverse Events


on Metabolife (October, 2002). A report prepared by the US
House of Representatives. Available at: http://reform.
house.gov/min/
pdfs/pdf_inves/pdf_dietary_ephedra_metabolife_rep.pdf,
accessed 19 December 2002

11. Haller CA, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Short-term metabolic


and hemodynamic effects of ephedra and guarana
combinations. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2005; 77: 560–71

12. Vukovich MD, Schoorman R, Heilman C, et al. Caffeine–


herbal ephedra combination increases resting energy
expenditure, heart rate and blood pressure. Clin Exp
Pharmacol Physiol 2005; 32: 47–53

13. Greenway FL, De Jonge L, Blanchard D, et al. Effect of


a dietary herbal supplement containing caffeine and ephedra
on weight, metabolic rate, and body composition. Obes Res
2004; 12: 1152–7

14. McBride BF, Karapanos AK, Krudysz A, et al.


Electrocardiographic and hemodynamic effects of a
multicomponent dietary supplement containing ephedra and
caffeine: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Med Assoc
2004; 291: 216–21

15. Gardner SF, Franks AM, Gurley BJ, et al. Effect of a


multicomponent, ephedra-containing dietary supplement
(Metabolife 356) on Holter monitoring and hemostatic
parameters in healthy volunteers. Am J Cardiol 2003; 91:
1510–13, A9

16. Haller CA, Jacob P, III, Benowitz NL. Pharmacology of


ephedra alkaloids and caffeine after single-dose dietary
supplement use. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002; 71: 421–32

17. Gurley BJ, Gardner SF, White LM, Wang PL. Ephedrine
pharmacokinetics after the ingestion of nutritional
supplements containing Ephedra sinica (ma huang). Ther Drug
Monit 1998; 20: 439–45

18. White LM, Gardner SF, Gurley BJ, et al.


Pharmacokinetics and cardiovascular effects of ma-huang
(Ephedra sinica) in normotensive adults. J Clin Pharmacol
1997; 37: 116–22

19. Coffey CS, Steiner D, Baker BA, Allison DB. A


randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial
of a product containing ephedrine, caffeine, and other
ingredients from herbal sources for treatment of overweight
and obesity in the absence of lifestyle treatment. Int J
Obes Relat Metab Disord 2004; 28: 1411–19 20. Kalman D,
Incledon T, Gaunaurd I, et al. An acute clinical trial
evaluating the cardiovascular effects of an herbal
ephedra–caffeine weight loss product in healthy overweight
adults. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002; 26: 1363–6 21.
Krapp K, Longe JL. The Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative
Medicine. Detroit: Gale Group, 2001 22. Shekelle P, Morton
S, Maglione M. Ephedra and ephedrine for weight loss and
athletic performance enhancement: clinical efficacy and
side effects. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No 76,
2003. (Prepared by Southern California Evidence-based
Practice Center, RAND Corporation.) Agency for Healthcare
Research and Quality. Rockville, MD. Available at: www.

32. Corrigan OP. A risky business: the detection of adverse


drug reactions in clinical trials and post-marketing
exercises. Soc Sci Med 2002; 55: 497–507

33. Marcus DM, Grollman AP. Botanical medicines – the need


for new regulations. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 2073–6

34. Lee MK, Cheng BW, Che CT, Hsieh DP. Cytotoxicity
assessment of ma-huang (ephedra) under different conditions
of preparation. Toxicol Sci 2000; 56: 424–30

35. Straus SE. Herbal medicines – what’s in the bottle? N


Engl J Med 2002; 347: 1997–8

36. Gurley BJ, Gardner SF, Hubbard MA. Content versus label
claims in ephedra-containing dietary supplements. Am J
Health Syst Pharm 2000; 57: 963–9

37. Soni MG, Carabin IG, Griffiths JC, Burdock GA. Safety
of ephedra: lessons learned. Toxicol Lett 2004; 150: 97–110

38. Young R, Gabryszuk M, Glennon RA. (-)Ephedrine and


caffeine mutually potentiate one another’s amphetamine-like
stimulus effects. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1998; 61: 169–73

39. Xu B. Chinese herbal medicine and formulation. In Yuan


CS, Bieber EJ, eds. Textbook of Complementary and
Alternative Medicine. London: Parthenon Publishing, 2002:
155–63

40. Bensky D, Gamble A. Warm, acrid herbs that release the


exterior. In Bensky D, Gamble A, eds. Chinese Herbal
Medicine: Materia Medica. Seattle: Eastland Press Inc,
1993: 28–9

41. Zhonghua Bencao Editorial Group. Zhonghua Bencao


Editorial Group, Zhonghua Bencao (Chinese Herbal Medicine).
Shanghai: Shanghai Science and Technology Publishing House,
1996
Chinese herbal medicine and 13
formulations

FDA Overview of Dietary Supplements, US Food and Drug Admin

istration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, 3


January

2001. Available at: www.fda.gov

He ZG. Chinese Medicine. Beijing: The People’s Medical


Publishing

House, 1989

Molony D, Molony MP. The American Association of Oriental


Med

icine’s Complete Guide to Chinese Herbal Medicine. New York:

Berkley Books, 1998

Wang XH. Fundamentals of Chinese Medicine. Shanghai:


Shanghai

Science and Technology Publishing House, 1995

Wang YY. Chinese Medicine Internal Medicine. Shanghai:


Shanghai

Science and Technology Publishing House, 1997 Xu B.


Recommendation on Chinese Medicine in the United States of
America to White House Commission on Complementary and
Alternative Medicine Policy, December 2001. ACMA
Publication Issue December 2001. Available at:
www.AmericanChineseMedicineAssociation.org Xu B. Letter to
the Congress. ACMA Publication Issue August 2002. Available
at: www.AmericanChineseMedicineAssociation.org Xu B.
Fundamental Characteristics of Chinese Medicine: Holism and
Bian Zheng Lun Zhi. ACMA Publication Issue February 2003.
Available at: www.AmericanChineseMedicineAssociation.org
approaches, diagnosis, treatment, therapeutic outcomes,
etc. Despite all of the differences, however, one thing is
common to them – they are both medicines. Chinese Medicine,
as an integral part of Chinese culture, is relatively new
to most people who have grown up in Western culture. To
them, the major component of Chinese Medicine – Chinese
herbal medicine – is still a mystery, and there are many
puzzling questions regarding Chinese Medicine and Chinese
herbal medicine. Because Chinese Medicine and Chinese
herbal medicine are new to many countries, many governments
do not have adequate information or preparation on how to
regulate them. Thus, they decide not to regulate them. The
decision not to regulate Chinese Medicine is based on a
misunderstanding about Chinese Medicine and Chinese herbal
medicine, and has played an important role in increasing
the occurrence of Chinese Medicine side-effects. In the
best interest of patients, and to protect the integrity of
the Chinese Medicine profession, we recommend that
regulations on the profession of Chinese Medicine should be
installed, either through the government or from the
Chinese Medicine profession itself. 1. Xu B. Mathematical
Herbal Medicine. Acupuncture Today 2005; 6 June

information on the optimum setting. Neither do they

provide information on the ‘dangerous’ settings. For the


above reasons, Chinese herbal medicine stud

ies are very complicated, difficult, costly, and time

consuming. There are thousands of formulae in Chinese

herbal medicine. However, up to today, there is still no

medical school, university, company, science foundation,

or even country that can afford a systematic, complete,

and rigorous study and research into one of the formu

lae in Chinese herbal medicine. This fact indicates the

challenges that lie ahead in the field of research and

study on Chinese herbal medicine. However, these only


reflect the defects and inadequa

cies in Chinese herbal medicine’s study and research

methodologies and approaches. As for the Chinese

herbal medicine itself, it is a complete, systematic, and

rigorous medicinal system.

CONCLUSION

Western medicine and Chinese Medicine differ in cul


ture, origins, history, philosophy, theory, principles,

Reference
Acupuncture 14

1. Liao SJ, Lee MH, Ng LK. The historic background. In


Principles and Practice of Contemporary Acupuncture. New
York, NY: Marcel Dekker, 1994: 8–41

2. Reston J. News about my operation in Peking. New York


Times, 26 July 1971

3. Rosenfeld I. Acupuncture goes mainstream (almost).


Parade Magazine, 16 August 1998: 10

4. Bannerman RH. Acupuncture: the WHO view. World Health


1979; (December): 27–8

5. Travell J, Sommons D. Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction.


The Trigger Point Manual. Baltimore, MD: Williams and
Wilkins, 1983

6. Dung HC. Anatomical features contributing to the


formation of acupuncture points. Am J Acupunct 1984; 12:
139–43

7. Heine H. Akupunkturtherapie – Perforationen der


oberflächlichen Körperfaszie durch hutane
Gefáß-Nervenbndel. Therapeutikon 1988; 4: 238–44

8. Stacher G, Wancura I, Bauer P, et al. Effect of


acupuncture on pain threshold and pain tolerance determined
by electrical stimulation of the skin: a controlled study.
Am J Chin Med 1975; 3: 143–6

9. Chapman CR, Chen AC, Bonica JJ. Effects of


intrasegmental electrical acupuncture on dental pain:
evaluation by threshold estimation and sensory decision
theory. Pain 1977; 3: 213–27

10. Brockhaus A, Elger CE. Hypalgesic efficacy of


acupuncture on experimental pain in men. Comparison of
laser acupuncture and needle acupuncture. Pain 1990; 43:
181–5

11. Cho ZH, Chung SC, Jones JP, et al. New findings of the
correlation between acupoints and corresponding brain
cortices using functional MRI. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1998; 95:
2670–3

12. Cho ZH, Na CS, Wang EK, et al. Functional magnetic


resonance imaging of the brain in the investigation of
acupuncture. In Stux G, Hammerschlag R, eds. Clinical
Acupuncture, Scientific Basis. Berlin: Springer, 2001:
83–95

13. Chiang CY, Chang CT. Peripheral afferent pathway for


acupuncture analgesia. Sci Sin 1973; 16: 210–17

14. Wang K, Yao S, Xian Y, Hou Z. A study on the receptive


field of acupoints and the relationship between
characteristics of needle sensation and groups of afferent
fibres. Sci Sin 1985; 28: 963–71

15. Martelete M, Fiori AM. Comparative study of the


analgesic effect of transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TNS),
electroacupuncture (EA), and meperidine in the treatment of
postoperative pain. Acupunct Electrother Res 1985; 10:
183–93 16. Walker JB, Katz RL. Nonopioid pathways suppress
pain in humans. Pain 1981; 11: 347–54 17. Pomeranz B, Warma
N. Potentiation of analgesia by two repeated
electroacupuncture treatments: the first opioid analgesia
potentiates a second, nonopioid analgesia response. Brain
Res 1988; 452: 232–6 18. Lichun H, Williams H. Methods of
ear acupuncture. In Introduction to Auricular Medicine.
Fern Park, Florida: Auricular Medicine International
Research & Training Center, Inc., 2004: 5–6 19. Liao SJ,
Lee MH, Ng LK. Acupuncture for chronic pain and surgical
analgesia. In Principles and Practice of Contemporary
Acupuncture. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, 1994: 290–326 20.
Eisenbarg DM, Kessler RC, Foster C. Unconventional medicine
in the United States – prevalence, costs and patterns of
use. N Engl J Med 1993; 328: 246–52 21. Eisenberg DM, Davis
RD, Ettner SL, et al. Trends in alternative medicine use in
the United States, 1990–1997: results of a follow-up
national survey. J Am Med Assoc 1998; 280: 1569–75 22.
Pomeranz B. Acupuncture analgesia – basic research, In Stux
G, Hammerschlag R, eds. Clinical Acupuncture, Scientific
Basis. Berlin: Springer, 2001: 1–28 23. Pomeranz B, Chiu D.
Naloxone blocks acupuncture analgesia and causes
hyperalgesia: endorphin is implicated. Life Sci 1976; 19:
1757–62 24. Mayer DJ, Price DD, Raffii A. Antagonism of
acupuncture analgesia in man by the narcotic antagonist
naloxone. Brain Res 1977; 121: 368–72 25. Cheng R, Pomeranz
B. Electroacupuncture analgesia is mediated by
stereospecific opiate receptors and is reversed by
antagonists of type 1 receptors. Life Sci 1979; 26: 631–9
26. Zou K, Yi QC, Wu SX, et al. Enkephalin involvement in
acupuncture analgesia. Sci Sin 1980; 23: 1197–207 27. Cheng
R, Pomeranz B. Monoaminergic mechanisms of
electroacupuncture analgesia. Brain Res 1981; 215: 77–92
28. Chou J, Tang J, Yang HY, Costa E. Action of peptidase
inhibitors on methionine 5-enkephalin-arginine
6-phenylalanine 7 (YGGFMRF) and methionine 5-enkephalin
(YGGFM) metabolism and on electroacupuncture
antinociception. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1984; 230: 349–52

29. Ehrenpreis S. Analgesic properties of encephalinese


inhibitors: animal and human studies. Prog Clin Biol Res
1985; 192: 363–70

30. Hishida F, Takeshige C. Effects of d-phenylalanine on


individual variation of analgesia and on analgesia
inhibitory system in their separated experimental
procedures [Japanese with English abstract]. In Takeshige
C, ed. Studies on the Mechanism of Acupuncture Analgesia
Based on Animal Experiments. Tokyo: Showa University Press,
1986: 51

31. Murai M, Takeshige C, Hishida F, et al. Correlation


between individual variations in effectiveness of
acupuncture analgesia and those in contents of brain
endogenous morphine-like factors. [Japanese with English
summary]. In Takeshige C, ed. Studies on the Mechanism of
Acupuncture Analgesia Based on Animal Experiments. Tokyo:
Showa University Press, 1986: 542

32. Wang Q, Mao L, Han J. The arcuate nucleus of


hypothalamus mediates low but not high frequency
electroacupuncture in rats. Brain Res 1990; 513: 60–6

33. Takeshige C, Zhao WH, Guo SY. Convergence from the


preoptic area and arcuate nucleus to the median eminence in
acupuncture and nonacupuncture stimulation analgesia. Brain
Res Bull 1991; 26: 771–8 34. Guo HF, Cui X. C-Fos proteins
are not involved in the activation of preproenkephalin gene
expression in rat brain by peripheral electric stimulation
(electroacupuncture). Neurosci Lett 1996; 207: 163–6 35.
Lee JH, Beitz AJ. The distribution of brainstem and spinal
nuclei associated with different frequencies of
electroacupuncture analgesia. Pain 1993; 52: 11–28 36. Pan
B, Castro-Lopes JM, Coimbra A, et al. C-fos expression in
the hypothalamic pituitary system induced by
electroacupuncture or noxious stimulation. Neuroreport
1994; 5: 1649–52 37. Takahashi G, Mera H, Kobori M.
Inhibitory action on analgesic inhibitory system and
augmenting action on naloxone reversal analgesia of
d-phenylalanine. [Japanese with English summary]. In
Takeshige C, ed. Studies on the Mechanism of Acupuncture
Analgesia Based on Animal Experiments. Tokyo: Showa
University Press, 1986: 608 38. Peets J, Pomeranz B.
Studies of suppression of nocisensor reflexes using tail
flick electromyograms and intrathecal drugs in
barbiturate-anaesthetized rats. Brain Res 1987; 416: 301–7
39. National Institutes of Health. Acupuncture, NIH
Consensus Statement, Vol. 15, Number 5. Bethesda, MD: NIH,
1997
Tai Chi 15

justification for future controlled clinical study of the

benefits of Taiji intervention with individuals with

neurologic disease, particularly multiple sclerosis,

parkinsonism, neurodevelopmental motor performance

dysfunction, pulmonary insufficiency, and systemic

musculoskeletal disorders. It is anticipated from existing

research and the mind/body theoretic model that poten

tial benefits from Taiji practice could be expanded to

include both physical and behavioral applications.

CONCLUSIONS

Although most Western people know Taiji as a tradi

tional Chinese physical exercise, it is in fact a kind of


tra

ditional Chinese Yanshenshu (a mind–body harmony

technique for health improvement and longevity), an

important part of TCM, when it is practiced with Taiji

principles (the natural principles for harmonizing body

and mind). The scientific literature validating the physi

cal and physiologic therapeutic effects of regular Taiji

practice has increased exponentially. After practicing


Taiji, most people realize that Taiji is

not a regular physical exercise but a special body–mind

training technique, which is closely related to traditional

Chinese philosophy, culture, and medicine. The rela

tionship between the human body and mind, as well as


between human beings and the natural environment is

greatly emphasized in Taiji. According to TCM litera

ture, ‘the advanced doctors would like to treat patients

14. Fascko D, Grueninger W. T’ai Chi Ch’uan and physical


and psychological health: a review. Clin Kinesiol 2001; 55:
4–12

15. Wang C, Collet JP, Lau J. The effect of Tai Chi on


health outcomes in patients with chronic conditions: a
systematic review. Arch Intern Med 2004; 164: 493–501

16. Lumsden DB, Baccala A, Martire J. T’ai chi for


osteoarthritis: an introduction for primary care
physicians. Geriatrics 1998; 53: 84–8

17. Channer K, Barrow D, Barrow R, et al. Changes in


hemodynamic parameters following Tai Chi Chuan and aerobic
exercise in patients recovering from acute myocardial
infarction. Postgrad Med J 1996; 72: 349–51

18. Bhatti TI, Gillin JC, Atkinson JH, et al. T’ai Chi Chih
as a treatment for chronic low back pain: a randomized,
controlled study. Proceedings of the Third Annual
Alternative Therapies Symposium Creating Integrated
Healthcare, San Diego, 1–4 April 1998. Am Assoc Crit Care
Nurs 1998; 7: 216–18

19. Hartman CA, Manos TM, Winter C, et al. Effects of t’ai


chi training on function and quality of life indicators in
older adults with osteoarthritis. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000;
48: 1553–9

20. Irwin MR, Pike JL, Cole JC, et al. Effects of a


behavioral intervention, Tai Chi Chih, on varicella-zoster
virus specific immunity and health functioning in older
adults. Psychosom Med 2003; 65: 824–30

21. Adler P, Good M, Roberts B, et al. The effects of Tai


Chi on older adults with chronic arthritis pain. J Nurs
Scholarship 2000; 32: 7

22. Young D, Appel L, Jee SH, et al. The effects of aerobic


exercise and T’ai Chi on blood pressure in older people:
Results of a randomized trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999; 47:
277–8

23. Wolf SL, Barnhart HX, Ellison GL, et al. The effect of
Tai Chi Quan and computerized balance training on postural
stability in older subjects: Atlanta FICSIT Group. Frailty
and Injuries: Cooperative Studies on Intervention
Techniques. Phys Ther 1997; 77: 371–81

24. Wolf SL, Barnhart HX, Kutner NG, et al. Reducing


frailty and falls in older persons: an investigation of Tai
Chi and computerized balance training. Atlanta FICSIT
Group. Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies of
Intervention Techniques. J Am Geriatr Soc 1996; 44: 489–97

25. Sun WY, Dosch M, Gilmore GD, et al. Effects of Tai Chi
Chuan program on Hmong American older adults. Educ Gerontol
1996; 22: 161–7

26. Brown DR, Wang Y, Ward A, et al. Chronic psychological


effects of exercise and exercise plus cognitive strategies.
Med Sci Sports Exerc 1995; 27: 765–75

27. Jin P. Efficacy of Tai Chi, brisk walking, meditation,


and reading in reducing mental and emotional stress. J
Psychosom Res 1992; 36: 361–70

28. Lan C, Lai J, Chen S, et al. 12-month Tai Chi training


in the elderly: its effect on health fitness. Med Sci
Sports Exerc 1998; 30: 345–51

29. Chen WW, Sun WY. Tai Chi Chuan, an alternative form of
exercises for health promotion and disease prevention for
older adults in the community. Int Q Comm Health Educ 1997;
16333–9

30. Jacobson B, Ho-Chen C, Cashel C, et al. The effect of


T’ai Chi Chuan training on balance, kinesthetic sense, and
strength. Percept Motor Skills 1997; 84: 27–33

31. Xusheng S, Yugi X, Zhu R. Detection of ZC


rosette-forming lymphocytes in the healthy aged with
Taichiquan (88 style) exercise. J Sports Med Phys Fitness
1990; 30: 401–5 32. Hernandez-Reif M, Field TM, Thimas E.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: benefits from Tai
Chi. J Bodywork Mov Ther 2001; 5: 30–3 33. Fontana JA,
Colella C, Baas LS, et al. T’ai Chi Chih as an intervention
for heart failure. Nurs Clin North Am 2000; 35: 1031–47 34.
Lan C, Chen S, Lai J, et al. The effect of Tai Chi on
cardiorespiratory function in patients with coronary artery
bypass surgery. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999; 31: 634–8 35.
van Deusen J, Harlowe D. The efficacy of the ROM dance
program for adults with rheumatoid arthritis. Am J Occup
Ther 1987; 41: 90–5 36. Kirsteins A, Dietz F, Hwang S.
Evaluating the safety and potential use of a weight-bearing
exercise, Tai Chi Chuan, for rheumatoid arthritis patients.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil 1991; 70: 136–41 37. Ng G, Yeung D.
Tai-Chi Chuan Training for Rehabilitation of Rheumatoid
Arthritis. Poster presentation at the 14th International
WCPT Congress 2003, Barcelona, 7–12 June 2003 38. Taggart
HM, Arsianian CL, Bae S, et al. Effects of T’ai Chi
exercise on fibromyalgia symptoms and health-related
quality of life. Orthop Nurs 2003; 22: 353–60 39. Qin L, Au
S, Choy W, et al. Regular Tai Chi Chuan exercise may retard
bone loss in postmenopausal women: a case-control study.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002; 83: 1355–9 40. Prior JC, Barr
SI, Chow R, et al. Physical activity as therapy for
osteoporosis. CMAJ 1996; 155: 940–4 41. Danusantoso H,
Heijnen L. Tai Chi Chuan for people with haemophilia.
Haemophilia 2001; 7: 437–40 42. Song R, Lee EO, Lam P, et
al. Effects of tai chi exercise on pain, balance, muscle
strength, and perceived difficulties in physical function
in older women with osteoarthritis: a randomized clinical
trial. J Rheumatol 2003; 30: 2039–44 43. Koh TC. Tai chi
and ankylosis spondylitis: a personal experience. Am J
Chinese Med 1982; 10: 59–61 44. Briggs N. Teachers Exchange
and Success Stories. Presented at Taijiquan Teachers
Exchange Weekend, Douglassville, PA, 24–26 October 2003 45.
Mills N, Allen J: Mindfulness of movement as a coping
strategy in multiple sclerosis: a pilot study. Gen Hosp
Psychiatry 2002; 22: 425–31 46. Husted C, Pham L, Hekking
A, et al. Improving quality of life for people with chronic
conditions: the example of T’ai Chi and multiple sclerosis.
Altern Ther Health Med 1999; 5: 70–4 47. Shapira MY. Tai
Chi Chuan practice as a tool for rehabilitation of severe
head trauma: three case reports. Arch Phys Med Rehabil
2001; 82: 1283–5 48. Calkins J. Taiji and Parkinson’s.
Presented at Taijiquan Teachers Exchange Weekend,
Douglassville, PA, 24–26 October 2003 49. Liang SY, Wu WC.
Tai Chi Chuan, 2nd edn. Roslindale, MA: YMAA, 1996 50.
Zhongwen F. Mastering Yang Style Tai Chi. Berkeley, CA:
North Atlantic Books, 1999 51. Blair SN, Garcia ME. Get up
and move: a call to action for older men and women. J Am
Geriatr Soc. 1996; 44: 599–600 52. Taylor-Piliae RE,
Froelicher ES. Effectiveness of Tai Chi exercise in
improving aerobic capacity: a meta-analysis. J Cardiovasc
Nurs 2004; 19: 48–57 53. Lai JS, Lan C, Wong MK. Two-year
trends in cardiorespiratory function among older Tai Chi
Chuan practitioners and sedentary subjects. J Am Geriatr
Soc 1995; 43: 1222–7

54. Lai JS, Wong MK, Lan C, et al. Cardiorespiratory


responses of Tai Chi Chuan practitioners and sedentary
subjects during cycle ergometry. J Formos Med Assoc 1993;
92: 894–9

55. Lan C, Lai JS, Wong MK, et al. Cardiorespiratory


function, flexibility, and body composition among geriatric
Tai Chi Chuan practitioners. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1996;
77: 612–16

56. Tsai JC, Wang WH, Chan P, et al. The beneficial effects
of Tai Chi Chuan on blood pressure and lipid profile and
anxiety status in a randomized controlled trial. J Altern
Compl Med 2003; 9: 747–54

57. Gillespie LD, Gillespie WJ, Robertson MC, et al.


Interventions for preventing falls in elderly people.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003; 4: CD000340

58. Wu GJ. Evaluation of the effectiveness of Tai chi for


improving balance and preventing falls in the older
populations: a review. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002; 50: 746–54

59. Gillespie LD, Gillespie WJ, Robertson MC, et al.


Interventions for preventing falls in elderly people.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001; 3: CD000340

60. Wolf SL, Barnhart HX, Kutner, NG, et al. Selected as


the best paper in the 1990s: reducing frailty and falls in
older persons: an investigation of Tai Chi and computerized
balance training. J Am Geriatr Soc 2003; 51: 1794–1803

61. Choi JH, Moon JS, Song R. Effects of Sun-style Tai Chi
exercise on physical fitness and fall prevention in
fall-prone older adults. J Advanced Nurs 2005; 51: 150–7

62. Tse SK, Bailey DM. T’ai Chi and postural control in the
well elderly. Am J Occup Ther 1992; 6: 295–300

63. Tsang WW, Hui-Chan CW. Effect of 4- and 8-wk intensive


Tai Chi training on balance control in the elderly. Med Sci
Sports Exerc 2004; 36: 648–57

64. Wolfson L, Whipple R, Derby C, et al. Balance and


strength training in older adults: intervention gains and
Tai Chi maintenance. J Am Geriatr Soc 1996; 44: 498–506 65.
Tsang WW, Hui-Chan CW. Comparison of muscle torque,
balance, and confidence in older Tai Chi and healthy
adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2005; 37: 280–9 66. Barnett A,
Smith B, Lord SR, et al. Community-based group exercise
improves balance and reduces falls in at-risk older people:
a randomized controlled trial. Age Aging 2003; 32: 407–14
67. Li F, Harmer P, Fisher KJ, et al. Tai Chi: improving
functional balance and predicting subsequent falls in older
persons. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004; 36: 2046–52 68.
Thornton EW, Sykes KS, Tang WK. Health benefits of Tai Chi
exercise: improved balance and blood pressure in
middle-aged women. Health Prom Int 2004; 19: 33–8 69. Jin
P. Changes in heart rate, noradrenaline, cortisol and mood
during tai chi. J Psychosom Res 1989; 33: 197–206 70. Ross
MC, Bohannon AS, Davis DC, et al. The effects of a
shortterm exercise program on movement, pain, and mood in
the elderly. Results of a pilot study. J Holistic Nurs
1999; 17: 139–47 71. Sandlund ES, Norlander T. The effects
of Tai Chi Chuan relaxation and exercise on stress and
well-being. Int J Stress Manage 2000; 7: 139–49 72. Li F,
Fisher KJ, Harmer P, et al. Tai Chi and self-rated quality
of sleep and daytime sleepiness in older adults: a
randomized controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 2004; 52:
892–900 73. Chen Yongjie, Jia Qian. The diagnoses for
Chinese medicine and herbology development. People’s Daily,
Beijing, China, 2003 74. Eisenberg DM, Davis RB, Ettner SL,
et al. Trends in alternative medicine use in the United
States, 1990–1997: results of a follow-up national survey.
J Am Med Assoc 1998; 280: 1569–75
Qigong 16

1. Eisenberg DM, Kessler RC, Foster C, et al.


Unconventional medicine in the United States. Prevalence,
costs, and patterns of use. N Engl J Med 1993; 328: 246–52

2. Eisenberg DM, Davis RB, Ettner SL. Trends in alternative


medicine use in the United States, 1990–1997: results of a
follow-up national survey. J Am Med Assoc 1998; 280:
1569–75 3. Cassidy CM. Chinese medicine users in the United
States. Part I: Utilization, satisfaction, medical
plurality. J Altern Complement Med 1998; 4: 17–27 4.
Cassidy CM. Chinese medicine users in the United States.
Part II: Preferred aspects of care. J Altern Complement Med
1998; 4: 189–202 5. Tiller WA. A personal perspective on
energies in future energy medicine. J Altern Complement Med
2004; 10: 867–77 6. Cassidy CM. What does it mean to
practice an energy medicine? J Altern Complement Med 2004;
10: 79–81 7. Ilza V. The Yellow Emperor’s Classic of
Internal Medicine [translation]. Berkeley and Los Angeles,
California: University of California Press, 2002 8.
Mitchell S. Tao Te Ching. The Book of The Way
[translation]. Harper and Row, Publishers, Inc., 2000 9.
Cohen KS. The Way of Qigong. The Art and Science of Chinese
Energy Healing. New York: Ballantine Books, 1997

10. Witt C, Becker M, Bandelin K, et al. Qigong for


schoolchildren: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med
2005; 11: 41–7

11. Pert CB, Dreher HE, Ruff MR. The psychosomatic network:
foundations of mind–body medicine. Altern Ther Health Med
1998; 4: 30–41

12. Levin JS. Religion and health: is there an association,


is it valid, and is it causal? Soc Sci Med 1994; 38:
1475–82

13. Kohane MJ, Tiller WA. Biological processes, quantum


mechanics and electromagnetic fields: the possibility of
device-encapsulated human intention in medical therapies.
Med Hypotheses 2001; 56: 598–607

14. Tiller WA, Dibble WE Jr, Nunley R, Shealy CN. Toward


general experimentation and discovery in conditioned
laboratory spaces: Part I. Experimental pH change findings
at some remote sites. J Altern Complement Med 2004; 10:
145–57

15. Dorcas A, Yung P. Qigong: harmonising the breath, the


body and the mind. Complement Ther Nurs Midwifery 2003; 9:
198–202

16. Shang C. Emerging paradigms in mind–body medicine. J


Altern Complement Med 2001; 7: 83–91

17. Friedman MJ, Birch S, Tiller WA. Towards the


development of a mathematical model for acupuncture
meridians. Acupunct Electrother Res 1989; 14: 217–26

18. Sancier KM. The effect of Qigong on therapeutic


balancing measured by Electroacupuncture According to Voll
(EAV): a preliminary study. Acupunct Electrother Res 1994;
19: 119–27

19. Sancier KM. Electrodermal measurements for monitoring


the effects of a Qigong workshop. J Altern Complement Med
2003; 9: 235–41

20. Lin C. Born a Healer. Minneapolis: Spring Forest


Publishers, 2002

21. Lin MC. Spring Forest Qigong. Level 1 for Health, 2nd
edn. Minnesota: Learning Strategies Corporation, 2002

22. Ott MJ. Mindfulness meditation: a path of


transformation and healing. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health
Serv 2004; 42: 22–9

23. Sancier KM. Search for medical applications of Qigong


with the Qigong Database. J Altern Complement Med 2001; 7:
93–5

24. Kerr C. Translating ‘mind-in-body’: two models of


patient experience underlying a randomized controlled trial
of qigong. Cult Med Psychiatry 2002; 26: 419–47

25. Chu DA. Tai Chi, Qi Gong and Reiki. Phys Med Rehabil
Clin N Am 2004; 15: 773–81, vi

26. Clauw DJ. Clinical research into alternative and


complementary therapies: how do we tell if the glass is
half empty or half full? J Rheumatol 2003; 30: 2088–9

27. Luskin FM, Newell KA, Griffith M, et al. A review of


mind–body therapies in the treatment of cardiovascular
disease. Part 1: Implications for the elderly. Altern Ther
Health Med 1998; 4: 46–61 28. Mayer M. Qigong and
hypertension: a critique of research. J Altern Complement
Med 1999; 5: 371–82 29. Sancier KM. Therapeutic benefits of
Qigong exercises in combination with drugs. J Altern
Complement Med 1999; 5: 383–9 30. Lee MS, Kim BG, Huh HJ,
et al. Effect of Qi-training on blood pressure, heart rate
and respiration rate. Clin Physiol 2000; 20: 173–6 31.
Leung KP, Yan T, Li LS. Intracerebral haemorrhage and
Qigong. Hong Kong Med J 2001; 7: 315–18 32. Mills N, Allen
J. Mindfulness of movement as a coping strategy in multiple
sclerosis. A pilot study. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2000; 22:
425–31 33. Wenneberg S, Gunnarsson LG, Ahlstrom G. Using a
novel exercise programme for patients with muscular
dystrophy. Part I: a qualitative study. Disabil Rehabil
2004; 26: 586–94 34. Wenneberg S, Gunnarsson LG, Ahlstrom
G. Using a novel exercise programme for patients with
muscular dystrophy. Part II: a quantitative study. Disabil
Rehabil 2004; 26: 595–602 35. Rosenbaum E, Gautier H,
Fobair P, et al. Cancer supportive care, improving the
quality of life for cancer patients. A program evaluation
report. Support Care Cancer 2004; 12: 293–301 36. Chen K,
Yeung R. Exploratory studies of Qigong therapy for cancer
in China. Integr Cancer Ther 2002; 1: 345–70 37. Chen KW,
Shiflett SC, Ponzio NM, et al. A preliminary study of the
effect of external Qigong on lymphoma growth in mice. J
Altern Complement Med 2002; 8: 615–21 38. Chen KW, Turner
FD. A case study of simultaneous recovery from multiple
physical symptoms with medical Qigong therapy. J Altern
Complement Med 2004; 10: 159–62 39. Reuther I, Aldridge D.
Qigong Yangsheng as a complementary therapy in the
management of asthma: a single-case appraisal. J Altern
Complement Med 1998; 4: 173–83 40. Lim YA, Boone T, Flarity
JR, Thompson WR. Effects of qigong on cardiorespiratory
changes: a preliminary study. Am J Chin Med 1993; 21: 1–6
41. Lan C, Chou SW, Chen SY, et al. The aerobic capacity
and ventilatory efficiency during exercise in Qigong and
Tai Chi Chuan practitioners. Am J Chin Med 2004; 32: 141–50
42. Iwao M, Kajiyama S, Mori H, Oogaki K. Effects of Qigong
walking on diabetic patients: a pilot study. J Altern
Complement Med 1999; 5: 353–8 43. Lee MS, Kang CW, Ryu H,
et al. Effects of ChunDoSunBup Qi-training on growth
hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I, and testosterone in
young and elderly subjects. Am J Chin Med 1999; 27: 167–75
44. Lee MS, Kang CW, Ryu H, Moon SR. Endocrine and immune
effects of Qi-training. Int J Neurosci 2004; 114: 529–37
45. Li M, Chen K, Mo Z. Use of Qigong therapy in the
detoxification of heroin addicts. Altern Ther Health Med
2002; 8: 50–9 46. Tsang HW, Mok CK, Au Yeung YT, Chan SY.
The effect of Qigong on general and psychosocial health of
elderly with chronic physical illnesses: a randomized
clinical trial. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2003; 18: 441–9
47. Tsang HW, Cheung L, Lak DC. Qigong as a psychosocial
intervention for depressed elderly with chronic physical
illnesses. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2002; 17: 1146–54 48.
Gaik F. A Preliminary Study Applying Spring Forest Qigong
to Depression as an Alternative and Complementary
Treatment. Adler School of Professional Psychology, 2002
49. Ismail K, Tsang HW. Qigong and suicide prevention. Br J
Psychiatry 2003; 182: 266–7

50. Morris CR, Bowen L, Morris AJ. Integrative therapy for


fibromyalgia: possible strategies for an individualized
treatment program. South Med J 2005; 98: 177–84

51. Astin JA, Berman BM, Bausell B, et al. The efficacy of


mindfulness meditation plus Qigong movement therapy in the
treatment of fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial. J
Rheumatol 2003; 30: 2257–62

52. Hadhazy VA, Ezzo J, Creamer P, Berman BM. Mind–body


therapies for the treatment of fibromyalgia. A systematic
review. J Rheumatol 2000; 27: 2911–18

53. Creamer P, Singh BB, Hochberg MC, Berman BM. Sustained


improvement produced by nonpharmacologic intervention in
fibromyalgia: results of a pilot study. Arthritis Care Res
2000; 13: 198–204

54. Jones BM. Changes in cytokine production in healthy


subjects practicing Guolin Qigong: a pilot study. BMC
Complement Altern Med 2001; 1: 8

55. Webster JI, Tonelli L, Sternberg EM. Neuroendocrine


regulation of immunity. Annu Rev Immunol 2002; 20: 125–63

56. Ryu H, Lee MS, Jeong SM, et al. Modulation of


neuroendocrinological function by psychosomatic training:
acute effect of ChunDoSunBup Qi-training on growth hormone,
insulinlike growth factor (IGF)-I, and insulin-like growth
factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 in men.
Psychoneuroendocrinology 2000; 25: 439–51 57. Manzaneque
JM, Vera FM, Maldonado EF, et al. Assessment of
immunological parameters following a Qigong training
program. Med Sci Monit 2004; 10: CR264–CR270 58. Lee MS,
Jeong SM, Kim YK, et al. Qi-training enhances respiratory
burst function and adhesive capacity of neutrophils in
young adults: a preliminary study. Am J Chin Med 2003; 31:
141–8 59. Li QZ, Li P, Garcia GE, et al. Genomic profiling
of neutrophil transcripts in Asian qigong practitioners: a
pilot study in gene regulation by mind–body interaction. J
Altern Complement Med 2005; 11: 29–39 60. Lin MC. Spring
Forest Qigong. Level 2 for healing. Minneapolis: 2002 61.
Chen KW. An analytic review of studies on measuring effects
of external QI in China. Altern Ther Health Med 2004; 10:
38–50 62. Chen KW, Marbach JJ. External Qigong therapy for
chronic orofacial pain. J Altern Complement Med 2002; 8:
532–4 63. Jang HS, Lee MS. Effects of qi therapy (external
Qigong) on premenstrual syndrome: a randomized
placebo-controlled study. J Altern Complement Med 2004; 10:
456–62 64. Yount G, Solfvin J, Moore D, et al. In vitro
test of external Qigong. BMC Complement Altern Med 2004; 4:
5 65. Mo Z, Chen KW, Ou W, Li M. Benefits of external
Qigong therapy on morphine-abstinent mice and rats. J
Altern Complement Med 2003; 9: 827–35
Diet and nutrition in Traditional 17
Chinese Medicine

10. Xiangcai X. The English–Chinese Encyclopedia of


Practical Traditional Chinese Medicine. Beijing: Higher
Education Press, 1989: 30–8

11. Schauf C. Human Physiology. St Louis: Mosby College


Publishing, 1990: 3–5

12. Maciocia G. The Foundations of Chinese Medicine. New


York, NY: Churchill Livingston, 1989: 50–2

13. Eckert A. Chinese Medicine for Beginners. Rocklin, CA:


Prima Publishing, 1996: 14–16 14. Xinnong C. Chinese
Acupuncture and Moxibustion. Beijing: Foreign Languages
Press, 1987: 26–45 15. The Yellow Emperor’s Classic of
Internal Medicine – Simple Questions (Huang Di Nei Jing).
Beijing: People’s Health Publishing House, 1979: 32–40 16.
Maciocia G. The Foundations of Chinese Medicine. New York,
NY: Churchill Livingston, 1989: 34–50 17. A Revised
Explanation of the Classic of Difficulties (Nan Jing Jiao
Shi). Beijing: Nanjing College of Traditional Chinese
Medicine, People’s Health Publishing House, 1979 18.
Harmer, B. Textbook of the Principles and Practice of
Nursing. Chicago: The Macmillan Company, 1937: 126–8 19.
Jing-Nuan, Wu J-N. Ling Shu or Spiritual Pivot. Washington,
DC: University of Hawaii Press, 1993; 6: 38–63 20. The
Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Internal Medicine – Simple
Questions (Huang Ti Nei Jing Su Wen). Beijing: People’s
Health Publishing House, 1979: 103–20 21. Ling Shu (The
Miraculous Pivot), part of Huang Di Nei Jing (The Yellow
Emperor’s Internal Classic), Warring States period.
Washington, DC: The Taoist Center, 1993: 62–80 22. Lu HC.
Chinese Natural Cures: Traditional Methods for Remedies and
Preventions. New York, NY: Black Dog & Leventhal
Publishers, 1994: 22–44 23. Le K. The Simple Path to
Health; A Guide to Oriental Nutrition and Well-being.
Portland, OR: Rudra Press, 1996: 5–48 24. Eckert A. Chinese
Medicine for Beginners. Rocklin, CA, 1996: 20–32 25. Bei Ji
Qian Jin Yao Fang (Prescriptions Worth a Thousand Gold
Pieces for Emergencies). Sun Simiao, 625: 32–40
Yoga 19

1. Barnes P, Powell-Griner E, McFann K, Nahin RL.


Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among Adults:
United States, 2002. Adv Data 2004; May 27: 1–19

2. Saper RB, Eisenberg DM, Davis RB, et al. Prevalence and


patterns of adult yoga use in the United States: results of
a national survey. Altern Ther Health Med 2004; 10: 44–9

3. Cooper S, Oborne J, Newton S, et al. Effect of two


breathing exercises (Buteyko and pranayama) in asthma: a
randomised controlled trial. Thorax 2003; 58: 674–9

4. Fluge T, Richter J, Fabel H, et al. [Long-term effects


of breathing exercises and yoga in patients with bronchial
asthma.] Pneumologie 1994; 48: 484–90

5. Khanam AA, Sachdeva U, Guleria R, Deepak KK. Study of


pulmonary and autonomic functions of asthma patients after
yoga training. Ind J Physiol Pharmacol 1996; 40: 318–24

6. Vedanthan PK, Kesavalu LN, Murthy KC, et al. Clinical


study of yoga techniques in university students with
asthma: a controlled study. Allergy Asthma Proc 1998; 19:
3–9 7. Manocha R, Marks GB, Kenchington P, et al. Sahaja
yoga in the management of moderate to severe asthma: a
randomised controlled trial. Thorax 2002; 57: 110–15 8.
Nagarathna R, Nagendra HR. Yoga for bronchial asthma: a
controlled study. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1985; 291: 1077–9
9. Singh V. Effect of respiratory exercises on asthma. The
Pink City lung exerciser. J Asthma 1987; 24: 355–9 10.
Singh V, Wisniewski A, Britton J, Tattersfield A. Effect of
yoga breathing exercises (pranayama) on airway reactivity
in subjects with asthma. Lancet 1990; 335: 1381–3 11.
Sathyaprabha TN, Murthy H, Murthy BTC. Efficacy of
naturopathy and yoga in bronchial asthma – a self
controlled matched scientific study. Ind J Physiol
Pharmacol 2001; 45: 80–6 12. Jain SC, Rai L, Valecha A, et
al. Effect of yoga training on exercise tolerance in
adolescents with childhood asthma. J Asthma 1991; 28:
437–42 13. Malhotra V, Singh S, Singh KP, et al. Study of
yoga asanas in assessment of pulmonary function in NIDDM
patients. Ind J Physiol Pharmacol 2002; 46: 313–20

14. Jain SC, Talukdar B. Role of yoga in control of


hyperglycemia in middle aged patients of non-insulin
dependent diabetes mellitus. Ind J Clin Biochem 1995; 10:
62–5
15. Kerr D, Gillam E, Ryder J, et al. An Eastern art form
for a Western disease: randomised controlled trial of yoga
in patients with poorly controlled insulin-treated
diabetes. Pract Diabetes Int 2002; 19: 164–6

16. Jain SC, Uppal A, Bhatnagar SOD, Talukdar B. A study of


response pattern of non-insulin dependent diabetics to yoga
therapy. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1993; 19: 69–74

17. Murugesan R, Govindarajulu N, Bera TK. Effect of


selected yogic practices on the management of hypertension.
Ind J Physiol Pharmacol 2000; 44: 207–10

18. Patel C, North WR. Randomised controlled trial of yoga


and bio-feedback in management of hypertension. Lancet
1975; 2: 93–5

19. Patel C. Yoga and biofeedback in the management of


hypertension. J Psychosom Res 1975; 19: 355–60

20. Selvamurthy W, Sridharan K, Ray US, et al. A new


physiological approach to control essential hypertension.
Ind J Physiol Pharmacol 1998; 42: 205–13

21. van Montfrans GA, Karemaker JM, Wieling W, Dunning AJ.


Relaxation therapy and continuous ambulatory blood pressure
in mild hypertension: a controlled study. BMJ 1990; 300:
1368–72

22. Talukdar B, Verma S, Jain SC, Majumdar M. Effect of


yoga training on plasma lipid profile, R.B.C. membrane
lipid peroxidation and Na+K+ ATPase activity in patients of
essential hypertension. Ind J Clin Biochem 1996; 11: 129–33

23. Vijayalakshmi P, Madanmohan, Bhavanani AB, et al.


Modulation of stress induced by isometric handgrip test in
hypertensive patients following yogic relaxation training.
Ind J Physiol Pharmacol 2004; 48: 59–64

24. Damodaran A, Malathi A, Patil N, et al. Therapeutic


potential of yoga practices in modifying cardiovascular
risk profile in middle aged men and women. J Assoc
Physicians India 2002; 50: 633–40

25. Shaffer HJ, LaSalvia TA, Stein JP. Comparing Hatha yoga
with dynamic group psychotherapy for enhancing methadone
maintenance treatment: a randomized clinical trial. Altern
Ther Health Med 1997; 3: 57–66

26. Waelde LC, Thompson L, Gallagher-Thompson D. A pilot


study of a yoga and meditation intervention for dementia
caregiver stress. J Clin Psychol 2004; 60: 677–87

27. Malathi A, Damodaran A. Stress due to exams in medical


students – role of yoga. Ind J Physiol Pharmacol 1999; 43:
218–24

28. Ray US, Mukhopadhyaya S, Purkayastha SS, et al. Effect


of yogic exercises on physical and mental health of young
fellowship course trainees. Ind J Physiol Pharmacol 2001;
45: 37–53

29. Janakiramaiah N, Gangadhar BN, Naga Venkatesha Murthy


PJ, et al. Antidepressant efficacy of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga
(SKY) in melancholia: a randomized comparison with
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and imipramine. J Affect
Disord 2000; 57: 255–9

30. Woolery A, Myers H, Sternlieb B, Zeltzer L. A yoga


intervention for young adults with elevated symptoms of
depression. Altern Ther Health Med 2004; 10: 60–3

31. Shannahoff-Khalsa DS, Beckett LR. Clinical case report:


efficacy of yogic techniques in the treatment of obsessive
compulsive disorders. Int J Neurosci 1996; 85: 1–17

32. Cohen L, Warneke C, Fouladi RT, et al. Psychological


adjustment and sleep quality in a randomized trial of the
effects of a Tibetan yoga intervention in patients with
lymphoma. Cancer 2004; 100: 2253–60 33. Carlson LE, Speca
M, Patel KD, Goodey E. Mindfulness-based stress reduction
in relation to quality of life, mood, symptoms of stress
and levels of cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate
(DHEAS) and melatonin in breast and prostate cancer
outpatients. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2004; 29: 448–74 34.
Galantino ML, Bzdewka TM, Eissler-Russo JL, et al. The
impact of modified Hatha yoga on chronic low back pain: a
pilot study. Altern Ther Health Med 2004; 10: 56–9 35.
Garfinkel MS, Singhal A, Katz WA, et al. Yoga-based
intervention for carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized
trial. J Am Med Assoc 1998; 280: 1601–3 36. Garfinkel MS,
Schumacher HR Jr, Husain A, et al. Evaluation of a yoga
based regimen for treatment of osteoarthritis of the hands.
J Rheumatol 1994; 21: 2341–3 37. Dash M, Telles S.
Improvement in hand grip strength in normal volunteers and
rheumatoid arthritis patients following yoga training. Ind
J Physiol Pharmacol 2001; 45: 355–60 38. Bastille JV,
Gill-Body KM. A yoga-based exercise program for people with
chronic poststroke hemiparesis. Phys Ther Jpn 2004; 84:
3–48 39. Uma K, Nagendra HR, Nagarathna R, et al. The
integrated approach of yoga: a therapeutic tool for
mentally retarded children: a one-year controlled study. J
Ment Defic Res 1989; 33: 415–21 40. Telles S, Ramaprabhu V,
Reddy SK. Effect of yoga training on maze learning. Ind J
Physiol Pharmacol 2000; 44: 197–201 41. Dhume RR, Dhume RA.
A comparative study of the driving effects of
dextroamphetamine and yogic meditation on muscle control
for the performance of balance on balance board. Ind J
Physiol Pharmacol 1991; 35: 191–4 42. Manjunath NK, Telles
S. Factors influencing changes in tweezer dexterity scores
following yoga training. Ind J Physiol Pharmacol 1999; 43:
225–9 43. Manjunath NK, Telles S. Improved performance in
the Tower of London test following yoga. Ind J Physiol
Pharmacol 2001; 45: 351–4 44. Raghuraj P, Nagarathna R,
Nagendra HR, Telles S. Pranayama increases grip strength
without lateralized effects. Ind J Physiol Pharmacol 1997;
41: 129–33 45. Telles S, Nagarathna R, Vani PR, Nagendra
HR. A combination of focusing and defocusing through yoga
reduces optical illusion more than focusing alone. Ind J
Physiol Pharmacol 1997; 41: 179–82 46. Naveen KV,
Nagarathna R, Nagendra HR, Telles S. Yoga breathing through
a particular nostril increases spatial memory scores
without lateralized effects. Psychol Rep 1997; 81: 555–61
47. Panjwani U, Selvamurthy W, Singh SH, et al. Effect of
Sahaja yoga practice on seizure control and EEG changes in
patients of epilepsy. Ind J Med Res 1996; 103: 165–72 48.
Schmidt T, Wijga A, Von Zur Muhlen A, et al. Changes in
cardiovascular risk factors and hormones during a
comprehensive residential three month kriya yoga training
and vegetarian nutrition. Acta Physiol Scand Suppl 1997;
640: 158–62 49. Mahajan AS, Reddy KS, Sachdeva U. Lipid
profile of coronary risk subjects following yogic lifestyle
intervention. Ind Heart J 1999; 51: 37–40 50. Manchanda SC,
Narang R, Reddy KS, et al. Retardation of coronary
atherosclerosis with yoga lifestyle intervention. J Assoc
Physicians India 2000; 48: 687–94

51. Schell FJ, Allolio B, Schonecke OW. Physiological and


psychological effects of Hatha-Yoga exercise in healthy
women. Int J Psychosom 1994; 41: 46–52

52. Telles S, Nagarathna R, Nagendra HR. Autonomic changes


during ‘OM’ meditation. Ind J Physiol Pharmacol 1995; 39:
418–20

53. Bhattacharya S, Pandey US, Verma NS. Improvement in


oxidative status with yogic breathing in young healthy
males. Ind J Physiol Pharmacol 2002; 46: 349–54

54. Madanmohan, Udupa K, Bhavanani AB, et al. Modulation of


cold pressor-induced stress by shavasan in normal adult
volunteers. Ind J Physiol Pharmacol 2002; 46: 307–12

55. Udupa K, Madanmohan, Bhavanani AB, et al. Effect of


pranayam training on cardiac function in normal young
volunteers. Ind J Physiol Pharmacol 2003; 47: 27–33

56. Raju PS, Prasad KV, Venkata RY, et al. Influence of


intensive yoga training on physiological changes in 6 adult
women: a case report. J Altern Complement Med 1997; 3:
291–5 57. Taneja I, Deepak KK, Poojary G, et al. Yogic
versus conventional treatment in diarrhea-predominant
irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized control study. Appl
Psychophysiol Biofeedback 2004; 29: 19–33 58. Wood C. Mood
change and perceptions of vitality: a comparison of the
effects of relaxation, visualization and yoga. J R Soc Med
1993; 86: 254–8 59. Harinath K, Malhotra AS, Pal K, et al.
Effects of Hatha yoga and Omkar meditation on
cardiorespiratory performance, psychologic profile, and
melatonin secretion. J Altern Complement Med 2004; 10:
261–8 60. Malathi A, Damodaran A, Shah N, et al. Effect of
yogic practices on subjective well being. Ind J Physiol
Pharmacol 2000; 44: 202–6
Homeopathy 20

Capra F. The Tao of Physics. Boston, MA: Shambhala


Publications,

2000

Gerber R. Vibrational Medicine for the 21st Century. New


York:

Harper Collins, 2001

Grossinger R. Homeopathy: An Introduction for Skeptics and


Begin

ners. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books, 1993

Kaufman M. Homeopathy in America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins

Press, 1971 Sollars D. Homeopathy. New York: Alpha Books,


2001 Ullman D. The Consumers Guide to Homeopathy. New York:
Jeremy P Tarcher, 1996 Ullman D. A Unique Non-Melting Ice
Crystal Found in Room Temperature Water: Significant
Implications for Medicine, Manufacturing, and the
Environment. Berkeley, CA: Homeopathic Educational
Services, 1997. Available at:
http://homeopathic.com/articles/ research/ice_ crystals.php
(accessed 21 May 2005)

Further reading
Music therapy 22

1. Groene R, Adler R. AMTA creates new music therapy


definition. Music Ther Matt 2004; 7: 1

2. AMTA. AMTA Professional Competencies. Silver Spring, MD:


American Music Therapy Association, 2002

3. CBMT, The Certification Board for Music Therapists.


Available at: www.cbmt.org/, accessed 1 February 2005

4. de L’Etoile S. The history of the undergraduate


curriculum in music therapy. J Music Ther 2000; 37: 51–71

5. AMTA. AMTA Member Sourcebook. Silver Springs, MD:


American Music Therapy Association, 2004

6. Cameron LD, Leventhal H, eds. The Self-Regulation of


Health and Illness Behavior. New York: Routledge, 2003

7. Skinner E, Wellborn J. Coping during childhood and


adolescence: a motivational perspective. In Featherman D,
Lerner R, Perlmutter M, eds. Life-span Development and
Behavior, Vol 12. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates, 1994: 91–133

8. Skinner EA. Action regulation, coping, and development.


In Brandstadter J, Lerner RM, eds. Action &
Self-development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1999: 465–503

9. Cameron LD. Anxiety, cognition, and responses to health


threats. In Cameron LD, Leventhal H, eds. The
Self-Regulation of Health and Illness Behavior. New York:
Routledge, 2003

10. Mayne TJ. Negative effect and health: the importance of


being earnest. Cogn Emot 1999; 13: 601–35

11. Robb SL. The effect of therapeutic music interventions


on the behavior of hospitalized children in isolation:
developing a contextual support model of music therapy. J
Music Ther 2000; 37: 118–46

12. Robb S, Ebberts A. Songwriting and digital video


production interventions for pediatric patients undergoing
bone marrow transplantation. Part I: an analysis of
depression and anxiety levels according to phase of
treatment. J Pediat Oncol Nurs 2003; 20: 2–15

13. Robb S, Ebberts A. Songwriting and digital video


production interventions for pediatric patients undergoing
bone marrow transplantation. Part II: an analysis of
patient-generated songs and patient perceptions regarding
intervention efficacy. J Pediat Oncol Nurs 2003; 20: 16–25

14. Clair AA. Therapeutic Uses of Music with Older Adults.


Baltimore, MD: Health Professions Press, 1996

15. Thaut MH. Neuropsychological processes in music


perception and their relevance in music therapy. In Unkefer
RF, Thaut MH, eds. Music Therapy in the Treatment of Adults
with Mental Disorders: Theoretical Bases and Clinical
Interventions, 2nd edn. New York: Schirmer Books, 2002:
2–32 16. Hodges D, ed. Handbook of Music Psychology, 2nd
edn. San Antonio, TX: University of Texas San Antonio
Press, 1996 17. Thaut MH. Toward a cognition-affect model
in neuropsychiatric music therapy. In Unkefer RF, Thaut MH,
eds. Music Therapy in the Treatment of Adults with Mental
Disorders: Theoretical Bases and Clinical Interventions. St
Louis, MO: MMB Music, Inc., 2002: 86–103 18. Radocy RE,
Boyle JD. Psychological Foundations of Musical Behavior,
3rd edn. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1997 19.
Standley J. Music research in medical treatment. In Smith
DS, ed. Effectiveness of Music Therapy Procedures:
Documentation of Research and Clinical Practice, 3rd edn.
Silver Springs, MD: American Music Therapy Association,
2000: 1–64 20. Gfeller KE. The function of aesthetic
stimuli in the therapeutic process. In Unkefer RF, Thaut M,
eds. Music Therapy in the Treatment of Adults with Mental
Disorders: Theoretical Bases and Clinical Interventions,
2nd edn. St Louis, MO: MMB Music, Inc., 2002: 68–84 21.
Gfeller K. Music as communication. In Unkefer RF, Thaut MH,
eds. Music Therapy in the Treatment of Adults with Mental
Disorders: Theoretical Bases and Clinical Interventions. St
Louis, MO: MMB Music, Inc., 2002: 42–59 22. Meyer L.
Emotion and Meaning in Music. Chicago, IL: University of
Chicago Press, 1956 23. Connell JP, Wellborn JG.
Competence, autonomy, and relatedness: a motivational
analysis of self-system processes. In Gunnar MR, Sroufe LA,
eds. Self Processes and Development: The Minnesota Symposia
on Child Development, Vol 23. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence
Erlbaum Associates, 1991 24. Bonn M. The effects of
hospitalisation on children: a review. Curationis 1994; 17:
20–4 25. Carton JS, Nowicki S, Jr. Origins of generalized
control expectancies: reported child stress and observed
maternal control and warmth. J Soc Psychol 1996; 136:
753–60 26. Holden P. Psychosocial factors affecting a
child’s capacity to cope with surgery and recovery. Semin
Perioper Nurs 1995; 4: 75–9 27. Melamed BG, Siegel LJ.
Children’s reactions to medical stressors: an ecological
approach to the study of anxiety. In Tuma AH, Maser J, eds.
Anxiety and the Anxiety Disorders. New York: Lawrence
Erlbaum Associates, 1985 28. Poster EC. Stress
immunization: techniques to help children cope with
hospitalization. Matern Child Nurs J 1983; 12: 119–34 29.
Zuckerberg AL. Perioperative approach to children. Pediatr
Clin North Am 1994; 41: 15–29 30. Bailey LM. The effects of
live music versus tape-recorded music on hospitalized
patients. Music Ther 1983; 3: 17–28

31. Bishop B, Christenberry A, Robb S, Rudenberg MT. Music


therapy and child life interventions with pediatric burn
patients. In Froehlich MA, ed. Music Therapy with
Hospitalized Children: A Creative Arts Child Life Approach.
Cherry Hill, MJ: Jeffrey Books, 1996: 87–108

32. Lane D. The effect of a single music therapy session on


hospitalized children as measured by salivary
immunoglobulin A, speech pause time, and a patient opinion
Likert scale [unpublished dissertation]. Cleveland, Case
Western Reserve, 1991

33. Marley LS. The use of music with hospitalized infants


and toddlers: a descriptive study. J Music Ther 1984; 21:
126–32

34. Turry AE. The use of clinical improvisation to


alleviate procedural distress in young children. In Loewy
J, ed. Music Therapy and Pediatric Pain. Cherry Hill, NJ:
Jeffrey Books, 1997

35. Wilson BJ, Gottman JM. Attention – the shuttle between


emotion and cognition: risk, resiliency, and physiological
bases. In Healtherington EM, Blechman EA, eds. Stress,
Coping, and Resiliency in Children and Families. New York:
Lawrence Earlbaum Associates, 1996: 189–228

36. Compas BE, Boyer MC. Coping and attention: implications


for child health and pediatric conditions. J Dev Behav
Pediatr 2001; 22: 323–33

37. Malone AB. The effects of live music on the distress of


pediatric patients receiving intravenous starts,
venipunctures, injections, and heel sticks. J Music Ther
1996; 33: 19–33

38. Megal ME. Children’s responses to immunizations:


lullabies as a distraction. Issues Comp Pediat Nurs 1998;
21: 129–45
39. Pfaff B, Smith K, Gowan D. The effects of
music-assisted relaxation on the distress of pediatric
cancer patients undergoing bone marrow aspirations.
Children’s Health Care 1989; 18: 232–6

40. Walworth DD. Procedural support: music therapy assisted


CT, EKG, EEG, X-ray, IV, ventilator, and emergency
services. In Robb SL, ed. Music Therapy in Pediatric
Healthcare: Research and Evidence-based Practice. Silvery
Spring, MD: American Music Therapy Association, 2003:
137–46

41. Berlyne DE. Aesthetics and Psychobiology. New York:


Meredith, 1971

42. Gfeller K. The function of aesthetic stimuli in the


therapeutic process. In Unkefer R, ed. Music Therapy in the
Treatment of Adults with Mental Disorders: Theoretical
Bases and Clinical Interventions. New York: Schirmer, 1996:
225

43. Huron D. The ramp archetype and the maintenance of


passive auditory attention. Music Percept 1992; 83: 83–92

44. Rohrbaugh JW. The orienting reflex: performance and


central nervous system manifestations. In Parasuraman R,
Davies D, eds. Varieties of Attention. Orlando, FL:
Academic Press, 1984: 325–48

45. Sokolov EN. The neural model of the stimulus and the
orienting reflex. Prob Psychol 1960; 4: 61–72

46. Sokolov EN. Perception and the Conditioned Reflex. New


York: Macmillan, 1963

47. Kindt M, Brosschot JF, Everaerd W. Cognitive processing


bias of children in a real life stress situation and a
neutral situation. J Exp Child Psychol 1997; 64: 79–97

48. Plude DJ, Enns JT, Brodeur D. The development of


selective attention: a life-span overview. Acta Psychol
(Amst) 1994; 86: 227–72

70. Tilch S, Haffa-Schmidt U, Wandt H, et al. Supportive


music therapy improves mood state in patients undergoing
myeloablative chemotherapy. Bone Marrow Transpl 1999; 23:
566

71. Zimmerman L, Pozehl B, Duncan K, Schmitz R. Effects of


music in patients who had chronic cancer pain. Western J
Nurs Res 1989; 11: 298–309

72. Burns D. The effect of the bonny method of guided


imagery and music on the mood and life quality of cancer
patients. J Music Ther 2001; 38: 51–65

73. Curtis S. The effect of music on pain relief and


relaxation of the terminally ill. J Music Ther 1986; 23:
10–24

74. Caudell K. Psychoneuroimmunology and innovative


behavioral interventions in patients with leukemia. Oncol
Nurs Forum 1996; 23: 493–502

75. Andersen BL. Psychological interventions for cancer


patients to enhance the quality of life. J Consult Clin
Psychol 1992; 60: 552–68

76. Redd WH. Behavioral intervention for cancer treatment


side effects. Acta Oncol 1994; 33: 113–17

77. Hayes A, Buffum M, Lanier E, et al. A music


intervention to reduce anxiety prior to gastrointestinal
procedures. Gastroenterol Nurs 2003; 26: 145–9

78. Haun M, Mainous RO, Looney SW. Effect of music on


anxiety of women awaiting breast biopsy. Behav Med 2001;
27: 127–32

79. Salmore RG, Nelson JP. The effect of preprocedure


teaching, relaxation instruction, and music on anxiety as
measured by blood pressures in an outpatient
gastrointestinal endoscopy laboratory. Gastroenterol Nurs
2000; 23: 102–10

80. Smolen D, Topp R, Singer L. The effect of self-selected


music during colonoscopy on anxiety, heart rate, and blood
pressure. Appl Nurs Res 2002; 15: 126–36

81. Chlan L. Effectiveness of a music therapy intervention


on relaxation and anxiety for patients receiving
ventilatory assistance. Heart Lung 1998; 27: 169–76

82. Chlan L, Evans D, Greenleaf M, Walker J. Effects of a


single music therapy intervention on anxiety, discomfort,
satisfaction, and compliance with screening guidelines in
outpatients undergoing flexible sigmoidoscopy.
Gastroenterol Nurs 2000; 23: 148–56

83. Lee DW, Chan KW, Poon CM, et al. Relaxation music
decreases the dose of patient-controlled sedation during
colonoscopy: a prospective randomized controlled trial.
Gastrointest Endosc 2002; 55: 33–6

84. Chan YM, Lee PW, Ng TY, et al. The use of music to
reduce anxiety for patients undergoing colposcopy: a
randomized trial. Gynecol Oncol 2003; 91: 213–17 85. Colt
HG, Powers A, Shanks TG. Effect of music on state anxiety
scores in patients undergoing fiberoptic bronchoscopy.
Chest 1999; 116: 819–24 86. Magill-Levreault L. Music
therapy in pain and symptom management. J Pall Care 1993;
9: 42–8 87. Magill L, Coyle N, Handzo G, Loscalzo M. Cancer
and pain: a creative, multidisciplinary approach in working
with patients and families. In Loewy J, ed. Music Therapy
in Pediatric Pain. Cherry Hill, NJ: Jeffrey Books, 1997:
107–14 88. Zimmerman L, Story KT, Gaston-Johansson F,
Rowles JR. Psychological variables and cancer pain. Cancer
Nurs 1996; 19: 44–53 89. Goldstein A. Thrills in response
to music and other stimuli. Physiol Psychol 1980; 8: 126–9
90. Standley J. Clinical applications of music and
chemotherapy: the effects on nausea and emesis. Music Ther
Persp 1992; 10: 27–35 91. Ezzone S, Baker C, Rosselet R,
Terepka E. Music as an adjunct to antiemetic therapy. Oncol
Nurs Forum 1998; 25: 1551–6 92. Rachman S. Learned
Resourcefulness in the Performance of Hazardous Tasks. New
York: Springer Pub. Co., 1990 93. Miluk-Kolasa B, Obminski
Z, Stupnicki R, Golec L. Effects of music treatment on
salivary cortisol in patients exposed to presurgical
stress. Exp Clin Endocrinol 1994; 102: 118–20 94. Vanderark
S, Ely D. Biochemical and galvanic skin responses to music
stimuli by college students in biology and music. Percept
Motor Skills 1992; 74: 1079–90 95. Bartlett D, Kaufman D,
Smeltekop R. The effects of music listening and perceived
sensory experiences on the immune system as measured by
interleukin-1 and cortisol. J Music Ther 1993; 30: 194–209
96. McKinney C, Antoni M, Kumar A, Kumar M. Effects of
guided imagery and music on depression and beta-endorphin
levels in healthy adults: a pilot study. J Assoc Music Imag
1995; 4: 67–78 97. McKinney CH, Antoni MH, Kumar M, et al.
Effects of guided imagery and music (GIM) therapy on mood
and cortisol in healthy adults. Health Psychol 1997; 16:
390–400 98. McKinney CH, Tims FC, Kumar AM, Kumar M. The
effect of selected classical music and spontaneous imagery
on plasma beta-endorphin. J Behav Med 1997; 20: 85–99 99.
Salmon D. Music therapy as psychospiritual process in
palliative care. J Pall Care 2001; 17: 142–6 100.
O’Callaghan C. Lyrical themes in songs written by
palliative care patients. J Music Ther 1996; 33: 74–92 101.
O’Callaghan C, McDermott F. Music therapy’s relevance in a
cancer hospital researched through a constructivist lens. J
Music Ther 2004; 41: 151–85 102. American Music Therapy
Association, www.musictherapy.org
Meditation 23

1. West M. Meditation. Br J Psychiatry 1979; 135: 457

2. Shapiro DH Jr. Overview: clinical and physiological


comparison of meditation with other self-control
strategies. Am J Psychiatry 1978; 139: 267

3. Wallace K, Benson H. The physiology of meditation. Sci


Am 1972; 226: 84–90

4. Smith JC. Relaxation Dynamics; A Cognitive–Behavioral


Approach to Relaxation. Champaign, IL: Research Press, 1989

5. Benson H. The Relaxation Response. New York, NY: Morrow,


1975

6. Benson H, Beary JF, Carol MP. The relaxation response.


Psychiatry 1974; 37: 37–46

7. Kabat-Zinn J, Massion AO, Hebert JR. Meditation. In


Holland JC, ed. Textbook of Psycho-oncology. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1998

8. Kabat-Zinn J. Mindfulness meditation: what it is, what


it isn’t, and its role in health care and medicine. In
Haruki Y, Suzuki M, eds. Comparative and Psychological
Study on Meditation. Delft: Eburon, 1996

9. Kabat-Zinn J, Lipworth L, Burney R. Four-year follow-up


of a meditation-based program for self regulation of
chronic pain: treatment outcomes and compliance. Clin J
Pain 1987; 2: 159–73 10. Krpalvanand S. Science of
Meditation. Bombay, India: New Karnodaya Press, 1977 11. Le
Shan L. How to Meditate. New York, NY: Bantam Books, 1974
12. Richard G. Vibrational Medicine. Santa Fe, NM: Bear and
Company Publications, 1996 13. Jevning R, Wallace R,
Beidebach M. The physiology of meditation: a review. A
wakeful hypometabolic integrated response. Neurosci Biochem
Rev 1992; 16: 415–24 14. Smith JC. Cognitive Behavioral
Relaxation Training. New York, NY: Springer Publishing
Company, 1990 15. Cannon WB. The emergency function of the
adrenal medulla in pain and the major emotions. Am J
Physiol 1914; 33: 356–72 16. Selye H. A syndrome produced
by diverse nocuous agents. Nature (Lond) 1936; 138: 32 17.
Buckingham J, Gillies G, Cowell A. Stress, Stress Hormones
and the Immune System. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons,
1997 18. Hess WR. Functional Organization of the
Diencephalons. New York, NY: Grune and Stratton, 1957
19. Benson H, Rosner BA, Marzetta BR, Klemchuk HM.
Decreased blood pressure in pharmacologically treated
hypertensive patients who regularly elicited the relaxation
response. Lancet 1974; 1: 289–91

20. Eisenberg DM, Delbanco TL, Berkey CS, et al. Cognitive


behavioral techniques for hypertension: are they effective?
Ann Intern Med 1993; 118: 964–72

21. Ornish D, Scherwitz LW, Billings JH, et al. Intensive


lifestyle changes for reversal of coronary heart disease. J
Am Med Assoc 1998; 280: 2001–7

22. Benson H. Chronic pain patients reduce their physician


visits. J Chronic Pain 1991; 2: 305–10

23. Hass A, Pineda H, Hass F, Axen K. Pulmonary Therapy and


Rehabilitation: Principle and Practice. Baltimore, MD:
Williams and Wilkins, 1979 24. Eppley KR, Abrahams AI,
Shear J. Differential effects of relaxation techniques on
trait anxiety: a meta-analysis. J Clin Psychol 1989; 45:
957–74 25. Borysenko J. Minding the Body, Mending the Mind.
New York, NY: Warner Books, 1987 26. Chopra D. Ageless
Body, Timeless Mind. Crown Publishers, 1993 27. Walton KG,
Scheider RH, Salerno JW, Nidich SI. Psychosocial stress and
cardiovascular disease. Part 3: Clinical and policy
implications of research on the transcendental meditation
program. Behav Med 2005; 30: 173–83 28. Buckley J, Holmes
J, Mapp G. Exercise on Prescription: Cardiovascular
Activity for Health. Boston, MA: Butterworth–
Heinemann–Reed Educational and Professional Publishing,
1999
Biofeedback 24

37. Budzynski T. The new frontier. Megabrain Rep 1994; 3:


58–65

38. Nash J, Stockdale S, Hoffman DA. Question: have you


seen any negative effects associated with EEG
neurofeedback? J Neurofeedback 2001; 4: 65–9

39. LaVaque TJ, Hammond DC, Trudeau D, et al. Template for


developing guidelines for the evaluation of the clinical
efficacy of psychophysiological evaluations. Appl
Psychophysiol Biofeedback 2002; 27: 273–81

40. Choe JM. Incontinence, urinary: surgical therapies.


Available online: www.emedicine.com/med/topic3084. htm
(accessed 26 February 2005)

41. Guerrero P, Sinert R. Urinary incontinence. Available


online: www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic791.htm (accessed 26
February 2005)

42. O’Shaughnessy M. Incontinence, urinary: comprehensive


review of medical and surgical aspects. Available online:
www.emedicine.com/med/topic2781.htm (accessed 26 February
2005)

43. Tries J, Brubaker L. Application of biofeedback in the


treatment of urinary incontinence. Prof Psychol Res Pract
1996; 27: 554–60

44. Van Kampen M, De Weerdt W, Van Poppel H, et al. Effect


of pelvic-floor re-education on duration and degree of
incontinence after radical prostatectomy: a randomised
controlled trial. Lancet 2000; 355: 98–102

45. Floratos DL, Sonke GS, Rapidou CA, et al. Biofeedback


vs verbal feedback as learning tools for pelvic muscle
exercises in the early management of urinary incontinence
after radical prostatectomy. BJU Int 2002; 89: 714–19

46. Crider AB, Glaros AG. A meta-analysis of EMG


biofeedback treatment of temporomandibular disorders. J
Orofac Pain 1999; 13: 29–37

47. Turk DC, Zaki HS, Rudy TE. Effects of intraoral


appliance and biofeedback/stress management alone and in
combination in treating pain and depression in patients
with temporomandibular disorders. J Prosthet Dent 1993; 70:
158–64
48. Gardea MA, Gatchel RJ, Mishra KD. Long-term efficacy of
biobehavioral treatment of temporomandibular disorders. J
Behav Med 2001; 24: 341–59

49. Wang Y, Wang QJ. The prevalence of prehypertension and


hypertension among US adults according to the new Joint
National Committee guidelines: new challenges of the old
problem. Arch Intern Med 2004; 164: 2126–34

50. Jacob RG, Chesney MA, Williams DM, et al. Relaxation


therapy for hypertension: design effects and treatment
effects. Ann Behav Med 1991; 13: 5–17

51. Yucha CB, Clark L, Smith M, et al. The effect of


biofeedback in hypertension. Appl Nurs Res 2001; 14: 29–35

52. Baskin SM, Weeks RE. The biobehavioral treatment of


headache. In Moss D, McGrady A, Davies TC, Wickramasekera
I, eds. Handbook of Mind–Body Medicine for Primary Care:
Behavioral and Psychological Tools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Publications, 2003: 205–22

53. Cutrer FM, Limmroth V, Moskowitz MA. Possible


mechanisms of valproate in migraine prophylaxis.
Cephalalgia 1997; 17: 93–100

54. Lang E, Kaltenhauser M, Neundorfer B, Seidler S.


Hyperexcitability of the primary somatosensory cortex in
migraine – a magnetoencephalographic study. Brain 2004;
127: 2459–69 55. McGrady A, Wauquier A, McNeil A, Gerard G.
Effect of biofeedback-assisted relaxation on migraine
headache and changes in cerebral blood flow velocity in the
middle cerebral artery. Headache 1994; 34: 424–8 56. Goslin
RE, Gray RN, McCrory DC, et al. Behavioral and Physical
Treatments for Migraine Headache. Technical review 2.2.
Prepared for the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research
under Contract No. 290-94-2025, 1999 57. Silberstein SD.
Practice parameter: evidence-based guidelines for migraine
headache (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality
Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of
Neurology. Neurology 2000; 55: 754–62 58. Arena JG, Bruno
GM, Hannah SL, Meador KJ. A comparison of frontal
electromyographic biofeedback training, trapezius
electromyographic biofeedback training, and progressive
muscle relaxation therapy in the treatment of tension
headache. Headache 1995; 35: 411–19 59. Integration of
behavioral and relaxation approaches into the treatment of
chronic pain and insomnia. NIH Technology Assessment Panel
on Integration of Behavioral and Relaxation Approaches into
the Treatment of Chronic Pain and Insomnia. J Am Med Assoc
1996; 276: 313–18 60. Farmer K, Freitag F. Behavioral
interventions for management of primary head pain.
Standards of Care for Headache Diagnosis and Treatment, 3rd
edn. National Headache Foundation, 1999 61. McCrory DC,
Penzien DB, Rains JC. Efficacy of behavioral treatments for
migraine and tension-type headache: metaanalysis of
controlled trials (abstract). Headache 1996; 36: 272 62.
McGrady AV, Andrasik F, Davies T, et al.
Psychophysiological therapy for chronic headache in primary
care. Prim Care Comp J Clin Psychiatry 1999; 1: 96–102 63.
Moss D, Andrasik F, McGrady A, et al. Biofeedback can help
headache sufferers. Biofeedback 2001; 29: 10–12 64.
American Psychiatric Association. Task Force on DSM-IV.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders:
DSMIV, 4th edn. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric
Association, 1994 65. Regier DA, Narrow WE, Rae DS. The
epidemiology of anxiety disorders: the Epidemiologic
Catchment Area (ECA) experience. J Psychiatr Res 1990; 24:
3–14 66. Rice KM, Blanchard EB, Purcell M. Biofeedback
treatments of generalized anxiety disorder: preliminary
results. Biofeedback Self Regul 1993; 18: 93–105 67.
Rowland AS, Umbach DM, Stallone L, et al. Prevalence of
medication treatment for attention deficit-hyperactivity
disorder among elementary school children in Johnston
County, North Carolina. Am J Public Health 2002; 92: 231–4
68. Carlezon WA. Neurobiological consequences of early
developmental exposure to methylphenidate in rats.
Presented at The 43rd Annual Meeting of the American
College of Neuropsychopharmacology, San Juan, Puerto Rico,
2004 (abstract) 69. Weiss G, Hechtman L. Hyperactive
Children Grown Up, 2nd edn. New York: Guilford Press, 1993
70. Monastra VJ, Lubar JF, Linden M, et al. Assessing
attention deficit disorder via quantitative
electroencephalography: an initial validation study.
Neuropsychology 1999; 13: 424–33 71. Lubar JF, Swartwood
MO, Swartwood JN, O’Donnell PH. Evaluation of the
effectiveness of EEG neurofeedback training for ADHD in a
clinical setting as measured by changes in T.O.V.A. scores,
behavioral ratings, and WISC-R performance. Biofeedback
Self Regul 1995; 20: 83–99

72. Lubar JF. Neurofeedback for the management of


attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorders. In Schwartz MS,
associates, eds. Biofeedback: a Practitioner’s Guide, 2nd
edn. New York: The Guilford Press, 1995: 493–522

73. Rossiter TR, La Vaque TJ. A comparison of EEG


biofeedback and psychostimulants in treating attention
deficit/hyperactivity disorders. J Neurother 1995; 1: 48–59
74. Linden M, Habib T, Radojevic V. A controlled study of
the effects of EEG biofeedback on cognition and behavior of
children with attention deficit disorder and learning
disabilities. Biofeedback Self Regul 1996; 21: 35–49

75. Thompson L, Thompson M. Neurofeedback combined with


training in metacognitive strategies: effectiveness in
students with ADD. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 1998; 23:
243–63

76. Kaiser DA, Othmer S. Effect of neurofeedback on


variables of attention in a large multi-center trial. J
Neurother 2000; 4: 5–15

77. Monastra VJ, Monastra DM, George S. The effects of


stimulant therapy, EEG biofeedback, and parenting style on
the primary symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity
disorder. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 2002; 27: 231–49

78. Fuchs T, Birbaumer N, Lutzenberger W, et al.


Neurofeedback treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity
disorder in children: a comparison with methylphenidate.
Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 2003; 28: 1–12

79. Results from the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and
Health: National Findings. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse
and Mental Health Services Administration (Office of
Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H–25, DHHS Publication No.
SMA 04–3964), 2004

80. Morse RM, Flavin DK. The definition of alcoholism. The


Joint Committee of the National Council on Alcoholism and
Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction
Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the
Diagnosis of Alcoholism. J Am Med Assoc 1992; 268: 1012–14

81. Peniston EG, Kulkosky PJ. Alcoholic personality and


alphatheta brainwave training. Med Psychother 1990; 3:
37–55

82. Taub E, Steiner SS, Weingarten E, Walton KG.


Effectiveness of broad spectrum approaches to relapse
prevention in severe alcoholism: a long term, randomized
controlled trial of transcendental meditation, EMG
biofeedback, and electronic neurotherapy. Alcohol Treat
Quart 1994; 11: 187–220

83. Saxby E, Peniston EG. Alpha-theta brainwave


neurofeedback training: an effective treatment for male and
female alcoholics with depressive symptoms. J Clin Psychol
1995; 51: 685–93

84. Kelley MJ. Native Americans, neurofeedback, and


substance abuse theory. Three year outcome of alpha/theta
neurofeedback training in the treatment of problem drinking
among Dine’ (Navajo) people. J Neurother 1997; 2: 24–60

85. Schneider F, Elbert T, Heimann H, et al.


Self-regulation of slow cortical potentials in psychiatric
patients: alcohol dependency. Biofeedback Self Regul 1993;
18: 23–32

86. Julien RM. A Primer of Drug Action: a Comprehensive


Guide to the Actions, Uses, and Side Effects of
Psychoactive Drugs, 10th edn. New York: Worth Publishers,
2005

87. Sterman MB. Basic concepts and clinical findings in the


treatment of seizure disorders with EEG operant
conditioning. Clin Electroencephalogr 2000; 31: 45–55 88.
La Vaque TJ. Neurofeedback, neurotherapy, and quantitative
EEG. In Moss D, McGrady A, Davies TC, Wickramasekera I,
eds. Handbook of Mind–Body Medicine for Primary Care:
Behavioral and Psychological Tools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Publications, 2003: 123–35 89. Kotchoubey B, Schneider D,
Schleichert H, et al. Self-regulation of slow cortical
potentials in epilepsy: a retrial with analysis of
influencing factors. Epilepsy Res 1996; 25: 269–76 90.
Kotchoubey B, Blankenhorn V, Froscher W, et al. Stability
of cortical self-regulation in epilepsy patients.
Neuroreport 1997; 8: 1867–70 91. Kotchoubey B, Busch S,
Strehl U, Birbaumer N. Changes in EEG power spectra during
biofeedback of slow cortical potentials in epilepsy. Appl
Psychophysiol Biofeedback 1999; 24: 213–33 92. Joy Andrews
D, Reiter JM, Schonfeld W, et al. A neurobehavioral
treatment for unilateral complex partial seizure disorders:
a comparison of right- and left-hemisphere patients.
Seizure 2000; 9: 189–97 93. Kotchoubey B, Strehl U, Uhlmann
C, et al. Modification of slow cortical potentials in
patients with refractory epilepsy: a controlled outcome
study. Epilepsia 2001; 42: 406–16 94. Seymour SD. Fecal
incontinence. Available online:
www.emedicine.com/med/topic3326.htm (accessed 26 February
2005) 95. Tries J, Eisman E, Lowery SP. Fecal incontinence.
In Schwartz MS, associates, eds. Biofeedback: A
Practitioner’s Guide, 2nd edn. New York: The Guilford
Press, 1995: 633–61 96. Whitehead WE, Drossman DA.
Biofeedback for disorders of elimination: fecal
incontinence and pelvic floor dyssynergia. Prof Psychol Res
Pract 1996; 27: 234–40 97. Heymen S, Jones KR, Ringel Y, et
al. Biofeedback treatment of fecal incontinence: a critical
review. Dis Colon Rectum 2001; 44: 728–36 98. Mahony RT,
Malone PA, Nalty J, et al. Randomized clinical trial of
intra-anal electromyographic biofeedback physiotherapy with
intra-anal electromyographic biofeedback augmented with
electrical stimulation of the anal sphincter in the early
treatment of postpartum fecal incontinence. Am J Obstet
Gynecol 2004; 191: 885–90 99. Lehrer PM, Vaschillo E,
Vaschillo B, et al. Biofeedback treatment for asthma. Chest
2004; 126: 352–61 100. Giardino ND, Chan L, Borson S.
Combined heart rate variability and heart oximetry
biofeedback for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease:
preliminary findings. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 2004;
29: 121–33 101. Del Pozo JM, Gevirtz RN, Scher B, Guarneri
E. Biofeedback treatment increases heart rate variability
in patients with known coronary artery disease. Am Heart J
2004; 147: E11 102. Herbs D, Gevirtz RN, Jacobs D. The
effect of heart rate pattern biofeedback for the treatment
of essential hypertension [abstract]. Biofeedback Self
Regul 1994; 19: 281 103. Davidson RJ. Cerebral asymmetry,
emotion, and affective style. In Davidson RJ, Hugdahl K,
eds. Brain Asymmetry. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995: 361–87
104. Davidson RJ. Affective style, psychopathology, and
resilience: brain mechanisms and plasticity. Am Psychol
2000; 55: 1196–214 105. Gotlib IH, Ranganath C, Rosenfeld
JP. Frontal EEG alpha asymmetry, depression, and cognitive
functioning. Cognit Emot 1998; 12: 449–78

106. Baehr E, Rosenfeld JP. Mood disorders. In Moss D,


Wickramasekera I, McGrady A, Davies T, eds. Handbook of
Mind–Body Medicine for Primary Care: Behavioral and
Psychological Tools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2003: 377–92

107. Rosenfeld JP. An EEG biofeedback protocol for


affective disorders. Clin Electroencephalog 2000; 31: 7–12

108. Baehr E, Rosenfeld JP, Baehr R, Earnest C. Comparison


of two EEG asymmetry indices in depressed patients vs.
normal controls. Int J Psychophysiol 1998; 31: 89–92

109. Baehr E, Rosenfeld JP, Baehr R. Clinical use of an


alpha asymmetry neurofeedback protocol in the treatment of
mood disorders: follow-up study one to five years post
therapy. J Neurother 2001; 4: 11–18

110. Baehr E, Rosenfeld JP, Baehr R, Earnest C. Clinical


use of an alpha asymmetry neurofeedback protocol in the
treatment of mood disorders. In Evans JR, Abarbanel A, eds.
Introduction to Quantitative EEG and Neurofeedback. San
Diego: Academic Press, 1999: 181–201

111. Thornton KE, Carmody DP. Electroencephalogram


biofeedback for reading disability and traumatic brain
injury. Child Adolesc Psychiat Clin N Am 2005; 14: 137–62

112. Brain Injury Association of America. Available online:


www.biausa.org (accessed 26 February 2005)

113. Ayers ME. Assessing and treating open head trauma,


coma, and stroke using real-time digital EEG neurofeedback.
In Evans JR, Abarbanel A, eds. Introduction to Quantitative
EEG and Neurofeedback. San Diego: Academic Press, 1999:
203–22

114. Benedict RHG. The effectiveness of cognitive


remediation strategies for victims of traumatic head
injury: a review of the literature. Clin Psychol Rev 1989;
9: 605–26

115. Carney N, Chestnut RM, Maynard H, et al. Effect of


cognitive rehabilitation on outcomes for persons with
traumatic brain injury: a systematic review. J Head Trauma
Rehab 1999; 14: 277–307

116. Cantor DS. An overview of quantitative EEG and its


applications to neurofeedback. In Evans JR, Abarbanel A,
eds. Introduction to Quantitative EEG and Neurofeedback.
San Diego: Academic Press, 2003: 3–27 117. Pascual-Marqui
RD, Michel CM, Lehmann D. Low resolution electromagnetic
tomography: a new method for localizing electrical activity
in the brain. Int J Psychophysiol 1994; 18: 49–65 118.
Demos JN. Getting Started with Neurofeedback. New York: WW
Norton, 2005 119. Thornton K. Relative Effectiveness of
Cognitive Rehabilitation Treatment Models, Activation
Guided qEEG biofeedback, Standard qEEG, Strategy Training,
Computer Interventions (unpublished manuscript) 120.
Thatcher RW, Cantor DS, McAlaster R, et al. Comprehensive
predictions of outcome in closed head-injured patients. The
development of prognostic equations. Ann NY Acad Sci 1991;
620: 82–101 121. Taub E, Uswatte G, Elbert T. An impending
paradigm shift: the melding of basic research in
neuroscience and behavioral science to produce new
treatments in neurorehabilitation. Nat Rev Neurosci 2002;
3: 226–36 122. Jannett TC, Taub E, Groom E.
Microcomputer-based devices for feedback control of
constraint-induced movement therapy in lower extremity
stroke rehabilitation. Presented at The Southeastern
Symposium on System Theory, Nashville, 2002 (abstract) 123.
Awards for distinguished scientific applications of
psychology. Am Psychol 2004; 59: 689–704 124. Taub E.
Overcoming learned nonuse: a new approach to treatment in
physical medicine. In Carlson JG, Siefert AR, Birbaumer N,
eds. Clinical Applied Psychophysiology. New York: Plenum,
1994: 185–220 125. Knapp HD, Taub E, Berman, AJ. Movements
in monkeys with deafferented forelimbs. Exp Neurol 1963; 7:
305–15 126. Taub E, Uswatte G, Pidikiti R.
Constraint-induced movement therapy: a new family of
techniques with broad application to physical
rehabilitation – a clinical review. J Rehab Res Devel 1999;
36: 237–51
25 Religion, spirituality, and medicine

42. Kark JD, Shemi G, Friedlander Y, et al. Does religious


observance promote health? Mortality in secular vs
religious kibbutzim in Israel. Am J Public Health 1996; 86:
341–6

43. Strawbridge WJ, Cohen RD, Shema SJ, Kaplan GA. Frequent
attendance at religious services and mortality over 28
years. Am J Public Health 1997; 87: 957–61

44. Oman D, Reed D. Religion and mortality among the


community-dwelling elderly. Am J Public Health 1998; 88:
1469–75

45. Glass TA, de Leon CM, Marottoli RA, Berkman LF.


Population based study of social and productive activities
as predictors of survival among elderly Americans. Br Med J
1999; 19: 478–83

46. Hummer RA, Rogers RG, Nam CB, Ellison CG. Religious
involvement and US adult mortality. Demography 1999; 36:
273–85

47. Koenig HG, Hays JC, Larson DB, et al. Does religious
attendance prolong survival? A six-year follow-up study of
3,968 older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1999; 54:
M370–6

48. Clark KM, Friedman HS, Martin LR. A longitudinal study


of religiosity and mortality risk. J Health Psychol 1999;
4: 381–91

49. Koenig HG, Larson DB, Hays JC, et al. Religion and the
survival of 1010 hospitalized veterans. J Religion Health
1998; 37: 15–29

50. Pargament KI, Koenig HG, Tarakeshwar N, Hahn J.


Religious struggle as a predictor of mortality among
medically ill elderly patients: a 2-year longitudinal
study. Arch Intern Med 2001; 161: 1881–5

51. Koenig HG, Idler E, Kasl S, et al. Religion,


spirituality, and medicine: a rebuttal to skeptics. Int J
Psychiatry Med 1999; 29: 123–31

52. McCullough ME, Hoyt WT, Larson DB, et al. Religious


involvement and mortality: a meta-analytic review. Health
Psychol 2000; 19: 211–22
53. Friedlander Y, Kark JD, Stein Y. Religious orthodoxy
and myocardial infarction in Jerusalem: a case control
study. Int J Cardiol 1986; 10: 33–41

54. Goldbourt U, Yaari S, Medalie JH. Factors predictive of


longterm coronary heart disease mortality among 10,059 male
Israeli civil servants and municipal employees: a 23-year
mortality follow-up in the Israeli Ischemic Heart Disease
Study. Cardiology 1993; 82: 100–21

55. Oxman TE, Freeman DH Jr, Manheimer ED. Lack of social


participation or religious strength and comfort as risk
factors for death after cardiac surgery in the elderly.
Psychosom Med 1995; 57: 5–15

56. Koenig HG, George LK, Hays JC, et al. The relationship
between religious activities and blood pressure in older
adults. Int J Psychiatry Med 1998; 28: 189–213

57. Walsh A. Religion and hypertension: testing alternative


explanations among immigrants. Behav Med 1998; 24: 122–30

58. Hixson KA, Gruchow HW, Morgan DW. The relation between
religiosity, selected health behaviors, and blood pressure
among adult females. Prev Med 1998; 27: 545–52

59. Oleckno WA, Blacconiere MJ. Relationship of religiosity


to wellness and other health-related behaviors and
outcomes. Psychol Rep 1991; 68: 819–26

82. Kaczorowski JM. Spiritual well-being and anxiety in


adults diagnosed with cancer. Hosp J 1989; 5: 105–16

83. Azhar MZ, Varma SL, Dharap AS. Religious psychotherapy


in anxiety disorder patients. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1994;
90: 1–3

84. Gorsuch RL, Butler MC. Initial drug abuse: a review of


predisposing social psychological factors. Psychol Bull
1976; 83: 120–37

85. Gartner J, Allen GD, Larson DB. Religious commitment


and mental health: a review of the empirical literature. J
Psychol Theol 1991; 19: 6–25

86. Moore RD, Mead L, Pearson TA. Youthful precursors of


alcohol abuse in physicians. Am J Med 1990; 88: 332–6

87. Matching Alcoholism Treatments to Client Heterogeneity:


Project MATCH posttreatment drinking outcomes. J Stud
Alcohol 1997; 58: 7–29

88. Whooley MA, Boyd AL, Gardin JM, Williams DR. Religious
involvement and cigarette smoking in young adults: the
CARDIA study (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young
Adults study). Arch Intern Med 2002; 162: 1604–10

89. Miller WR. Researching the spiritual dimensions of


alcohol and other drug problems. Addiction 1998; 93: 979–90

90. Durkheim E. Suicide: A Study in Sociology (translated


by Spaulding JA, Simpson G). New York, NY: The Free Press,
1951

91. Hovey JD. Religion and suicidal ideation in a sample of


Latin American immigrants. Psychol Rep 1999; 85: 171–7

92. Stack S, Lester D. The effect of religion on suicide


ideation. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 1991; 26:
168–70

93. Siegrist M. Church attendance, denomination, and


suicide ideology. J Soc Psychol 1996; 136: 559–66

94. Neeleman J, Halpern D, Leon D, Lewis G. Tolerance of


suicide, religion and suicide rates: an ecological and
individual study in 19 Western countries. Psychol Med 1997;
27: 1165–71

95. Neeleman J. Regional suicide rates in the Netherlands:


does religion still play a role? Int J Epidemiol 1998; 27:
466–72

96. Neeleman J, Wessely S, Lewis G. Suicide acceptability


in African- and white Americans: the role of religion. J
Nerv Ment Dis 1998; 186: 12–16

97. Trovato F. A Durkheimian analysis of youth suicide:


Canada, 1971 and 1981. Suicide Life Threat Behav 1992; 22:
413–27

98. Lester D. Religiosity, suicide and homicide: a


cross-national examination. Psychol Rep 1992; 71: 1282

99. Neeleman J, Lewis G. Suicide, religion, and


socioeconomic conditions: an ecological study in 26
countries, 1990. J Epidemiol Community Health 1999; 53:
204–10

100. Kehoe NC, Gutheil TG. Neglect of religious issues in


scalebased assessment of suicidal patients. Hosp Community
Psychiatry 1994; 45: 366–9

101. Walsh K, King M, Jones L, et al. Spiritual beliefs may


affect outcome of bereavement: prospective study. BMJ 2002;
324: 1551

102. Mailick MD, Holden G, Walther VN. Coping with


childhood asthma: caretakers’ views. Health Soc Work 1994;
19: 103–11. Erratum in: Health Soc Work 1994; 19: 232

103. Hall BA. Ways of maintaining hope in HIV disease. Res


Nurs Health 1994; 17: 283–93 104. McNeill JA, Sherwood GD,
Starck PL, Thompson CJ. Assessing clinical outcomes:
patient satisfaction with pain management. J Pain Symptom
Manage 1998; 16: 29–40 105. Kotarba JA. Perceptions of
death, belief systems and the process of coping with
chronic pain. Soc Sci Med 1983; 17: 681–9 106. Muthny FA,
Bechtel M, Spaete M. Lay etiologic theories and coping with
illness in severe physical diseases: an empirical
comparative study of female myocardial infarct, cancer,
dialysis and multiple sclerosis patients [German].
Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol 1992; 42: 41–53 107.
Saudia TL, Kinney MR, Brown KC, Young-Ward L. Health locus
of control and helpfulness of prayer. Heart Lung 1991; 20:
60–5 108. O’Brien ME. Religious faith and adjustment to
long-term hemodialysis. J Religion Health 1982; 21: 68–80
109. Sherrill KA, Larson DB. Adult burn patients: the role
of religion in recovery. South Med J 1988; 81: 821–5 110.
Pressman P, Lyons JS, Larson DB, Strain JJ. Religious
belief, depression, and ambulation status in elderly women
with broken hips. Am J Psychiatry 1990; 147: 758–60 111.
Jenkins RA, Pargament KI. Religion and spirituality as
resources for coping with cancer. J Psychosoc Oncol 1995;
13: 51–74 112. Yates JW, Chalmer BJ, St James P, et al.
Religion in patients with advanced cancer. Med Pediatr
Oncol 1981; 9: 121–8 113. Tebbi CK, Mallon JC, Richards ME,
Bigler LR. Religiosity and locus of control of adolescent
cancer patients. Psychol Rep 1987; 61: 683–96 114. Johnson
SC, Spilka B. Coping with breast cancer: the roles of
clergy and faith. J Religion Health 1991; 30: 21–33 115.
Silberfarb PM, Anderson KM, Rundle AC, et al. Mood and
clinical status in patients with multiple myeloma. J Clin
Oncol 1991; 9: 2219–24 116. Acklin MW, Brown EC, Mauger PA.
The role of religious values in coping with cancer. J
Religion Health 1983; 22: 322–33 117. Northouse LL.
Mastectomy patients and the fear of cancer recurrence.
Cancer Nurs 1981; 4: 213–20 118. Carver CS, Pozo C, Harris
SD, et al. How coping mediates the effect of optimism on
distress: a study of women with early stage breast cancer.
J Pers Soc Psychol 1993; 65: 375–90 119. Baider L, Russak
SM, Perry S, et al. The role of religious and spiritual
beliefs in coping with malignant melanoma: an Israeli
sample. Psychooncology 1999; 8: 27–35 120. VandeCreek L,
Paget S, Horton R, et al. Religious and nonreligious coping
methods among persons with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis
Rheum 2004; 51: 49–55 121. Pendleton SM, Cavalli KS,
Pargament KI, Nasr SZ. Religious/spiritual coping in
childhood cystic fibrosis: a qualitative study. Pediatrics
2002; 109: E8 122. Koenig HG, Weiner DK, Peterson BL, et
al. Religious coping in the nursing home: a biopsychosocial
model. Int J Psychiatry Med 1997; 27: 365–76 123. Courtenay
BC, Poon LW, Martin P, et al. Religiosity and adaptation in
the oldest-old. Int J Aging Hum Dev 1992; 34: 47–56 124.
Kennedy GJ, Kelman HR, Thomas C, Chen J. The relation of
religious preference and practice to depressive symptoms
among 1,855 older adults. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci
1996; 51: P301–8

125. McCaffrey AM, Eisenberg DM, Legedza AT, et al. Prayer


for health concerns: results of a national survey on
prevalence and patterns of use. Arch Intern Med 2004; 164:
858–62

126. Koenig HG, Cohen HJ, Blazer DG, et al. Religious


coping and depression among elderly, hospitalized medically
ill men. Am J Psychiatry 1992; 149: 1693–700

127. Levin JS, Markides KS, Ray LA. Religious attendance


and psychological well-being in Mexican Americans: a panel
analysis of three-generations data. Gerontologist 1996; 36:
454–63

128. Woods TE, Antoni MH, Ironson GH, Kling DW. Religiosity
is associated with affective and immune status in
symptomatic HIV-infected gay men. J Psychosom Res 1999; 46:
165–76

129. Krause N. Stressors in highly valued roles, religious


coping, and mortality. Psychol Aging 1998; 13: 242–55

130. Testa MA, Simonson DC. Assesment of quality-of-life


outcomes. N Engl J Med 1996; 334: 835–40

131. Mytko JJ, Knight SJ. Body, mind and spirit: towards
the integration of religiosity and spirituality in cancer
quality of life research. Psychooncology 1999; 8: 439–50

132. Riley BB, Perna R, Tate DG, et al. Types of spiritual


well-being among persons with chronic illness: their
relation to various forms of quality of life. Arch Phys Med
Rehabil 1998; 79: 258–64

133. Cotton SP, Levine EG, Fitzpatrick CM, et al. Exploring


the relationships among spiritual well-being, quality of
life, and psychological adjustment in women with breast
cancer. Psychooncology 1999; 8: 429–38. Erratum in:
Psychooncology 2000; 9: 89

134. Brady MJ, Peterman AH, Fitchett G, et al. A case for


including spirituality in quality of life measurement in
oncology. Psychooncology 1999; 8: 417–28

135. Tate DG, Forchheimer M. Quality of life, life


satisfaction, and spirituality: comparing outcomes between
rehabilitation and cancer patients. Am J Phys Med Rehabil
2002; 81: 400–10

136. Bartlett SJ, Piedmont R, Bilderback A, et al.


Spirituality, wellbeing, and quality of life in people with
rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 49: 778–83

137. Kirby SE, Coleman PG, Daley D. Spirituality and


well-being in frail and nonfrail older adults. J Gerontol B
Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2004; 59: P123–9

138. Larson DB, Larson SS. The Forgotten Factor in Physical


and Mental Health: What Does the Research Show? An
Independent Study Seminar. Rockville, MD: National
Institute for Healthcare Research, 1994

139. Bergin AE. Religiosity and mental health: a critical


reevaluation and meta-analysis. Prof Psychol Res Pract
1983; 14: 170–84

140. Levin JS. Religion and health: is there an


association, is it valid, and is it causal? Soc Sci Med
1994; 38: 1475–82

141. Levin JS. How religion influences morbidity and


health: reflections on natural history, salutogenesis and
host resistance. Soc Sci Med 1996; 43: 849–64

142. Larson DB, Swyers JP, McCullough ME. Scientific


Research on Spirituality and Health: A Report Based on the
Scientific Progress in Spirituality Conferences. Rockville,
MD: National Institute for Healthcare Research, 1998

143. Seybold KS, Hill PC. The role of religion and


spirituality in mental and physical health. Curr Dir
Psychol Sci 2001; 10: 21–4

144. Bernardi L, Sleight P, Bandinelli G, et al. Effect of


rosary prayer and yoga mantras on autonomic cardiovascular
rhythms: comparative study. BMJ 2001; 323: 1446–9 145.
Osler W. The faith that heals. Br Med J 1910; 2: 1470–2
146. Mayo WJ. Minutes from a faculty meeting of the Mayo
Clinic staff, 21 November 1932 147. American Psychiatric
Association. Guidelines regarding possible conflict between
psychiatrists’ religious commitment and psychiatric
practice. Am J Psychiatry 1990; 147: 542 148. Chibnall JT,
Brooks CA. Religion in the clinic: the role of physician
beliefs. South Med J 2001; 94: 374–9 149. Post SG,
Puchalski CM, Larson DB. Physicians and patient
spirituality: professional boundaries, competency, and
ethics. Ann Intern Med 2000; 132: 578–83 150. Lo B, Ruston
D, Kates LW, et al., the Working Group on Religious and
Spiritual Issues at the End of Life. Discussing religious
and spiritual issues at the end of life: a practical guide
for physicians. J Am Med Assoc 2002; 287: 749–54 151.
Silvestri GA, Knittig S, Zoller JS, Nietert PJ. Importance
of faith on medical decisions regarding cancer care. J Clin
Oncol 2003; 21: 1379–82 152. Cassel EJ. The nature of
suffering and the goals of medicine. N Engl J Med 1982;
306: 639–45 153. Maugans TA. The SPIRITual history. Arch
Fam Med 1996; 5: 11–16 154. Oyama O, Koenig HG. Religious
beliefs and practices in family medicine. Arch Fam Med
1998; 7: 431–5 155. Ellis MR, Campbell JD,
Detwiler-Breidenbach A, Hubbard DK. What do family
physicians think about spirituality in clinical practice? J
Fam Pract 2002; 51: 249–54 156. Feudtner C, Haney J,
Dimmers MA. Spiritual care needs of hospitalized children
and their families: a national survey of pastoral care
providers’ perceptions. Pediatrics 2003; 111: e67–72 157.
Hart D, Schneider D. Spiritual care for children with
cancer. Semin Oncol Nurs 1997; 13: 263–70 158. Kristeller
JL, Zumbrun CS, Schilling RF. ‘I would if I could’: how
oncologists and oncology nurses address spiritual distress
in cancer patients. Psychooncology 1999; 8: 451–8 159.
Cohen CB, Wheeler SE, Scott DA, et al. Prayer as therapy. A
challenge to both religious belief and professional ethics.
The Anglican Working Group in Bioethics. Hastings Cent Rep
2000; 30: 40–7 160. Sloan RP, Bagiella E, VandeCreek L, et
al. Should physicians prescribe religious activities? N
Engl J Med 2000; 342: 1913–16 161. Waldfogel S, Wolpe PR.
Using awareness of religious factors to enhance
interventions in consultation-liaison psychiatry. Hosp
Community Psychiatry 1993; 44: 473–7 162. Brett AS, Jersild
P. ‘Inappropriate’ treatment near the end of life: conflict
between religious convictions and clinical judgment. Arch
Intern Med 2003; 163: 1645–9 163. Astrow AB, Puchalski CM,
Sulmasy DP. Religion, spirituality, and health care:
social, ethical, and practical considerations. Am J Med
2001; 110: 283–7 164. Barrier PA, Li JT, Jensen NM. Two
words to improve physician–patient communication: what
else? Mayo Clin Proc 2003; 78: 211–14 165. Roter DL,
Stewart M, Putnam SM, et al. Communication patterns of
primary care physicians. J Am Med Assoc 1997; 277: 350–6
166. Schuetz B. Spirituality and palliative care. Aust Fam
Physician 1995; 24: 775–7 167. Bollwinkel EM. Role of
spirituality in hospice care. Ann Acad Med Singapore 1994;
23: 261–3

168. Rummans TA, Bostwick JM, Clark MM, the Mayo Clinic
Cancer Center Quality of Life Working Group. Maintaining
quality of life at the end of life. Mayo Clin Proc 2000;
75: 1305–10

169. Anandarajah G, Hight E. Spirituality and medical


practice: using the HOPE questions as a practical tool for
spiritual assessment. Am Fam Physician 2001; 63: 81–9

170. Puchalski CM, Romer AL. Taking a spiritual history


allows clinicians to understand patients more fully. J
Palliat Med 2000; 3: 129–37

171. Gioiella ME, Berkman B, Robinson M. Spirituality and


quality of life in gynecologic oncology patients. Cancer
Pract 1998; 6: 333–8 172. Koenig HG. An 83-year-old woman
with chronic illness and strong religious beliefs. J Am Med
Assoc 2002; 288: 487–93 173. Koenig HG. Taking a spiritual
history. J Am Med Assoc 2004; 291: 2881 174. Turner RP,
Lukoff D, Barnhouse RT, Lu FG. Religious or spiritual
problem: a culturally sensitive diagnostic category in the
DSM-IV. J Nerv Ment Dis 1995; 183: 435–44 175. Lo B, Kates
LW, Ruston D, et al. Responding to requests regarding
prayer and religious ceremonies by patients near the end of
life and their families. J Palliat Med 2003; 6: 409–15 176.
Taylor EJ, Outlaw FH, Bernardo TR, Roy A. Spiritual
conflicts associated with praying about cancer.
Psychooncology 1999; 8: 386–94
Imagery 26

1. Dossey BM, Keegan L, Guzetta CE, Kolkmeier LG. Holistic


nursing. In A Handbook for Practice, 2nd edn. Frederick,
MD: Aspen Publication, 1995

2. Seaward BL. Managing stress. In Principles and


Strategies for Health and Well Being, 3rd edn. Sudbury, MA:
Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2002

3. Jung C. A Man and His Symbols. Garden City, NY: Anchor


Press, 1964

4. Wolp J. The Practice of Behavioral Therapy. New York,


NY: Pergamon Press, 1969

5. Simonton OC, Matthews-Simonton S, Creighton JL. Getting


Well Again. New York, NY: Bantam Books, 1980 6. Watkins AD.
Contemporary context of complementary and alternative
medicine: integrated mind–body medicine. In Micozzi M, ed.
Fundamentals of Complementary and Alternative Medicine. New
York, NY: Churchill Livingstone, 1996 7. Donaldson VW. A
clinical study of visualization on depressed white blood
cell count in medical patients. Appl Psychophysiol
Biofeedback 2000; 25: 117–282 8. Hall H R. Hypnosis and the
immune system. Am J Clin Hypnosis 1983; 25: 92–103 9.
Troesch LM, Rodehaver CB, Delaney EA, Yanes B. The
influence of guided imagery on chemotherapy-related nausea
and vomiting. Oncol Nurs Forum 1993; 20: 1179–85

10. Burns DS. The effect of the bonny method of guided


imagery and music on the mood and life quality of cancer
patients. J Music Ther 2001; 38: 51–65

11. Tusek DL, Cwynar RE. Strategies for implementing a


guided imagery program to enhance patient experience. AACN
Clin Issues 2000; 11: 68–76

12. Tusek DL, Cwynar R, Cosgrove DM. Effect of guided


imagery on length of stay, pain and anxiety in cardiac
surgery patients. J Cardiovasc Manag 1999; 10: 22–8

13. Rossman ML. Imagery: learning to use the mind’s eye. In


Goleman D, Gurin J, eds. Mind Body Medicine: How to use
your Mind for Better Health. New York, NY: Consumer Report
Books, 1993 14. Damasio A. The Feeling of What Happens. New
York, NY: Harcourt Brace & Co., 1999 15. Le Doux J. The
Emotional Brain: The Mysterious Underpinnings of Emotional
Life. New York, NY: Simon & Shuster, 1996 16. Pert CB.
Molecules of Emotion: The Science behind Mind– Body
Medicine. New York, NY: Touchstone, 1999 17.
www.healthjourneys.com 18. Seaward BL. Achieving the
mind–body–spirit connection. In A Stress Management
Workbook. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2005
Belief and the space of healing 27

10. Suzuki DT. Lectures on Zen Buddhism. In Fromm E, Suzuki


DT, DeMartino R, eds. Zen Buddhism and Psychoanalysis. New
York: Harper and Row, 1960 11. Moyers B. Healing and the
Mind (a 5 video set, including Mystery of Chi). Ambrose
Video. Written transcripts available in Moyers B, Flowers
BS, Grubin D, eds. Healing and the Mind. New York:
Doubleday, 1993 12. Balint M. The Doctor, His Patient, and
the Illness. London: Pitman Medical, 1964 13. Baron RJ. An
introduction to medical phenomenology: I can’t hear you
while I’m listening. Ann Intern Med 1985; 103: 606–11 14.
Cassell EJ. The Nature of Suffering, and the Goals of
Medicine. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1991 15.
Kestenbaum V. The Experience of Illness. In Kestenbaum V,
ed. The Humanity of the Ill. Knoxville, TN: University of
Tennessee Press, 1982: 3–38 16. Zaner RM. The Context of
Self: a Phenomenological Inquiry Using Medicine as a Clue.
Athens: Ohio University Press, 1981 17. Pellegrino ED,
Thomasana DC. A Philosophical Basis of Medical Practice:
Toward a Philosophy and Ethic of the Healing Professions.
New York, Oxford: University of Oxford Press, 1981 18.
Bishop AH, Scudder JR Jr. Nursing Ethics: Therapeutic
Caring Presence. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett
Publishers, 1996
Energy medicine 28

Further reading 1. Mitchell E. Chi: Your Body’s Energy – A


Practical Introduction to the Secrets of Vitality from Both
East and West. Duncan Baird Publishers, 1998 2. Myss C.
Anatomy of the Spirit: The Seven Stages of Power and
Healing. Three Rivers Press, 1996 3. Myss C. Sacred
Contracts: Awakening Your Divine Potential. New York:
Harmony Books, 2001 4. Villoldo A. Shaman, Healer, Sage.
New York: Harmony Books, 2000 5. Sams J, Carson D. Medicine
Cards. St Martin’s Press, 1999 6. Whitaker KC. The
Reluctant Shaman. San Francisco, CA: Harper Collins, 1991
7. Eden D. Energy Medicine. Tarcher/Putnam, 1998 8. Gerber
R. A Practical Guide to Vibrational Medicine: Energy
Healing and Spiritual Transformation. Quill, 2000 9. Linn
D. Sacred Space: Clearing and Enhancing the Energy of Your
Home. Ballantine Wellspring, 1995 10. Chopra D. The
Spontaneous Fufillment of Desire: Harnessing the Infinite
Power of Coincidence. New York: Harmony Books, 2003 11.
Byrd R. Positive Therapeutic Effects of Intercessory Prayer
in a Coronary Care Unit Population. Southern Med J 1988;
81: 826–9 12. Sahler OJ, Hunter BC, Liesveld JL. The effect
of using music therapy with relaxation imagery in the
management of patients undergoing bone marrow
transplantation: a pilot feasibility study. Altern Ther
2003; 9: 70–4 13. Emoto, M. The True Power of Water. Beyond
Words Publishing, 2005 14. Sebastian, K. Baby’s Kneipp Cure
or The Care of Children in Health and Disease. Kessinger
Publishing, 1896

Cohen K. The Way of Qi Gong: The Art and Science of Chinese

Energy Healing. Ballantine Wellspring, 1997

Coulter HD. Anatomy of Hatha Yoga. Body and Breath Inc.,


2001

Iyengar BKS. Yoga: The Path to Holistic Healing. London:


Dorling

Kindersley Press, 2001

Jonas WB, Crawford C. Healing, Intention and Energy


Medicine:

Science, Research Methods and Clinical Implications.


Edinburgh:

Churchill Livingstone, 2003


Khalsa DS, Stauth C. Meditation as Medicine. New York:
Fireside,

2001

Liu Master H. The Healing Art of Qi Gong: Ancient Wisdom


from

a Modern Master. Warner Books, 1997


Magnet therapy 29

1. Hoffbeck SR. The Haymakers: a Chronicle of Five Farm


Families. St Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2000

2. http://healingtools.tripod.com/maghlth.html

3. Ichioka S, Minegishi M, Iwasaka M, et al. Skin


temperature changes induced by strong static magnetic field
exposure. Bioelectromagnetics 2003; 24: 380–6 4. Long L,
Huntley A, Ernst E. Which complementary and alternative
therapies benefit which conditions? A survey of the
opinions of 223 professional organizations. Complement Ther
Med 2001; 178–85 5. LaVelle DG. Canale: Campbell’s
Operative Orthopedics, 10th edn. St Louis: Mosby, 2003 6.
Garland DE, Moses B, Salyer W. Long-term follow-up of
fracture nonunions treated with PEMF. Contemp Orthoped
1991; 22: 295–302 7. deHaas WG, Beaupre A, Cameron H,
English E. The Canadian experience with pulsed magnetic
fields in the treatment of ununited tibial fractures. Clin
Orthop Relat Res 1986; 208: 55–8 8. Lappin MS. Research on
the Utility of the Enermed Device as the Treatment for
Migraines. Research Report #1. Vancouver, BC: Energy
Medicine Developments (North America) Inc., April 1995 9.
Lappin MS. Enermed Patient Survey Results. Research Report
#4. Vancouver, BC: Energy Medicine Developments (North
America) Inc., November 1999

10. Kirschner-Hermanns R, Jakse G. Magnet stimulation


therapy: a simple solution for the treatment of stress and
urge incontinence? Urologe A 2003; 43: 819–22

11. Weintraub MI, Cole SP. Pulsed magnetic field therapy in


refractory naturopathic pain secondary to peripheral
neuropathy: electrodiagnostic parametrics – pilot study.
Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2004; 18: 42–6

12. Null G. Biomagnetic Healing. Available at: http://www.


garynull.com/Documents/magnets.htm (accessed on 9 March
2005)

13. Weintraub M. Magnetic biostimulation in painful


diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a novel intervention – a
randomized, double-placebo crossover study. Am J Pain
Manage 1999; 9: 8–17

14. Barrett S. Magnet therapy. Available at:


www.quackwatch. org/04ConsumerEducation/QA/magnet.html
(accessed on 28 February 2005)
15. Szor JK, Topp R. Use of magnet therapy to heal an
abdominal wound: a case study. Ostomy Wound Manage 1998;
44: 24–9

16. Wolsko PM, Eisenberg DM, Simon LS, et al. Double-blind


placebo-controlled trial of static magnets for the
treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: results of a pilot
study. Altern Ther Health Med 2004; 10: 36–43 17. Weintraub
MI, Wolfe GI, Barohn RA, et al.; Magnetic Research Group.
Static magnetic field therapy for symptomatic diabetic
neuropathy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled
trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003; 84: 736–46 18. Carter R,
Aspy CB, Mold J. The effectiveness of magnet therapy for
treatment of wrist pain attributed to carpal tunnel
syndrome. J Fam Pract 2002; 51: 38–40 19. Collacott EA,
Zimmerman JT, White DW, Rindone JP. Bipolar permanent
magnets for the treatment of chronic low back pain: a pilot
study. J Am Med Assoc 2000; 283: 1322–5 20. Dexter D Jr.
Magnetic therapy is ineffective for the treatment of
snoring and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Wisc Med J
1997; 96: 35–7 21. Tkach EV, Abilova AN, Gazavieva ShM.
Characteristics of the effect of a constant electromagnetic
field on reparative processes in spinal cord injuries.
Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S-S-Kosakova
1989; 89: 41–4 22. Giebel W, Wagner H, Scheibe F.
Preliminary electrophysiological data after the
obliteration of cochlear blood vessels by the action of a
magnetic field on circulating iron particles. Arch
Otorhinolaryngol 1985; 242: 337–41 23. Arbab AS, Jordan EK,
Wilson LB, et al. In vivo trafficking and targeted delivery
of magnetically labeled stem cells. Hum Gene Ther 2004; 15:
351–60 24. Erdman D. Side-to-side sutureless vascular
anastomosis with magnets. J Vasc Surg 2004; 40: 505–11 25.
Salvatore JR, Harrington J, Kummel T. Phase I clinical
study of a static magnetic field combined with
anti-neoplastic chemotherapy in the treatment of human
malignancy: initial safety and toxicity data.
Bioelectromagnetics 2003; 24: 524–7 26. Cauchi JA, Shawis
RN. Multiple magnet ingestion and gastrointestinal
morbidity. Arch Dis Child 2002; 87: 539–40 27. Bently R.
Your Best Compass Directions. Available at:
www.fengshuidiva.com/compss.html (accessed on 28 February
2005)
Healing touch 30

7. Mentgen J, Bulbrook MJ. Healing Touch Level I Notebook


1993. Carrboro, NC: North Carolina Center for Healing
Touch, 1993

8. Healing touch, at www.Healingtouch.net

9. Mentgen J, Bulbrook MJ. Healing Touch Level I Notebook


1994. Lakewood, CO: Healing Touch International, 1994

10. Krieger D. Accepting your power to heal. In The


Personal Practice of Therapeutic Touch. Santa Fe, NM: Bear
& Company Publishing, 1993

11. Kunz D. The Chakras and the Human Energy Fields.


Wheaton, IL: A Quest Book, 1989

12. Brennan BA. Hands of light. In A Guide to Healing


Through the Human Energy Field, A New Paradigm for the
Human Being in Health, Relationship, and Disease. New York:
Bantam, 1988

13. Joy WB. Joy’s way. A map for the transformational


journey. In An Introduction to the Potentials for Healing
with Body Energies. New York: Jeremy P. Penguin
Publications, 1979

14. Leibnitz G. Monadology and Other Philosophical Essays.


Schrecker P, Schrecker A (trans). Indianapolis:
Bobbs-Merril, 1965

15. Mesmer FA. In Myers VR (trans). Mesmerism. London:


Macdonald, 1948

16. Von Reichenbach C. Physico-physiological Researches on


the Dynamics of Magnetism, Electricity, Heat, Light,
Crystallization and Chemism, in Their Relation to Vital
Force. New York: Clinton-Hall, 1851

17. Kilner WJ. The Human Aura. New Hyde Park, NY:
University Books, 1965 18. Reich W. The Function of the
Orgasm. In Wolfe TP (trans). The Discovery of Orgone, Vol
I, 2nd edn. New York: Orgone Press, 1942 19. Bendit PD,
Bendit LJ. In Man Incarnate. London: Theosophical
Publishing House, 1957 20. Karagulla S. In Breakthrough to
Creativity. Los Angeles: De Vorss, 1967 21. Pierrakos JC.
Life Functions of the Energy Centers of Man. New York:
Institute for the New Age (Monograph), 1975 22. Hunt V,
Massey W, Weinberg R, et al. Project Report, a Study of
Structural Integration from Neuromuscular, Energy Field and
Emotional Approaches. UCLA, 1977 23. Wolf FA. The Body
Quantum. New York: MacMillan, 1982 24. Gerber R.
Vibrational Medicine: New Choices for Healing Ourselves.
Santa Fe, NM: Bear & Company, 1988 25. Talbot M. The
Holographic Universe. New York: HarperCollins, 1991 26.
Herbert N. Quantum reality. In Beyond the New Physics. New
York: Doubleday, 1985 27. Wolf FA. Parallel universes. In
The Search for Other Worlds. New York: Touchstone, 1988 28.
Wolf FA. The Eagle’s Quest: a Physicist finds Scientific
Truth at the Heart of the Shamanic World. New York:
Touchstone, 1991 29. Tart CT. Transpersonal psychologies.
In Tart CT, ed. Perspectives on the Mind from Seven Great
Spiritual Traditions. San Francisco: Harper-San Francisco,
1975 30. Assagioli R. Psychosynthesis. In A Collection of
Basic Writings. New York: Penguin, 1993
Chiropractic 31

manipulation, the primary intervention in almost all tri

als of chiropractic treatment. There are no studies that

demonstrate that one manipulation/mobilization

method is more efficacious than another. The non

manipulation/mobilization methods have little or no sci

entific basis. The choice of technique a practitioner uses

is usually the result of experience and mentoring 75 .


Curtis and Bove have suggested guidelines for identi

fying a competent chiropractor 76 . Table 31.3 is adapted

from their article. Use of such guidelines tends to direct

patients and physicians away from chiropractors who

make treatment decisions based primarily on philosophy

as opposed to those who do so based on the strength of

the available evidence. Providers referring patients to

chiropractors should become familiar with the practice

philosophy and treatment style of individual DCs in

their area. CONCLUSIONS Chiropractic has become an


established health-care profession in the USA and many
countries. Although chiropractic practice was originally
based on philosophy only, it is an evolving profession
influenced by a growing body of evidence demonstrating the
efficacy of chiropractic for spine-related conditions.
Standardized education and licensure, in addition to
inclusion in the third party payment system, have allowed
chiropractic to grow to an impressive size. It is becoming
common to see DCs practicing alongside other providers,
both conventional and non-conventional. With the increase
in popularity of complementary and integrative therapies,
the role of chiropractic in the treatment of
musculoskeletal disorders is likely to expand.

14. American Public Health Association, www.apha-chc.org


15. Hurwitz EL, Coulter ID, Adams AH, et al. Use of
chiropractic services from 1985 through 1991 in the United
States and Canada. Am J Public Health 1998; 88: 771–6

16. www.icpa4kids.com/

17. Senstad O, Leboeuf-Yde C, Borchgrevink C. Frequency and


characteristics of side effects of spinal manipulative
therapy. Spine 1997; 22: 435–40

18. Powell FC, Hanigan WC, Olivero WC. A risk/benefit


analysis of spinal manipulation therapy for relief of
lumbar or cervical pain. Neurosurgery 1993; 33: 73–8

19. Jagbandhansingh MP. Most common causes of chiropractic


malpractice lawsuits. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1997; 20

20. Assendelft WJJ, Bouter LM, Knipschild PG. Complications


of spinal manipulation. J Fam Pract 1996; 42: 475–80

21. Haldeman S, Rubinstein SM. Cauda equina syndrome in


patients undergoing manipulation of the lumbar spine. Spine
1992; 17: 1469–73

22. Shekelle PG, Adams AH, Chassin MR, et al. Spinal


manipulation for back pain. Ann Intern Med 1992; 117: 590–8

23. Krueger B, Okazaki H. Vertebal-basilar distribution


infarction following chiropractic cervical manipulation.
Mayo Clin Proc 1980; 55: 322–32

24. Hart RG. Vertebral artery dissection. Neurology 1988;


38: 987–9

25. Barton JW, Margolis MT. Rotational obstruction of the


vertebral artery at the atlantoaxial joint. Neuroradiology
1975; 9: 117–20

26. Dvorak J, Orelli F. How dangerous is manipulation to


the cervical spine? Manual Med 1985; 2: 1–4

27. Shekelle PG, Coulter I. Cervical spine manipulation:


summary report of a systematic review of the literature and
a multidisciplinary expert panel. J Spinal Disord 1997; 10:
223–8

28. Hurwitz EL, Aker PD, Adams AH, et al. Manipulation and
mobilization of the cervical spine. A systematic review of
the literature. Spine 1996; 21: 1746–59
29. Klougart N, Leboeuf-Yde C, Rasmussen LR. Safety in
chiropractic practice, Part I; the occurrence of
cerebrovascular accidents after manipulation to the neck in
Denmark from 1978–1988. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1996;
19: 371–7

30. Haldeman S, Kohlbeck FJ, McGregor M. Risk factors and


precipitating neck movements causing vertebrobasilar artery
dissection after cervical trauma and spinal manipulation.
Spine 1999; 24: 785–94

31. Symons BP, Leonard T, Herzog W. Internal forces


sustained by the vertebral artery during spinal
manipulative therapy [see comment]. J Manipulative Physiol
Ther 2002; 25: 504–10

32. Gabriel SE, Jaakkimainen L, Bombardier C. Risk for


serious gastrointestinal complications related to use of
nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. A meta-analysis. Ann
Intern Med 1991; 115: 787–96

33. Rothwell DM, Bondy SJ, Williams JI. Chiropractic


manipulation and stroke: a population-based case-control
study. Stroke 2001; 32: 1054–60

34. Haldeman S, Chapman-Smith D, Petersen DM. Guidelines


for Chiropractic Quality Assurance and Practice Parameters:
Proceedings of the Mercy Center Consensus Conference.
Gaithersburg, Maryland, Aspen, 1992

35. Boden SD, Davis DO, Dina TS, et al. Abnormal


magnetic-resonance scans of the lumbar spine in
asymptomatic subjects. A prospective investigation. J Bone
Joint Surg (Am) 1990; 72: 403–8 36. Mierau D, Cassidy JD,
McGregor M, Kirkaldy-Willis WH. A comparison of the
effectiveness of spinal manipulative therapy for low back
pain patients with and without spondylolisthesis. J
Manipulative Physiol Ther 1987; 10: 49–55 37. Childs JD,
Fritz JM, Flynn TW, et al. A clinical prediction rule to
identify patients with low back pain most likely to benefit
from spinal manipulation: a validation study. Ann Intern
Med 2004; 141: 920–8 38. Fritz JM, Whitman JM, Flynn TW, et
al. Factors related to the inability of individuals with
low back pain to improve with a spinal manipulation. Phys
Ther 2004; 84: 173–90 39. Assendelft WJ, Morton SC, Yu EI,
et al. Spinal manipulative therapy for low back pain. A
meta-analysis of effectiveness relative to other therapies.
Ann Intern Med 2003; 138: 871–81 40. Hadler NM, Curtis P,
Gillings DB, Stinnett S. A benefit of spinal manipulation
as adjunctive therapy for acute low-back pain: a stratified
controlled trial. Spine 1987; 12: 702–6 41. MacDonald RS,
Bell CM. An open controlled assessment of osteopathic
manipulation in nonspecific low-back pain. Spine 1990; 15:
364–70 42. Giles LG, Muller R. Chronic spinal pain: a
randomized clinical trial comparing medication,
acupuncture, and spinal manipulation. Spine 2003; 28:
1490–1502 43. Meade TW, Dyer S, Browne W, et al. Low back
pain of mechanical origin: randomised comparison of
chiropractic and hospital outpatient treatment. Br Med J
1990; 300: 1431–7 44. Aure OF, Nilsen JH, Vasseljen O.
Manual therapy and exercise therapy in patients with
chronic low back pain: a randomized, controlled trial with
1-year follow-up. Spine 2003; 28: 525–3 45. Bigos S, Bowyer
O, Braen G. Acute low back problems in adults. Clinical
Practice Guideline number 14. Rockville, Maryland: Agency
for Health Care Policy and Research, Public Health Service,
US Department of Health and Human Services, 1994 46. Haas
M, Groupp E, Kraemer DF. Dose–response for chiropractic
care of chronic low back pain. Spine J 2004; 4: 574–83 47.
Seferlis T, Nemeth G, Carlsson AM, Gillstrom P.
Conservative treatment in patients sick-listed for acute
low-back pain: a prospective randomised study with 12
months’ follow-up. Eur Spine J 1998; 7: 461–70 48.
Hertzman-Miller RP, Morgenstern H, Hurwitz EL, et al.
Comparing the satisfaction of low back pain patients
randomized to receive medical or chiropractic care: results
from the UCLA lowback pain study. Am J Public Health 2002;
92: 1628–33 49. Kjellman GV, Skargren EI, Oberg BE. A
critical analysis of randomised clinical trials on neck
pain and treatment efficacy. A review of the literature.
Scand J Rehabil Med 1999; 31: 139–52 50. Aker PD, Gross AR,
Goldsmith CH, Peloso P. Conservative management of
mechanical neck pain: systematic overview and
meta-analysis. BMJ 1996; 313: 1291–6 51. Eisenberg DM,
Kessler RC, Foster C, et al. Unconventional medicine in the
United States. Prevalence, costs, and patterns of use. N
Engl J Med 1993; 328: 246–52 52. Bogduk N. Cervical causes
of headache and dizziness. In Grieve GP, ed. Modern Manual
Therapy of the Vertebral Column. Edinburgh:
Churchill-Livingstone, 1986 53. Bogduk N, Marsland A. On
the concept of the third occipital headache. J Neurol
Neurosurg Psychiatry 1986; 49: 775–80 54. Nelson CF,
Bronfort G, Evans R, et al. The efficacy of spinal
manipulation, amitriptyline and the combination of both
therapies for the prophylaxis of migraine headache. J
Manipulative Physiol Ther 1998; 21: 511–19

55. Parker GB, Tupling H, Pryor DS. A controlled trial of


cervical manipulation of migraine. Aust NZ J Med 1978; 8:
589–93
56. Bove G, Nilsson N. Spinal manipulation in the treatment
of episodic tension-type headache: a randomized controlled
trial. J Am Med Assoc 1998; 280: 1576–9

57. Boline PD, Kassak K, Bronfort G, et al. Spinal


manipulation vs. amitriptyline for the treatment of chronic
tension-type headaches: a randomized clinical trial. J
Manipulative Physiol Ther 1995; 18: 148–54

58. Nilsson N, Christensen HW, Hartvigsen J. The effect of


spinal manipulation in the treatment of cervicogenic
headache. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1997; 20: 326–30

59. Lenssinck ML, Damen L, Verhagen AP, et al. The


effectiveness of physiotherapy and manipulation in patients
with tensiontype headache: a systematic review. Pain 2004;
112: 381–8

60. Nykoliation JW, Cassidy JD, Arthur BE, Wedge JH. An


algorithm for the management of scoliosis. J Manipulative
Physiol Ther 1986; 9: 1–14

61. Plaugher G, Cremata EE, Phillips RB. A retrospective


consecutive case analysis of pretreatment and comparative
static radiological parameters following chiropractic
adjustments. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1990; 13: 498–506

62. Tarola GA. Manipulation for the control of back pain


and curve progression in patients with skeletally mature
idiopathic scoliosis: two cases. J Manipulative Physiol
Ther 1994; 17: 253–7

63. Blunt KL, Rajwani MH, Guerriero RC. The effectiveness


of chiropractic management of fibromyalgia patients: a
pilot study [comment]. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1997;
20: 389–99

64. Valente R, Gibson H. Chiropractic manipulation in


carpal tunnel syndrome. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1994;
17: 246–9

65. Davis P, Hulbert JR, Kassak KM, Meyer JJ. Comparative


efficacy of conservative medical and chiropractic
treatments for carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized
clinical trial. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1998; 21:
317–26 66. Shekelle PG. What role for chiropractic in
health care? N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 1074–5 67. Balon J,
Aker PD, Crowther ER, et al. A comparison of active and
simulated chiropractic manipulation as adjunctive treatment
for childhood asthma. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 1013–20 68.
Nielsen NH, Bronfort G, Bendix T, et al. Chronic asthma and
chiropractic spinal manipulation: a randomized clinical
trial. Clin Exp Allergy 1995; 25: 80–8 69. Kreitz BG, Aker
PD. Nocturnal enuresis; treatment implications for the
chiropractor. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1994; 17: 465–73
70. Liebl NA, Butler LM. A chiropractic approach to the
treatment of dysmenorrhea. J Manipulative Physiol Ther
1990; 13: 101–6 71. Browning JE. Pelvic pain and organic
dysfunction in a patient with low back pain: response to
distractive manipulation: a case presentation. J
Manipulative Physiol Ther 1987; 10: 116–21 72. Kokjohn K,
Schmid DM, Triano JJ, Brennan PC. The effect of spinal
manipulation on pain and prostaglandin levels in women with
primary dysmenorrhea. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1992; 15:
279–85 73. Pistolese RA. Epilepsy and seizure disorders: a
review of the literature relative to chiropractic care of
children. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2001; 24: 199–205 74.
Giesen JM, Center DB, Leach RA. An evaluation of
chiropractic manipulation as a treatment of hyperactivity
in children. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1989; 12: 353–63
75. Haldeman SD. Spinal manipulation: when, how, and who?
Bull Hosp Joint Dis 1996; 55: 135–7 76. Curtis P, Bove G.
Family physicians, chiropractors, and back pain. J Fam
Pract 1992; 35: 551–5
Massage 32

ALTERNATIVES in health ™ Vol 1;2 and Vol 1;5

Chopra D. Alternative Medicine, The Definitive Guide, 2nd


edn.

Berkeley, CA: Celestial Arts, 2002

Knaster M. Discovering the Body’s Wisdom. New York: Bantam,

1996

Polly M, Teri K. Hospital-Based Massage Programs in Review,


3rd

edn. Hospital-Based Massage Network, 2004

Smith MC, Stallings MA, Mariner S, Burrall M. J Nurse


Midwifery

1999; 44: 217–30

Stillerman E. The Encyclopedia of Bodywork from Acupressure


to

Zone Therapy. Facts on File, 1996

Tappan F. Tappan’s Handbook of Healing Massage Techniques.

Appleton and Lange, 1998 The Bodywork Knowledgebase;


Practitioner’s Desk Reference, Vol 1 (1959–1988). Compiled
by Richard van Why, 1989 Weinrich SP, Weinrich MC. The
effect of massage on pain in cancer patients. Appl Nurs Res
1990; 3: 140–5
www.massagemag.com/2004/issue112/history112.htm, accessed
on 9 August 2005
www.amtamassage.org/infocenter/current.html, accessed on 9
August 2005 www.online-ambulance.com/altermed/grp/1/art_grp
/Bodywork/art/ therapeutic_massage.html, accessed on 9
August 2005 www.secretsofisis.com/faq/states.html, accessed
on 9 August 2005 www.ncbtmb.com/standards_of_practice.htm,
accessed on 9 August 2005
Osteopathic medicine 33

However, it may also be viewed as complementary to

mainstream medicine, by combining standard bio

medical interventions with other modalities considered

outside of the purvey of ‘conventional’ medicine. This

duality does not invalidate it as a medical philosophy,

but does make it difficult for researchers to measure its

contribution to health care. Osteopathic medicine’s

negotiation of its professional identity and status pro

vides an interesting study of the professional integration

of CAM-based theory and practice into the conventional

delivery of medical care and health services. To summarize,


as discussed above, osteopathic medi

cine first developed its unique and proprietary treatment

modalities in the early nineteenth century as a distinct

alternative to conventional medical practice. These

modalities moved through stages of discovery, develop

ment, refinement, and translation in order to be inte

grated into a modern biomedically-oriented osteopathic

educational curriculum. This curriculum was instituted

in largely free-standing educational institutions and

community hospitals and clinics. Both internal and

external competing interests shaped this process in a

largely serendipitous fashion. Today, osteopathic medicine


stands on the precipice of a new phase of its own
evolution. It is uniquely positioned as a bridge between
what is considered standard biomedical care versus
complementary and alternative. It has developed a network
of colleges, professional organizations,
federally-recognized accreditation standards, hospitals,
and health-care networks to deliver a package of health
services based on a distinct philosophy of patient care.
Simultaneously, it interfaces, cooperates, and allies
itself with the standard biomedical enterprise and
industries, while retaining its own distinct professional
identity. In order to secure its relevance in a modern,
integrated health-care system, osteopathic medicine’s
success will depend upon conscientious organizational
leadership, the stewardship of its academic community, and
continued long-term investment in research infrastructure
in order to demonstrate cost-effective, positive treatment
effects for the services it provides. Policymakers,
educators, and stakeholders in other CAM fields stand to
gain much insight from a careful analysis of the
osteopathic profession’s development when considering
issues of CAM integration and health services delivery.

11. DeBoer KF, Harmon RO Jr, Savoie S, Tuttle CD. Inter-


and intra-examiner reliability of leg-length differential
measurement: a preliminary study. J Manipulative Physiol
Ther 1983; 6: 61–6

12. Love RM, Brodeur RR. Inter- and intra-examiner


reliability of motion palpation for the thoracolumbar
spine. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1987; 10: 1–4

13. Deboer KF, Harmon R Jr, Tuttle CD, Wallace H.


Reliability study of detection of somatic dysfunctions in
the cervical spine. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1985; 8:
9–16

14. Boline PD, Haas M, Meyer JJ, et al. Interexaminer


reliability of eight evaluative dimensions of lumbar
segmental abnormality: Part II [see comments]. J
Manipulative Physiol Ther 1993; 16: 363–74

15. Hawk C, Phongphua C, Bleecker J, et al. Preliminary


study of the reliability of assessment procedures for
indications for chiropractic adjustments of the lumbar
spine. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1999; 22: 382–9

16. Bond M. Rolfing movement integration: a self-help


approach to balancing the body. Rochester, Vt: Healing Arts
Press; distributed in the US by American International
Distribution Corp., 1993

17. Gibbs ET. Structural Integration (Rolfing) and


Neuromuscular Patterns during Voluntary Movement. Los
Angeles: UCLA Press, 1973

18. Rolf IP. Rolfing: reestablishing the natural alignment


and structural integration of the human body for vitality
and well-being. 1st Healing Arts Press edn. Rochester, VT:
Healing Arts Press, 1989

19. Freburger JK, Riddle DL. Measurement of sacroiliac


joint dysfunction: a multicenter intertester reliability
study. Phys Ther 1999; 79: 1134–41

20. Cibulka MT, Koldehoff R. Clinical usefulness of a


cluster of sacroiliac joint tests in patients with and
without low back pain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1999; 29:
83–9

21. Cibulka MT, Delitto A, Koldehoff RM. Changes in


innominate tilt after manipulation of the sacroiliac joint
in patients with low back pain. An experimental study. Phys
Ther 1988; 68: 1359–63

22. Gonella C, Paris S, Kutner M. Reliability in evaluating


passive intervertebral motion. Phys Ther 1982; 62: 436–44

23. Levangie PK. Four clinical tests of sacroiliac joint


dysfunction: the association of test results with
innominate torsion among patients with and without low back
pain. Phys Ther 1999; 79: 1043–57

24. Maigne R, Nieves WL, Sommer HM. Diagnosis and Treatment


of Pain of Vertebral Origin: a Manual Medicine Approach,
1st edn. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1996

25. Russell R. Diagnostic palpation of the spine: a review


of procedures and assessment of their reliability. J
Manipulative Physiol Ther 1983; 6: 181–3

26. Haas M. The reliability of reliability. J Manipulative


Physiol Ther 1991; 14: 199–208

27. Mior SA, McGregor M, Schut B. The role of experience in


clinical accuracy. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1990; 13:
68–71

28. McConnell DG, Beal MC, Dinnar U, et al. Low agreement


of findings in neuromusculoskeletal examinations by a group
of osteopathic physicians using their own procedures. J Am
Osteopath Assoc 1980; 79: 441–50

29. Nelson MA, Allen P, Clamp SE, de Dombal FT. Reliability


and reproducibility of clinical findings in low-back pain.
Spine 1979; 4: 97–101 30. Nice DA, Riddle DL, Lamb RL, et
al. Intertester reliability of judgments of the presence of
trigger points in patients with low back pain [see
comments]. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1992; 73: 893–8 31.
Troyanovich SJ, Harrison DD, Harrison DE. Motion palpation:
it’s time to accept the evidence [see comments]. J
Manipulative Physiol Ther 1998; 21: 568–71 32. Goldstein M.
A challenge to the profession: initiate evidencebased
osteopathic medicine now [editorial]. J Am Osteopath Assoc
1997; 97: 448–51 33. Basmajian JV, Nyberg R. Rational
Manual Therapies. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1993 34.
Little CB, Ghosh P. Variation in proteoglycan metabolism by
articular chondrocytes in different joint regions is
determined by post-natal mechanical loading. Osteoarth
Cartil 1997; 5: 49–62 35. Korr IM. The spinal cord as
organizer of disease processes: some preliminary
perspectives. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1976; 76: 35/89–45/99
36. Hallgren RC, Greenman PE, Rechtien JJ. Atrophy of
suboccipital muscles in patients with chronic pain: a pilot
study. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1994; 94: 1032–8 37. Schmidt
RA. Motor Learning & Performance: From Principles to
Practice. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Books, 1991 38.
Luscher HR, Clamann HP. Relation between structure and
function in information transfer in spinal monosynaptic
reflex. Physiol Rev 1992; 72: 71–99 39. Lederman E.
Fundamentals of Manual Therapy: Physiology, Neurology, and
Psychology. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1997 40. Burke
D, Dickson HG, Skuse NF. Task-dependent changes in the
responses to low-threshold cutaneous afferent volleys in
the human lower limb. J Physiol (Lond) 1991; 432: 445–58
41. Field T, Peck M, Krugman S, et al. Burn injuries
benefit from massage therapy. J Burn Care Rehabil 1998; 19:
241–4 42. Gunzenhauser N, Johnson & Johnson Consumer
Products Inc. Advances in Touch: New Implications in Human
Development. Skillman, NJ: Johnson & Johnson Consumer
Products Inc., 1990 43. Scafidi FA, Field T, Schanberg SM.
Factors that predict which preterm infants benefit most
from massage therapy. J Dev Behav Pediatr 1993; 14: 176–80
44. Nathan B. Philosophical notes on osteopathic theory.
Part II: On persons, bodies, touching, and inherent
self-healing capacity. Br Osteopath J 1995; 15: 15–19 45.
Johnson SM, Kurtz ME. Conditions and diagnoses for which
osteopathic primary care physicians and specialists use
osteopathic manipulative treatment. J Am Osteopath Assoc
2002; 102: 527–32, 537–40 46. Deyo RA, Weinstein JN. Low
back pain. N Engl J Med 2001; 344: 363–70 47. Bigos SJ,
Davis GE. Scientific application of sports medicine
principles for acute low back problems. The Agency for
Health Care Policy and Research Low Back Guideline Panel
(AHCPR, Guideline #14). J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1996; 24:
192–207 48. Licciardone JC. The unique role of osteopathic
physicians in treating patients with low back pain. J Am
Osteopath Assoc 2004; 104: S13–18 49. Assendelft WJ, Morton
SC, Yu EI, et al. Spinal manipulative therapy for low back
pain. A meta-analysis of effectiveness relative to other
therapies. Ann Intern Med 2003; 138: 871–81

50. Licciardone JC, Stoll ST, Fulda KG, et al. Osteopathic


manipulative treatment for chronic low back pain: a
randomized controlled trial. Spine 2003; 28: 1355–62

51. Andersson GB, Lucente T, Davis AM, et al. A comparison


of osteopathic spinal manipulation with standard care for
patients with low back pain. N Engl J Med 1999; 341:
1426–31

52. Williams NH, Wilkinson C, Russell I, et al. Randomized


osteopathic manipulation study (ROMANS): pragmatic trial
for spinal pain in primary care. Fam Pract 2003; 20: 662–9

53. United Kingdom back pain exercise and manipulation (UK


BEAM) randomised trial: effectiveness of physical
treatments for back pain in primary care. Br Med J 2004;
329: 1377

54. United Kingdom back pain exercise and manipulation (UK


BEAM) randomised trial: cost effectiveness of physical
treatments for back pain in primary care. Br Med J 2004;
329: 1381

55. Sleszynski SL, Kelso AF. Comparison of thoracic


manipulation with incentive spirometry in preventing
postoperative atelectasis. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1993; 93:
834–8

56. Radjieski JM, Lumley MA, Cantieri MS. Effect of


osteopathic manipulative treatment of length of stay for
pancreatitis: a randomized pilot study. J Am Osteopath
Assoc 1998; 98: 264–72

57. Noll DR, Shores JH, Gamber RG, et al. Benefits of


osteopathic manipulative treatment for hospitalized elderly
patients with pneumonia. J Am Osteopath Assoc 2000; 100:
776–82

58. Mills MV, Henley CE, Barnes LL, et al. The use of
osteopathic manipulative treatment as adjuvant therapy in
children with recurrent acute otitis media. Arch Pediatr
Adolesc Med 2003; 157: 861–6 59. Licciardone JC. Validity
and reliability of the Osteopathic Survey of Health Care in
America (OSTEOSURV). J Am Osteopath Assoc 2003; 103: 89–101
60. Eisenberg DM, Davis RB, Ettner SL, et al. Trends in
alternative medicine use in the United States, 1990–1997:
results of a follow-up national survey. J Am Med Assoc
1998; 280: 1569–75 61. Johnson SM, Kurtz ME, Kurtz JC.
Variables influencing the use of osteopathic manipulative
treatment in family practice. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1997;
97: 80–7 62. Johnson SM, Kurtz ME. Diminished use of
osteopathic manipulative treatment and its impact on the
uniqueness of the osteopathic profession. Acad Med 2001;
76: 821–8 63. Johnson SM, Kurtz ME. Perceptions of
philosophic and practice differences between US osteopathic
physicians and their allopathic counterparts. Soc Sci Med
2002; 55: 2141–8 64. Howell JN, Weiser M, Ross-Lee B, Dane
PB. Evaluation of faculty resources to meet curricular
needs in an osteopathic medical school. J Am Osteopath
Assoc 2000; 100: 727–31 65. Carey TS, Motyka TM, Garrett
JM, Keller RB. Do osteopathic physicians differ in patient
interaction from allopathic physicians? An empirically
derived approach. J Am Osteopath Assoc 2003; 103: 313–18
Prevention and treatment with CAM 34
therapies

35. Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, Appel LJ for the Nutrition


Committee. Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids,
and cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2002; 106: 2747–57

36. Jula A, Marniemi J, Huupponen R, et al. Effects of diet


and simvastatin on serum lipids, insulin, and antioxidants
in hypercholesterolemic men. J Am Med Assoc 2002; 287:
598–605

37. Stone NJ. Fish consumption, fish oil, lipids, and


coronary heart disease. Circulation 1996; 94: 2337–40 38.
Guallar E, Sanz-Gallardo I, Van’t Veer P, et al. Mercury,
fish oils, and the risk of myocardial infarction. N Engl J
Med 2002; 347: 1747–54 39. Bolger PM, Schwetz BA. Mercury
and health. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 1735–6
Lipid disorders 35

9. Gylling H, Puska P, Vartiainen E, Miettinen TA. Retinol,


vitamin D, carotenes and alpha-tocopherol in serum of a
moderately hypercholesterolemic population consuming
sitostanol ester margarine. Atherosclerosis 1999; 145:
279–85

10. Nestel P, Cehun M, Pomeroy S, et al.


Cholesterol-lowering effects of plant sterol esters and
non-esterified stanols in margarine, butter and low-fat
foods. Eur J Clin Nutr 2001; 55: 1084–90

11. Blair SN, Capuzzi DM, Gottlieb SO, et al. Incremental


reduction of serum total cholesterol and low-density
lipoprotein cholesterol with the addition of plant stanol
ester-containing spread to statin therapy. Am J Cardiol
2000; 86: 46–52

12. Kritchevsky D. Fiber effects of hyperlipidemia. In


Cunnane SC, Thompson LUE, eds. Flaxseed in Human Nutrition.
Toronto, CA: AOCS Press, 1995: 174–86

13. Brown L, Rosner B, Willett WW, Sacks FM.


Cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary fiber: a
meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69: 30–42

14. Anderson JW, Davidson MH, Blonde L, et al. Long-term


cholesterol-lowering effects of psyllium as an adjunct to
diet therapy in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Am J
Clin Nutr 2000; 71: 1433–8

15. Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Vuksan V, et al. Soluble fiber


intake at a dose approved by the US Food and Drug
Administration for a claim of health benefits: serum lipid
risk factors for cardiovascular disease assessed in a
randomized controlled crossover trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;
75: 834–9

16. Rami B, Zidek T, Schober E. Influence of a


beta-glucanenriched bedtime snack on nocturnal blood
glucose levels in diabetic children. J Pediatr
Gastroenterol Nutr 2001; 32: 34–6

17. Burke V, Hodgson JM, Beilin LJ, et al. Dietary protein


and soluble fiber reduce ambulatory blood pressure in
treated hypertensives. Hypertension 2001; 38: 821–6

18. Lewis JH. Esophageal and small bowel obstruction from


guar gum-containing ‘diet pills’: analysis of 26 cases
reported to the Food and Drug Administration. Am J
Gastroenterol 1992; 87: 1424–8

19. Opper FH, Isaacs KL, Warshauer DM. Esophageal


obstruction with a dietary fiber product designed for
weight reduction. J Clin Gastroenterol 1990; 12: 667–9

20. Lichtenstein AH. Soy protein, isoflavones and


cardiovascular disease risk. J Nutr 1998; 128: 1589–92

21. Anderson J, Johnstone B, Cook-Newell M. Meta-analysis


of the effects of soy protein intake on serum lipids. N
Engl J Med 1995; 333: 276–82

22. Crouse JR III, Morgan T, Terry JG, et al. A randomized


trial comparing the effect of casein with that of soy
protein containing varying amounts of isoflavones on plasma
concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins. Arch Intern Med
1999; 159: 2070–6

23. Howes JB, Sullivan D, Lai N, et al. The effects of


dietary supplementation with isoflavones from red clover on
the lipoprotein profiles of post menopausal women with mild
to moderate hypercholesterolaemia. Atherosclerosis 2000;
152: 143–7

24. Potter SM, Baum JA, Teng H, et al. Soy protein and
isoflavones: their effects on blood lipids and bone density
in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 1998; 68 (6 Suppl):
1375S–9S

25. Wu AH. Soy and risk of hormone-related and other


cancers. Adv Exp Med Biol 2001; 492: 19–28 26. Dotzel MM.
Food and Drug Administration. Food Labeling: Health Claims;
Soy Protein and Coronary Heart Disease. Federal Register
64, 57699–57733. 10-26-1999. Electronic citation 27.
Thompson LU, Robb P, Serraino M, Cheung F. Mammalian lignan
production from various foods. Nutr Cancer 1991; 16: 43–52
28. Hasler CM, Kundrat S, Wool D. Functional foods and
cardiovascular disease. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2000; 2:
467–75 29. Nelson GJ, Chamberlain JG. The effect of dietary
alphalinolenic acid on blood lipids and lipoproteins in
humans. In Cunnane SC, Thompson LUE, eds. Flaxseed in Human
Nutrition. Toronto, CA: AOCS Press, 1995: 187–206 30.
Arjmandi BH, Khan DA, Juma S, et al. Whole flaxseed
consumption lowers serum LDL-cholesterol and lipoprotein(a)
concentrations in postmenopausal women. Nutr Res 1998; 18:
1203–14 31. Cunnane SC, Hamadeh MJ, Liede AC, et al.
Nutritional attributes of traditional flaxseed in healthy
young adults. Am J Clin Nutr 1995; 61: 62–8 32. Zambon D,
Sabate J, Munoz S, et al. Substituting walnuts for
monounsaturated fat improves the serum lipid profile of
hypercholesterolemic men and women. A randomized crossover
trial. Ann Intern Med 2000; 132: 538–46 33. Bock SA,
Munoz-Furlong A, Sampson HA. Fatalities due to anaphylactic
reactions to foods. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001; 107: 191–3
34. Stevinson C, Pittler MH, Ernst E. Garlic for treating
hypercholesterolemia. A meta-analysis of randomized
clinical trials. Ann Intern Med 2000; 133: 420–9 35.
Superko HR, Krauss RM. Garlic powder, effect on plasma
lipids, postprandial lipemia, low-density lipoprotein
particle size, high-density lipoprotein subclass
distribution and lipoprotein(a). J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;
35: 321–6 36. Gardner CD, Chatterjee LM, Carlson JJ. The
effect of a garlic preparation on plasma lipid levels in
moderately hypercholesterolemic adults. Atherosclerosis
2001; 154: 213–20 37. Ackermann RT, Mulrow CD, Ramirez G,
et al. Garlic shows promise for improving some
cardiovascular risk factors. Arch Intern Med 2001; 161:
813–24 38. Berthold HK, Sudhop T. Garlic preparations for
prevention of atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Lipidol 1998; 9:
565–9 39. Steiner M, Li W. Aged garlic extract, a modulator
of cardiovascular risk factors: a dose-finding study on the
effects of age on platelet functions. J Nutr 2001; 131:
980S–4S 40. Ali M, Thomson M. Consumption of a garlic clove
a day could be beneficial in preventing thrombosis.
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1995; 53: 211–12
41. Srivastava KC, Justesen U. Isolation and effects of
some garlic components on platelet aggregation and
metabolism of arachidonic acid in human blood platelets.
Wien Klin Wochenschr 1989; 101: 293–9 42. Borek C.
Antioxidant health effects of aged garlic extract. J Nutr
2001; 131: 1010S–15S 43. Dillon SA, Lowe GM, Billington D,
Rahman K. Dietary supplementation with aged garlic extract
reduces plasma and urine concentrations of
8-iso-prostaglandin F(2 alpha) in smoking and nonsmoking
men and women. J Nutr 2002; 132: 168–71 44. Lau BH.
Suppression of LDL oxidation by garlic. J Nutr 2001; 131:
985S–8S

45. Koscielny J, Klussendorf D, Latza R, et al. The


antiatherosclerotic effect of Allium sativum.
Atherosclerosis 1999; 144: 237–49

46. German K, Kumar U, Blackford HN. Garlic and the risk of


TURP bleeding. Br J Urol 1995; 76: 518

47. Rose KD, Croissant PD, Parliament CF, Levin MB.


Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma with associated
platelet dysfunction from excessive garlic ingestion: a
case report. Neurosurgery 1990; 26: 880–2

48. Piscitelli SC, Burstein AH, Welden N, et al. The effect


of garlic supplements on the pharmacokinetics of
saquinavir. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 34: 234–8

49. Heber D, Yip I, Ashley JM, et al. Cholesterol-lowering


effects of a proprietary Chinese red-yeast-rice dietary
supplement. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69: 231–6

50. Heber D, Lembertas A, Lu QY, et al. An analysis of nine


proprietary Chinese red yeast rice dietary supplements:
implications of variability in chemical profile and
contents. J Altern Complement Med 2001; 7: 133–9

51. Havel RJ. Dietary supplement or drug? The case of


cholestin. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69: 175–6

52. Wang J, Lu Z, Chi J, et al. Multicenter clinical trial


of the serum lipid-lowering effects of a Monascus purpureus
(red yeast) rice preparation from traditional Chinese
medicine. Curr Ther Res 1997; 58: 964–78

53. Shen Z, Yu P, Sun M, et al. [A prospective study on


Zhitai capsule in the treatment of primary hyperlipidemia]
(translation). Nat Med J China 1996; 76: 156–7

54. Wei J, Yang H, Zhang C, et al. A comparative study of


xuezhikang and mevalotin in treatment of essential
hyperlipidemia. Chinese J New Drugs 1997; 6: 265–8

55. Satyavati GV. Gum guggul (Commiphora mukul) – the


success story of an ancient insight leading to a modern
discovery. Indian J Med Res 1988; 87: 327–35

56. Sheela CG, Augusti KT. Antiperoxide effects of S-allyl


cysteine sulphoxide isolated from Allium sativum Linn and
gugulipid in cholesterol diet fed rats. Indian J Exp Biol
1995; 33: 337–41

57. Tripathi YB, Malhotra OP, Tripathi SN. Thyroid


stimulating action of Z-guggulsterone obtained from
Commiphora mukul. Planta Med 1984; 1: 78–80

58. Urizar NL, Liverman AB, Dodds DT, et al. A natural


product that lowers cholesterol as an antagonist ligand for
the FXR. Science 2002; 269: 1703–6

59. Agarwal RC, Singh SP, Saran RK, et al. Clinical trial
of gugulipid – a new hypolipidemic agent of plant origin in
primary hyperlipidemia. Indian J Med Res 1986; 84: 626–34

60. Gopal K, Saran RK, Nityanand S, et al. Clinical trial


of ethyl acetate extract of gum gugulu (gugulipid) in
primary hyperlipidemia. J Assoc Physicians India 1986; 34:
249–51

61. Nityanand S, Kapoor NK. Hypocholesterolemic effect of


Commiphora mukul resin (guggal). Indian J Exp Biol 1971; 9:
376–7

62. Singh RB, Niaz MA, Ghosh S. Hypolipidemic and


antioxidant effects of Commiphora mukul as an adjunct to
dietary therapy in patients with hypercholesterolemia.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 1994; 8: 659–64

63. Szapary PO, Wolfe ML, Bloedon LT, et al. Guggulipid for
the treatment of hypercholesterolemia: a randomized
controlled trail. J Am Med Assoc 2003; 290: 765–72

64. Das Gupta R. A new hypolipidaemic agent (gugulipid). J


Assoc Physicians India 1990; 38: 186 65. Das Gupta RD.
Gugulipid: pro-lipaemic effect. J Assoc Physicians India
1990; 38: 598 66. Dalvi SS, Nayak VK, Pohujani SM, et al.
Effect of gugulipid on bioavailability of diltiazem and
propranolol. J Assoc Physicians India 1994; 42: 454–5 67.
Gouni-Berthold I, Berthold HK. Policosanol: clinical
pharmacology and therapeutic significance of a new
lipid-lowering agent. Am Heart J 2002; 143: 356–65 68.
Menendez R, Fernandez SI, Del Rio A, et al. Policosanol
inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis and enhances low density
lipoprotein processing in cultured human fibroblasts. Biol
Res 1994; 27: 199–203 69. Menendez R, Amor AM, Gonzalez RM,
et al. Effect of policosanol on the hepatic cholesterol
biosynthesis of normocholesterolemic rats. Biol Res 1996;
29: 253–7 70. Crespo N, Illnait J, Mas R, et al.
Comparative study of the efficacy and tolerability of
policosanol and lovastatin in patients with
hypercholesterolemia and noninsulin dependent diabetes
mellitus. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1999; 19: 117–27 71.
Ortensi G, Gladstein J, Valli H, Tesone PA. A comparative
study of policosanol versus simvastatin in elderly patients
with hypercholesterolemia. Curr Ther Res 1997; 58: 390–401
72. Benitez M, Romero C, Mas R, et al. A comparative study
of policosanol versus pravastatin in patients with type II
hypercholesterolemia. Curr Ther Res 1997; 58: 859–67 73.
Marcello S, Gladstein J, Tesone P, Mas R. Effects of
bezafibrate plus policosanol or placebo in patients with
combined dyslipidemia: a pilot study. Curr Ther Res 2000;
61: 346–57 74. Alcocer L, Fernandez L, Campos E, Mas R. A
comparative study of policosanol versus acipimox in
patients with type II hypercholesterolemia. Int J Tiss
React 1999; 21: 85–92 75. Torres O, Agramonte AJ, Illnait
J, et al. Treatment of hypercholesterolemia in NIDDM with
policosanol. Diabetes Care 1995; 18: 393–7 76. Castano G,
Mas R, Fernandez JC, et al. Effects of policosanol in older
patients with type II hypercholesterolemia and high
coronary risk. J Gerontol Series A, Biol Sci Med Sci 2001;
56: M186–92 77. Batista J, Stusser R, Saez F, Perez B.
Effect of policosanol on hyperlipidemia and coronary heart
disease in middle-aged patients. A 14-month pilot study.
Int J Clin Pharm Ther 1996; 34: 134–7 78. Castano G, Mas R,
Fernandez JC, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of
policosanol compared with lovastatin in patients with type
II hypercholesterolemia and concomitant coronary risk
factors. Curr Ther Res 2000; 61: 137–46 79. Arruzazabala
ML, Carbajal D, Mas R, et al. Effects of policosanol on
platelet aggregation in rats. Thromb Res 1993; 69: 321–7
80. Valdes S, Arruzazabala ML, Fernandez L, et al. Effect
of policosanol on platelet aggregation in healthy
volunteers. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1996; 16: 67–72 81.
Arruzazabala ML, Mas R, Molina V, et al. Effect of
policosanol on platelet aggregation in type II
hypercholesterolemic patients. Int J Tiss React 1998; 20:
119–24 82. Arruzazabala ML, Valdes S, Mas R, et al.
Comparative study of policosanol, aspirin and the
combination therapy policosanol–aspirin on platelet
aggregation in healthy volunteers. Pharmacol Res 1997; 36:
293–7 83. Pons P, Rodriguez M, Robaina C, et al. Effects of
successive dose increases of policosanol on the lipid
profile of patients with type II hypercholesterolaemia and
tolerability to treatment. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1994;
14: 27–33

84. Smiley T, Oh P, Shane LG. The relationship of insulin


resistance measured by reliable indexes to coronary artery
disease risk factors and outcomes – a systematic review.
Can J Cardiol 2001; 17: 797–805

85. Assmann G, Schulte H, von Eckardstein A, Huang Y.


Highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol as a predictor of
coronary heart disease risk. The PROCAM experience and
pathophysiological implications for reverse cholesterol
transport. Atherosclerosis 1996; 124 (Suppl): S11–20

86. Boden WE. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol as an


independent risk factor in cardiovascular disease:
assessing the data from Framingham to the Veterans Affairs
High-Density Lipoprotein Intervention Trial. Am J Cardiol
2000; 86: 19L–22L
87. Rubins HB, Robins SJ, Collins D, et al. Gemfibrozil for
the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in men
with low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Veterans Affairs High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol
Intervention Trial Study Group. N Engl J Med 1999; 341:
410–18

88. Szapary PO, Rader DJ. Pharmacological management of


high triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein
cholesterol. Curr Opin Pharmacol 2001; 1: 113–20

89. Nestel PJ. Fish oil and cardiovascular disease: lipids


and arterial function. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71 (1 Suppl):
228S–31S

90. Harris WS. N-3 fatty acids and serum lipoproteins:


human studies. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 65 (5 Suppl): 1645S–54S

91. Anon. Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated


fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction:
results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Gruppo Italiano per
lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell’Infarto miocardico.
Lancet 1999; 354: 447–55

92. Appel LJ, Miller ER III, Seidler AJ, Whelton PK. Does
supplementation of diet with ‘fish oil’ reduce blood
pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials.
Arch Intern Med 1993; 153: 1429–38

93. Mori TA, Beilin LJ, Burke V, et al. Interactions


between dietary fat, fish, and fish oils and their effects
on platelet function in men at risk of cardiovascular
disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997; 17: 279–86 94.
Mori TA, Dunstan DW, Burke V, et al. Effect of dietary fish
and exercise training on urinary F2-isoprostane excretion
in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Metabolism
1999; 48: 1402–8 95. O’Keefe JH Jr, Harris WS. From Inuit
to implementation: omega-3 fatty acids come of age. Mayo
Clin Proc 2000; 75: 607–14 96. Lewis C. Letter regarding
dietary supplement health claim for omega-3 fatty acids and
coronary heart disease. 91N-0103, 1-34. 10-31-2000.
Rockville, MD: Office of Nutritional Products, Labeling and
Dietary Supplements; Center for Food Safety and Applied
Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, 2000 97. Head KA.
Inositol hexaniacinate: a safer alternative to niacin.
Altern Med Rev 1996; 1: 176–84 98. Anon. Inositol
hexaniacinate. Altern Med Rev 1998; 3: 222–3 99. Nityanand
S, Srivastava JS, Asthana OP. Clinical trials with
gugulipid. A new hypolipidaemic agent. J Assoc Physicians
India 1989; 37: 323–8 100. Verma SK, Bordia A. Effect of
Commiphora mukul (gum guggulu) in patients of
hyperlipidemia with special reference to HDL-cholesterol.
Indian J Med Res 1988; 87: 356–60 101. Brown GA, Vukovich
MD, Martini ER, et al. Endocrine responses to chronic
androstenedione intake in 30- to 56-yearold men. J Clin
Endocrinol Metab 2000; 85: 4074–80 102. Brown GA, Vukovich
MD, Martini ER, et al. Endocrine and lipid responses to
chronic androstenediol–herbal supplementation in 30- to
58-year-old men. J Am Coll Nutr 2001; 20: 520–8 103.
Barnhart KT, Freeman E, Grisso JA, et al. The effect of
dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation to symptomatic
perimenopausal women on serum endocrine profiles, lipid
parameters, and health-related quality of life. J Clin
Endocrinol Metab 1999; 84: 3896–902 104. Cheung MC, Zhao
XQ, Chait A, et al. Antioxidant supplements block the
response of HDL to simvastatin–niacin therapy in patients
with coronary artery disease and low HDL. Arterioscler
Thromb Vasc Biol 2001; 21: 1320–6 105. Gould AL, Rossouw
JE, Santanello NC, et al. Cholesterol reduction yields
clinical benefit: impact of statin trials. Circulation
1998; 97: 946–52
Herbal antioxidants: potential and 36
pitfalls

1. Kaye AD, Clarke RC, Sabar R, et al. Herbal medicines:


current trends in anesthesiology practice – a hospital
survey. J Clin Anesth 2000; 12: 468–71

2. Ang-Lee MK, Moss J, Yuan CS. Herbal medicines and


perioperative care. J Am Med Assoc 2001; 286: 208–16

3. Valli G, Giardina EG. Benefits, adverse effects and drug


interactions of herbal therapies with cardiovascular
effects. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002; 39: 1083–95

4. Hertog MG, Feskens EJ, Hollman PC, et al. Dietary


antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease:
the Zutphen Elderly Study. Lancet 1993; 342: 1007–11

5. Gillman MW, Cupples LA, Gagnon D, et al. Protective


effect of fruits and vegetables on development of stroke in
men. J Am Med Assoc 1995; 273: 1113–17

6. Key TJ, Thorogood M, Appleby PN, Burr ML. Dietary habits


and mortality in 11000 vegetarians and health conscious
people: results of a 17 year follow up. Br Med J 1996; 313:
775–9

7. Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, et al. Frequent nut


consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in women:
prospective cohort study. Br Med J 1998; 317: 1341–5

8. Strandhagen E, Hansson PO, Bosaeus I, et al. High fruit


intake may reduce mortality among middle-aged and elderly
men. The Study of Men Born in 1913. Eur J Clin Nutr 2000;
54: 337–41

9. Bazzano LA, He J, Ogden LG, et al. Legume consumption


and risk of coronary heart disease in US men and women:
NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. Arch Intern Med
2001; 161: 2573–8

10. Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A, et al. Vitamin E


consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease in men.
N Engl J Med 1993; 328: 1450–6

11. Stampfer MJ, Hennekens CH, Manson JE, et al. Vitamin E


consumption and the risk of coronary disease in women. N
Engl J Med 1993; 328: 1444–9

12. Rapola JM, Virtamo J, Haukka JK, et al. Effect of


vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of angina
pectoris. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. J
Am Med Assoc 1996; 275: 693–8

13. Miller ER, Postor-Barriuso R, Dalal D, et al.


Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E supplementation may
increase all-cause mortality. Ann Intern Med 2005; 142:
37–46

14. Yusuf S, Dagenais G, Pogue J, et al. Vitamin E


supplementation and cardiovascular events in high-risk
patients. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study
Investigators. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 154–60

15. Stephens NG, Parsons A, Schofield PM, et al. Randomised


controlled trial of vitamin E in patients with coronary
disease: Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study (CHAOS). Lancet
1996; 347: 781–6 16. Vile GF, Winterbourn CC. Inhibition of
adriamycin-promoted microsomal lipid peroxidation by
beta-carotene, alphatocopherol and retinol at high and low
oxygen partial pressures. FEBS Lett 1988; 238: 353–6 17.
Jialal I, Norkus EP, Cristol L, Grundy SM. beta-Carotene
inhibits the oxidative modification of low-density
lipoprotein. Biochim Biophys Acta 1991; 1086: 134–8 18.
Morris DL, Kritchevsky SB, Davis CE. Serum carotenoids and
coronary heart disease. The Lipid Research Clinics Coronary
Primary Prevention Trial and Follow-up Study. J Am Med
Assoc 1994; 272: 1439–41 19. Kushi LH, Folsom AR, Prineas
RJ, et al. Dietary antioxidant vitamins and death from
coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. N Engl J
Med 1996; 334: 1156–62 20. Evans RW, Shaten BJ, Day BW,
Kuller LH. Prospective association between lipid soluble
antioxidants and coronary heart disease in men. The
Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Am J Epidemiol
1998; 147: 180–6 21. Blot WJ, Li JY, Taylor PR, et al.
Nutrition intervention trials in Linxian, China:
supplementation with specific vitamin/ mineral
combinations, cancer incidence, and disease-specific
mortality in the general population. J Natl Cancer Inst
1993; 85: 1483–92 22. Greenberg ER, Baron JA, Karagas MR,
et al. Mortality associated with low plasma concentration
of beta carotene and the effect of oral supplementation. J
Am Med Assoc 1996; 275: 699–703 23. Hennekens CH, Buring
JE, Manson JE, et al. Lack of effect of long-term
supplementation with beta carotene on the incidence of
malignant neoplasms and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J
Med 1996; 334: 1145–9 24. Omenn GS, Goodman GE, Thornquist
MD, et al. Effects of a combination of beta carotene and
vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. N Engl
J Med 1996; 334: 1150–5 25. Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ,
Paganga G. Structure–antioxidant activity relationships of
flavonoids and phenolic acids. Free Radic Biol Med 1996;
20: 933–56 26. Hesketh T, Zhu WX. Health in China.
Traditional Chinese medicine: one country, two systems. Br
Med J 1997; 315: 115–17 27. Lei XL, Chiou GC.
Cardiovascular pharmacology of Panax notoginseng (Burk)
F.H. Chen and Salvia miltiorrhiza. Am J Chin Med 1986; 14:
145–52 28. Niu XL, Ichimori K, Yang X, et al. Tanshinone
II-A inhibits low density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro.
Free Radic Res 2000; 33: 305–12 29. Zhao BL, Jiang W, Zhao
Y, et al. Scavenging effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza on free
radicals and its protection for myocardial mitochondrial
membranes from ischemia-reperfusion injury. Biochem Mol
Biol Int 1996; 38: 1171–82

30. Ng TB, Liu F, Wang ZT. Antioxidative activity of


natural products from plants. Life Sci 2000; 66: 709–23

31. Yu CM, Chan JC, Sanderson JE. Chinese herbs and


warfarin potentiation by ‘danshen’. J Intern Med 1997; 241:
337–9

32. Orekhov AN, Grunwald J. Effects of garlic on


atherosclerosis. Nutrition 1997; 13: 656–63

33. Kiesewetter H, Jung F, Jung EM, et al. Effects of


garlic coated tablets in peripheral arterial occlusive
disease. Clin Invest 1993; 71: 383–6

34. Koscielny J, Klussendorf D, Latza R, et al. The


antiatherosclerotic effect of Allium sativum.
Atherosclerosis 1999; 144: 237–49

35. Janssens D, Remacle J, Drieu K, Michiels C. Protection


of mitochondrial respiration activity by bilobalide.
Biochem Pharmacol 1999; 58: 109–19

36. Liebgott T, Miollan M, Berchadsky Y, et al.


Complementary cardioprotective effects of flavonoid
metabolites and terpenoid constituents of Ginkgo biloba
extract (EGb 761) during ischemia and reperfusion. Basic
Res Cardiol 2000; 95: 368–77

37. Zhou LJ, Zhu XZ. Reactive oxygen species-induced


apoptosis in PC12 cells and protective effect of
bilobalide. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2000; 293: 982–8

38. Pietri S, Seguin JR, d’Arbigny P, et al. Ginkgo biloba


extract (EGb 761) pretreatment limits free radical-induced
oxidative stress in patients undergoing coronary bypass
surgery. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 1997; 11: 121–31

39. Lim JH, Wen TC, Matsuda S, et al. Protection of


ischemic hippocampal neurons by ginsenoside Rb1, a main
ingredient of ginseng root. Neurosci Res 1997; 28: 191–200

40. Li T, Mazza, G, Cottrell, AC, Gao, L. Ginsenosides in


root and leaves of American Ginseng. J Agric Food Chem
1996; 44: 717–20

41. Wang X, Sakuma T, Asafu-Adjaye E, Shiu GK.


Determination of ginsenosides in plant extracts from Panax
ginseng and Panax quinquefolius L. by LC/MS/MS. Anal Chem
1999; 71: 1579–84

42. Harkey MR, Henderson GL, Gershwin ME, et al.


Variability in commercial ginseng products: an analysis of
25 preparations. Am J Clin Nutr 2001; 73: 1101–6

43. Li W, Gu C, Zhang H, et al. Use of high-performance


liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to
distinguish Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (Asian ginseng) and
Panax quinquefolius L. (North American ginseng). Anal Chem
2000; 72: 5417–22

44. Chan TW, But PP, Cheng SW, et al. Differentiation and
authentication of Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, and
ginseng products by using HPLC/MS. Anal Chem 2000; 72:
1281–7

45. Li W, Fitzloff JF. Determination of


24(R)-pseudoginsenoside F(11) in North American ginseng
using high performance liquid chromatography with
evaporative light scattering detection. J Pharm Biomed Anal
2001; 25: 257–65

46. Smith RG, Caswell D, Carriere A, Zielke B. Variation in


the ginsenoside content of American Ginseng, Panax
quinquefolius L., roots. Can J Bot 1996; 74: 1616–20

47. Attele AS, Wu JA, Yuan CS. Ginseng pharmacology:


multiple constituents and multiple actions. Biochem
Pharmacol 1999; 58: 1685–93 48. Li JP, Lu ZZ, Lu YF.
Lipoprotein-cholesterol metabolism and antioxidative
effects of Panax quinquefolius saponins on experimental
hyperlipidemic rat. Chung Kuo Yao Hsue Tsa Chi 1993; 28:
355–7 49. Li J, Huang M, Teoh H, Man RY. Panax
quinquefolium saponins protects low density lipoproteins
from oxidation. Life Sci 1999; 64: 53–62 50. Li JP, Huang
M, Teoh H, Man RY. Interactions between Panax quinquefolium
saponins and vitamin C are observed in vitro. Mol Cell
Biochem 2000; 204: 77–82 51. Yang SJ, Qu JB, Zhang GG,
Zhang WJ. Protective effects of Panax quinquefolius
saponins on oxidative damage of cultured rat cardiac cells.
Chung Kuo Yao Hsue Tsa Chi 1992; 17: 555–7 52. Dou DQ,
Zhang YW, Zhang L, et al. The inhibitory effects of
ginsenosides on protein tyrosine kinase activated by
hypoxia/reoxygenation in cultured human umbilical vein
endothelial cells. Planta Med 2001; 67: 19–23 53. Kitts DD,
Wijewickreme AN, Hu C. Antioxidant properties of a North
American ginseng extract. Mol Cell Biochem 2000; 203: 1–10
54. Zhan Y, Xu XH, Jiang YP. Protective effects of
ginsenoside on myocardiac ischemic and reperfusion
injuries. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 1994; 74: 626–8, 648 55.
Nasa Y, Hashizume H, Hoque AN, Abiko Y. Protective effect
of crataegus extract on the cardiac mechanical dysfunction
in isolated perfused working rat heart.
Arzneimittelforschung 1993; 43: 945–9 56. Sorescu D,
Griendling KK. Reactive oxygen species, mitochondria, and
NAD(P)H oxidases in the development and progression of
heart failure. Congest Heart Fail 2002; 8: 132–40 57.
Leuchtgens H. Crataegus Special Extract WS 1442 in NYHA II
heart failure. A placebo controlled randomized double-blind
study. Fortschr Med 1993; 111: 352–4 58. Tauchert M, Gildor
A, Lipinski J. High-dose Crataegus extract WS 1442 in the
treatment of NYHA stage II heart failure. Herz 1999; 24:
465–74; discussion 475 59. Holubarsch CJ, Colucci WS,
Meinertz T, et al. Survival and prognosis: investigation of
Crataegus extract WS 1442 in congestive heart failure
(SPICE) – rationale, study design and study protocol. Eur J
Heart Fail 2000; 2: 431–7 60. Kimura Y, Okuda H, Tani T,
Arichi S. Studies on Scutellariae radix. VI. Effects of
flavanone compounds on lipid peroxidation in rat liver.
Chem Pharm Bull 1982; 30: 1792–5 61. Hamada H, Hiramatsu M,
Edamatsu R, Mori A. Free radical scavenging action of
baicalein. Arch Biochem Biophys 1993; 306: 261–6 62. Gao Z,
Huang K, Yang X, Xu H. Free radical scavenging and
antioxidant activities of flavonoids extracted from the
radix of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Biochim Biophys
Acta 1999; 1472: 643–50 63. Gao Z, Huang K, Xu H.
Protective effects of flavonoids in the roots of
Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi against hydrogen
peroxide-induced oxidative stress in HS-SY5Y cells.
Pharmacol Res 2001; 43: 173–8 64. Kimuya Y, Kubo M, Tani T,
et al. Studies on Scutellariae radix. IV. Effects on lipid
peroxidation in rat liver. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1981;
29: 2610–17 65. Gao D, Sakurai K, Chen J, Ogiso T.
Protection by baicalein against ascorbic acid-induced lipid
peroxidation of rat liver microsomes. Res Commun Mol Pathol
Pharmacol 1995; 90: 103–14
66. Gabrielska J, Oszmianski J, Zylka R, Komorowska M.
Antioxidant activity of flavones from Scutellaria
baicalensis in lecithin liposomes. Z Naturforsch [C] 1997;
52: 817–23

67. Gao D, Tawa R, Masaki H, et al. Protective effects of


baicalein against cell damage by reactive oxygen species.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1998; 46: 1383–7

68. Kim HM, Moon EJ, Li E, et al. The nitric


oxide-producing activities of Scutellaria baicalensis.
Toxicology 1999; 135: 109–15

69. Park HJ, Lee YW, Park HH, et al. Induction of quinone
reductase by a methanol extract of Scutellaria baicalensis
and its flavonoids in murine Hepa 1c1c7 cells. Eur J Cancer
Prev 1998; 7: 465–71

70. Choi J, Conrad CC, Malakowsky CA, et al. Flavones from


Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi attenuate apoptosis and
protein oxidation in neuronal cell lines. Biochim Biophys
Acta 2002; 1571: 201–10

71. Shieh DE, Liu LT, Lin CC. Antioxidant and free radical
scavenging effects of baicalein, baicalin and wogonin.
Anticancer Res 2000; 20: 2861–5

72. Hanasaki Y, Ogawa S, Fukui S. The correlation between


active oxygens scavenging and antioxidative effects of
flavonoids. Free Radic Biol Med 1994; 16: 845–50

73. Hodnick WF, Duval DL, Pardini RS. Inhibition of


mitochondrial respiration and cyanide-stimulated generation
of reactive oxygen species by selected flavonoids. Biochem
Pharm 1994; 47: 573–80

74. Shao ZH, Li CQ, Vanden Hoek TL, et al. Extract from
Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi attenuates oxidant stress in
cardiomyocytes. J Mol Cell Cardiol 1999; 31: 1885–95

75. Shao ZH, Vanden Hoek TL, Qin Y, et al. Baicalein


attenuates oxidant stress in cardiomyocytes. Am J Physiol
Heart Circ Physiol 2002; 282: H999–H1006

76. Galati G, Sabzevari O, Wilson JX, O’Brien PJ.


Prooxidant activity and cellular effects of the phenoxyl
radicals of dietary flavonoids and other polyphenolics.
Toxicology 2002; 177: 91–104
77. Sakihama Y, Cohen MF, Grace SC, Yamasaki H. Plant
phenolic antioxidant and prooxidant activities:
phenolics-induced oxidative damage mediated by metals in
plants. Toxicology 2002; 177: 67–80

78. Shao ZH, Vanden Hoek TL, Xie JT, et al. Grape seed
proanthocyanidins induce pro-oxidant toxicity in
cardiomyocytes. Cardiovasc Toxicol 2003; 03: 331–9

79. Murry CE, Jennings RB, Reimer KA. Preconditioning with


ischemia: a delay of lethal cell injury in ischemic
myocardium. Circulation 1986; 74: 1124–36

80. Li GC, Vasquez BS, Gallagher KP, Lucchesi BR.


Myocardial protection with preconditioning. Circulation
1990; 82: 609–19

81. Schott RJ, Rohmann S, Braun ER, Schaper W. Ischemic


preconditioning reduces infarct size in swine myocardium.
Circ Res 1990; 66: 1133–42

82. Cohen MV, Liu GS, Downey JM. Preconditioning causes


improved wall motion as well as smaller infarcts after
transient coronary occlusion in rabbits. Circulation 1991;
84: 341–9

83. Asimakis GK, Inners-McBride K, Medellin G, Conti VR.


Ischemic preconditioning attenuates acidosis in isolated
rat heart. Am J Physiol 1992; 263: H887–94 84. Lawson CS,
Downey JM. Preconditioning: state of the art myocardial
protection. Cardiovasc Res 1993; 27: 542–50 85. Baxter GF,
Yellon DM. Ischemic preconditioning of the myocardium: a
new paradigm for clinical cardioprotection. Br J Clin
Pharmacol 1994; 38: 381–7 86. Jenkins DP, Pugsley WB,
Yellon DM. Ischaemic preconditioning in a model of global
ischaemia: infarct size limitation, but no reduction of
stunning. J Mol Cell Cardiol 1995; 27: 1623–32 87. Murry
CE, Richard VJ, Jennings RB, Reimer KA. Preconditioning
with ischemia: is the protective effect meditated by free
radical induced myocardial stunning? Circulation 1988; 78
(Suppl II): 77 88. Vanden Hoek TL, Becker LB, Shao Z, et
al. Reactive oxygen species released from mitochondria
during brief hypoxia induce preconditioning in
cardiomyocytes. J Biol Chem 1998; 273: 18092–8 89. Becker
LB, Ostrander MP, Barrett J, Kondos GT. CPR Chicago:
outcome of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a large
metropolitan area – where are the survivors? Ann Emerg Med
1991; 20: 355–61 90. Becker LB, Han BH, Meyer PM, et al.
CPR Chicago: racial differences in the incidence of cardiac
arrest and subsequent survival. N Engl J Med 1993; 329:
600–6 91. Weil MH, Becker LB, Budinger T, et al. Workshop
executive summary report: post-resuscitative and initial
utility in life saving efforts (PULSE). Circulation 2001;
103: 1182–4 92. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute.
Morbidity and Mortality: Chartbook on Cardiovascular, Lung,
and Blood Diseases. Bethesda, MD: US Department of Health
and Human Services, Public Health Service. National
Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, 1992 93. Zak R,
Rabinowitz M. Metabolism of the ischemic heart. Med Clin N
Am 1973; 57: 93–103 94. Hearse DJ. Stunning: a radical
re-review. Cardiovasc Drug Ther 1991; 5: 853–67 95. Das DK.
Cellular biochemical and molecular aspects of reperfusion
injury. Ann NY Acad Sci 1994; 723: 116–27 96. Zweier JL,
Flaherty JT, Weisfeldt ML. Direct measurement of free
radical generation following reperfusion of ischemic
myocardium. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1987; 84: 1404–7 97.
Opie LH. Reperfusion injury and its pharmacologic
modification. Circulation 1989; 80: 1049–62 98. Vanden Hoek
TL, Shao Z, Li C, et al. Reperfusion injury in cardiac
myocytes after simulated ischemia. Am J Phys 1996; 270:
H1334–41 99. Vanden Hoek TL, Becker LB, Shao Z, et al.
Preconditioning in cardiomyocytes protects by attenuating
oxidant stress at reperfusion. Circ Res 2000; 86: 534–40
100. Das DK, Engelman RM, Maulik N. Oxygen free radical
signaling in ischemic preconditioning. Ann NY Acad Sci
1999; 874: 49–65 101. Maulik N, Yoshida T, Das DK.
Regulation of cardiomyocyte apoptosis in ischemic
reperfused mouse heart by glutathione peroxidase. Mol Cell
Biochem 2000; 196: 13–21 102. Ricardo da Silva JM, Darmon
M, Fernandez Y, Mitjavila S. Oxygen free radical scavenger
capacity in aqueous models of different procyanidins from
grape seeds. J Agric Food Chem 1991; 39: 549–52 103. Rimm
EB, Giovannucci EL, Willett WC, et al. Prospective study of
alcohol consumption and risk of coronary disease in men.
Lancet 1991; 338: 464–8

104. Renaud S, de Lorgeril M. Wine, alcohol, platelets, and


the French paradox for coronary heart disease. Lancet 1992;
339: 1523–6

105. Bagchi D, Bagchi M, Stohs SJ, et al. Free radicals and


grape seed proanthocyanidin extract: importance in human
health and disease prevention. Toxicology 2000; 148: 187–97

106. Bagchi M, Kuszynski CA, Balmoori J, et al. Protective


effects of antioxidants against smokeless tobacco-induced
oxidative stress and modulation of Bcl-2 and p53 genes in
human oral keratinocytes. Free Radic Res 2001; 35: 181–94

107. Bagchi D, Garg A, Krohn RL, et al. Protective effects


of grape seed proanthocyanidins and selected antioxidants
against TPAinduced hepatic and brain lipid peroxidation and
DNA fragmentation, and peritoneal macrophage activation in
mice. Gen Pharmacol 1998; 30: 771–6

108. Roychowdhury S, Wolf G, Keilhoff G, et al. Protection


of primary glial cells by grape seed proanthocyanidin
extract against nitrosative/oxidative stress. Nitric Oxide
2001; 5: 137–49

109. Facino RM, Carini M, Aldini G, et al. Procyanidins


from vitis vinifera seeds protect rabbit heart from
ischemia/reperfusion injury: antioxidant intervention and/
or iron and copper sequestering activity. Planta Med 1996;
62: 495–502

110. Sato M, Maulik G, Ray PS, et al. Cardioprotective


effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin against ischemic
reperfusion injury. J Mol Cell Cardiol 1999; 31: 1289–97

111. Sato M, Bagchi D, Tosaki A, Das DK. Grape seed


proanthocyanidin reduces cardiomyocyte apoptosis by
inhibiting ischemia/reperfusion-induced activation of JNK-1
and CJUN. Free Radic Biol Med 2001; 31: 729–37

112. Pataki T, Bak I, Kovacs P, et al. Grape seed


proanthocyanidins improved cardiac recovery during
reperfusion after ischemia in isolated rat hearts. Am J
Clin Nutr 2002; 75: 894–9

113. Yamakoshi J, Kataoka S, Koga T, Ariga T.


Proanthocyanidinrich extract from grape seeds attenuates
the development of aortic atherosclerosis in
cholesterol-fed rabbits. Atherosclerosis 1999; 142: 139–49
114. Facino RM, Carini M, Aldini G, et al. Diet enriched
with procyanidins enhances antioxidant activity and reduces
myocardial post-ischaemic damage in rats. Life Sci 1999;
64: 627–42 115. Constant J. Alcohol, ischemic heart
disease, and the French paradox. Coron Artery Dis 1997; 8:
645–59 116. Giovannini L, Migliori M, Longoni BM, et al.
Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in wine, reduces ischemia
reperfusion injury in rat kidney. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol
2001; 37: 262–70 117. Ray PS, Maulik G, Cordis GA, et al.
The red wine antioxidant resveratrol protects isolated rat
hearts from ischemic reperfusion injury. Free Biol Med
1999; 27: 160–9 118. Hung LM, Chen JK, Huang SS, et al.
Cardioprotective effect of resveratrol, a natural
antioxidant derived from grape. Cardiovasc Res 2000; 47:
549–55 119. Hung LM, Su MJ, Chen JK. Resveratrol protects
myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury through NO-dependent
and NOindependent mechanisms. Free Radic Biol Med 2004; 36:
774–81 120. Das S, Alagappan VKT, Bagchi D, et al.
Coordinated induction of iNOS-VEGF-KDR-eNOS after
resveratrol consumption A potential mechanism for
resveratrol preconditioning of the heart. Vasc Pharmacol
2005; 42: 281–9 121. Hattori R, Otani H, Maulik N, Das DK.
Pharmacological preconditioning with resveratrol: role of
nitric oxide. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2002; 282:
H1988–95 122. Das S, Cordis GA, Maulik N, Das DK.
Pharmacological preconditioning with resveratrol: role of
CREB-dependent Bcl-2 signaling via adenosine A3 receptor
activation. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2005; 288:
H328–35
Hawthorn 37

40. Baughman KL, Bradley DJ. Hawthorn extract: is it time


to turn over a new leaf? Am J Med 2003; 114: 700–1

41. Holubarsch CJ, Colucci WS, Meinertz T, et al. Survival


and prognosis: investigation of Crataegus extract WS 1442
in congestive heart failure (SPICE) – rationale, study
design and study protocol. Eur J Heart Fail 2000; 2: 431–7

42. Walker AF, Marakis G, Morris AP, Robinson PA. Promising


hypotensive effect of hawthorn extract: a randomized
doubleblind pilot study of mild, essential hypertension.
Phytother Res 2002; 16: 48–54

43. Hanak T, Bruckel MH. Behandlung von leichtern atabilen


Formen der Angina pectoris mit Crataegus novo.
Therapiewoche 1983; 33: 4331–3 44. Weng WL, Zhang WQ, Liu
FZ, et al. Therapeutic effect of Crataegus pinnatifida on
46 cases of angina pectoris – a double blind study. J
Tradit Chin Med 1984; 4: 293–4 45. Schroder D, Hehmke B,
Kloting I, et al. Humoral-mediated anti-islet cytotoxicity
in diabetes-prone BB/OK rats – effect on beta-cell function
and autologous islets. Exp Clin Endocrinol 1990; 95: 22–30
46. Tauchert M, Gildor A, Lipinski J. High-dose Crataegus
extract WS 1442 in the treatment of NYHA stage II heart
failure. Herz 1999; 24: 465–74 47. Tankanow R, Tamer HR,
Streetman DS, et al. Interaction study between digoxin and
a preparation of hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha). J Clin
Pharmacol 2003; 43: 637–42
Asthma 38

1. Gyorik SA, Brutsche MH. Complementary and alternative


medicine for bronchial asthma: is there new evidence? Curr
Opin Pulm Med 2004; 10: 37–43

2. Markham AW, Wilkinson JM. Complementary and alternative


medicines (CAM) in the management of asthma: an examination
of the evidence. J Asthma 2004; 41: 131–9

3. Dennis J. Alexander technique for chronic asthma.


Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; (2): CD000995

4. Buchholz I. Breathing, voice, and movement therapy:


applications to breathing disorders. Biofeedback Self Reg
1994; 19: 141–53

5. Emtner M, Hedin A, Stalenheim G. Asthmatic patients’


views of a comprehensive asthma rehabilitation programme: a
threeyear follow-up. Physiother Res Int 1998; 3: 175–93

6. Gyorik SA, Brutsche MH. Complementary and alternative


medicine for bronchial asthma: is there new evidence?. Curr
Opin Pul Med 2004; 10: 37–43 7. Goyeche JR, Ago Y, Ikemi Y.
Asthma: the yoga perspective. Part I. The somatopsychic
imbalance in asthma: towards a holistic therapy. J Asthma
Res 1980; 17: 111–21 8. Goyeche JR, Abo Y, Ikemi Y. Asthma:
the yoga perspective. Part II. Yoga therapy in the
treatment of asthma. J Asthma 1982; 19: 189–201 9. Khanam
AA, Sachdeva U, Guleria R, Deepak KK. Study of pulmonary
and autonomic functions of asthma patients after yoga
training. Ind J Physiol Pharmacol 1996; 40: 318–24 10.
Nagarathna R, Nagendra HR. Yoga for bronchial asthma: a
controlled study. BMJ (Clin Res Ed) 1985; 291: 1077–9 11.
Nagendra HR, Nagarathna R. An integrated approach of yoga
therapy for bronchial asthma: a 3–54-month prospective
study. J Asthma 1986; 23: 123–37 12. Jain SC, Talukdar B.
Evaluation of yoga therapy programme for patients of
bronchial asthma. Singapore Med J 1993; 34: 306–8

13. Nayak NN, Shankar K. Yoga: a therapeutic approach. Phys


Med Rehab Clin N Am 2004; 15: 783–98

14. Vedanthan PK, Kesavalu LN, Murthy KC, et al. Clinical


study of yoga techniques in university students with
asthma: a controlled study. Allergy Asthma Proc 1998; 19:
3–9

15. Manocha R, Marks GB, Kenchington P, et al. Sahaja yoga


in the management of moderate to severe asthma: a
randomised controlled trial [see comment]. Thorax 2002; 57:
110–15

16. Birkel DA, Edgren L. Hatha yoga: improved vital


capacity of college students. Altern Ther Health Med 2000;
6: 55–63

17. Cooper S, Oborne J, Newton S, et al. Effect of two


breathing exercises (Buteyko and pranayama) in asthma: a
randomised controlled trial [comment]. Thorax 2003; 58:
674–9

18. Scherr MS, Crawford PL. Three-year evaluation of


biofeedback techniques in the treatment of children with
chronic asthma in a summer camp environment. Ann Allergy
1978; 41: 288–92

19. Feldman GM. The effect of biofeedback training on


respiratory resistance of asthmatic children. Psychosom Med
1976; 38: 27–34

20. Kotses H, Glaus KD. Applications of biofeedback to the


treatment of asthma: a critical review. Biofeedback Self
Regul 1981; 6: 573–93

21. Peper E, Tibbetts V. Fifteen-month follow-up with


asthmatics utilizing EMG/incentive inspirometer feedback.
Biofeedback Self Reg 1992; 17: 143–51

22. Lehrer PM, Vaschillo E, Vaschillo B, et al. Biofeedback


treatment for asthma. Chest 2004; 126: 352–61

23. Kotses H, Harver A, Segreto J, et al. Long-term effects


of biofeedback-induced facial relaxation on measures of
asthma severity in children. Biofeedback Self Regul 1991;
16: 1–21

24. Ritz T, Dahme B, Wagner C. Effects of static forehead


and forearm muscle tension on total respiratory resistance
in healthy and asthmatic participants. Psychophysiology
1998; 35: 549–62

25. Mass R, Richter R, Dahme B. Biofeedback-induced


voluntary reduction of respiratory resistance in severe
bronchial asthma. Behav Res Ther 1996; 34: 815–19

26. Lehrer P, Carr RE, Smetankine A, et al. Respiratory


sinus arrhythmia versus neck/trapezius EMG and incentive
inspirometry biofeedback for asthma: a pilot study. App
Psychophysiol Biofeedback 1997; 22: 95–109
27. Erskine-Milliss JM, Cleary PJ. Respiratory resistance
feedback in the treatment of bronchial asthma in adults. J
Psychosom Res 1987; 31: 765–75

28. Ritz T, Dahme B, Roth WT. Behavioral interventions in


asthma: biofeedback techniques. J Psychosom Res 2004; 56:
711–20

29. Weiner P, Azgad Y, Ganam R, Weiner M. Inspiratory


muscle training in patients with bronchial asthma. Chest
1992; 102: 1357–61

30. Weiner P, Magadle R, Beckerman M, Berar-Yanay N. The


relationship among inspiratory muscle strength, the
perception of dyspnea and inhaled beta2-agonist use in
patients with asthma. Can Resp J 2002; 9: 307–12

31. Weiner P, Magadle R, Massarwa F, et al. Influence of


gender and inspiratory muscle training on the perception of
dyspnea in patients with asthma. Chest 2002; 122: 197–201

54. Tashkin DP, Bresler DE, Kroening RJ, et al. Comparison


of real and simulated acupuncture and isoproterenol in
methacholine-induced asthma. Ann Allergy 1977; 39: 379–87

55. Tashkin DP, Kroening RJ, Bresler DE, et al. A


controlled trial of real and simulated acupuncture in the
management of chronic asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1985;
76: 855–64

56. Tandon MK, Soh PF. Comparison of real and placebo


acupuncture in histamine-induced asthma. A double-blind
crossover study. Chest 1989; 96: 102–5

57. Zang J. Immediate antiasthmatic effect of acupuncture


in 192 cases of bronchial asthma. J Tradit Chin Med 1990;
10: 89–93

58. Kleijnen J, ter Riet G, Knipschild P. Acupuncture and


asthma: a review of controlled trials. Thorax 1991; 46:
799–802

59. Tandon MK, Soh PF, Wood AT. Acupuncture for bronchial
asthma? A double-blind crossover study [see comment]. Med J
Aust 1991; 154: 409–12

60. Jobst KA. Acupuncture in asthma and pulmonary disease:


an analysis of efficacy and safety. J Altern Comp Med 1996;
2: 179–206; discussion 207–10
61. Jobst KA. A critical analysis of acupuncture in
pulmonary disease: efficacy and safety of the acupuncture
needle [see comment][erratum appears in J Altern Complement
Med 1995; 1: 219]. J Altern Comp Med 1995; 1: 57–85

62. Lai X. Observation on the curative effect of


acupuncture on type I allergic diseases. J Tradit Chin Med
1993; 13: 243–8

63. Hu J. Clinical observation on 25 cases of hormone


dependent bronchial asthma treated by acupuncture. J Tradit
Chin Med 1998; 18: 27–30

64. Morton AR, Fazio SM, Miller D. Efficacy of


laser-acupuncture in the prevention of exercise-induced
asthma. Ann Allergy 1993; 70: 295–8

65. Davis PA, Chang C, Hackman RM, et al. Acupuncture in


the treatment of asthma: a critical review. Allergol
Immunopathol (Madr) 1998; 26: 263–71

66. Gruber W, Eber E, Malle-Scheid D, et al. Laser


acupuncture in children and adolescents with exercise
induced asthma. Thorax 2002; 57: 222–5

67. Malmstrom M, Ahlner J, Carlsson C, Schmekel B. No


effect of Chinese acupuncture on isocapnic hyperventilation
with cold air in asthmatics, measured with impulse
oscillometry. Acu Med 2002; 20: 66–73

68. Medici TC, Grebski E, Wu J, et al. Acupuncture and


bronchial asthma: a long-term randomized study of the
effects of real versus sham acupuncture compared to
controls in patients with bronchial asthma. J Altern Comp
Med 2002; 8: 737–50; discussion 751–4

69. Shapira MY, Berkman N, Ben-David G, et al. Short-term


acupuncture therapy is of no benefit in patients with
moderate persistent asthma [see comment]. Chest 2002; 121:
1396–400

70. Maa SH, Sun MF, Hsu KH, et al. Effect of acupuncture or
acupressure on quality of life of patients with chronic
obstructive asthma: a pilot study. J Altern Comp Med 2003;
9: 659–70

71. Joos S, Schott C, Zou H, et al. Immunomodulatory


effects of acupuncture in the treatment of allergic asthma:
a randomized controlled study. J Altern Comp Med 2000; 6:
519–25

72. Ogata M, Kitamura O, Kubo S, Nakasono I. An asthmatic


death while under Chinese acupuncture and moxibustion
treatment. Am J Forens Med Pathol 1992; 13: 338–41

73. Bodner G, Topilsky M, Greif J. Pneumothorax as a


complication of acupuncture in the treatment of bronchial
asthma. Ann Allergy 1983; 51: 401–3 74. Madsen H, Andersen
S, Nielsen RG, et al. Use of complementary/alternative
medicine among paediatric patients. Eur J Pediatr 2003;
162: 334–41 75. Ng TP, Wong ML, Hong CY, et al. The use of
complementary and alternative medicine by asthma patients.
QJM 2003; 96: 747–54 76. Schafer T, Riehle A, Wichmann HE,
Ring J. Alternative medicine in allergies – prevalence,
patterns of use, and costs. Allergy 2002; 57: 694–700 77.
McCarney RW, Brinkhaus B, Lasserson TJ, Linde K.
Acupuncture for chronic asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev
2004; CD000008 78. Orhan F, Sekerel BE, Kocabas CN, et al.
Complementary and alternative medicine in children with
asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2003; 90: 611–15 79.
Lanski SL, Greenwald M, Perkins A, Simon HK. Herbal therapy
use in a pediatric emergency department population: expect
the unexpected. Pediatrics 2003; 111: 981–5 80. Elliott HL,
Reid JL. The clinical pharmacology of a herbal asthma
cigarette. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1980; 10: 487–90 81. Patrick
GB. Marijuana and the lung. Postgrad Med 1980; 67: 110–13
82. Urata Y, Yoshida S, Irie Y, et al. Treatment of asthma
patients with herbal medicine TJ-96: a randomized
controlled trial. Resp Med 2002; 96: 469–74 83. Toda S,
Kimura M, Ohnishi M, Nakashima K. Effects of the Chinese
herbal medicine ‘saiboku-to’ on histamine release from and
the degranulation of mouse peritoneal mast cells induced by
compound 48/80. J Ethnopharmacol 1988; 24: 303–9 84. Homma
M, Oka K, Kobayashi H, et al. Impact of free magnolol
excretions in asthmatic patients who responded well to
saiboku-to, a Chinese herbal medicine. J Pharm Pharmacol
1993; 45: 844–6 85. Kobayashi I, Hamasaki Y, Sato R, et al.
Saiboku-To, a herbal extract mixture, selectively inhibits
5-lipoxygenase activity in leukotriene synthesis in rat
basophilic leukemia-1 cells. J Ethnopharmacol 1995; 48:
33–41 86. Niitsuma T, Morita S, Hayashi T, et al. Effects
of absorbed components of saiboku-to on the release of
leukotrienes from polymorphonuclear leukocytes of patients
with bronchial asthma. Meth Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 2001;
23: 99–104 87. Nakajima S, Tohda Y, Ohkawa K, et al. Effect
of saiboku-to (TJ-96) on bronchial asthma. Induction of
glucocorticoid receptor, beta-adrenaline receptor, IgE-Fc
epsilon receptor expression and its effect on experimental
immediate and late asthmatic reaction. Ann NY Acad Sci
1993; 685: 549–60 88. Homma M, Oka K, Niitsuma T, Itoh H: A
novel 11 betahydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitor
contained in saibokuto, a herbal remedy for
steroid-dependent bronchial asthma. J Pharm Pharmacol 1994;
46: 305–9 89. Xie QM, Tang HF, Chen JQ, Bian RL.
Pharmacological actions of tetrandrine in inflammatory
pulmonary diseases. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2002; 23: 1107–13
90. Shen ZY. [Study on allergic and non-allergic mechanisms
in preventing asthma using a kidney-reinforcing regimen.]
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 1989; 9: 82–4, 68 91. Hu GR.
[Assay of beta-adrenergic receptor function and evaluation
of the preventive effects of wen yang pills in asthmatics.]
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 1987; 7: 71–4, 67 92. Shen ZY.
[Study on the prevention of seasonal attacks of bronchial
asthma with wen yang tablets and its mechanism.] Zhong Xi
Yi Jie He Za Zhi 1986; 6: 17–20, 2–3

93. Hosseini S, Pishnamazi S, Sadrzadeh SM, et al.


Pycnogenol((R)) in the management of asthma. J Med Food
2001; 4: 201–9

94. Rohdewald P. A review of the French maritime pine bark


extract (Pycnogenol), a herbal medication with a diverse
clinical pharmacology. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002; 40:
158–68

95. Lau BH, Riesen SK, Truong KP, et al. Pycnogenol as an


adjunct in the management of childhood asthma. J Asthma
2004; 41: 825–32

96. Wong KW. Clinical efficacy of n-3 fatty acid


supplementation in patients with asthma. J Am Diet Assoc
2005; 105: 98–105

97. Nafstad P, Nystad W, Magnus P, Jaakkola JJ. Asthma and


allergic rhinitis at 4 years of age in relation to fish
consumption in infancy. J Asthma 2003; 40: 343–8

98. Surette ME, Koumenis IL, Edens MB, et al. Inhibition of


leukotriene biosynthesis by a novel dietary fatty acid
formulation in patients with atopic asthma: a randomized,
placebocontrolled, parallel-group, prospective trial. Clin
Ther 2003; 25: 972–9

99. Arm JP, Thien FC, Lee TH. Leukotrienes, fish-oil, and
asthma. Allergy Proc 1994; 15: 129–34

100. Stephensen CB. Fish oil and inflammatory disease: is


asthma the next target for n-3 fatty acid supplements? Nutr
Rev 2004; 62: 486–9
101. Mihrshahi S, Peat JK, Webb K, et al. Effect of omega-3
fatty acid concentrations in plasma on symptoms of asthma
at 18 months of age. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2004; 15:
517–22

102. Emelyanov A, Fedoseev G, Krasnoschekova O, et al.


Treatment of asthma with lipid extract of New Zealand
green-lipped mussel: a randomised clinical trial. Eur
Respir J 2002; 20: 596–600

103. Dry J, Vincent D. Effect of a fish oil diet on asthma:


results of a 1-year double-blind study. Int Arch Allergy
Appl Immunol 1991; 95: 156–7

104. Villani F, Comazzi R, De Maria P, Galimberti M. Effect


of dietary supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids
on bronchial hyperreactivity in subjects with seasonal
asthma. Respiration 1998; 65: 265–9

105. Mickleborough TD, Ionescu AA, Rundell KW. Omega-3


fatty acids and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma. J
Altern Complement Med 2004; 10: 1067–75

106. Broughton KS, Johnson CS, Pace BK, et al. Reduced


asthma symptoms with n-3 fatty acid ingestion are related
to 5-series leukotriene production. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;
65: 1011–17

107. Ziboh VA, Naguwa S, Vang K, et al. Suppression of


leukotriene B4 generation by ex-vivo neutrophils isolated
from asthma patients on dietary supplementation with
gammalinolenic acid-containing borage oil: possible
implication in asthma. Clin Dev Immunol 2004; 11: 13–21

108. Peat JK, Mihrshahi S, Kemp AS, et al. Three-year


outcomes of dietary fatty acid modification and house dust
mite reduction in the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study. J
Allergy Clin Immunol 2004; 114: 807–13

109. Morris A, Noakes M, Clifton PM. The role of n-6


polyunsaturated fat in stable asthmatics. J Asthma 2001;
38: 311–19

110. Thien FC, Mencia-Huerta JM, Lee TH. Dietary fish oil
effects on seasonal hay fever and asthma in
pollen-sensitive subjects. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993; 147:
1138–43

111. Stenius-Aarniala B, Aro A, Hakulinen A, et al. Evening


primose oil and fish oil are ineffective as supplementary
treatment of bronchial asthma. Ann Allergy 1989; 62: 534–7
112. Arm JP, Horton CE, Mencia-Huerta JM, et al. Effect of
dietary supplementation with fish oil lipids on mild
asthma. Thorax 1988; 43: 84–92 113. Woods RK, Thien FC,
Abramson MJ. Dietary marine fatty acids (fish oil) for
asthma in adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev
2002; CD001283 114. Okayama H, Aikawa T, Okayama M, et al.
Bronchodilating effect of intravenous magnesium sulfate in
bronchial asthma. J Am Med Assoc 1987; 257: 1076–8 115.
Brunner EH, Delabroise AM, Haddad ZH. Effect of parenteral
magnesium on pulmonary function, plasma cAMP, and histamine
in bronchial asthma. J Asthma 1985; 22: 3–11 116. Ciarallo
L, Sauer AH, Shannon MW. Intravenous magnesium therapy for
moderate to severe pediatric asthma: results of a
randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Pediatr 1996; 129:
809–14 117. Tiffany BR, Berk WA, Todd IK, White SR.
Magnesium bolus or infusion fails to improve expiratory
flow in acute asthma exacerbations. Chest 1993; 104: 831–4
118. McNamara RM, Spivey WH, Skobeloff E, Jacubowitz S.
Intravenous magnesium sulfate in the management of acute
respiratory failure complicating asthma. Ann Emerg Med
1989; 18: 197–9 119. Skobeloff EM, Spivey WH, McNamara RM,
Greenspon L. Intravenous magnesium sulfate for the
treatment of acute asthma in the emergency department. J Am
Med Assoc 1989; 262: 1210–13 120. Kufs WM. Intravenous
magnesium sulfate in acute asthma. J Am Med Assoc 1990;
263: 516–17 121. Noppen M, Vanmaele L, Impens N, Schandevyl
W. Bronchodilating effect of intravenous magnesium sulfate
in acute severe bronchial asthma. Chest 1990; 97: 373–6
122. Gurkan F, Haspolat K, Bosnak M, et al. Intravenous
magnesium sulphate in the management of moderate to severe
acute asthmatic children nonresponding to conventional
therapy. Eur J Emerg Med 1999; 6: 201–5 123. Rowe BH,
Bretzlaff JA, Bourdon C, et al. Intravenous magnesium
sulfate treatment for acute asthma in the emergency
department: a systematic review of the literature. Ann
Emerg Med 2000; 36: 181–90 124. Schenk P, Vonbank K,
Schnack B, et al. Intravenous magnesium sulfate for
bronchial hyperreactivity: a randomized, controlled,
double-blind study. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2001; 69: 365–71
125. Silverman RA, Osborn H, Runge J, et al. IV magnesium
sulfate in the treatment of acute severe asthma: a
multicenter randomized controlled trial. Chest 2002; 122:
489–97 126. Green SM, Rothrock SG. Intravenous magnesium
for acute asthma: failure to decrease emergency treatment
duration or need for hospitalization. Ann Emerg Med 1992;
21: 260–5 127. Boonyavorakul C, Thakkinstian A, Charoenpan
P. Intravenous magnesium sulfate in acute severe asthma.
Respirology 2000; 5: 221–5 128. Rodrigo G, Rodrigo C,
Burschtin O. Efficacy of magnesium sulfate in acute adult
asthma: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Am J Emerg
Med 2000; 18: 216–21 129. Scarfone RJ, Loiselle JM, Joffe
MD, et al. A randomized trial of magnesium in the emergency
department treatment of children with asthma. Ann Emerg Med
2000; 36: 572–8 130. Porter RS, Nester, Braitman LE, et al.
Intravenous magnesium is ineffective in adult asthma, a
randomized trial. Eur J Emerg Med 2001; 8: 9–15

131. Bernstein WK, Khastgir T, Khastgir A, et al. Lack of


effectiveness of magnesium in chronic stable asthma. A
prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled,
crossover trial in normal subjects and in patients with
chronic stable asthma. Arch Intern Med 1995; 155: 271–6

132. Bone RC, Burch SG. Management of status asthmaticus.


Ann Allergy 1991; 67: 461–9

133. Dellinger RP. Acute life-threatening asthma. Postgrad


Med 1991; 90: 63–6, 69–72, 77

134. Kuitert LM, Kletchko SL. Intravenous magnesium sulfate


in acute, life-threatening asthma. Ann Emerg Med 1991; 20:
1243–5

135. Okayama H, Okayama M, Aikawa T, et al. Treatment of


status asthmaticus with intravenous magnesium sulfate. J
Asthma 1991; 28: 11–17

136. Sydow M, Crozier TA, Zielmann S, et al. High-dose


intravenous magnesium sulfate in the management of
life-threatening status asthmaticus. Intensive Care Med
1993; 19: 467–71

137. Schiermeyer RP, Finkelstein JA. Rapid infusion of


magnesium sulfate obviates need for intubation in status
asthmaticus. Am J Emerg Med 1994; 12: 164–6

138. Hughes R, Goldkorn A, Masoli M, et al. Use of isotonic


nebulised magnesium sulphate as an adjuvant to salbutamol
in treatment of severe asthma in adults: randomised
placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2003; 361: 2114–17

139. Chande VT, Skoner DP. A trial of nebulized magnesium


sulfate to reverse bronchospasm in asthmatic patients. Ann
Emerg Med 1992; 21: 1111–15 140. Hill J, Britton J.
Dose–response relationship and time-course of the effect of
inhaled magnesium sulphate on airflow in normal and
asthmatic subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1995; 40: 539–44
141. Meral A, Coker M, Tanac R. Inhalation therapy with
magnesium sulfate and salbutamol sulfate in bronchial
asthma. Turk J Pediatr 1996; 38: 169–75 142. Mangat HS,
D’Souza GA, Jacob MS. Nebulized magnesium sulphate versus
nebulized salbutamol in acute bronchial asthma: a clinical
trial. Eur Respir J 1998; 12: 341–4 143. Britton J, Pavord
I, Richards K, et al. Dietary magnesium, lung function,
wheezing, and airway hyperreactivity in a random adult
population sample. Lancet 1994; 344: 357–62 144. Hill J,
Micklewright A, Lewis S, Britton J. Investigation of the
effect of short-term change in dietary magnesium intake in
asthma. Eur Resp J 1997; 10: 2225–9 145. Hill J, Lewis S,
Britton J. Studies of the effects of inhaled magnesium on
airway reactivity to histamine and adenosine monophosphate
in asthmatic subjects. Clin Exp Allergy 1997; 27: 546–51
146. Hasselmark L, Malmgren R, Zetterstrom O, Unge G.
Selenium supplementation in intrinsic asthma. Allergy 1993;
48: 30–6 147. Gazdik F, Kadrabova J, Gazdikova K. Decreased
consumption of corticosteroids after selenium
supplementation in corticoiddependent asthmatics. Bratisl
Lek Listy 2002; 103: 22–5 148. Allam MF, Lucane RA.
Selenium supplementation for asthma. Cochrane Database Syst
Rev 2004; CD003538
Chronic sinusitis 39

10. Ben-Dov I, Amirav I, Shochina M, et al. Effect of


negative ionization of inspired air on the response of
asthmatic children to exercise and inhaled histamine.
Thorax 1983; 38: 584–8

11. Warner JA, Marchant JL, Warner JO. Double-blind trial


of ionizers in children with asthma sensitive to the house
dust mite. Thorax 1993; 48: 330–3 12. Kornblueh, I.
Artificial ionization of the air and its biological
significance. Clin Med 1962; 68 13. Ophir D, Elad Y.
Effects of steam inhalation on nasal patency and nasal
symptoms in patients with the common cold. Am J Otolaryngol
1987; 8: 149–53 14. Talbot AR, Herr TM, Parsons DS.
Mucociliary clearance and buffered Hypertonic saline
solution. Laryngoscope 1997; 107: 500–3 15. Georgitis JW.
Nasal hyperthermia and simple saline irrigation for
perennial rhinitis, changes in inflammatory mediators.
Chest 1994; 106: 1487–82 16. Heatley DG, McConnell KE,
Kille TL, Leverson GE. Nasal irrigation for the alleviation
of sinonasal symptoms. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2001;
125: 44–8 17. www.sinucleanse.com 18.
www.pharmacy-solutions.com 19. LaPierre A, Fletcher MA,
Antoni MH, et al. Aerobic exercise training in an AIDS risk
group. Int J Sports Med 1991; 12: S53–57 20. Nanda R, James
R, Smith H, et al. Food intolerance and the irritable bowel
syndrome. Gut 1989; 30: 1099–104 21. Anon. Antibiotics in
milk. Br Med J 1963; 1: 1491–2 22. Ogle KA, Bullock JD.
Children with allergic rhinitis and/or bronchial asthma
treated with elimination diet. Ann Allergy 1977; 39: 8–11
23. Sanchez A. Role of sugars in human neutrophilic
phagocytosis. Am J Clin Nutr 1973; 26: 1180–4 24. Shirakawa
T, Morimoto K. Lifestyle effect on total IgE. Lifestyles
have a cumulative impact on controlling total IgE levels.
Allergy 1991; 46: 561–9

25. Bell IR, Schwartz GE, Peterson JM, et al. Symptom and
personality profiles of young adults from a college student
population with self-reported illness from foods and
chemicals. J Am Coll Nutr 1993; 12: 693–702

26. Vojdani A, Ghoneum M. In vivo effect of ascorbic acid


on enhancement of human natural killer cell activity. Nutr
Res 1993; 13: 753–64

27. Meydani SN, Barklund MP, Liu S, et al. Vitamin E


supplementation enhances cell-mediated immunity in healthy
elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1990; 52: 557–63
28. Meydani SN, Lichtenstein AH, White PJ, et al. Food use
and health effects of soybean and sunflower oils. J Am Coll
Nutr 1991; 10: 406–28

29. Agache P. Mise en evidence d’un effet-dose


l’antagonisme visavis de la papule histaminique. La Vie
Medicale 1981; 16: 1153–4

30. Schwitters B, Masquelier J. OPC in practice:


bioflavonols and their application. Rome: Alfa Omega, 1993

31. Anon. Garlic in cryptococcal meningitis: a preliminary


report of 21 cases. Chin Med J 1980; 93: 123–6

32. Bauer VR, Juric K, Puhlmann J, et al. Immunologic in


vivo and in vitro studies on Echinacea extracts.
Arzneimittelforschung 1988; 38: 276–81 33.
www.sinussurvival.com 34. Ornish D, Brown SE, Scherwitz LW,
et al. Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart
disease? The Lifestyle Heart Trial. Lancet 1990; 336:
129–33 35. Smyth JM, Stone AA, Hurewitz A, Kaell A. Effects
of writing about stressful experiences on symptom reduction
in patients with asthma or rheumatoid arthritis. A
randomized trial. J Am Med Assoc 1999; 281: 1304–9 36.
Solberg EE, Halvorsen R, Sundgot-Borgen J, et al.
Meditation: a modulator of the immune response to physical
stress? A brief report. Br J Sports Med 1995; 29: 255–7 37.
Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Malarky WB, Chee M, et al. Negative
behavior during marital conflict is associated with
immunological down-regulation. Psychosom Med 1993; 55:
395–409 38. Spiegel D, Bloom JR, Kraemer HC, Gottheil E.
Effect of psychosocial treatment on survival of patients
with metastatic breast cancer. Lancet 1989; 2: 888–91
43 Irritable bowel syndrome: a perplexing
40 pain for patients and physicians

Mind–body therapies

Mind–body therapies likely operate on the gut–brain

axis. As previously described, the efferent pathways from

the CNS to the ENS are impacted by thoughts and emo

tions. The neurochemical alterations which occur in

these pathways during times of stress or distress can have

a real impact on the motor and nerve functioning of the

gut. Reductions in stress and distress can decrease the

somatization through this efferent pathway and result in

symptomatic improvements.

Hypnotherapy

Gut directed hypnotherapy has been shown consistently

to improve the symptoms of IBS (including abdominal

pain, constipation, and flatulence), improve quality of

life, reduce anxiety and depression 63,64 , and reduce

absenteeism from work 65 . This is accomplished within

the realm of the gut–brain axis, and it has been demon

strated that hypnotherapy has no effect on the physical

manifestations of IBS, including rectal pain and muscle

tone 66 . The effects of hypnotherapy appear to last

between 3 and 18 months after completion of ther

apy 67,68 with relapses effectively treated with additional

hypnotherapy. Treatment regimens appear to include weekly or

biweekly sessions as well as home based practice using


audio-tapes. A total of 12 sessions should be considered

a minimal amount of hypnotherapy for the treatment of

IBS.

Yoga

A single study of 22 male IBS-D patients was performed

comparing yoga to loperamide 69 for 2 months. The results


showed that both groups improved significantly from
baseline, but there was no difference between groups. This
pilot study illustrates the potential benefit of yoga in
male patients with IBS-D, but it is not generalizable to
the female or IBS-C population. Yoga is certainly safe in
the hands of skilled instructors; however, it is too early
to conclude that it can be helpful in IBS. HOW A PHYSICIAN
HELPS THEIR PATIENT CHOOSE THE RIGHT CAM TREATMENTS FOR IBS
Irritable bowel syndrome is frustrating for patient and
physician alike. Even though we are just beginning to
elucidate the neurochemical mechanisms of IBS, effective
treatments are few and far between. Given the concordance
of fibromyalgia and other difficult to diagnose and treat
diseases along with IBS, it is no wonder that so many
patients turn to CAM therapies for relief. The review of
evidence for these CAM therapies is surprising in that so
little has been tested, and even less has been shown to be
effective. Generally, most of the forgoing therapies are
safe and can likely be combined without sequelae. It is not
known whether the small effects which were seen in therapy
would be additive. Maintaining an open and ongoing dialog
with your patients is essential. That dialog should include
education and reassurance as well as the latest information
on mechanism of action and treatments. The more the
physician can provide to the patient, the less likely the
patient will turn to the clerk at the local health food
store for their medical care.

7. Drossman DA. Review article: an integrated approach to


the irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1999;
13: 3–14

8. Kellow JE, Phillips SF. Altered small bowel motility in


irritable bowel syndrome is correlated with symptoms.
Gastroenterology 1987; 92: 1885–93

9. Lubrano E, Iovino P, Tremolaterra F, et al. Fibromyalgia


in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. An association
with the severity of the intestinal disorder. Int J
Colorectal Dis 2001; 16: 211–15

10. Sperber AD, Atzmon Y, Neumann L, et al. Fibromyalgia in


the irritable bowel syndrome: studies of prevalence and
clinical implications. Am J Gastroenterol 1999; 94: 3541–6

11. Pimentel M, Wallace D, Hallegua D, et al. A link


between irritable bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia may be
related to findings on lactulose breath testing. Ann Rheum
Dis 2004; 63: 450–2

12. Wood JD, Alpers DH, Andrews PL. Fundamentals of


neurogastroenterology. Gut 1999; 45: II6–II16

13. Drossman DA. Review article: an integrated approach to


the irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1999;
13: 3–14

14. King TS, Elia M, Hunter JO. Abnormal colonic


fermentation in irritable bowel syndrome. Lancet 1998; 352:
1187–9

15. Pimentel M, Wallace D, Hallegua D, et al. A link


between irritable bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia may be
related to findings on lactulose breath testing. Ann Rheum
Dis 2004; 63: 450–2

16. Pimentel M, Chow EJ, Lin HC. Normalization of lactulose


breath testing correlates with symptom improvement in
irritable bowel syndrome. a double-blind, randomized,
placebo-controlled study. Am J Gastroenterol 2003; 98:
412–19

17. Pimentel M, Soffer EE, Chow EJ, et al. Lower frequency


of MMC is found in IBS subjects with abnormal lactulose
breath test, suggesting bacterial overgrowth. Dig Dis Sci
2002; 47: 2639–43

18. Pimentel M, Chow EJ, Lin HC. Eradication of small


intestinal bacterial overgrowth reduces symptoms of
irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95:
3503–6

19. Thompson WG, Longstreth GF, Drossman DA, et al.


Functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain.
Gut 1999; 45: II43–II47

20. Udani J, Spar M. Probiotics for the treatment of H.


pylori. Altern Med Alert 2002; 5: 57–61
21. Gill HS, Guarner F. Probiotics and human health: a
clinical perspective. Postgrad Med J 2004; 80: 516–26

22. Borody TJ, Warren EF, Leis SM, et al. Bacteriotherapy


using fecal flora: toying with human motions. J Clin
Gastroenterol 2004; 38: 475–83

23. Niedzielin K, Kordecki H, Birkenfeld B. A controlled,


doubleblind, randomized study on the efficacy of
Lactobacillus plantarum 299V in patients with irritable
bowel syndrome. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2001; 13:
1143–7

24. Sen S, Mullan MM, Parker TJ, et al. Effect of


Lactobacillus plantarum 299v on colonic fermentation and
symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Dig Dis Sci 2002; 47:
2615–20

25. Nobaek S, Johansson ML, Molin G, et al. Alteration of


intestinal microflora is associated with reduction in
abdominal bloating and pain in patients with irritable
bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95: 1231–8

26. O’Sullivan MA, O’Morain CA. Bacterial supplementation


in the irritable bowel syndrome. A randomised double-blind
placebo-controlled crossover study. Dig Liver Dis 2000; 32:
294–301 27. Saggioro A. Probiotics in the treatment of
irritable bowel syndrome. J Clin Gastroenterol 2004; 38:
S104–S106 28. Roberfroid MB. Prebiotics: preferential
substrates for specific germs? Am J Clin Nutr 2001; 73:
406S–409S 29. Chow J. Probiotics and prebiotics: a brief
overview. J Ren Nutr 2002; 12: 76–86 30. Hebden JM,
Blackshaw E, D’Amato M, et al. Abnormalities of GI transit
in bloated irritable bowel syndrome: effect of bran on
transit and symptoms. Am J Gastroenterol 2002; 97: 2315–20
31. Bijkerk CJ, Muris JW, Knottnerus JA, et al. Systematic
review: the role of different types of fibre in the
treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol
Ther 2004; 19: 245–51 32. Misra SP, Thorat VK, Sachdev GK,
Anand BS. Long-term treatment of irritable bowel syndrome:
results of a randomized controlled trial. Q J Med 1989; 73:
931–9 33. Prior A, Whorwell PJ. Double blind study of
ispaghula in irritable bowel syndrome. Gut 1987; 28:
1510–13 34. Kumar A, Kumar N, Vij JC, et al. Optimum dosage
of ispaghula husk in patients with irritable bowel
syndrome: correlation of symptom relief with whole gut
transit time and stool weight. Gut 1987; 28: 150–5 35.
Longstreth GF, Fox DD, Youkeles L, et al. Psyllium therapy
in the irritable bowel syndrome. A double-blind trial. Ann
Intern Med 1981; 95: 53–6 36. Giaccari S, Grasso G, Tronci
S, et al. [Partially hydrolyzed guar gum: a fiber as
coadjuvant in the irritable colon syndrome.] Clin Ter 2001;
152: 21–5 37. Parisi GC, Zilli M, Miani MP, et al.
High-fiber diet supplementation in patients with irritable
bowel syndrome (IBS): a multicenter, randomized, open trial
comparison between wheat bran diet and partially hydrolyzed
guar gum (PHGG). Dig Dis Sci 2002; 47: 1697–1704 38.
Fielding JF, Kehoe M. Different dietary fibre formulations
and the irritable bowel syndrome. Ir J Med Sci 1984; 153:
178–80 39. www.NaturalDatabase.com 40. Bensoussan A, Talley
NJ, Hing M, et al. Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome
with Chinese herbal medicine: a randomized controlled
trial. J Am Med Assoc 1998; 280: 1585–9 41. Walker AF,
Middleton RW, Petrowicz O. Artichoke leaf extract reduces
symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome in a post-marketing
surveillance study. Phytother Res 2001; 15: 58–61 42. Bundy
R, Walker AF, Middleton RW, et al. Artichoke leaf extract
reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome and improves
quality of life in otherwise healthy volunteers suffering
from concomitant dyspepsia: a subset analysis. J Altern
Complement Med 2004; 10: 667–9 43. Hills JM, Aaronson PI.
The mechanism of action of peppermint oil on
gastrointestinal smooth muscle. An analysis using patch
clamp electrophysiology and isolated tissue pharmacology in
rabbit and guinea pig. Gastroenterology 1991; 101: 55–65
44. Micklefield GH, Greving I, May B. Effects of peppermint
oil and caraway oil on gastroduodenal motility. Phytother
Res 2000; 14: 20–3 45. Goerg KJ, Spilker T. Effect of
peppermint oil and caraway oil on gastrointestinal motility
in healthy volunteers: a pharmacodynamic study using
simultaneous determination of gastric and gall-bladder
emptying and orocaecal transit time. Aliment Pharmacol Ther
2003; 17: 445–51

46. Beesley A, Hardcastle J, Hardcastle PT, Taylor CJ.


Influence of peppermint oil on absorptive and secretory
processes in rat small intestine. Gut 1996; 39: 214–19

47. Logan AC, Beaulne TM. The treatment of small intestinal


bacterial overgrowth with enteric-coated peppermint oil: a
case report. Altern Med Rev 2002; 7: 410–17

48. Kline RM, Kline JJ, Di PJ, Barbero GJ. Enteric-coated,


pHdependent peppermint oil capsules for the treatment of
irritable bowel syndrome in children. J Pediatr 2001; 138:
125–8

49. Pittler MH, Ernst E. Peppermint oil for irritable bowel


syndrome: a critical review and metaanalysis. Am J
Gastroenterol 1998; 93: 1131–5

50. Nash P, Gould SR, Bernardo DE. Peppermint oil does not
relieve the pain of irritable bowel syndrome. Br J Clin
Pract 1986; 40: 292–3

51. Dainese R, Galliani EA, De Lazzari F, et al.


Discrepancies between reported food intolerance and
sensitization test findings in irritable bowel syndrome
patients. Am J Gastroenterol 1999; 94: 1892–7

52. Jones VA, McLaughlan P, Shorthouse M, et al. Food


intolerance: a major factor in the pathogenesis of
irritable bowel syndrome. Lancet 1982; 2: 1115–17

53. Madden JA, Hunter JO. A review of the role of the gut
microflora in irritable bowel syndrome and the effects of
probiotics. Br J Nutr 2002; 88: S67–S72

54. Nanda R, James R, Smith H, et al. Food intolerance and


the irritable bowel syndrome. Gut 1989; 30: 1099–104

55. Atkinson W, Sheldon TA, Shaath N, Whorwell PJ. Food


elimination based on IgG antibodies in irritable bowel
syndrome: a randomised controlled trial. Gut 2004; 53:
1459–64

56. Diehl DL. Acupuncture for gastrointestinal and


hepatobiliary disorders. J Altern Complement Med 1999; 5:
27–45

57. Cui KM, Li WM, Gao X, et al. Electro-acupuncture


relieves chronic visceral hyperalgesia in rats. Neurosci
Lett 2005; 376: 20–3

58. Fireman Z, Segal A, Kopelman Y, et al. Acupuncture


treatment for irritable bowel syndrome. A double-blind
controlled study. Digestion 2001; 64: 100–3 59. Xing J,
Larive B, Mekhail N, Soffer E. Transcutaneous electrical
acustimulation can reduce visceral perception in patients
with the irritable bowel syndrome: a pilot study. Altern
Ther Health Med 2004; 10: 38–42 60. Rohrbock RB, Hammer J,
Vogelsang H, et al. Acupuncture has a placebo effect on
rectal perception but not on distensibility and spatial
summation: a study in health and IBS. Am J Gastroenterol
2004; 99: 1990–7 61. Xiao WB, Liu YL. Rectal
hypersensitivity reduced by acupoint TENS in patients with
diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: a pilot
study. Dig Dis Sci 2004; 49: 312–19 62. Xueyan A, Ning W.
Auricular-plaster therapy for treatment of IBS. J Tradit
Chin Med 2004; 24: 166–7 63. Gonsalkorale WM, Toner BB,
Whorwell PJ. Cognitive change in patients undergoing
hypnotherapy for irritable bowel syndrome. J Psychosom Res
2004; 56: 271–8 64. Gonsalkorale WM, Houghton LA, Whorwell
PJ. Hypnotherapy in irritable bowel syndrome: a large-scale
audit of a clinical service with examination of factors
influencing responsiveness. Am J Gastroenterol 2002; 97:
954–61 65. Houghton LA, Heyman DJ, Whorwell PJ.
Symptomatology, quality of life and economic features of
irritable bowel syndrome – the effect of hypnotherapy.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1996; 10: 91–5 66. Palsson OS,
Turner MJ, Johnson DA, et al. Hypnosis treatment for severe
irritable bowel syndrome: investigation of mechanism and
effects on symptoms. Dig Dis Sci 2002; 47: 2605–14 67.
Whorwell PJ, Prior A, Faragher EB. Controlled trial of
hypnotherapy in the treatment of severe refractory
irritable bowel syndrome. Lancet 1984; 2: 1232–4 68.
Whorwell PJ, Prior A, Colgan SM. Hypnotherapy in severe
irritable bowel syndrome: further experience. Gut 1987; 28:
423–5 69. Taneja I, Deepak KK, Poojary G, et al. Yogic
versus conventional treatment in diarrhea-predominant
irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized control study. Appl
Psychophysiol Biofeedback 2004; 29: 19–33
Obesity 42

1. Kuczmarski RJ, Carroll MD, Flegal KM, Troiano RP.


Varying body mass index cutoff points to describe
overweight prevalence among U.S. adults: NHANES III
(1988–1994). Obes Res 1997; 5: 542–8

2. McGinnis JM, Forge WH. Actual causes of death in the


United States. J Am Med Assoc 1993; 270: 2207–12

3. de Jonge L, Bray GA. The thermic effect of food and


obesity: a critical review. Obes Res 1997; 5: 622–31

4. Bray GA. Drug treatment of obesity: don’t throw the baby


out with the bath water. Am J Clin Nutr 1998; 67: 1–4

5. Negro AD. It’s Time to Treat Obesity. American Heart


Association Scientific Sessions, 2000

6. Blanck HM, Khan LK, Serdula MK. Use of nonprescription


weight loss products: results from a multistate survey. J
Am Med Assoc 2001; 286: 930–5

7. Shekelle PG, Hardy ML, Morton SC, et al. Efficacy and


safety of ephedra and ephedrine for weight loss and
athletic performance: a meta-analysis. J Am Med Assoc 2003;
289: 1537–45

8. Final rule declaring dietary supplements containing


ephedrine alkaloids adulterated because they present an
unreasonable risk. Department of Health and Human Services,
Food and Drug Administration 2004: 1–363. Available at:
www.fda.gov/ OHRMS/DOCKETS/98fr/1995n-0304-nfr0001.pdf

9. Haller CA, Benowitz NL. Adverse cardiovascular and


central nervous system events associated with dietary
supplements containing ephedra alkaloids. N Engl J Med
2000; 343: 1833–8

10. Bent S, Tiedt TN, Odden MC, Shlipak MG. The relative
safety of ephedra compared with other herbal products. Ann
Intern Med 2003; 138: 468–71

11. Kaufman DW, Kelly JP, Mitchell AA. Use of


ephedra-containing products in the U.S. population. Data
from the Sloane Survey 2003. FDA Docket Number 1995N-0304,
emc126, Vol 297: 1–9 12. Morelli V, Zoorob RJ. Alternative
therapies: Part 1. Depression, diabetes, obesity. Am Fam
Physician 2000; 62: 1051–60 13. Penzak SR, Jann MW, Cold
JA, et al. Seville (sour) orange juice: synephrine content
and cardiovascular effects in normotensive adults. J Clin
Pharmacol 2001; 41: 1059–63 14. Astrup A, Breum L, Toubro
S, et al. The effect and safety of an ephedrine/caffeine
compound compared to ephidrine, caffeine and placebo in
obese subjects on an energy restricted diet. A double blind
trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1992; 16: 269–77 15.
Breum L, Pedersen JK, Ahlstrom F, Frimodt-Moller J.
Comparison of an ephedrine/caffeine combination and
dexfluramine in the treatment of obesity. A double-blind
multi-center trial in general practice. Int J Obes Relat
Metab Disord 1994; 18: 99–103 16. Astrup A, Toubro S.
Thermogenic, metabolic and cardiovascular responses to
ephedrine and caffeine in man. Int J Obes Relat Metab
Disord 1993; 17 (Suppl 1): S41–3 17. Lowenstein JM. Effect
of (-)-hydroxycitrate on fatty acid synthesis by rat liver
in vivo. J Biol Chem 1971; 246: 629–32 18. Sullivan AC,
Triscari J, Neal Miller O. The influence of
(-)hydroxycitrate on in vivo rates of hepatic glycogenesis:
lipogenesis and cholesterol genesis. Fed Proc 1974; 33: 656
19. Sullivan AC, Triscari J, Hamilton JG, Neal Miller O.
Effect of ()-hydroxycitrate upon the accumulation of lipid
in the rat: appetite. Lipids 1973; 9: 129–34 20. Nageswara
RR, Sakeriak KK. Lipid-lowering and antiobesity effect of
(-) hydroxycitric acid. Nutr Res 1988; 8: 209–12 21.
Heymsfield SB, Allison DB, Vasselli JR, et al. Garcinia
cambogia (hydroxycitric acid) as a potential antiobesity
agent: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Med Assoc 1998;
280: 1596–600 22. Firenzuoli F, Gori L. Garcinia cambogia
for weight loss. J Am Med Assoc 1999; 282: 234

23. Murray MT, Pizzorno JE Jr. Obesity. In Pizzorno JE Jr,


Murray MT, eds. Textbook of Natural Medicine, 2nd edn.
Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1999: 429–39

24. Dulloo AG, Seydoux J, Girardier L, et al. Green tea and


thermogenesis: interactions between catechin-polyphenols,
caffeine and sympathetic activity. Int J Obes 2000; 24:
252–8

25. Kao YH, Hiipakka RA, Liao S. Modulation of endocrine


systems and food intake by green tea epigallocatechin
gallate. Endocrinology 2000; 141: 980–7

26. Dulloo AG, Duret C, Rohrer D, et al. Efficacy of a


green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine
in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in
humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 70: 1040–5

27. Nadkarni KM. Gymnema sylvestre, R. Br. or Asclepias


geminata. In Nadkarni KM, ed. Indian Materia Medica.
Bombay: Popular Prakashan, 1982; 1: 596–9

28. Baskaran K, Kizar AB, Radha SK, Shanmugasundaram ER.


Antidiabetic effect of a leaf extract from Gymnema
sylvestre in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
patients. J Ethnopharmacol 1990; 30: 295–300

29. Shanmugasundaram ER, Rajeswari G, Baskaran K, et al.


Use of Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract in the control of
blood glucose in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. J
Ethnopharmacol 1990; 30: 281–94

30. Terasawa H, Miyoshi M, Imoto T. Effects of long term


administration of Gymnema sylvestre watery-extract on
variations of body weight, plasma glucose, serum
triglyceride, total cholesterol and insulin in Wistar fatty
rats. Yonago Acta Med 1994; 37: 117–27

31. Wang LF, Luo H, Imoto T, et al. Inhibitory effect of


gymnemic acid on intestinal absorption of oleic acid in
rats. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1998; 76: 1017–23

32. Mozersky RP. Herbal products and supplemental nutrients


used in the management of diabetes. J Am Osteopath Assoc
1999; 99: 54–9

33. Rhee DK, Lim CJ, Kim DH, et al. Studies on the acute
and subacute toxicity of ginseng saponin. Yakhak Hoe Chi
1982; 26: 209–14

34. Rim KT, Choi JS, Lee SM, Cho KS. Effect of ginsenosides
from red ginseng on the enzymes of cellular signal
transduction system (Korean). Koryo Insam Hakhoechi 1997;
21: 19–27

35. Hong SA. Effects of Panax ginseng on the general


behavioral activity and survival time of food deprivation
in rats. Ch’oesin Uihak 1972; 15: 81–91

36. Eui S, Kim BY, Paik TH, Joo CN. The effect of ginseng
on alcohol metabolism. Hanguk Saenghwa Hakhoe Chi 1978; 11:
1–15

37. Fujimoto K, Sakata T, Ishimaru T, et al. Attenuation of


anorexia induced by heat or surgery during sustained
administration of ginsenoside Rg1 into rat third ventricle.
Psychopharmacology 1989; 99: 257–60

38. Zierer R. Prolonged infusion of Panax ginseng saponins


into the rat does not alter the chemical and kinetic
profile of hormones from the posterior pituitary. J
Ethnopharmacol 1991; 34: 269–74

39. Park CW, Kim JG, Lee YS, et al. Subacute toxicity study
of red ginseng total saponin in rats. J Toxicol Publ Health
1998; 14: 77–82

40. Kim JG, Park CW, Lee YS, et al. Acute toxicity study of
red ginseng total saponin in rats and mice. J Toxicol Publ
Health 1998; 14: 69–75 41. Kim YS, Kang KS, Kim S II.
Effects of a cytotoxic substance, panaxytriol from Panax
ginseng C.A. Meyer on the immune responses in normal mice.
Korean J Toxicol 1990; 6: 13–19 42. Hong BJ, Kim CI, Kim
UH, Rhee YC. Effect of feeding ginseng crude saponin on
body weight gain and reproductive function in chicken.
Hanguk Ch’uksan Hakhoe Chi 1976; 18: 355–61 43. Hess FG Jr,
Parent RA, Cox GE, et al. Reproduction study in rats of
ginseng extract G115. Food Chem Toxicol 1982; 20: 189–92
44. Hess FG Jr, Parent RA, Stevens KR, et al. Effects of
subchronic feeding of ginseng extract G115 in beagle dogs.
Food Chem Toxicol 1983; 21: 95–7 45. Murphy LL, Cadena RS,
Chavez D, Ferraro JS. Effect of American ginseng (Panax
quinquefolium) on male copulatory behavior in the rat.
Physiol Behav 1998; 64: 445–50 46. Sotaniemi EA, Haapakoski
E, Rautio A. Ginseng therapy in non-insulin-dependent
diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 1995; 18: 1373–5 47.
Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational phytotherapy. In
Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE, eds. Agents that Increase
Resistance to Diseases. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag,
1998: 269–72 48. Foster S, Tyler VE, eds. Tyler’s Honest
Herbal. A Sensible Guide to the Use of Herbs and Related
Remedies, 4th edn. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press, 1999 49.
Miller LG. Herbal medications, nutraceuticals, and
diabetes. In Miller LG, Murray WJ, eds. Herbal Medicinals,
A Clinician’s Guide. Binghamton, NY: Pharmaceutical
Products Press, Imprint of Haworth Press, 1998: 115–33 50.
Suzuki T, Iwai K. Constituents of red pepper spices:
chemistry, pharmacology and food science of the pungent
principle of Capsicum species. In Bross A, ed. The
Alkaloids. New York, NY: Academic Press, 1984; 23: 227–9
51. Kawada T, Hagiharaa K, Iwai K. Effects of capsaicin on
lipid metabolism in rats fed a high fat diet. J Nutr 1986;
116: 1272–8 52. Kawada T, Watanabe T, Takaishi T, et al.
Capsaicin-induced βadrenergic action on energy metabolism
in rats: influence of capsaicin on oxygen consumption, the
respiratory quotient, and substrate utilization. Proc Soc
Exp Biol Med 1986; 183: 250–6 53. Watanabe T, Kawada T,
Iwai K. Enhancement by capsaicin of energy metabolism in
rats through secretion of catecholamine from adrenal
medulla. Agric Biol Chem 1987; 51: 75–9 54. Watanabe T,
Kawada T, Kurosawa M, et al. Adrenal sympathetic efferent
nerve and catecholamine secretion excitation caused by
capsaicin in rats. Am J Physiol 1988; 255: E23–7 55.
Yoshioka M, Lim K, Kikuzato S, et al. Effects of red-pepper
diet on the energy metabolism in men. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol
1995; 41: 647–56 56. Matsumoto T, Miyawaki C, Ue H, et al.
Effects of capsaicincontaining yellow curry sauce on
sympathetic nervous system activity and diet-induced
thermogenesis in lean and obese young women. J Nutr Sci
Vitaminol 2000; 46: 309–15 57. Tripathi YB, Malhotra OP,
Tripathi SN. Thyroid stimulation action of Z-guggulsterone
obtained from Commiphora mukul. Planta Med 1984; 1: 78–80
58. Anderson RA. Effects of chromium on body composition
and weight loss. Nutr Rev 1998; 56: 266–70 59. Evans GW.
Chromium picolinate is an efficacious and safe supplement.
Int J Sport Nutr 1993; 3: 117–22 60. Press RI, Gellaer J,
Evans GW. The effect of chromium picolinate on serum
cholesterol and apolipoprotein fractions in human subjects.
West J Med 1993; 152: 41–5

61. Stearns DM, Belbruno JJ, Wetterhahn KE. A prediction of


chromium (iii) accumulation in humans from chromium dietary
supplements. FASEB J 1995; 9: 1650–7

62. Cerulli J, Grabe DW, Gauthier L, et al. Chromium


picolinate toxicity. Ann Pharmacother 1998; 32: 428–31

63. Lenz TL, Hamilton WR. Supplemental products used for


weight loss. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash DC) 2004; 44: 59–67

64. Ceci F, Cangiano C, Cairella M, et al. The effects of


oral 5hydroxytryptophan administration on feeding behavior
in obese adult female subjects. J Neural Transm 1989; 76:
109–17

65. Cangiano C, Ceci F, Cairella M, et al. Effects of


5-hydroxytryptophan on eating behavior and adherence to
dietary prescriptions in obese adult subjects. Adv Exp Med
Biol 1991; 294: 591–3

66. Cangiano C, Ceci F, Cascino A, et al. Eating behavior


and adherence to dietary prescriptions in obese adult
subjects treated with 5-hydroxytryptophan. Am J Clin Nutr
1992; 56: 863–7

67. Sulkers EJ, Lafeber HN, Degenhart HJ, et al. Effects of


high carnitine supplementation on substrate utilization in
low-birthweight infants receiving total parenteral
nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 1990; 52: 889–94
68. Vukovich MD, Costill DL, Fink WJ. Carnitine
supplementation: effect on muscle carnitine and glycogen
content during exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1994; 26:
1122–9

69. Baba N, Bracco EF, Hashim SA. Enhanced thermogenesis


and diminished deposition of fat in response to overfeeding
with diet containing medium chain triglyceride. Am J Clin
Nutr 1982; 35: 678–82

70. Hill JO, Peters JC, Yang D, et al. Thermogenesis in


humans during over feeding with medium-chain triglycerides
in man. Am J Clin Nutr 1986; 44: 630–4

71. Van Gaal L. Exploratory study of coenzyme Q10 in


obesity. In Folkers K, Yamamura Y, eds. Biomedical and
Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q10. Amsterdam: Elsevier
Science, 1984; 4: 369–73

72. Ventura P. Lipid lowering activity of chitosan, a new


dietary integrator. In Muzzarelli RAA, ed. Chitin
Enzymology. Ancona, Italy: Atec Edizioni, 1996; 2: 55–62
73. Maezaki Y, Tsuji K. Hypochlosterolaemic effect of
chitosan in adult males. Biosc Biochem Biotech 1993; 57:
1439–44 74. Abelin J, Lassus AL. 112 Bipolymar-Fat [Binder]
as a Weight Reducer in Patients with Moderate Obesity.
Medical research report. A study performed at Ars
Medicinar, Helsinki, August–October, 1994 75. Veneroni G,
Veneroni F, Contos S. Effect of a new chitoson on
hyperlipidaemia and overweight in obese patients. In
Muzzarelli RAA, ed. Chitin Enzymology. Ancona, Italy: Atec
Edizioni, 1996; 2: 63–7 76. Pittler MH, Abbot NC, Harkness
EF, Ernst E. Randomized, double-blind trial of chitosan for
body weight reduction. Eur J Clin Nutr 1999; 53: 379–81 77.
Spiller GA. Dietary Fiber in Health and Nutrition. Boca
Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1994 78. Cassell DK, Larocca FE. The
Encyclopedia of Obesity and Eating Disorders. New York, NY:
Fact on File, 1994 79. Ernst E. Acupuncture/acupressure for
weight reduction? A systemic review. Wien Klin Wochenschr
1997; 109: 60–2 80. Giller RM. Auricular acupuncture and
weight reduction. A controlled study. Am J Acupuncture
1975; 3: 151–3 81. Shafshak TS. Electroacupuncture and
exercise in body weight reduction and their application in
rehabilitating patients with knee osteoarthritis. Am J Clin
Med 1995; 13: 15–25 82. Mok MS, Parker LN, Voina S, Bray
GA. Treatment of obesity by acupuncture. Am J Clin Nutr
1976; 29: 832–5 83. Allison DB, Krie K, Heshka S,
Heymsfield SB. A randomised placebo-controlled clinical
trial of an acupressure device for weight loss. Int J Obes
1995; 19: 653–8 84. Richards D, Marley J. Stimulation of
auricular acupuncture points in weight loss. Aust Fam
Physician 1998; 27 (Suppl 2): 73–7 85. Huang MH, Yang RC,
Hu SH. Preliminary results of triple therapy for obesity.
Int J Obes 1996; 20: 830–6
Type 2 diabetes 43

39. Vuksan V, Sievenpiper JL, Koo VY, et al. American


ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L) reduces postprandial
glycemia in nondiabetic subjects and subjects with type 2
diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med 2000; 60: 1009–13

40. Suzuki Y, Ito Y, Konno C, Furuya T. Effects of tissue


culture of ginseng on gastric secretion and pepsin activity
[in Japanese]. Yakugaku Zasshi 1991; 111: 770–4

41. Hasegawa H, Matsumiya S, Murakami C, et al. Interaction


of ginseng extract, ginseng seperated fractions, and some
triterpenoid saponins with glucose transporters in sheep
erythrocytes. Planta Med 1994; 60: 153–7

42. Gills CN. Panax ginseng pharmacology: a nitric oxide


link? Biochem Pharmacol 1997; 54: 1–8

43. Roy D, Perrault M, Marette A. Insulin stimulation of


glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in
vivo is NO dependent. Am J Physiol 1998; 274: E692–9

44. Kimura M, Waki I, Chujo T, et al. Effects of


hypoglycemic components in ginseng radix on blood insulin
level in alloxan diabetic mice and on insulin release from
perfused rat pancreas. J Pharmacobiodyn 1981; 4: 410–17

45. Spinas GA, Laffranchi R, Francoys I, et al. The early


phase of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion requires
nitric oxide. Diabetologia 1998; 41: 292–9

46. Punnonen R, Lukola A. Oestrogen-like effect of ginseng.


Br Med J 1980; 281: 1110

47. Palmer BV, Montgomery ACV, Monteiro JCMP. Ginseng and


mastalgia. Br Med J 1978; 1: 1284

48. Hammond TG, Whitworth JA. Adverse reactions to ginseng.


Med J Aust 1981; 1: 492

49. Janetzky K, Morreale AP. Probable interaction between


warfarin and ginseng. Am J Health Syst Pharm 1997; 54:
692–3

50. Jones BD, Runkis AM. Interaction of ginseng with


phenelzine. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1987; 7: 201–2

51. Cui J, Garle M, Eneroth P, Bjorkhem I. What do


commercial ginseng preparations contain? Lancet 1994; 344:
134

52. Awang DVC. Maternal use of ginseng and neonatal


androgenization. J Am Med Assoc 1991; 266: 363

53. Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE, eds. Rational


phytotherapy. In Agents that Increase Resistance to
Diseases. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag, 1998: 269–72

54. Welihinda J, Karunanaya EH, Sherrif MHR, Jayasinghe


KSA. Effect of Momordica charantia on the glucose tolerance
in maturity onset diabetes. J Ethnopharmacol 1986; 17:
277–82

55. Srivastava Y, Venkatakrishna-Bhatt H, Verma Y, et al.


Antidiabetic and adaptogenic properties of Momordica
charantia extract. An experimental and clinical evaluation.
Phytother Res 1993; 7: 285–9

56. Murray MT, Pizzorno JE Jr. Diabetes mellitus. In


Pizzorno JE Jr, Murray MT, eds. Textbook of Natural
Medicine, 2nd edn. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1999:
1193–218

57. Akhtar MS, Athar MA, Yaqub M. Effect of Momordica


charantia on blood glucose level of normal and alloxan
diabetic rabbits. Planta Med 1981; 42: 205–12

58. Larner J, Haynes C. Insulin and hypoglycemia drugs,


glycogen. In Gilman GG, Goodman LS, Rall TW, Murad F, eds.
The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 5th edn. New
York, NY: Macmillan Publishing, 1975: 1507–28

59. Mozersky RP. Herbal products and supplemental nutrients


used in the management of diabetes. J Am Osteopath Assoc
1999; 99: S4–9 60. Dixit VP, Khanna P, Bhargava SK. Effects
of Momordica charantia L fruit extract on the testicular
function of dog. Planta Med 1978; 34: 280–6 61. Miller LG.
Herbal medications, nutraceuticals, and diabetes. In Miller
LG, Murray WJ, eds. Herbal Medicinals, A Clinician’s Guide.
Binghamton, NY: Pharmaceutical Products Press, Imprint of
the Haworth Press, 1998: 115–33 62. Ribes G, Sauvaire Y,
Baccou JC, et al. Effects of fenugreek seeds on endocrine
pancreatic secretions in dogs. Ann Nutr Metab 1984; 28:
37–43 63. Madar Z, Abel R, Samish S, Arad J.
Glucose-lowering effect of fenugreek in non-insulin
dependent diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr 1988; 42: 51–4 64.
Shanmugasundaram ERB, Rajesware G, Baskaran K, et al. Use
of Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract in the control of blood
glucose in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J
Ethnopharmacol 1990; 30: 281–94 65. Sharma KK, Gupta S,
Samuel KC. Antihyperglycemic effect of onion: effect on
fasting blood sugar and induced hyperglycemia in man. Ind J
Med Res 1977; 65: 422–9 66. Sheela CG, Augusti KT.
Antidiabetic effects of S-allyl cysteine sulphoxide
isolated from garlic (Allium sativum, Linn.). Ind J Exp
Biol 1992; 30: 523–6 67. Jain RC, Vyas CR, Mahatama OP.
Hypoglycemic action of onion and garlic [letter]. Lancet
1973; 2: 1491 68. Augusti KT, Benaim ME. Effect of
essential oil of onion (allyl propyl disulphide) on blood
glucose, free fatty acid and insulin levels of normal
subjects. Clin Chim Acta 1975; 60: 121–3 69. Herbal
monographics. In Gruenwald J, Brendler T, Jaenicke C, eds.
PDR for Herbal Medicines, 2nd edn. Montvale, NJ: Medical
Economics Company, 2000: 376–8 70. Chakravarthy BK, Gupa S,
Gambhir SS, Gode KD. Pancreatic beta-cell regeneration in
rats by (-)-epicatechin. Lancet 1981; 2: 759–60 71.
Chakravarthy BK, Gupa S, Gode KD. Functional beta cell
regeneration in the islets of pancreas in alloxan induced
diabetic rats by (-)-epicatechin. Life Sci 1982; 31: 2693–7
72. Subramanian SS. (-)Epicatechin as an antidiabetic drug.
Ind Drugs 1981; 18: 259 73. Allen FM. Blueberry leaf
extract. Physiological and clinical properties in relation
in carbohydrate metabolism. J Am Med Assoc 1927; 89:
1577–81 74. Scharrer A, Ober M. Anthocyanosides in the
treatment of retinopathies. Klin Monatsbl Augenheikd 1981;
178: 386–9 75. Caselli L. Clinical and electroretinographic
study on activity of anthocyanosides. Arch Med Int 1985;
37: 29–35 76. Devillers J, Boule P, Vasseur P, et al.
Enviromental and health risks of hydroquinone. Ecotoxicol
Environ Safety 1990; 19: 327–54 77. Shibata MA, Hirose M,
Tanaka H, et al. Induction of renal cell tumors in rats and
mice, and enhancement of hepatocellular tumor development
in mice after long-term hydroquinone treatment. Jpn J
Cancer Res 1991; 82: 1211–19 78. Anderson JW, Blake JE,
Turner J, Smith BM. Effects of soy protein on renal
function and proteinuria in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Am J Clin Nutr 1998; 68: 1347S–53S 79. Anderson JW Smith
BM, Washnock CS. Cardiovascular and renal benefits of dry
bean and soybean intake. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 70: 464S–74S
80. Hermansen K, Sondergaard M, Hoie L, et al. Beneficial
effects of a soy-based dietary supplement on lipid levels
and cardiovascular risk markers in type 2 diabetic
subjects. Diabetes Care 2001; 24: 228–33

81. Offenbacher E, Stunyer F. Beneficial effect of


chromiumriched yeast on glucose tolerance and blood lipids
in elderly patients. Diabetes 1980; 29: 919–25

82. Mooradian AD, Failla M, Hoogwerf B. Selected vitamin


and mineral in diabetes. Diabetes Care 1994; 17: 464–79

83. Baker B. Chromium supplements tied to glucose control.


Fam Practice News 1996; 15: 5

84. Mertz M. Chromium occurrence and function in biologic


systems. Physiol Rev 1969; 49: 163–237

85. Anderson R, Cheng N, Chi J, Feng J. Beneficial effect


of chromium for people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 1996;
45: 124A/454

86. Lee NA, Reasner CA. Beneficial effect of chromium


supplementation on serum triglyceride levels in NIDDM.
Diabetes Care 1994; 17: 1449–52

87. Joseph LJ, Farrell PA, Davey SL, et al. Effect of


resistance training with or without chromium picolinate
supplementation on glucose metabolism in older men and
women. Metabolism 1999; 48: 546–53

88. Anderson RA, Bryden NA, Polansky M. Dietary chromium


intake. Freely chosen diets, institutional diet, and
individual foods. Biol Trace Element Res 1992; 32: 117

89. Castro VR. Chromium in a series of Portuguese plants


used in the herbal treatment of diabetes. Biol Trace
Element Res 1998; 62: 101–6

90. Cefalu WT, Hu FB. Role of chromium in human health and


in diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004; 27: 2741–51

91. Nielsen FH. Chromium. In Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M,


eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 8th edn.
Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Febiger, 1994: 264–8

92. Reading SA, Wecker L. Chromium picolinate. J Fla Med


Assoc 1996; 83: 29–31

93. Stearns DM, Wetterhahn KE. Chromium (iii) picolinate


[letter, author’s reply]. FASEB J 1996; 10: 367–9

94. Stearns DM, Belbruno JJ, Wetterhahn KE. A prediction of


chromium (iii) accumulation in humans from chromium dietary
supplements. FASEB J 1995; 9: 1650–7

95. Stearns DM, Wise JP Sr, Patierno SR, Wetterhahn KE.


Chromium (iii) picolinate produces chromosome damage in
Chinese hamster ovary cells. FASEB J 1995; 9: 1643–8
96. White JR, Campbell RK. Magnesium and diabetes. A
review. Ann Pharmacother 1993; 27: 775–80

97. Mooradian AD, Morley JE. Micronutrient status in


diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr 1987; 45: 877–95 98.
Hegazi SM. Effect of zinc supplementation on serum glucose,
insulin, glucose-6-phosphatase, and mineral levels in
diabetics. J Clin Biochem Nutr 1992; 12: 209–15 99. Engel
ED, Erlich NE, Davis RH. Diabetes mellitus. Impaired wound
healing from zinc deficiency. J Am Pediatr Assoc 1981; 71:
536–44 100. Kelly GS. Insulin resistance: lifestyle and
nutritional interventions. Altern Med Rev 2000; 5: 109–32
101. Tagliaferro V, Cassader M, Bozzo C, et al. Moderate
guar-gum addition to usual diet improves peripheral
sensitivity to insulin and lipaemic profile in NIDDM.
Diabetes Metab 1985; 11: 380–5 102. Landin K, Holm G,
Tengborn L, Smith U. Guar gum improves insulin sensitivity,
blood lipids, blood pressure, and fibrinolysis in healthy
men. Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 56: 1061–5 103. Fairchild RM,
Ellis PR, Byrne AJ, et al. A new breakfast cereal
containing guar gum reduces postprandial plasma glucose and
insulin concentrations in normal-weight human subjects. Br
J Nutr 1996; 76: 63–73 104. Vahouny G, Kritchevsky D.
Dietary Fiber in Health and Disease. New York, NY: Plenum
Press, 1982 105. Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Bacon S, et al.
Diabetic diets: high carbohydrate combined with high fiber.
Am J Clin Nutr 1980; 33: 1729–33 106. Jenkins DJA, Wolever
TMS, Taylor RH, et al. Glycemic index of foods: a
physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Am J Clin
Nutr 1981; 24: 362–6 107. AACE Nutrition Guidelines Task
Force. American association of clinical endocrinologists
medical guidelines for the clinical use of dietary
supplements and nutraceuticals. Endocr Pract 2003; 9:
417–70 108. Hui H. A review of treatment of diabetes by
acupuncture during the past forty years. J Tradit Chin Med
1995; 15: 145–54 109. Chen JF, Wei J. Changes of plasma
insulin level in diabetics treated with acupuncture. J
Tradit Chin Med 1985; 5: 79–84 110. Wateri N. Reviews of
presentation of the 7th World Congress of Acupuncture,
1982: 74 111. Lei ZP. Treatment of 42 cases of obesity with
acupuncture. J Tradit Chin Med 1988; 8: 125–6 112. Hooper
PL. Hot-tub therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J
Med 1999; 341: 924–5 113. Hooper PL. Hot-tub therapy for
type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 218–19
Osteoporosis 44

1. Harkness L. Soy and bone. Where do we stand? Orthop Nurs


2004; 23: 12–17

2. Moyad MA. Complementary therapies for reducing the risk


of osteoporosis in patients receiving luteinizing
hormone-releasing hormone treatment/orchiectomy for
prostate cancer: a review and assessment of the need for
more research. Urology 2002; 59 (4 Suppl 1): 34–40

3. Riggs BL, Melton LJ III. The worldwide problem of


osteoporosis: insights afforded by epidemiology. Bone 1995;
17 (5 Suppl): 505S–11S

4. Wehren LE. The epidemiology of osteoporosis and


fractures in geriatric medicine. Clin Geriatr Med 2003; 19:
245–58

5. Cooper C. Epidemiology of osteoporosis. In Favus MJ, ed.


Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of
Mineral Metabolism, 5th edn. Washington, DC: American
Society for Bone and Mineral Research, 2003: 307–13

6. Setchell KD, Lydeking-Olsen E. Dietary phytoestrogens


and their effect on bone: evidence from in vitro and in
vivo, human observational, and dietary intervention
studies. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 78 (3 Suppl): 593S–609S 7.
Advani S, Wimalawansa SJ. Bones and nutrition: common sense
supplementation for osteoporosis. Curr Womens Health Rep
2003; 3: 187–92 8. Chilibeck PD. Exercise and estrogen or
estrogen alternatives (phytoestrogens, bisphosphonates) for
preservation of bone mineral in postmenopausal women. Can J
Appl Physiol 2004; 29: 59–75 9. Osteoporosis: Review of the
Evidence for Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment and
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. Osteoporosis International,
1998 10. Cohen DP. Anti-osteoporotic medications:
traditional and nontraditional. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2003;
46: 341–8 11. Dalais FS, Ebeling PR, Kotsopoulos D, et al.
The effects of soy protein containing isoflavones on lipids
and indices of bone resorption in postmenopausal women.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf ) 2003; 58: 704–9 12. Warren MP,
Shortle B, Dominguez JE. Use of alternative therapies in
menopause. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2002; 16:
411–48

13. Bonn D. New ways with old bones. Osteoporosis


researchers look for drugs to replace hormone replacement
therapy. Lancet 2004; 363: 786–7
14. Nikander E, Metsa-Heikkila M, Ylikorkala O, Tiitinen A.
Effects of phytoestrogens on bone turnover in
postmenopausal women with a history of breast cancer. J
Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89: 1207–12

15. Pinkerton JV, Santen R. Use of alternatives to estrogen


for treatment of menopause. Minerva Endocrinol 2002; 27:
21–41

16. Register TC, Jayo MJ, Anthony MS. Soy phytoestrogens do


not prevent bone loss in postmenopausal monkeys. J Clin
Endocrinol Metab 2003; 88: 4362–70

17. Stafford RS, Drieling RL, Hersh AL. National trends in


osteoporosis visits and osteoporosis treatment, 1988–2003.
Arch Intern Med 2004; 164: 1525–30

18. Orwoll ES. Treatment of osteoporosis in men. Calcif


Tissue Int 2004; 75: 114–19

19. Weaver CM, Liebman M. Biomarkers of bone health


appropriate for evaluating functional foods designed to
reduce risk of osteoporosis. Br J Nutr 2002; 88 (Suppl 2):
S225–32

20. Adami S, Gatti D, Braga V, et al. Site-specific effects


of strength training on bone structure and geometry of
ultradistal radius in postmenopausal women. J Bone Min Res
1999; 14: 120–4

21. Chan K, Qin L, Lau M, et al. A randomized, prospective


study of the effects of Tai Chi Chun exercise on bone
mineral density in postmenopausal women. Arch Phys Med
Rehabil 2004; 85: 717–22

22. Lao L. Traditional Chinese Medicine. In Jonas WE, Levin


JS, eds. Essentials of Complementary and Alternative
Medicine. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins,
1999: 216–32

23. Carter ND, Khan KM, McKay HA, et al. Community-based


exercise program reduces risk factors for falls in 65- to
75-yearold women with osteoporosis: randomized controlled
trial. CMAJ 2002; 167: 997–1004

24. Chien MY, Wu YT, Hsu AT, et al. Efficacy of a 24-week


aerobic exercise program for osteopenic postmenopausal
women. Calcif Tissue Int 2000; 67: 443–8

25. Snow CM, Shaw JM, Winters KM, Witzke KA. Long-term
exercise using weighted vests prevents hip bone loss in
postmenopausal women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2000;
55: M489–M491

26. Uusi-Rasi K, Kannus P, Cheng S, et al. Effect of


alendronate and exercise on bone and physical performance
of postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.
Bone 2003; 33: 132–43

27. Dalsky GP, Stocke KS, Ehsani AA, et al. Weight-bearing


exercise training and lumbar bone mineral content in
postmenopausal women. Ann Intern Med 1988; 108: 824–8

28. Sandler RB, Cauley JA, Hom DL, et al. The effects of
walking on the cross-sectional dimensions of the radius in
postmenopausal women. Calcif Tissue Int 1987; 41: 65–9

29. Mayoux-Benhamou MA, Roux C, Perraud A, et al.


Predictors of compliance with a home-based exercise program
added to usual medical care in preventing postmenopausal
osteoporosis: an 18month prospective study. Osteo Int 2005;
16: 325–31

30. Heinonen A, Kannus P, Sievanen H, et al. Randomised


controlled trial of effect of high-impact exercise on
selected risk factors for osteoporotic fractures. Lancet
1996; 348: 1343–7

31. Kerstetter JE, Mitnick ME, Gundberg CM, et al. Changes


in bone turnover in young women consuming different levels
of dietary protein. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999; 84:
1052–5 32. Abelow BJ, Holford TR, Insogna KL.
Cross-cultural association between dietary animal protein
and hip fracture: a hypothesis. Calcif Tissue Int 1992; 50:
14–18 33. Feskanich D, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA.
Protein consumption and bone fractures in women. Am J
Epidemiol 1996; 143: 472–9 34. Nordin BE. International
patterns of osteoporosis. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1966; 45:
17–30 35. Muhlbauer RC, Lozano A, Palacio S, et al. Common
herbs, essential oils, and monoterpenes potently modulate
bone metabolism. Bone 2003; 32: 372–80 36. Kim HJ, Bae YC,
Park RW, et al. Bone-protecting effect of safflower seeds
in ovariectomized rats. Calcif Tissue Int 2002; 71: 88–94
37. Xu H, Lawson D. Theories and practice in prevention and
treatment principles in relation to Chinese herbal medicine
and bone loss. J Tradit Chin Med 2004; 24: 88–92 38.
Sakamoto S, Sassa S, Kudo H, et al. Preventive effects of a
herbal medicine on bone loss in rats treated with a GnRH
agonist. Eur J Endocrinol 2000; 143: 139–42 39. Wuttke W,
Seidlova-Wuttke D, Gorkow C. The Cimicifuga preparation BNO
1055 vs. conjugated estrogens in a doubleblind
placebo-controlled study: effects on menopause symptoms and
bone markers. Maturitas 2003; 44 (Suppl 1): S67–S77 40.
Roemheld-Hamm B, Dahl NV. Herbs, menopause, and dialysis.
Semin Dial 2002; 15: 53–9 41. Branca F. Dietary
phyto-oestrogens and bone health. Proc Nutr Soc 2003; 62:
877–87 42. Cassidy A. Potential risks and benefits of
phytoestrogen-rich diets. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2003; 73:
120–6 43. Setchell KD, Brown NM, Desai P, et al.
Bioavailability of pure isoflavones in healthy humans and
analysis of commercial soy isoflavone supplements. J Nutr
2001; 131 (4 Suppl): 1362S–75S 44. Arjmandi BH, Khalil DA,
Hollis BW. Soy protein: its effects on intestinal calcium
transport, serum vitamin D, and insulin-like growth
factor-I in ovariectomized rats. Calcif Tissue Int 2002;
70: 483–7 45. Arjmandi BH, Khalil DA, Smith BJ, et al. Soy
protein has a greater effect on bone in postmenopausal
women not on hormone replacement therapy, as evidenced by
reducing bone resorption and urinary calcium excretion. J
Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003; 88: 1048–54 46. Gao YH,
Yamaguchi M. Suppressive effect of genistein on rat bone
osteoclasts: involvement of protein kinase inhibition and
protein tyrosine phosphatase activation. Int J Mol Med
2000; 5: 261–7 47. Greendale GA, FitzGerald G, Huang MH, et
al. Dietary soy isoflavones and bone mineral density:
results from the study of women’s health across the nation.
Am J Epidemiol 2002; 155: 746–54 48. Mei J, Yeung SS, Kung
AW. High dietary phytoestrogen intake is associated with
higher bone mineral density in postmenopausal but not
premenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86:
5217–21 49. Somekawa Y, Chiguchi M, Ishibashi T, Aso T. Soy
intake related to menopausal symptoms, serum lipids, and
bone mineral density in postmenopausal Japanese women.
Obstet Gynecol 2001; 97: 109–15 50. Ho SC, Woo J, Lam S, et
al. Soy protein consumption and bone mass in early
postmenopausal Chinese women. Osteo Int 2003; 14: 835–42

51. Kritz-Silverstein D, Goodman-Gruen DL. Usual dietary


isoflavone intake, bone mineral density, and bone
metabolism in postmenopausal women. J Womens Health Gend
Based Med 2002; 11: 69–78

52. Gallagher JC, Satpathy R, Rafferty K, Haynatzka V. The


effect of soy protein isolate on bone metabolism. Menopause
2004; 11: 290–8

53. Nagata C, Shimizu H, Takami R, et al. Soy product


intake and serum isoflavonoid and estradiol concentrations
in relation to bone mineral density in postmenopausal
Japanese women. Osteo Int 2002; 13: 200–4
54. Morabito N, Crisafulli A, Vergara C, et al. Effects of
genistein and hormone-replacement therapy on bone loss in
early postmenopausal women: a randomized double-blind
placebo-controlled study. J Bone Min Res 2002; 17: 1904–12

55. Gennari C, Adami S, Agnusdei D, et al. Effect of


chronic treatment with ipriflavone in postmenopausal women
with low bone mass. Calcif Tissue Int 1997; 61 (Suppl 1):
S19–22

56. Alexandersen P, Toussaint A, Christiansen C, et al.


Ipriflavone in the treatment of postmenopausal
osteoporosis: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Med Assoc
2001; 285: 1482–8

57. Potter SM, Baum JA, Teng H, et al. Soy protein and
isoflavones: their effects on blood lipids and bone density
in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 1998; 68 (6 Suppl):
1375S–9S

58. Clifton-Bligh PB, Baber RJ, Fulcher GR, et al. The


effect of isoflavones extracted from red clover (Rimostil)
on lipid and bone metabolism. Menopause 2001; 8: 259–65

59. Lydeking-Olsen E, Beck-Jensen JE, Setchell KD,


Holm-Jensen T. Soymilk or progesterone for prevention of
bone loss – a 2 year randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
Eur J Nutr 2004; 43: 246–57

60. Strauss L, Santti R, Saarinen N, et al. Dietary


phytoestrogens and their role in hormonally dependent
disease. Toxicol Lett 1998; 102–3: 349–54

61. Albertazzi P, Pansini F, Bonaccorsi G, et al. The


effect of dietary soy supplementation on hot flushes.
Obstet Gynecol 1998; 91: 6–11

62. Fitzpatrick LA. Soy isoflavones: hope or hype?


Maturitas 2003; 44 (Suppl 1): S21–9

63. Morin S. Isoflavones and bone health. Menopause 2004;


11: 239–41

64. Gaby AR. Orthomolecular medicine and megavitamin


therapy. In Jonas WE, Levin JS, eds. Essentials of
Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Philadelphia:
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1999: 459–71 65.
Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, Appel LJ. Fish consumption,
fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease.
Circulation 2002; 106: 2747–57 66. Weiss LA, Barrett-Connor
E, von Muhlen D. Ratio of n-6 to n3 fatty acids and bone
mineral density in older adults: the Rancho Bernardo Study.
Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 81: 934–8 67. Watkins BA, Li Y,
Lippman HE, Feng S. Modulatory effect of omega-3
polyunsaturated fatty acids on osteoblast function and bone
metabolism. Prost Leuk Ess Fatty Acids 2003; 68: 387–98 68.
Sakaguchi K, Morita I, Murota S. Eicosapentaenoic acid
inhibits bone loss due to ovariectomy in rats. Prost Leuk
Ess Fatty Acids 1994; 50: 81–4 69. Kruger MC, Coetzer H, de
Winter R, et al. Calcium, gammalinolenic acid and
eicosapentaenoic acid supplementation in senile
osteoporosis. Aging (Milano) 1998; 10: 385–94 70. Bassey
EJ, Littlewood JJ, Rothwell MC, Pye DW. Lack of effect of
supplementation with essential fatty acids on bone mineral
density in healthy pre- and postmenopausal women: two
randomized controlled trials of Efacal v. calcium alone. Br
J Nutr 2000; 83: 629–35 71. Braam LA, Knapen MH, Geusens P,
et al. Vitamin K1 supplementation retards bone loss in
postmenopausal women between 50 and 60 years of age. Calcif
Tissue Int 2003; 73: 21–6 72. Feskanich D, Weber P, Willett
WC, et al. Vitamin K intake and hip fractures in women: a
prospective study. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69: 74–9 73. Hart
JP, Shearer MJ, Klenerman L, et al. Electrochemical
detection of depressed circulating levels of vitamin K1 in
osteoporosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1985; 60: 1268–9 74.
Ishida Y, Kawai S. Comparative efficacy of hormone
replacement therapy, etidronate, calcitonin, alfacalcidol,
and vitamin K in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis:
The Yamaguchi Osteoporosis Prevention Study. Am J Med 2004;
117: 549–55 75. Melhus H, Michaelsson K, Kindmark A, et al.
Excessive dietary intake of vitamin A is associated with
reduced bone mineral density and increased risk for hip
fracture. Ann Intern Med 1998; 129: 770–8 76. Feskanich D,
Singh V, Willett WC, Colditz GA. Vitamin A intake and hip
fractures among postmenopausal women. J Am Med Assoc 2002;
287: 47–54 77. Hall SL, Greendale GA. The relation of
dietary vitamin C intake to bone mineral density: results
from the PEPI study. Calcif Tissue Int 1998; 63: 183–9
Male and female sexual dysfunction 45

1. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and


Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn.
Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1994

2. Frank E, Anderson C, Rubinstein D. Frequency of sexual


dysfunction in ‘normal’ couples. N Engl J Med 1978; 299:
111–15

3. Spector IP, Carey MP. Incidence and prevalence of the


sexual dysfunctions: a critical review of the empirical
literature. Arch Sex Behav 1990; 19: 389–408

4. Rosen RC, Taylor JF, Leiblum SR, Bachmann GA. Prevalence


of sexual dysfunction in women: results of a survey study
of 329 women in an outpatient gynecological clinic. J Sex
Marital Ther 1993; 19: 171–88

5. Laumann EO, Paik A, Rosen RC. Sexual dysfunction in the


United States: prevalence and predictors. J Am Med Assoc
1999; 281: 537–44

6. Rajfer J, Aronson WJ, Bush PA, et al. Nitric oxide as a


mediator of relaxation of the corpus cavernosum in response
to nonadrenergic, noncholinergic neurotransmission. N Engl
J Med 1992; 326: 90–4

7. Burnett AL. Role of nitric oxide in the physiology of


erection. Biol Reprod 1995; 52: 485–9

8. Park K, Goldstein I, Andry C, et al. Vasculogenic female


sexual dysfunction: the hemodynamic basis for vaginal
engorgement insufficiency and clitoral erectile
insufficiency. Int J Impot Res 1997; 9: 27–37

9. Heaton JP, Morales A, Adams MA, et al. Recovery of


erectile function by the oral administration of
apomorphine. Urology 1995; 45: 200–6

10. Morales A, Heaton JP, Johnston B, Adams M. Oral and


topical treatment of erectile dysfunction. Present and
future. Urol Clin N Am 1995; 22: 879–86

11. Boolell M, Gepi-Attee S, Gingell JC, Allen MJ.


Sildenafil, a novel effective oral therapy for male
erectile dysfunction. Br J Urol 1996; 78: 257–61

12. Rosen RC, Ashton AK. Prosexual drugs: empirical status


of the ‘new aphrodisiacs’. Arch Sex Behav 1993; 22: 521–43
13. Segraves RT, Saran A, Segraves K, Maguire E.
Clomipramine versus placebo in the treatment of premature
ejaculation: a pilot study. J Sex Marital Ther 1993; 19:
198–200 14. NIH. NIH Consensus Conference. Impotence. NIH
Consensus Development Panel on Impotence. J Am Med Assoc
1993; 270: 83–90 15. Feldman HA, Goldstein I, Hatzichristou
DG, et al. Impotence and its medical and psychosocial
correlates: results of the Massachusetts Male Aging Study.
J Urol 1994; 151: 54–61 16. Benet AE, Melman A. The
epidemiology of erectile dysfunction. Urol Clin N Am 1995;
22: 699–709 17. Lue TF. Erectile dysfunction. N Engl J Med
2000; 342: 1802–13 18. O’Leary M. Erectile dysfunction. In
Godlee F, ed. Clinical Evidence. London: BMJ Books, 1999
19. Padma-Nathan H, Giuliano F. Oral drug therapy for
erectile dysfunction. Urol Clin N Am 2001; 28: 321–34 20.
Segraves RT. Treatment emergent sexual dysfunction in
affective disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 1993; 11: 1–4 21.
Price J, Grunhaus LJ. Treatment of clomipramine-induced
anorgasmia with yohimbine: a case report. J Clin Psychiatry
1990; 51: 32–3 22. Tam SW, Worcel M, Wyllie M. Yohimbine: a
clinical review. Pharmacol Ther 2001; 91: 215–43 23. Welt
K, Weiss J, Koch S, Fitzl G. Protective effects of Ginkgo
biloba extract EGb 761 on the myocardium of experimentally
diabetic rats. II. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical
investigation on microvessels and interstitium. Exp Toxicol
Pathol 1999; 51: 213–22 24. Paick JS, Lee JH. An
experimental study of the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract
on the human and rabbit corpus cavernosum tissue. J Urol
1996; 156: 1876–80 25. Richard S, Michael S, Friedrich JD,
et al. Ginkgo biloba extract in therapy for erectile
dysfunction. J Urol 1989; 141: 188A 26. Cohen AJ, Bartlik
B. Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant-induced sexual
dysfunction. J Sex Marital Ther 1998; 24: 139–43

27. Attele AS, Wu JA, Yuan CS. Ginseng pharmacology:


multiple constituents and multiple actions. Biochem
Pharmacol 1999; 58: 1685–93

28. Murphy LL, Lee TJ. Ginseng, sex behavior, and nitric
oxide. Ann NY Acad Sci 2002; 962: 372–7

29. Murphy LL, Cadena RS, Chavez D, Ferraro JS. Effect of


American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) on male copulatory
behavior in the rat. Physiol Behav 1998; 64: 445–50

30. Vogler BK, Pittler MH, Ernst E. The efficacy of


ginseng. A systematic review of randomised clinical trials.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 55: 567–75

31. Choi HK, Seong DH, Rha KH. Clinical efficacy of Korean
red ginseng for erectile dysfunction. Int J Impot Res 1995;
7: 181–6

32. Chen X, Lee TJ. Ginsenosides-induced nitric


oxide-mediated relaxation of the rabbit corpus cavernosum.
Br J Pharmacol 1995; 115: 15–18

33. Han SW, Kim H. Ginsenosides stimulate endogenous


production of nitric oxide in rat kidney. Int J Biochem
Cell Biol 1996; 28: 573–80

34. Salvati G, Genovesi G, Marcellini L, et al. Effects of


Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer saponins on male fertility.
Panminerva Med 1996; 38: 249–54

35. Adimoelja A. Phytochemicals and the breakthrough of


traditional herbs in the management of sexual dysfunctions.
Int J Androl 2000; 23 (Suppl 2): 82–4

36. Moeloek N, Pangkahila W, Tanojo TD, Adimoelja A. Trials


on Tribulus terrestris on idiopathic
ologo-asthenoteratozoosperms. Paper presented at 6th
National Congress Indonesian Society of Andrology and 3rd
International Symposium of Andrology, Manado, Indonesia,
1994

37. Morales AJ, Nolan JJ, Nelson JC. Effects of replacement


dose of dehydroepiandrosterone in men and women of
advancing age. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1994; 78: 1360–7

38. Foster S. Herbs and sex: separating fact from fantasy.


Health Food Bus 1991; 74: 573–80

39. Zava DT, Dollbaum CM, Blen M. Estrogen and progestin


bioactivity of foods, herbs, and spices. Proc Soc Exp Biol
Med 1998; 217: 369–78

40. Arletti R, Benelli A, Cavazzuti E, et al. Stimulating


property of Turnera diffusa and Pfaffia paniculata extracts
on the sexualbehavior of male rats. Psychopharmacology
(Berl) 1999; 143: 15–19

41. Bayer JR. Treatment of infertility with vitamin E. Int


J Fertility 1960; 5: 70–8

42. Sandler B, Faragher B. Treatment of oligospermia with


vitamin B12. Infertility 1984; 7: 133–8

43. Kumamoto Y, Maruta H, Ishigami J, et al. Clinical


efficacy of mecobalamin in the treatment of oligozoospermia
– results of double-blind comparative clinical study.
Hinyokika Kiyo 1988; 34: 1109–32

44. Mohan H, Verma J, Singh I, et al. Inter-relationship of


zinc levels in serum and semen in oligospermic infertile
patients and fertile males. Ind J Pathol Microbiol 1997;
40: 451–5

45. Robinson K, Arheart K, Refsum H, et al. Low circulating


folate and vitamin B 6 concentrations: risk factors for
stroke, peripheral vascular disease, and coronary artery
disease. European COMAC Group. Circulation 1998; 97: 437–43

46. Crimmel AS, Conner CS, Monga M. Withered Yang: a review


of traditional Chinese medical treatment of male
infertility and erectile dysfunction. J Androl 2001; 22:
173–82 47. Sato Y, Horita H, Adachi H, et al. Effect of
oral administration of prostaglandin E 1 on erectile
dysfunction. Br J Urol 1997; 80: 772–5 48. Tong YC, Hung
YC, Lin SN, Cheng JT. Treatment effect of
‘ryu-wei-ti-huang-wan’ (a Chinese herbal prescription) on
the sexual performance of male rats with
streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Urol Int 1996; 57: 230–4
49. Bakircioglu ME, Hsu K, El-Sakka A, et al. Effect of a
Chinese herbal medicine mixture on a rat model of
hypercholesterolemic erectile dysfunction. J Urol 2000;
164: 1798–801 50. Ojha JK, Roy CK, Bajpai HS. Clinical
trial of mustong on secondary sexual impotence in male
married diabetics. J Med Assoc Thai 1987; 70 (Suppl 2):
228–30 51. Chen J, Wollman Y, Chernichovsky T, et al.
Effect of oral administration of high-dose nitric oxide
donor L-arginine in men with organic erectile dysfunction:
results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled
study. BJU Int 1999; 83: 269–73 52. Berman JR, Berman LA,
Werbin TJ, Goldstein I. Female sexual dysfunction: anatomy,
physiology, evaluation and treatment options. Curr Opin
Urol 1999; 9: 563–8 53. Lebret T, Hervé J-M, Gorny P, et
al. Efficacy and safety of a novel combination of
L-arginine glutamate and yohimbin hydrochloride: a new oral
therapy for erectile dysfunction. Eur J Clin Pharmacol
2002; 41: 608–13 54. Klotz T, Mathers MJ, Braun M, et al.
Effectiveness of oral L-arginine in first-line treatment
of erectile dysfunction in a controlled crossover study.
Urol Int 1999; 63: 220–3 55. Aydin S, Ercan M, Caskurlu T,
et al. Acupuncture and hypnotic suggestions in the
treatment of non-organic male sexual dysfunction. Scand J
Urol Nephrol 1997; 31: 271–4 56. Kho HG, Sweep CG, Chen X,
et al. The use of acupuncture in the treatment of erectile
dysfunction. Int J Impot Res 1999; 11: 41–6 57. Yaman LS,
Kilic S, Sarica K, et al. The place of acupuncture in the
management of psychogenic impotence. Eur Urol 1994; 26:
52–5 58. Zhu Y, Ni L. Treatment of impotence by Chinese
herbs and acupuncture. J Tradit Chin Med 1997; 17: 226–37
59. Reynolds BS. Biofeedback and facilitation of erection
in men with erectile dysfunction. Arch Sex Behav 1980; 9:
101–13 60. Aydin S, Odabas O, Ercan M, et al. Efficacy of
testosterone, trazodone and hypnotic suggestion in the
treatment of non-organic male sexual dysfunction. Br J Urol
1996; 77: 256–60 61. Lavoisier P, Proulx J, Courtois F.
Reflex contractions of the ischiocavernosus muscles
following electrical and pressure stimulations. J Urol
1988; 139: 396–9 62. Claes H, Baert L. Pelvic floor
exercise versus surgery in the treatment of impotence. Br J
Urol 1993; 71: 52–7 63. Newman HF, Northup JD. Mechanism of
human penile erection: an overview. Urology 1981; 17:
399–408 64. Wagner G. Erection physiology and
endocrinology. In Wagner G, Green RP, eds. Impotence:
Physiological, Psycological, Surgical Diagnosis and
Treatment. New York: Plenum Press, 1981 65. Junemann KP,
Luo JA, Lue TF. Further evidence of venous outflow
restriction during erection. Br J Urol 1986; 58: 320–4 66.
Kaplan HS. The New Sex Therapy. London: Bailliere Tindall,
1974 67. Goldstein I, Berman JR. Vasculogenic female sexual
dysfunction: vaginal engorgement and clitoral erectile
insufficiency syndromes. Int J Impot Res 1998; 10 (Suppl
2): S84–90; discussion S98–101

68. Berman JR, McCarthy MM, Kyprianou N. Effect of estrogen


withdrawal on nitric oxide synthase expression and
apoptosis in the rat vagina. Urology 1998; 51: 650–6

69. Pau MY, Milner JA. Dietary arginine and sexual


maturation of the female rat. J Nutr 1982; 112: 1834–42

70. Kaplan SA, Reis RB, Kohn IJ, et al. Safety and efficacy
of sildenafil in postmenopausal women with sexual
dysfunction. Urology 1999; 53: 481–6 71. Piletz JE,
Segraves KB, Feng YZ, et al. Plasma MHPG response to
yohimbine treatment in women with hypoactive sexual desire.
J Sex Marital Ther 1998; 24: 43–54 72. Ito TY, Trant AS,
Polan ML. A double-blind placebo-controlled study of
ArginMax, a nutritional supplement for enhancement of
female sexual function. J Sex Marital Ther 2001; 27: 541–9
Benign prostatic hyperplasia 46

10. McConnell JD, Roehrborn CG, Bautista OM, et al. The


longterm effect of doxazosin, finasteride, and combination
therapy of the clinical progression of benign prostatic
hyperplasia. N Engl J Med 2003; 349: 2387–98

11. Lowe FC, Ku JC. Phytotherapy in treatment of benign


prostatic hyperplasia: a critical review. Urology 1996;
48: 12–20 12. Carraro JC, Raynaud UJP, Koch G, et al.
Comparison of phytotherapy (Permixon) with finasteride in
the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia: a randomized
international study of 1098 patients. Prostate 1996; 29:
231–40 13. Goepel M, Hecker U, Krege S, et al. Saw palmetto
extracts potently and noncompetitively inhibit human
α1-adrenoceptors in vitro. Prostate 1999; 38: 208–15 14. Di
Silverio F, D’Eramo G, Lubrano C, et al. Evidence that
Serenoa repens extract displays an antiestrogenic activity
in prostatic tissue of benign prostatic hypertrophy
patients. Eur Urol 1992; 21: 309–14 15. Delos S, Iehle C,
Martin PM. Inhibition of the activity of basic
5alpha-reductase (type 1) detected in DU 145 cells and
expressed in insect cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1994;
48: 347–52 16. Bayne CW, Grant ES, Chapman K, Habib FK.
Characterisation of a new co-culture model for BPH which
expresses 5-alpha reductase types 1 and 2: the effects of
Permixon on DHT formation. J Urol 1997; 157 (Suppl 4): 755
17. Sultan C, Terraza A, Devillier C, et al. Inhibition of
androgen metabolism and binding by a liposterolic extract
of ‘Serenoa repens B’ in human foreskin fibroblasts. J
Steroid Biochem 1984; 20: 515–19 18. Carilla E, Briley M,
Fauran F, et al. Binding of Permixon, a new treatment for
prostatic benign hyperplasia, to the cytosolic androgen
receptor in the rat prostate. J Steroid Biochem 1984; 20:
521–3 19. Di Silverio F, Monti S, Sciarra A, et al. Effects
of long-term treatment with Serenoa repens (Permixon) on
the concentrations and regional distribution of androgens
and epidermal growth factor in benign prostatic
hyperplasia. Prostate 1998; 37: 77–83 20. Monti S, Sciarra
F, Adamo MV, et al. Prevalent decrease of the EGF content
in the periurethral zone of BPH tissue induced by treatment
with finasteride or flutamide. J Androl 1997; 18: 488–94
21. Marks LS, Hess DL, Dorey FJ, et al. Tissue effects of
saw palmetto and finasteride: use of biopsy cores for in
situ quantification of prostatic androgens. Urology 2001;
57: 999–1005

22. Rhodes L, Primka RL, Berman C, et al. Comparison of


finasteride (Proscar), a 5-alpha reductase inhibitor, and
various commercial plant extracts in in vitro and in vivo
5-alpha reductase inhibition. Prostate 1993; 22: 43–51

23. Strauch G, Perles P, Vergult G, et al. Comparison of


finasteride (Proscar) and Serenoa repens (Permixon) in the
inhibition of 5alpha reductase in healthy male volunteers.
Eur Urol 1994; 26: 247–52

24. Lowe FC, Fagelman E. Phytotherapy in the treatment of


benign prostatic hyperplasia: an update. Urology 1999; 53:
671–8

25. Gerber GS, Zagaja GP, Bales GT, et al. Saw palmetto
(Serenoa repens) in men with lower urinary tract symptoms:
effects on urodynamic parameters and voiding symptoms.
Urology 1998; 51: 1003–7

26. Braeckman J. The extract of Serenoa repens in the


treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a multicenter
open study. Curr Ther Res 1994; 55: 776–85

27. Bayne CW, Ross M, Donnelly F, Habib FK. The selectivity


and specificity of the actions of the lipido-sterolic
extract of Serenoa repens (Permixon) on the prostate. J
Urol 2000; 164: 876–81

28. Marks LS, Partin AW, Epstein JI, et al. Effects of a


saw palmetto herbal blend in men with symptomatic benign
prostatic hyperplasia. J Urol 2000; 163: 1451–6

29. Champault G, Patel JC, Bonnard AM. A double-blind trial


of an extract of the plant Serenoa repens in benign
prostatic hyperplasia. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1984; 18: 461–2

30. Cukier J, Ducassou J, Le Guillou M, et al. Serenoa


repens extract vs. placebo. Pharmacol Clin 1985; 4: 15–21

31. Descotes JL, Rambeaud JJ, Deschaseaux P, Faure G.


Placebo controlled evaluation of the efficacy and
tolerability of Permixon in benign prostatic hyperplasia
after exclusion of placebo responders. Clin Drug Invest
1995; 9: 291–7

32. Emile E, Lo Cigno M, Petrone U. Clinical results on a


new drug in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia
(Permixon). Urologia 1983; 50: 1042–9

33. Reece Smith H, Memon A, Smart CJ, Dewbury K. The value


of Permixon in benign prostatic hypertrophy Br J Urol 1986;
58: 36–40
34. Wilt TJ, Ishani A, Stark G, et al. Saw palmetto
extracts for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. A
systematic review. J Am Med Assoc 1998; 280: 1604–9

35. Gerber GS, Kuznetsov D, Johnson BC, Burstein JD.


Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of saw
palmetto in men with lower urinary tract symptoms. Urology
2001; 58: 960–4; discussion 964–5

36. Willets KE, Clements MS, Champion S, et al. Serenoa


repens extract for benign prostate hyperplasia: a
randomized controlled trial. BJU Int 2002; 92: 267–70

37. Debruyne F, Koch G, Boyle P, et al. Comparison of a


phytotherapeutic agent (Permixon) with an α-blocker
(Tamsulosin) in the treatment of benign prostatic
hyperplasia: a 1-year randomized international study. Eur
Urol 2002; 41: 497–507

38. Boyle P, Robertson C, Lowe F, Roehrborn C.


Meta-analysis of clinical trials of Permixon in the
treatment of symptomatic benign hyperplasia. Urology 2000;
55: 533–9

39. Lepor H, Williford WO, Barry MJ, et al. The efficacy of


terazosin, finasteride, or both in benign prostatic
hyperplasia. N Engl J Med 1996; 335: 533–9

40. Lowrey DB. Herbal Tonic Therapies. New Canaan: Keats


Publishing, Inc., 1993 41. Meyer JP, Gillatt DA.
Alternative medications for benign prostatic hyperplasia
available on the Internet: a review of the evidence for
their use. BJU Int 2002; 90: 41–4 42. Levin RM, Riffaud JP,
Bellamy F, et al. Effects of Tadenan pretreatment on
bladder physiology and biochemistry following partial
outlet obstruction. J Urol 1996; 156: 2084–8 43.
Krasnopolsky L, Zhao Y, Wein AJ. Protective effect of
Tadenan on bladder function secondary to partial outlet
obstruction. J Urol 1996; 155: 1446–70 44. Levin RM,
Riffaud JP, Bellamy F, et al. Protective effect of Tadenan
on bladder function secondary to partial outlet
obstruction. J Urol 1996; 155: 1466–70 45. Choo MS, Bellamy
F, Constantinou CE. Functional evaluation of Tadenan on
micturition and experimental prostate growth induced with
exogenous dihydrotestosterone. Urology 2000; 55: 292–8 46.
Yoshimura Y, Yamaguchi O, Bellamy F, Constantinou CE.
Effect of Pygeum africanum Tadenan on micturition and
prostate growth of the rat secondary to coadministered
treatment and post-treatment with dihydrotestosterone.
Urology 2003; 61: 474–8 47. Yablonsky F, Nicolas V, Riffaud
JP, Bellamy F. Antiproliferative effect of Pygeum africanum
extract on rat prostatic fibroblasts. J Urol 1997; 157:
2381–7 48. Paubert-Braquet M, Monboisse JC, Servent-Saez N,
et al. Inhibition of bFGF and EGF-induced proliferation of
3T3 fibroblasts by extract of Pygeum africanum (Tadenan).
Biomed Pharmacother 1994; 48 (Suppl 1): 43–7 49. Dufour B,
Choquenet C, Revol M, et al. Controlled study of the
effects of Pygeum africanum extract on the functional
symptoms of prostatic adenoma. Ann Urol 1984; 18: 193–5 50.
Breza J, Dzurny O, Borowka A, et al. Efficacy and
acceptability of Tadenan (Pygeum africanum extract) in the
treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): a
multicentre trial in central Europe. Curr Med Res Opin
1998; 14: 127–39 51. Chatelain C, Autet W, Brackman F.
Comparison of once and twice daily dosage forms of Pygeum
africanum extract in patients with benign prostatic
hyperplasia: a randomized, double-blind study, with
long-term open label extension. Urology 1999; 54: 473–8 52.
Ishani A, MacDonald R, Nelson D, et al. Pygeum africanum
for the treatment of patients with benign prostatic
hyperplasia: a systematic review and quantitative
meta-analysis. Am J Med 2000; 109: 654–64 53. Barlet A,
Albrecht J, Aubert A, et al. Wirksamkeit eines Extraktes
aus Pygeum africanum in der medikamentosen Therapie von
Miktionsstorungen infolge einer benignen Prostathyperplasi:
bewertung objektiver und subjektiver Parameter. Wie Klin
Wochenschr 1990; 102: 667–73 54. Wilt T, Ishani A,
MacDonald R, et al. Pygeum africanum for benign prostatic
hyperplasia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002; 1: CD001044
55. Fagelman E, Lowe FC. Herbal medications in the
treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Urol Clin
N Am 2002; 29: 23–9 56. Carbin BE, Larsson B, Lindahl O.
Treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia with
phytosterols. Br J Urol 1987; 66: 639–41 57. Berges RR,
Windeier J, Trampisch HJ, Senge T. Randomised,
placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of
beta-sitosterol in patients with benign prostatic
hyperplasia. Lancet 1995; 345: 1529–32

58. Kassen A, Berges R, Senge T. Effect of beta-sitosterol


on transforming growth factor-beta-1 expression and
translocation protein kinase C alpha in human prostate
stromal cells in vitro. Eur Urol 2000; 37: 735–41

59. Berges RR, Kassen A, Senge T. Treatment of symptomatic


benign prostatic hyperplasia with β-sitosterol: an 18-month
follow-up. BJU Int 2000; 85: 842–6

60. Klippel KF, Hiltl DM, Schipp B. A multicentric,


placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of
beta-sitosterol (phytosterol) for the treatment of benign
prostatic hyperplasia. German BPHPhyto Study group. Br J
Urol 1997; 80: 427–32

61. Wilt T, Ishani A, MacDonald R, et al. Beta-sitosterols


for benign prostatic hyperplasia (Cochrane Review). In The
Cochrane Library. Chichester: Wiley, 2003; 4

62. Buck AC, Cox R, Rees WM, et al. Treatment of outflow


tract obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia with
the pollen extract, Cernilton. A double-blind,
placebo-controlled study. Br J Urol 1990; 66: 398–404

63. MacDonald R, Ishani A, Rutks I, Wilt TJ. A systematic


review of Cernilton for the treatment of benign prostatic
hyperplasia. BJU Int 2000; 85: 836–41

64. Ito R, Ishii M, Yamashita S. Cernitin pollen-extract


(Cernilton): antiprostatic hypertrophic action of Cernitin
pollen-extract (Cernilton). Pharmacometrics 1986; 31: 1–11

65. Kimura M, Kimura I, Nakase K, et al. Micturition


activity of pollen extract: contractile effects on bladder
and inhibitory effects on urethral smooth muscle of mouse
and pig. Planta Med 1986; 2: 148–51

66. Nakase S, Takenaka K, Hamanaka T, Kimura M. Effects of


Cernilton pollen-extract on the urethral smooth muscle and
diaphragmatic neuromuscular specimen. Folio Pharmacol Japan
1988; 91: 385–92 67. Habib FK, Buck AC, Ross M. In vitro
valuation of the pollen extract, Cernitin T-60, in the
regulation of prostate cell growth. Br J Urol 1990; 66:
393–7 68. Dutkiewicz S. Usefulness of Cernilton in the
treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Int Urol Nephrol
1996; 28: 49–53 69. MacDonald R, Rutks II, Wilt TJ. A
systematic review of Cernilton for the treatment of benign
prostatic hyperplasia. BJU Int 1999; 85: 836–41 70. Hryb
DJ, Khan MS, Romas NA, Rosner W. The effects of extracts of
the roots of the stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on the
interaction of SHBG with its receptor on human prostatic
membranes. Planta Med 1995; 61: 31–2 71. Wagner W, Willer
F, Samtleben R, Boos G. Search for the antiprostatic
principle of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) roots.
Phytomedicine 1994; 1: 213–24 72. Hirano T, Homma M, Oka K.
Effects of stinging nettle root extracts and their steroid
components on the Na1,K2-ATPase of the benign prostatic
hyperplasia. Planta Med 1994; 60: 30–3 73. Engelmann U,
Boos G, Kres H. Therapie der benignen Prostathyperplasie
mit Bazoton Liquidum. Urologe B 1996; 36: 287–91 74. Romics
I. Observations with Bazoton in the management of prostatic
hyperplasia. Int Urol Nephrol 1987; 19: 293–7 75. Carbin
BE, Larsson B, Lindahl O. Treatment of benign prostatic
hyperplasia with phytosterols. Br J Urol 1990; 66: 639–41
76. Metzker H, Martin C. Efficacy and safety of the Sabal
Urtica combination PRO 160/120 in the treatment of patients
with benign prostatic hyperplasia (a placebo-controlled
double-blind long term clinical trial). 4th International
Consensus on BPH, Paris, 1997: abstract 15
Mood disorders, premenstrual 47 syndrome,
and mastalgia

1. Dennerstein L, Dudley EC, Hopper JL, et al. A


prospective population-based study of menopausal symptoms.
Obstet Gynecol 2000; 96: 351–8

2. Perovic S, Muller WEG. Pharmacological profile of


hypericum extract. Effect of serotonin uptake by
postsynaptic receptors. Arzneimittelforschung 1995; 45:
1145–8

3. http://nccam.nih.gov/

4. Bennett DA Jr, Phun L, Polk JF, et al. Neuropharmacology


of St. John’s Wort. Ann Pharmacother 1998; 32: 1201–8

5. Kalb R, Trautmann-Sponsel RD, Kieser M. Efficacy and


tolerability of hypericum extract WS 5572 versus placebo in
mildly to moderately depressed patients. A randomized
double-blind multicenter clinical trail. Pharmacopsychiatry
2001; 34: 96–103

6. Brenner R, Azbel V, Madhusoodanan S, Pawlowska M.


Comparison of an extract of hypericum (LI 160) and
sertraline in the treatment of depression; a double-blind,
randomized pilot study. Clin Ther 2000; 22: 411–19

7. Behnke K, Jensen GS, Graubaum HG, Gruenwald J. Hypericum


perforatum versus fluoxetine in the treatment of mild to
moderate depression. Adv Ther 2002; 19: 43–52

8. Linde K, Ramirez G, Mulrow CD, et al. St. John’s Wort


for depression. Br Med J 1996; 313: 253–8

9. Gaster B, Holroyd J. St. John’s Wort for depression: a


systematic review. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160: 152–6 10.
Shelton RC, Keller MB, Gelenberg A, et al. Effectiveness of
St John’s wort in major depression. A randomized controlled
trial. J Am Med Assoc 2001; 285: 1978–86 11. Hypericum
Depression Trial Study Group. Effect of Hypericum
perforatum (St. John’s Wort) in major depressive disorder.
A randomized controlled trial. J Am Med Assoc 2002; 287:
1807–14 12. Szegedi A, Kohnen R, Dienel A, Kieser M. Acute
treatment of moderate to severe depression with hypericum
extract WS 5570 (St John’s wort): randomized controlled
double blind non-inferiority trial versus paroxetine. Br
Med J 2005; 330: 759 13. Ernst E, Rand JI, Barnes J,
Stevinson C. Adverse effects profile of herbal
antidepressant St. John’s Wort. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1998;
54: 589–94 14. Ernst E. St. John’s Wort supplements
endanger the success of organ transplantation. Arch Surg
2002; 137: 316–19 15. Ratz AE, von Moos M, Drewe J. St.
John’s Wort: a pharmaceutical with potentially dangerous
interaction. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax 2001; 90: 843–9 16.
Baede-van Dijk PA, van Galen E, Lekkerkerker JF. Drug
interaction of Hypericum perforatum are potentially
hazardous. Ned Tijdschr Geneesk 2000; 144: 811–12 17. Patel
S, Robinson R, Burk M. Hypertensive crisis associated with
St. John’s Wort. Am J Med 2002; 112: 507–8

18. Cardinal BJ, Engels HJ. Ginseng does not enhance


psychological well-being in healthy, young adults. Results
of a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical
trial. J Am Diet Assoc 2001; 101: 655–60

19. Wiklund IK, Mattsson LA, Lindgren R, Limoni C. Effects


of a standardized ginseng extract on quality of life and
physiological parameters in symptomatic postmenopausal
women: a double blind, placebo controlled trial. Int J Clin
Pharmacol Res 1999; 19: 89–99

20. Greenspan EM. Ginseng and vaginal bleeding. J Am Med


Assoc 1983; 249: 2018

21. Amato P, Christophe S, Mellon PL. Estrogenic activity


of herbs commonly used as remedies for menopausal symptoms.
Menopause 2002; 9: 145–50

22. Abraham GE. Nutritional factors in the etiology of the


premenstrual tension syndrome. J Reprod Med 1983; 28:
446–64

23. Kleijnen J, Ter Riet G, Knipschild P. Vitamin B6 in the


treatment of the premenstrual syndrome – a review. Br J
Obstet Gynaecol 1991; 97: 847–52

24. Wyatt KM, Dimmock PW, Jones PW, et al. Efficacy of


vitamin B-6 in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome:
systematic review. Br Med J 1999; 318: 1375–81

25. Facchinetti F, Borella P, Sances G, et al. Oral


magnesium successfully relieves premenstrual mood changes.
Obstet Gynecol 1991; 78: 177–81

26. Walker AF, DeSouza MC, Vickers MF, et al. Magnesium


supplementation alleviates premenstrual symptoms of fluid
retention. J Womens Health 1998; 7: 1157–65

27. DeSouza MC, Walker AF, Robinson PA, Bolland K. A


synergistic effect of a daily supplement for 1 month of 200
mg magnesium plus 50 mg vitamin B6 for the relief of
anxiety-related premenstrual symptoms: a randomized,
double-blind, crossover study. J Womens Health Gend Based
Med 2000; 9: 131–9

28. Thys-Jacobs S. Micronutrients and the premenstrual


syndrome: the case for calcium. J Am Coll Nutr 2000; 19:
220–7

29. Thys-Jacobs S, Ceccarelli S, Bierman A, et al. Calcium


supplementation in premenstrual syndrome. J Gen Intern Med
1989; 4: 183–9

30. Thys-Jacobs S, Silverton M, Alvir J, et al. Reduced


bone mass in women with premenstrual syndrome. J Womens
Health 1995; 4: 161–8

31. Penland JG, Johnson PE. Dietary calcium and manganese


effects on menstrual cycle symptoms. Am J Obstet Gynecol
1993; 168: 1417–23 32. Thys-Jacobs S, Starkey P, Bernstein
D, et al. Calcium carbonate and the premenstrual syndrome:
effects on premenstrual and menstrual symptoms. Am J Obstet
Gynecol 1998; 179: 444–52 33. Loch EG, Selle H, Boblitz N.
Treatment of premenstrual syndrome with a
phytopharmaceutical formulation containing Vitex agnus
castus. J Womens Health Gend Based Med 2000; 9: 315–20 34.
Berger D, Schaffner W, Schrader E, et al. Efficacy of Vitex
agnus castus L. extract Ze 440 in patients with
pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS). Arch Gynecol Obstet 2000;
264: 150–3 35. Schellenberg R. Treatment for the
premenstrual syndrome with agnus castus fruit extract:
prospective, randomized, placebo controlled study. Br Med J
2001; 322: 134–7 36. Sampson GA. Premenstrual syndrome: a
double blind controlled trial of progesterone and placebo.
Br J Psychiatry 1979; 135: 209–15 37. Freeman E, Rickels K,
Sondheimer SJ, Polansky M. Ineffectiveness of progesterone
suppository treatment for premenstrual syndrome. J Am Med
Assoc 1990; 264: 349–53 38. Dennerstein L, Spencer-Gardner
C, Gotts G, et al. Progesterone and the premenstrual
syndrome: a double blind crossover trial. Br Med J 1985;
290: 1617–21 39. BeLieu RM. Mastodynia. Obstet Gynecol Clin
N Am 1994; 21: 461–78 40. Gately CA, Maddox PR, Pritchard
GA, et al. Plasma fatty acid profiles in benign breast
disorders. Br J Surg 1992; 79: 407–9 41. Strid J, Jepson R,
Moore V, et al. Evening primrose oil or other essential
fatty acids for the treatment of pre-menstrual syndrome
(PMS). (Protocol for a Cochrane Review.) Cochrane Library,
2002; issue 2 42. Wetzig NR. Mastalgia; a 3 year Australian
study. Aust NZ J Surg 1994; 64: 329–31 43. Cheung KL.
Management of cyclical mastalgia in oriental women: pioneer
experiment of using gamolenic acid (Efamast) in Asia. Aust
NZ J Surg 1999; 69: 492–4 44. Budeiri D, Li Wan Po A, Doran
JC. Is evening primrose oil of value in the treatment of
premenstrual syndrome? Cont Clin Trials 1996; 17: 60–8 45.
Horner NK, Lampe JW. Potential mechanisms of diet therapy
for fibrocystic breast conditions show inadequate evidence
of effectiveness. J Am Diet Assoc 2000; 1000: 1368–80 46.
Ziaei S, Faghihzadeh S, Sohrabvand F, et al. A randomized
placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of vitamin
E in treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. BJOG 2001; 108:
1181–3
Perimenopause and menopause 48

estrogen. Hopefully, the NIH and other trials underway

will provide data that will shed further light on which

therapies are most appropriate in what situations and for


which patients. This will allow clinicians and care
providers the greatest opportunity to improve patients’
quality of life.

30. Tyler VE. Honest herbalist; the bright side of black


cohosh. Prevention 1997; 49: 76–9

31. Amato P, Christophe S, Mellon PL. Estrogenic activity


of herbs commonly used as remedies for menopausal symptoms.
Menopause 2002; 9: 145–50

32. Seidlova-Wuttke DF, Hesse O, Jarry H, et al. Evidence


for selective estrogen receptor modulator activity in a
black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) extract: comparison with
estradiol17beta. Eur J Endocrinol 2003; 149: 351–62

33. Jacobson JS, Troxel AB, Klaus EJ, et al. Randomized


trial of black cohosh for the treatment of hot flashes
among women with a history of breast cancer. J Clin Oncol
2001; 19: 2739–45

34. Liske E, Hanggi W, Henneicke-von Zepelin HH, et al.


Physiological investigation of a unique extract of black
cohosh (Cimicifugae racemosae rhizoma): a 6-month clinical
study demonstrates no systemic estrogenic effect. J Womens
Health Gend Based Med 2002; 11: 163–74

35. Osmers R, Friede M, Liske E, et al. Efficacy and safety


of isopropanolic black cohosh extract for climacteric
symptoms. Obstet Gynecol 2005; 105: 1074–83

36. Barton DL, Loprinzi CL, Quella SK, et al. Prospective


evaluation of vitamin E for hot flashes in breast cancer
survivors. J Clin Oncol 1998; 16: 495–500

37. Hirata JD, Swierz LM, Zell B, et al. Does Dong quai
have estrogenic effects in postmenopausal women? A
double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Fertil Steril 1997;
68: 981–6

38. Davis SR, Briganti EM, Chen RQ, et al. The effects of
Chinese medicinal herbs on postmenopausal vasomotor
symptoms of Australian women. A randomized contolled trial.
Med J Aust 2001; 174: 68–71

39. Mirkin G. Estrogen in yams. J Am Med Assoc 1991; 265:


912

40. Komesaroff PA, Black CV, Cable V, Sudhir KE. Effects of


wild yam extract on menopausal symptoms, lipids and sex
hormones in healthy menopausal women. Climacteric 2001; 4:
144–50

41. Leonetti HB, Longo S, Anasti JN. Transdermal


progesterone cream for vasomotor symptoms and
postmenopausal bone loss. Obstet Gynecol 1999; 94: 225–8

42. Lewis JG, McHill H, Patton VM, Elder PA. Caution on the
use of saliva measurements to monitor absorption of
progesterone from transdermal creams in postmenopausal
women. Maturitas 2002; 41: 1–6

43. Wren BG, McFarland K, Edwards L. Micronized transdermal


progesterone and endometrial response. Lancet 1999; 354:
1447–8

44. Schiff I, Tulchinsky D, Cramer D, Ryan KJ. Oral


medroxyprogesterone in the treatment of postmenopausal
symptoms. J Am Med Assoc 1980; 244: 1443–5

45. Lobo RA, McCormick W, Singer F, Roy S.


Depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate compared with conjugated
estrogens for the treatment of postmenopausal women. Obstet
Gynecol 1984; 63: 1–5

46. Erlik Y, Meldrum DR, Lagasse LD, Judd HL. Effect of


megesterol acetate on flushing and bone metabolism in
postmenopausal women. Maturitas 1981; 3: 167–72

47. Hornstein MD, Surrey ES, Weisberg GW, et al. Leuprolide


acetate depot and hormonal add-back in endometriosis: a 12
month study. Obstet Gynecol 1998; 91: 16–24 48. Lebherz TB,
French LT. Nonhormonal treatment of the menopause syndrome:
a double-blind evaluation of an autonomic system
stabilizer. Obstet Gynecol 1969; 33: 795–9 49. Bergmans MG,
Merkus JM, Corbey RS, et al. Effect of Bellergal retard on
climacteric complaints: a double-blind, placebo controlled
study. Maturitas 1987; 9: 227–34 50. Nesheim BI, Saete T.
Reduction of menopausal hot flushes by methyldopa. A
double-blind crossover trial. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1981;
20: 413–16 51. Hammond MG, Hatley L, Talbert LM. A
double-blind study to evaluate the effect of methyldopa on
menopausal vasomotor flushes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1984;
58: 1158–60 52. Laufer LR, Erlik Y, Meldrum DR, et al.
Effect of clonidine on hot flashes in postmenopausal women.
Obstet Gynecol 1982; 60: 583–6 53. Freedman RR, Dinsay R.
Clonidine raises the sweating threshold in symptomatic but
not in asymptomatic postmenopausal women. Fertil Steril
2000; 74: 20–3 54. Pandya KJ, Raubertas RF, Flynn PJ, et
al. Oral clonidine in postmenopausal patients with breast
cancer experiencing tamoxifeninduced hot flashes. Ann
Intern Med 2000; 132: 788–93 55. Goldberg RM, Loprinzi CL,
O’Fallon JR, Veeder MH. Transdermal clonidine for
ameliorating tamoxifen induces hot flashes. Clin Oncol
1994; 12: 155–8 56. Loprinzi CL, Kugler JW, Sloan JA, et
al. Venlafaxine in management of hot flashes in survivors
of breast cancer: a randomized controlled trial. Lancet
2000; 356: 2025–6 57. Barton D, La VB, Loprinzi C, et al.
Venlafaxine for the control of hot flashes: results of a
longitudinal continuation study. Oncol Nursing Forum 2002;
29: 33–40 58. Evans ML, Pritts E, Vittinghoff E, et al.
Management of postmenopusal hot flushes with venlafaxine
hydrochloride: a randomized, controlled trial. Obstet
Gynecol 2005; 105: 161–6 59. Stearns V, Issacs C, Rowland
J, Crawford J. A pilot trial assessing the efficacy of
paroxetine hydrochloride (Paxil) in controlling hot flashes
in breast cancer survivors. Ann Oncol 2000; 11: 17–22 60.
Loprinzi CL, Sloan JA, Perez EA, et al. Phase III
evaluation of fluoxetine for treatment of hot flashes. J
Clin Oncol 2002; 20: 1578–83 61. Pandya KJ, Morrow GR,
Roscoe JA, Zhao H, et al. Gabapentin for hot flashes in 420
women with breast cancer: a randomized double-blind
placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2005; 366: 818–24 62.
Swartzman LC, Edelberg R, Kemmann E. Impact of stress on
objectively recorded menopausal hot flushes and on flush
report bias. Health Psychol 1990; 9: 529–45 63. Irvin JH,
Domar AD, Clark C, et al. The effects of relaxation
response training for menopausal symptoms. J Psychosom
Obstet Gynaecol 1996; 17: 202–7 64. Freedman RR, Woodward
S. Behavioral treatment of menopausal hot flushes:
evaluation by ambulatory monitoring. Am J Obstet Gynecol
1992; 167: 436–9
CAM therapies in pregnancy 50

10. Quinlan JD, Hill DA. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.


Am Fam Physician 2003; 68: 121–8

11. Niebyl JR, Goodwin TM. Overview of nausea and vomiting


of pregnancy with an emphasis on vitamins and ginger. Am J
Obstet Gynecol 2002; 186: S253–5

12. O’Brien B, Naber S. Nausea and vomiting during


pregnancy: effects on the quality of women’s lives. Birth
1992; 19: 138–43

13. Sahakian V, Rouse D, Sipes S, et al. Vitamin B6 is


effective therapy for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a
randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Obstet
Gynecol 1991; 78: 33–6

14. Vutyavanich T, Wongtra-ngan S, Ruangsri R-A. Pyridoxine


for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a randomized,
double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol
1995; 173: 881–4 15. Czeizel AE. Prevention of hyperemesis
gravidarum is better than treatment. Am J Obstet Gynecol
1996; 384: 1667 16. Emelianova S, Mazzotta P, Einarson A,
Koren G. Prevalence and severity of nausea and vomiting of
pregnancy and effect of vitamin supplementation. Clin
Invest Med 1999; 22: 106–10 17. Grant K. Alternative
therapies: Ginger. Am J Health-Syst Pharm 2000; 57: 945–7
18. Fetrow CW, Alila JR. Professional’s Handbook of
Complementary and Alternative Medicines. Springhouse, PA:
Springhouse, 1999 19. Ernst E, Pittler MH. Efficacy of
ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of
randomized clinical trials. Br J Anaesthesia 2000; 84:
367–71 20. Phillips S, Hutchinson S, Ruggier R. Zingiber
officinale does not effect gastric emptying rate: a
randomized, placebocontrolled, crossover trial. Anaesthesia
1993; 48: 393–5 21. Lumb, AB. Mechanism of antiemetic
effect of ginger. Anaesthesia 1993; 48: 1118 22.
Fischer-Rasmussen W, Kjaer SK, Dahl C, et al. Ginger
treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum. Eur J Obstet Gynecol
Reprod Biol 1991; 38: 19–24 23. Brinker F. Herb
Contraindications and Drug Interactions, 2nd edn. Sandy,
OR: Eclectic Medical, 1998 24. Vutyavanich T, Kraidarin T,
Ruangsri R. Ginger for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy:
randomized, double-masked, placebocontrolled trial. Obstet
Gynecol 2001; 97: 557–82 25. Keating A, Chez RA. Ginger
syrup an antiemetic in early pregnancy. Alt Ther Health Med
2002; 8: 89–91 26. Olson G. When your pregnant patient uses
alternative medicine. Contemp Ob/Gyn 2001; 9: 45–58 27.
Bayreuther J, Lewith G, Pickering R. A double-blind
cross-over study to evaluate the effectiveness of
acupressure at pericardium 6 (P6) in the treatment of early
morning sickness (EMS). Comp Ther Med 1994; 2: 70–6 28.
Belluomini J, Litt R, Lee K, Katz M. Acupressure for nausea
and vomiting of pregnancy: a randomized blinded study.
Obstet Gynecol 1994; 84: 245–8

29. DeAloysis S, Penacchioni P. Morning sickness control in


early pregnancy by Neiguan point acupressure. Obstet
Gynecol 1992; 80: 852–4

30. Dundee J, Sourial F, Ghaly R, Bell P. P6 acupressure


reduces morning sickness. J R Soc Med 1998; 81: 456–7

31. Hyde E. Acupressure therapy for morning sickness: a


controlled clinical trial. J Nurse Midwifery 1989; 34:
171–8

32. Steele N, French J, Gatherer-Boyles J, et al. Effect of


acupressure by sea-bands in nausea and vomiting of
pregnancy. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2001; 30: 61–70

33. Knight B, Mudge C, Openshaw S, et al. Effect of


acupuncture on nausea of pregnancy: a randomized,
controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2001; 97: 184–8

34. Norheim A, Pedersen E, Fonnebo V, Berg L. Acupressure


treatment of morning sickness in pregnancy: a randomized,
doubleblind-controlled study. Scand J Prim Health Care
2001; 19: 43–7

35. O’Brien B, Releya J, Taerum T. Efficacy of P6


acupressure in the treatment of nausea and vomiting during
pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1996; 174: 708–15

36. Carlson C, Axemo P, Bodin A, et al. Manual acupuncture


reduces hyperemesis gravidarum: a placebo-controlled,
randomized, single-blind, crossover study. J Pain Sympt
Manage 2000; 20: 273–9

37. McFarlin B, Gibson M, O’Rear J, Harman P. A national


survey of herbal preparation use by nurse-midwives for
labor stimulation. J Nurse Midwifery 1999; 44: 205–16

38. Beal M. Women’s use of complementary and alternative


therapies in reproductive health care. J Nurse Midwifery
1998; 43: 224–34

39. Tenore J. Methods of cervical ripening and induction of


labor. Am Fam Phys 2000; 67: 10
40. Simpson M, Parsons M, Wade K. Raspberry leaf in
pregnancy: its safety and efficacy in labor. J Midwifery
Women’s Health 2001; 46: 51–9

41. Gerard J. The Herbal, or a General History of Plants.


London: E. Bollifant, 1957

42. Beckett AH, Belthle FW, Fell KR, Lockett MF. Active
constituents of raspberry leaves. J Pharm Pharmacol 1970;
40: 161–2

43. Burn JH, Withell ER. A principle in raspberry leaves


which relaxes uterine muscle. Lancet 1941; 5: 1–3

44. Whitehouse B. Fragarine: an inhibitor of uterine


action. Br Med J 1941; 13: 370–1

45. Bamford DS, Percival RC, Tothill AU. Raspberry leaf


tea: a new concept to an old problem. Br J Pharmacol 1970;
40: 161–2

46. Weed S. Wise Woman Herbal for the Childbearing Year.


Woodstock, NY: Ash Tree Publishing, 1986

47. Olson G. When pregnant patients use nutritional and


herbal supplements. Contemp Ob/Gyn 2001; 10: 63–81

48. Dove D, Johnson P. Oral evening primrose oil: its


effects on length of pregnancy and selected intrapartum
outcomes in lowrisk nulliparous women. J Nurse Midwifery
1999; 44: 302–4

49. Reynolds JEF, ed. Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia,


31st edn. London: Royal Pharmaceutical Society, 1996

50. United States Dispensatory, 25th edn. St. Louis: JB


Lippincott, 1995

51. Hardman JG, Goodman-Gillman A, Limbird LE. Goodman &


Gillman’s the Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 9th
edn. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996

52. Garry D, Rigueroa R, Guillaume J, Cucco V. Use of


castor oil in pregnancies at term. Altern Ther 2000; 6:
77–9 53. Davis L. The use of castor oil to stimulate labor
in patients with premature rupture of membranes. J Nurse
Midwifery 1984; 29: 366–70 54. Mathie J, Dawson B. Effect
of castor oil, soap enema, and hot bath on the pregnancy
uterus near term. Br Med J 1959; 2: 1162–5 55. Nabors G.
Castor oil as an adjunct to induction of labor: critical
re-evaluation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1958; 73: 36–8 56.
Steingrub JS, Lopez T, Teres D, Steingart R. Amniotic fluid
embolism associated with castor oil. Crit Care Med 1988;
16: 642–3 57. Tierra M. Planetary Herbology: An Integrated
System of Western Herbs into the Traditional Chinese and
Ayurvedic Systems. Santa Fe, NH: Lotus Press, 1988: 1–485
58. Irikura B, Kennelly EJ. Blue cohosh: a word of caution.
Altern Ther Women’s Health 1999; 1: 81–3 59. Kennelly EJ,
Flynn TJ, Mazzola EP, et al. Detecting potential
teratogenic alkaloids from blue cohosh rhizomes using in
vitro rat embryo culture. J Nat Prod 1999; 62: 1385–9 60.
Jones TK, Lawson BM. Profound neonatal congestive heart
failure caused by maternal consumption of blue cohosh
herbal medications. J Pediatr 1998; 132: 550–2 61. Scott
CC, Chen KK. The pharmacological action of
N-methylcysteine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1943; 79: 334 62.
Gunn TA, Wright IMR. The use of black cohosh in labour. NZ
Med J 1996; 109: 410–11 63. Ballie N, Rasmussen P. Black
and blue cohosh in labour. NZ Med J 1997; 110: 20–1 64.
Adair CD. Nonpharmacologic approaches to cervical priming
and labor induction. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2000; 43: 447–54
65. Kavannagh J, Kelly AJ, Thomas J. Sexual intercourse for
cervical ripening and induction of labour. Cochrane
Database Syst Rev 2002; 2: CD003093 66. Norwitz E, Robinson
J, Repke J. Labor and delivery. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR,
Simpson JL, eds. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem
Pregnancies, 4th edn. New York: Churchill Livingston, 2002:
353–94 67. Levy R, Kanengiser B, Furman B, et al. A
randomized trial comparing a 30-ml and 80-ml Foley catheter
balloon for preinduction cervical ripening. Am J Obstet
Gynecol 2004; 191: 632–6 68. Guinn D, Davies J, Jones R, et
al. Labor induction in women with an unfavorable Bishop
score: randomized controlled trial of intrauterine Foley
catheter with concurrent oxytocin infusion versus Foley
catheter with extra-amniotic saline infusion with
concurrent oxytocin infusion. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004;
191: 182–7 69. Sciscione A, Larkin M, O’Shea A, et al.
Preinduction cervical ripening with the Foley catheter and
the risk of subsequent preterm birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol
2004; 190: 751–4 70. Lin A, Kupferminc M, Dooley SL. A
randomized trial of extraamniotic saline infusion versus
laminaria for cervical ripening. Obstet Gynecol 1995; 86:
545–9 71. Rouben D, Arias F. A randomized trial of
extra-amniotic saline infusion plus intracervical Foley
catheter balloon versus prostaglandin E2 vaginal gel for
ripening the cervix and inducing labor in patients with
unfavorable cervices. Obstet Gynecol 1993; 82: 290–4 72.
Sherman DJ, Frenkel E, Pansky M, et al. Balloon cervical
ripening with extra-amniotic infusion of saline or
prostaglandin E2: a double-blind, randomized controlled
study. Obstet Gynecol 2001; 97: 375–80

73. Goldman JB, Wigton TR. A randomized comparison of


extraamniotic saline infusion and intracervical
dinoprostone gel for cervical ripening. Obstet Gynecol
1999; 93: 271–4

74. Guinn DA, Goepfert AR, Christine M, et al.


Extra-amniotic saline, laminaria, or prostaglandin E (2)
gel for labor induction with unfavorable cervix: a
randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2000; 96:
106–12

75. Schreyer P, Sherman DJ, Ariely S, et al. Ripening the


highly unfavorable cervix with extra-amniotic saline
instillation or vaginal prostaglandin E2 application.
Obstet Gynecol 1989; 73: 938–42

76. Boulvain M, Stan C, Irion O. Membrane sweeping for


induction of labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; 1:
CD000451 77. Bricker L, Luckas M. Amniotomy alone for
induction of labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002; 2:
CD002862. 78. Cardini F, Weixin H. Moxibustion for
correction of breech presentation: a randomized controlled
trial. J Am Med Assoc 1998; 280: 1580–4 79. Cardini F,
Lombardo P, Regalia AL, et al. A randomized controlled
trial of moxibustion for breech presentation. BJOG 2005;
112: 743–7 80. Neri I, Airola G, Contu G, et al.
Acupuncture plus moxibustion to resolve breech
presentation: a randomized controlled study. J
Maternal-Fetal Neonatal Med 2004; 15: 247–52
Insomnia 52

efficacy in the treatment of insomnia in psychiatric

patients 62,63 . Controlled, clinical trials demonstrating

acupuncture’s effect on insomnia are rare. Many studies

provide only subjective evaluations of sleep. Since

acupuncture is an individualized treatment, controlled

studies are difficult to execute. Using scalp, body, and


ear acupuncture points, posi

tive effects appeared almost immediately after treat

ment 63 . The mechanisms by which acupuncture treat

ment modulates insomnia may be understood in terms

of the general mechanism by which it produces analge

sia. In addition, acupuncture treatment increased noc

turnal melatonin secretion and reduced insomnia and

anxiety 64 . Additional clinical studies are necessary to


elu

cidate how acupuncture can reharmonize a disturbed

sleep–wake cycle.

Low-energy emission therapy

LEET is a method of delivering low levels of amplitude

modulated radio-frequency electromagnetic fields to

humans. The LEET device consists of a signal generator,

microprocessor, and amplifier. The signal generator is

connected to a mouthpiece, which is held between the

tongue and palate for the duration of the treatment 65 .

Results of some investigations have suggested that LEET


may be a potential alternative therapy for chronic insom

nia that is refractory to conventional treatment. In

healthy volunteers, 15 min of LEET treatment induced

EEG changes, and was associated with objective and

subjective feelings of relaxation 66 . A double-blind,

placebo-controlled study showed that 12 LEET treat

ments over a 4-week period improved the sleep of

chronic insomniacs 67 . The mechanism underlying the effect


of LEET is poorly understood. Low levels of electromagnetic
field, such as those to which the brain is exposed during
LEET, affect in vitro and in vivo calcium release from
neural cells 68 , modify the release of GABA, and change
benzodiazepine receptor concentration in rat brains 69 . In
addition, low levels of electromagnetic field modify the
release of melatonin in mammals 65 . So far, the
administration of LEET treatment is confined to
sleep-disorder centers. Unlike conventional therapies, LEET
may be administered on an every-other-day basis, and
discontinuation does not appear to induce rebound insomnia
67 . LEET therapy-related side-effects have not been
reported. CONCLUSIONS Insomnia is the most common sleep
disorder. It is often associated with significant medical,
psychologic and social disturbances. The inability to
attain restful sleep in adequate amounts exacts a heavy
toll. Conventional treatment for insomnia includes
psychologic therapy and drugs that exert a depressant
effect on the CNS. Most of the drugs prescribed for
insomnia involve some risk of overdose, tolerance, and
addiction. Long-term use of frequently prescribed
medications can lead to habituation and problematic
withdrawal symptoms. As alternative therapies, herbal
products and other agents with sedative–hypnotic effects
are increasingly sought after by the general population.
The herbs commonly used for their sedative–hypnotic effects
are less likely to have the drawbacks of conventional
drugs. How alternative therapies compare to conventional
therapies warrants further investigation.

10. Sharpley AL, Cowen PJ. Effect of pharmacologic


treatments on the sleep of depressed patients. Biol
Psychiatry 1995; 37: 85–8

11. Sateia MJ, Doggramji K, Hauri PJ, et al. Evaluation of


chronic insomnia. Sleep 2000; 23: 243–50

12. Johnson EO, Roehrs T, Roth T, Breslau N. Epidemiology


of alcohol and medication as aids to sleep in early
adulthood. Sleep 1998; 21: 178–86

13. Foster S, Tyler VE. Valerian. In Roberts JE, Tyler VE,


eds. Tyler’s Honest Herbal. New York, NY: Haworth Press,
1999: 377–8

14. Wagner J, Wagner ML, Hening WA. Beyond benzodiazepines:


alternative pharmacologic agents for the treatment of
insomnia. Ann Pharmacother 1998; 32: 680–91

15. Castleman M. The Healing Herbs: The Ultimate Guide to


the Curative Power of Nature’s Medicines. Emmaus, PA:
Rodale Press, 1991

16. Robbers JE, Tyler VE. Nervous system disorders. In


Roberts JE, Tyler VE, eds. Tyler’s Herbs of Choice. New
York, NY: Haworth Press, 1999: 154–7

17. Leathwood PD, Chauffard F, Heck E, Munoz-Box R. Aqueous


extract of valerian root (Valeriana offiinalis L.) improves
sleep quality in man. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1982; 17:
65–71

18. Leathwood PD, Chauffard F. Aqueous extract of valerian


reduces latency to fall asleep in man. Planta Med 1985; 51:
144–8

19. Lindahl O, Lindwall L. Double blind study of a valerian


preparation. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1989; 32: 1065–6

20. Schulz H, Stolz C, Muller J. The effect of valerian


extract on sleep polygraphy in poor sleepers: a pilot
study. Pharmacopsychiatry 1994; 27: 147–51

21. Donath F, Quispe S, Diefenbach K, et al. Critical


evaluation of the effects of valerian extract on sleep
structure and sleep quality. Pharmacopsychiatry 2000; 33:
47–53

22. Mennini T, Bernasconi P, Bombardelli E, Morazzoni P. In


vitro study on the interaction of extracts and pure
compounds from Valeriana officinalis roots with GABA,
benzodiazepine and barbiturate receptors in rat brain.
Fitoterapia 1993; 64: 291–300

23. Houghton PJ. The scientific basis for the reputed


activity of valerian. J Pharm Pharmacol 1999; 51: 505–12

24. Santos MS, Ferreira F, Faro C, et al. The amount of


GABA present in aqueous extracts of valerian is sufficient
to account for [3H]GABA release in synaptosomes. Planta Med
1994; 60: 2475–6

25. Yuan CS, Mehendale S, Xiao Y, et al. The


gamma-aminobutyric acidergic effects of valerian and
valerenic acid on rat brainstem neuronal activity. Anesthes
Analges 2004; 98: 353–8

26. Tortarolo M, Braun R, Hubner GE, Maurer HR. In vitro


effects of epoxide-bearing valepotriates on mouse early
hematopoietic progenitor cells and human T-lymphocytes.
Arch Toxicol 1982; 51: 37–42

27. Garges HP, Varia I, Doraiswarmy PM. Cardiac


complications and delirium associated with valerian root
withdrawal [letter]. J Am Med Assoc 1998; 280: 1566–7

28. Attele AS, Wu JA, Yuan CS. Multiple pharmacological


effects of ginseng. Biochem Pharmacol 1999; 58: 1685–93

29. Lee FC. Facts about Ginseng, the Elixir of Life.


Elizabeth, NJ: Hollyn International, 1992

30. Huang KC. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. Boca


Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1999

31. Kim YS, Kim DS, Kim SI. Ginsenoside Rh2 and Rh3 induce
differentiation of HL-60 cells into granulocytes:
modulation of protein kinase C isoforms during
differentiation by ginsenoside Rh2. Int J Biochem Cell Biol
1998; 30: 327–38 32. Yuan CS, Wu JA, Lowell T, Gu M. Gut
and brain effects of American ginseng root on brainstem
neuronal activities in rats. Am J Chin Med 1998; 26: 47–55
33. Rhee YH, Lee SP, Honda K, Inoue S. Panax ginseng
extract modulates sleep in unrestrained rats.
Psychopharmacol 1990; 101: 486–8 34. Lee SP, Honda K, Rhee
YH, Inoue S. Chronic intake of Panax ginseng extract
stabilizes sleep and wakefulness in food-deprived rats.
Neurosci Lett 1990; 111: 217–21 35. Huong NTT, Matsumoto K,
Yamasaki K, Watanabe H. Majonoside-R2 reverses social
isolation stress-induced decrease in pentobarbital sleep in
mice: possible involvement of neuroactive steroids. Life
Sci 1997; 61: 395–402 36. Huong NTT, Matsumoto K, Watanabe
H. The antistress effect of majonoside-R2, a major saponin
component of Vietnamese ginseng: neuronal mechanism of
action. Meth Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 1998; 20: 65–76 37.
Marasco AC, Ruiz RV, Villagomex AS, Infante CB. Doubleblind
study of a multivitamin complex supplemented with ginseng
extract. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1996; 22: 323–9 38. Kimura T,
Saunders PA, Kim HS, et al. Interactions of ginsenosides
with ligand-bindings of GABAA and GABAB receptors. Gen
Pharm 1994; 25: 193–9 39. Vuksan V, Sievenpiper JL, Koo VY,
et al. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L) reduces
postprandial glycemia in nondiabetic subjects and subjects
with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160:
1009–13 40. Park HJ, Lee JH, Song YB, Park KH. Effects of
dietary supplementation of lipophilic fraction from Panax
ginseng on cGMP and cAMP in rat platelets and on blood
coagulation. Biol Pharm Bull 1996; 19: 1434–9 41. Schulz V,
Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational phytotherapy. In Hansel R,
Schulz V, eds. Agents that Increase Resistance to Diseases.
New York, NY: Springer-Verlag, 1998: 269–72 42. Singh YN.
Kava: an overview. J Ethnopharmacol 1992; 37: 38 43. Davies
LP, Drew CA, Duffield P, et al. Kava pyrones and resin:
studies on GABAA, and GABAB, and benzodiazepine binding
sites in rodent brain. Pharmacol Toxicol 1992; 71: 120 44.
Pittler MH, Edzard E. Efficacy of kava extract for treating
anxiety: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin
Psychopharmacol 2000; 20: 84–9 45. Murray MT. The Healing
Power of Herbs, 2nd edn. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing,
1995: 210–19 46. Miller LG, Murrey WJ. Herbal medications,
nutraceuticals, and anxiety and depression. In Herbal
Medicine: A Clinician’s Guide. New York, NY: Pharmaceutical
Products Press, 1998: 211–12 47. Speroni E, Minghetti A. A
neuropharmacological activity of extracts from Passiflora
incarnata. Planta Med 1988; 54: 488–91 48. Mowrey DB. The
Scientific Validation of Herbal Medicine. New Canaan, CT:
Keats Publishing, 1986 49. Chase JE, Gidal BE. Melatonin:
therapeutic use in sleep disorders. Ann Pharmacother 1997;
31: 1218–26 50. Petrie K, Dawson AG, Thompson L, Brook R. A
double-blind trial of melatonin as a treatment for jet lag
in international cabin crew. Biol Psychiatry 1993; 33:
526–30 51. Folkard S, Arendt J, Clark M. Can melatonin
improve shift workers’ tolerance of the night shift? Some
preliminary findings. Chronobiol Int 1993; 10: 315–20

52. Garfunkel D, Laundon M, Nof D, Zisapel N. Improvement


of sleep quality in elderly people by controlled release of
melatonin. Lancet 1990; 346: 541–3

53. Kayumov L, Brown G, Jindal R, et al. A randomized,


doubleblind, placebo-controlled crossover study of the
effect of exogenous melatonin on delayed sleep-phase
syndrome. Psychosom Med 2001; 63: 40–8

54. Haimov I, Laudon M, Zisapel N, et al. Sleep disorders


and melatonin rhythms in elderly people. Br Med J 1994;
309: 167

55. Chase JE, Gidal BE. Melatonin: therapeutic use in sleep


disorders. Ann Pharmacother 1997; 31: 1218–26

56. Cajochem C, Krauchi K, Wirz-Justice A. Role of


melatonin in the regulation of human circadian rhythms and
sleep. J Neuroendocrinol 2003; 15: 432–7

57. Zemlan FP, Mulchahey J, Scharf MB, et al. The efficacy


and safety of the melatonin agonist
β-methyl-6-chloromelatonin in primary insomnia: a
randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial. J
Clin Psychiatry 2005; 66: 384–90

58. de Lourdes M, Seabra V, Bignotto M, et al. Randomized,


double-blind clinical trial, controlled with placebo, of
the toxicology of chronic melatonin treatment. J Pineal Res
2000; 29: 193–200

59. Adriene J. The serotonergic system and


sleep–wakefulness regulation. In Kales A, ed. The
Pharmacology of Sleep. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1995:
91–116

60. Reynolds JEF. Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st


edn. London: Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain,
1996: 336–7

61. Soulairac A, Lambinet H. The effects of


5-hydroxy-tryptophan, a precursor of serotonin, on sleep
disorder. Ann Med Psychol (Paris) 1977; 1: 792–7 62. Shi
ZX, Tan MZ. An analysis of the therapeutic effect of
acupuncture in 500 cases of schizophrenia. J Tradit Chin
Med 1986; 6: 99 63. Romoli M, Giommi A. Ear acupuncture in
psychosomatic medicine: the importance of Sanjiao (triple
heater) area. Acupunct Electrother Res 1993; 18: 185–94 64.
Spence DW, Kayumov L, Chen A, et al. Acupuncture increases
nocturnal melatonin secretion and reduces insomnia and
anxiety: a preliminary report. J Neuropsychiatry Clin
Neurosci 2004; 16: 19–28 65. Reiter RS. Electromagnetic
fields and melatonin production. Biomed Pharmacother 1993;
51: 394–403 66. Higgs L, Reite M, Barbault A. Subjective
and objective relaxation effects of low energy emission
therapy. Stress Med 1994; 10: 5–14 67. Pasche B, Erman M,
Hayduk R, et al. Effects of low energy emission therapy in
chronic psychophysiological insomnia. Sleep 1996; 19:
327–36 68. Blackman CF. Calcium release from nervous
tissue: experimental results and possible mechanisms. In
Norden B, Ramel C, eds. Interaction Mechanisms of Low-level
Electromagnetic Fields in Living Systems. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1992: 107–29 69. Lai H, Corino MA, Horita
A, Guy AW. Single vs repeated microwave exposure: effects
on benzodiazepine receptors in the brain of the rat.
Bioelectromagnetics 1992; 13: 57–66
Dementia 53

10. Masterson D. Cholinesterase inhibitors in the


treeatment of Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias.
Clin Geriatr Med 2004; 20: 59–68

11. Budavari S. In The Merck Index. Whitehouse Station:


Merk and Co., 1996

12. Liu J, Zhu Y, et al. The structure of huperzine A and


B, two new alkaloids exhibiting marked anticholinergic
activity. Can J Chem 1986; 64: 837–9

13. Skolnick AA. Old Chinese herbal medicine used for fever
yields possible new Alzheimer disease therapy. J Am Med
Assoc 1997; 277: 776

14. Xu S, et al. Efficacy of tablet huperzine: a memory,


cognition and behavior in Alzheimer’s disease. Zhongguo Yao
Li Xue Bao 1995; 16: 391–5

15. Xu S, et al. Huperzine A in capsules and tablets for


treating patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Zhongguo Yao Li
Xue Bao 1999; 20: 486–90 16. Zhang R, et al. Drug
evaluation of huperzine A in the treatment of senile memory
disorders. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao 1991; 12: 250–2 17. Wang
X, et al. Modulation of NMDA receptor by huperzine A in rat
cerebral cortex. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao 1999; 20: 31–5 18.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2005.
www.naturaldatabase.com 19. Pepping J. Huperzine A. Review.
Am J Health Sys Pharmacy 2000; 57: 530, 533–4 20. Mayeux R,
Sano M, Treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. N Engl J Med
1999; 341: 1670–9 21. Ott B, Owens N. Complementary and
alternative medicine for Alzheimer’s disease. J Geriatr
Psychiatry Neurol 1998; 11: 163–73 22. Sano M, et al. A
controlled trial of selegiline, alpha-tocopherol, or both
as treatment for Alzheimer disease. The Alzheimer’s Disease
Cooperative Study. N Engl J Med 1997; 336: 1216–22 23.
Pettergrew J, et al. Clinical and neurochemical effects of
acetylLcarnitine in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiol Aging
1995; 16: 1–4 24. Thal L, et al. 1 year multi-center
placebo-controlled study of acetyl-l-carnitine in
Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology 1996; 47: 705–11 25. Hudson
S, Tabet N. AcetylL-carnitine for dementia. Cochrane
Database Syst Rev 2003; 2: CD003158 26. Tan J, et al. Lack
of effect of oral choline supplement on the concentration
of choline metabolites in human brain. Magn Reson Med 1998;
39: 1005–10 27. Mohs R, et al. Choline chloride effects on
memory in the elderly. Neurobiol Aging 1980; 1: 21–5 28.
Brinkman S, et al. Lecithin and memory training in
suspected Alzheimer’s disease. J Gerontol 1982; 37: 4–9 29.
Pomara N, et al. Failure of single-dose lecithin to alter
aspects of central cholinergic activity in Alzheimer’s
disease. J Clin Psychiatry 1983; 44: 293–5 30. Etienne P,
et al. Alzheimer disease: lack of effect of lecithin
treatment for 3 months. Neurology 1981; 31: 1552–4 31.
Heiss W, et al. Long-term effect of phosphatidylserine,
pyritinol and cognitive training in Alzheimer’s disease. A
neuropsychological, EEG, and PET investigation. Dementia
1994; 5: 88–98 32. Crook T, et al. Effects of
phosphatidylserine in Alzheimer’s disease. Psychopharmacol
Bull 1992; 28: 61–6

33. Funfgeld E, et al. Double-blind study with


phosphatidylserine (PS) in Parkinsonian patients with
senile dementia of Alzheimer’s types (SDAT). Prog Clin Biol
Res 1989; 317: 1235–46

34. Mecocci P, et al. Lymphocyte oxidative DNA damage and


plasma antioxidants in Alzheimer’s disease. Arch Neurol
2002; 59: 794–8

35. Ishizuka K, et al. Possible assessment for antioxidant


capacity in Alzheimer’s disease by measuring lymphocyte
heme-oxygenase-1 expression with real-time RT-PCR. Ann NY
Acad Sci 2002; 977: 173–8

36. Rinaldi P, et al. Plasma antioxidants are similarly


depleted in mild impairment and in Alzheimer’s disease.
Neurobiol Aging 2003; 24: 915–19

37. Selly M, et al. The effect of increased concentrations


of homocystine on the concentration of
(E)-4-hydroxy-2-neonatal in the plasma and cerebrospinal
fluid of patients with Alzheimer’s diseases. Neurobiol
Aging 2002; 23: 383–8

38. Morris M, et al. Dietary intake of antioxidants,


nutrients and the risk of incident Alzheimer’s disease in a
biracial community study. J Am Med Assoc 2002; 287: 3230–7

39. Luchsinger J, et al. Antioxidant vitamin intake and the


risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Arch Neurol 2003; 60: 203–8

40. Williamson K, et al. The nitration product


5-nitro-gamma-tocopherol is increased in the Alzheimer’s
brain. Nitric Oxide Biol Chem 2002; 6: 221–7

41. Weyer G, et al. A controlled study of 2 doses of


idebenone in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.
Neuropsychobiology 1997; 36: 73–82

42. Gutzmann H, Hadler D. Sustained efficacy and safety of


idebenone in the treatment of Alzheimer’s. J Neural Transm
(Suppl) 1998; 54: 301–10

43. Chandra R. Effect of vitamin and trace-element


suplementation on cognitive function in elderly subjects.
Nutrition 2001; 17: 709–12

44. Stewart WF, et al. Risk of Alzheimer’s disease and


duration of NSAID use. Neurology 1997; 48: 626–32

45. Luo Y, et al. Inhibition of amyloid-beta aggregation


and caspase3 activation by the Ginkgo biloba extract EGb
761. Proc Natl Acad Science 2004; 99: 12197–202

46. Bastianetto S, et al. The Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb


761) protects hippocampal neurons against cell death
induced beta-amyloid. Eur J Neurosci 2000; 12: 1882–90

47. Le Bars P. Magnitude of effect and special approach to


Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 76 in cognitive disorders.
Pharmacopsychiatry 2003; 36 (Suppl): S8–14

48. Ahlemeyer B, Krieglstein J. Pharmacological studies


supporting the therapeutic use of Ginkgo biloba extract for
Alzheimer’s disease. Pharmacopsychiatry 2003; 36(Suppl 1):
S8–14

49. Kanowski S, Hoerr R. Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in


dementia: intent to treat analyses of a 24 week,
multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized
trial. Pharmacopsychiatry 2003; 36: 297–303

50. Kanowski S, et al. Proof of efficacy of the Ginkgo


biloba special extract EGb 761 in outpatients suffering
from mild to moderate primary degenerative dementia of the
Alzheimer type or multiinfarct dementia. Pharmacopsychiatry
1996; 29: 47–56

51. Brautigam MR, et al. Treatment of age related memory


complaints with Gingko biloba extract: a randomized double
blind placebo controlled study. Phytomedicine 1998; 5:
424–34

52. Hoskin E, et al. Elevated sex-hormone binding globulin


in elderly women with Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiol Aging
2004; 25: 114–47 53. Shumaker SA, et al. Estrogen plus
progestin and the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive
impairment in postmenopausal women; the Women’s Health
Initiative Memory Study: a randomized controlled trial (see
comments). J Am Med Assoc 2003; 289: 2651–62 54. Shumaker
SA, et al. Conjugated equine estrogens and incidence of
probable dementia and mild cognitive impairment in
postmenopausal women: Women’s Health Initiative Memory
Study (see comments). J Am Med Assoc 2004; 291: 2947–58 55.
Kroboth P, et al. DHEA and DHEA-S: a review. J Clin
Pharmacol 1999; 39: 327–48 56. Sunderland T, et al. Reduced
plasma dehydroepiandrosterone concentration in Alzheimer’s
disease. Lancet 1989; 2 (8662): 570 57. Nesman B, et al.
Vitanene M serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in
Alzheimer’s disease and multi-infarct dementia. Biol
Psychiatry 1991; 30: 684–90 58. Wolkowitz O, et al. DHEA
treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: a randomized
double-blind, placebo-controlled study (see comments).
Neurology 2003; 60: 1071–6 59. Kuritzky L. DHEA: science or
wishful thinking? Hosp Pract 1998; 33: 85–86, 92 60. Stoll
B. Dietary supplements of dehydroepiandrosterone in
relation to breast cancer risk. Eur J Clin Nutr 1999; 53:
771–5 61. Morales A, et al. The effect of six months
treatment with a 100 mg daily dose of DHEA on circulating
sex steroids, body composition and muscle strength in age
advancement men and women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf ) 1998; 49:
421–32 62. Pepeu G, Spignoli G. Nootropic drugs and brain
cholinergic mechanism. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol 1989; I
(Suppl 1): S77–88 63. McDaniel M, Maier S, Einstein G.
Brain-specific nutrients: a memory cure? Nutrition 2003;
19: 957–75 64. Wollschlaeger B. Efficacy of vinpocetine in
the management of cognitive impairment and memory loss. J
Am Med Assoc 2001; 4: 25–30 65. Seshadri S, et al. Plasma
homocysteine as a risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer’s
disease. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 476–83 66. Mattson MP.
Will caloric restriction and folate protect against AD and
PD. Neurology 2003; 60: 690–5 67. Miller J, et al.
Homocystine, vitamin B6, and vascular disease in AD
patients. Neurology 2002; 58: 1471–5 68. Zetterberg H, et
al. The transcobalamin (TC) codon 259 genetic polymorphism
influences holo-TC concentration in cerebrospinal fluid
from patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Clin Chem 2003; 49:
1195–8 69. Nilsson K, et al. Hyperhomocysteinanemia – a
common finding in a psychogeriatric population. Eur J Clin
Invest 1996; 26: 853–9 70. Wang H, et al. Vitamin B12 and
folate in relation to the development of Alzheimer’s
disease. Neurology 2001; 56: 1188–94 71. Nilsson K, et al.
Improvement of cognitive function after cobalamin/folate
supplementation in elderly patients with dementia and
elevated plasma homocysteine. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
2001; 16: 609–14 72. Clarke R, et al. Folate, vitamin B12,
and serum total homocysteine levels in confirmed
Alzheimer’s disease. Arch Neurol 1998; 55: 1449–55 73.
Diaz-Arrestia R. Hyperhomocystianemia: a new risk factor
for Alzheimer’s disease? Arch Neurol 1988; 55: 1407–8

74. Waldenlind L. Studies on thiamine and neuromuscular


transmission. Acta Physiol Scand 1978; 459 (Suppl): 1–35

75. Gibson GE, et al. Reduced activities of


thiamine-dependent enzymes in the brains and peripheral
tissue of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Arch Neurol
1988; 45: 836–40

76. Eder L, Hirt L, Dunant Y. Possible involvement of


thiamin in acetyl-choline release. Nature 1976; 264: 186–8
77. Eder L, Dunant Y. Thiamine and cholinergic transmission
in the electric organ of Torpedo. I. Cellular localization
and functional changes of thiamine and thiamine phosphate
esters. J Neurochem 1980; 35: 1278–86 78. Nolan K, et al. A
trial of thiamine in Alzheimer’s disease. Arch Neurol 1991;
48: 81–3
Depression 55

10. Crone C, Wise T. Use of herbal medicines among


consultationliaison populations. Psychosomatics 1998; 39:
3–13

11. FDA Information Paper on L-tryptophan and


5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan. Washington DC, February 2001.
Available at: www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/ds-tryp1.html

12. Jorn AF, Christensen H, Griffiths KM, Rodgers B.


Effectiveness of complementary and self-help treatments for
depression. Med J Aust 2002; 176: S84–95

13. Britton NL, Brown A. Illustrated flora of the northern


states and Canada. 1913. USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database 2: 533

14. St. John’s wort (Hypericum) clinical trials. National


Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. National
Institutes of Health. Available at: http://nccam.
nih.gov/clinicaltrials/st johnswort/index.htm

15. Beckman DE, Sommi RW, Switzer J. Consumer use of St.


John’s wort: a survey on effectiveness, safety, and
tolerability. Pharmacotherapy 2000; 20; 568–74

16. Gaster B, Holroyd J. St. John’s wort for depression: a


systematic review. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160: 152–6

17. Linde K, Ramirez G, Mulrow CD, et al. St. John’s wort


for depression – an overview and meta-analysis of
randomized clinical trials. Br Med J 1996; 313: 253–8

18. Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group. Effect of


Hypericum perforatum (St John’s wort) in major depressive
disorder: a randomized, controlled trial. J Am Med Assoc
2002; 287: 1807–14

19. Linde K, Mulrow CD. St. John’s wort for depression.


Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002: 4

20. Shelton RC, Keller MB, Gelenberg AJ, et al.


Effectiveness of St. John’s wort in major depression. J Am
Med Assoc 2001; 285: 1978–86

21. Gelenberg AJ, Shelton RC, Crits-Christoph P, et al. The


effectiveness of St. John’s wort in major depressive
disorder: a naturalistic phase 2 follow-up in which
nonresponders were provided alternate medication. J Clin
Psychiatry 2004; 65: 1114–19
22. Szegedi A, Kohnen R, Dienel A, Kieser M. Acute
treatment of moderate to severe depression with Hypericum
extract WS 5570 (St. John’s wort): randomized controlled
double blind non-inferiority trial versus paroxetine. Br
Med J 2005; 330: 503 23. Gastpar M, Singer A, Zeller K.
Efficacy and tolerability of Hypericum extract STW3 in
long-term treatment with a oncedaily dosage in comparison
with sertraline. Pharmacopsychiatry 2005; 38: 78–86 24.
Werneke U, Horn O, Taylor M. How effective is St. John’s
wort? The evidence revisited. J Clin Psychiatry 2004; 65:
611–17 25. Linde K, Berner M, Egger M, Mulrow C. St. John’s
wort for depression: meta-analysis of randomised controlled
trials. Br J Psychiatry 2005; 186: 99–107 26. Ernst E. St.
John’s wort supplements endanger the success of organ
transplantation. Arch Surg 2002; 137: 319 27. Izzo AA. Drug
interactions with St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum): a
review of the clinical evidence. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther
2004; 42: 139–48 28. Edie C, Dewan N. Which psychotropics
interact with four common supplements. Curr Psychiatry
2005; 1: 17–30 29. Sternbach H. Serotonin syndrome: how to
avoid, identify, and treat dangerous drug interactions.
Curr Psychiatry 2003; 2: 14–24 30. Drug interactions with
St. John’s wort. The Medical Letter 2000; 42: 56–7 31. Fava
M, Rosenbaum JF, MacLaughlin R, et al. Neuroendocrine
effects of S-adenosylL-methionine, a novel putative
antidepressant. J Psychiat Res 1990; 24: 177–84 32. Selhub
J, Miller JW. The pathogenesis of homocysteinemia:
interruption of the coordinate regulation by
S-adenosylmethionine of the remethylation and the
transsulfuration of homocysteine. Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 55:
131–8 33. Loehrer F, Schwab R, Angst C, et al. Influence of
oral S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) on plasma
5-methyltetrahydrofolate, Sadenosylhomocysteine, and
homocysteine, and methionine in healthy humans. J Pharmacol
Exp Ther 1997; 282: 845–50 34. Alpert JE, Papakostas G,
Mischoulon D, et al. S-adenosylLmethionine (SAMe) as an
adjunct for resistant major depressive disorder: an open
trial following partial or nonresponse to selective
serotonin reuptake inhibitors or venlafaxine. J Clin
Psychopharmacol 2004; 24: 661–4 35. Gaster B.
S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) for treatment of depression.
Alt Med Alert 1999; 2: 133–44 36. DeVanna M, Rigamonti M.
Oral S-adenosylL-methionine in depression. Curr Therapeut
Res 1992; 52: 478–85 37. Kagan BL, Sultzer DL, Rosenlicht
N, Gerner RH. Oral Sadenosylmethionine in depression: a
randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J
Psychiatry 1990; 147: 591–5 38. Hardy M, Coulter I, Morton
SC, et al. S-adenosylL-methionine for treatment of
depression, osteoarthritis, and liver disease. Evidence
report/technology assessment Number 64. AHRQ Publication
No. 02-E034. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research
and Quality, 2002 39. Hibbeln JR. Fish consumption and
major depression. Lancet 1998; 351: 1213 40. Tanskanen A,
Hibbeln JR, Tuomilehto J, et al. Fish consumption and
depressive symptoms in the general population in Finland.
Psychiatr Serv 2001; 52: 529–31 41. Tanskanen A, Hibbeln
JR, Hintikka J, et al. Fish consumption, depression and
suicidality in a general population. Arch Gen Psychiatry
2001; 58: 512–13 42. Edwards R, Peet M, Shay J, Horribin D.
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in the diet and
in red blood cell membranes of depressed patients. J Affect
Disord 1998; 48: 149–55 43. Maidment ID. Are fish oils an
effective therapy in mental illness – an analysis of the
data. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2000; 102: 3–11

44. Stoll, AL. The Omega-3 Connection – How You Can Restore
Your Body’s Natural Balance and Treat Depression. New York:
Simon and Shuster, 2002

45. Holub BJ. Clinical nutrition: omega-3 fatty acids in


cardiovascular care. CMAJ 2002; 166: 608–15

46. Marangell LB, Martinez JM, Zboyan HA, et al. A


double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the omega-3 fatty
acids docosahexaenoic acid in the treatment of major
depression. Am J Psychiatry 2003; 160: 996–8

47. Albrecht CR, Gambert S. Botanical and diet-based


biological therapies and their use by older persons: part
II. Clin Geriatr 2005; 13: 28–36

48. Nemets B, Stahl Z, Belmaker RH. Addition of omega-3


fatty acid to maintenance medication treatment for
recurrent unipolar depressive disorder. Am J Psychiatry
2002; 159: 477–9

49. Peet M, Horrobin DF. A dose-ranging study of the


effects of ethyl-eicosapentaenoate in patients with ongoing
depression despite apparently adequate treatment with
standard drugs. Am J Psychiatry 2002: 59: 913–19

50. Su K-P, Huang S-Y, Chiu C-C, Shen WW. Omega-3 fatty
acids in major depressive disorder: a preliminary
double-blind, placebocontrolled trial. Eur
Neuropsychopharmacol 2003; 13: 267–71

51. Silvers K, Woolley C, Hamilton F, et al. Randomised


doubleblind placebo-controlled trial of fish oil in the
treatment of depression. Prost Leuk Ess Fatty Acids 2005;
72: 211–18

52. Gertsik L. Principal investigator,


http://clinicaltrials.gov/ show/NCT00067301

53. Fontenot B. The hyping of DHEA: long on claims, short


on evidence. Nut Forum 1998; 15: 3–7

54. Wolkowitz OM, Reus VI, Keebler A, et al. Double-blind


treatment of major depression with dehydroepiandrosterone.
Am J Psychiatry 1999; 156: 646–9

55. Bloch M, Schmidt PJ, Danaceau MA, et al.


Dehydroepiandrosterone treatment of mid-life dysthymia.
Biol Psychiatry 1999; 45: 1533–41

56. Rabkin JG, Ferrando SJ, Wagner GJ, Rabkin R. DHEA


treatment for HIV+ patients: effects on mood, androgenic
and anabolic parameters. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2000; 25:
53–68

57. Schmidt PJ, Daly RC, Bloch M, et al.


Dehydroepiandrosterone monotherapy in midlife-onset major
and minor depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005; 62: 154–62

58. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Med Lett Drug Ther 1996;


38: 91–2

59. Weier KM, Beal MW. Complementary therapies as adjuncts


in the treatment of postpartum depression. J Midwifery
Women’s Health 2004; 49: 96–104

60. Han JS. Electroacupuncture: an alternative to


antidepressants for treating affective diseases? Int J
Neurosci 1986; 29: 79–92

61. NIH Concensus Conference. Acupuncture. J Am Med Assoc


1998; 280: 1518

62. Luo H, Jia Y, Zhan L. Electoacupuncture vs


amitriptyline in the treatment of depressive states. J
Tradit Chin Med 1985; 5: 3–8

63. Roschke J, Wolf C, Kogel P, et al. Adjuvant whole body


acupuncture in depression. A placebo-controlled study with
standardized mianserin therapy. Nervenartz 1998; 69: 961–7

64. Farmer ME, Locke BZ, Moscicki EK, et al. Physical


activity and depressive symptoms: the NHANES I
epidemiologic follow-up study. Am J Epidemiol 1988; 128:
1340–51

65. Stephens T. Physical activity and mental health in the


United States and Canada: evidence from four population
surveys. Prev Med 1988; 17: 35–47 66. Artal M, Sherman C.
Exercise against depression. Phys Sportsmed 1998; 26: 25–30
67. Hughes JR. Psychological effects of habitual aerobic
exercise: a critical review. Prev Med 1984; 13: 66–78 68.
Byrne A, Byrne DG. The effect of exercise on depression,
anxiety, and other mood states: a review. J Psychosom Res
1993; 37: 565–74 69. Dunn A, Trivedi M, Kampert J, et al.
Exercise treatment for depression: efficacy and dose
response. Am J Prev Med 2005; 28: 1–8 70. Doyne EJ,
Ossip-Klein DJ, Bowman ED, et al. Running versus weight
lifting in the treatment of depression. J Consult Clin
Psychol 1987; 55: 748–54 71. Martinsen ER, Hoffart A,
Solberg O. Comparing aerobic and nonaerobic forms of
exercise in the treatment of clinical depression: a
randomized trial. Compr Psychiatry 1989; 30: 324–31 72.
North TC, McCullagh P, Tran ZV. Effect of exercise on
depression. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 1990; 18: 379–415 73.
Babyak M, Blumenthal JA, Herman S, et al. Exercise
treatment for major depression: maintenance of therapeutic
benefit at 10 months. Psychosom Med 2000; 62: 633–8 74.
Simon TR, Powell KE, Swann AC. Involvement in physical
activity and risk for nearly lethal suicide attempts. Am J
Prev Med 2004; 27: 310–15 75. Eisenberg DM, Davis RB,
Ettner SL, et al. Trends in alternative medicine use in the
United States, 1990–1997: results of a follow-up national
survey. J Am Med Assoc 1998; 11: 1569–75 76. Klein MH,
Greist JH, Gurman AS. A comparative outcome study of group
psychotherapy vs. exercise treatments for depression. Int J
Mental Health 1985; 13: 148–77 77. Teasdale JD. Emotional
processing, three modes of mind and the prevention of
relapse in depression. Behav Res Ther 1999; 37: S53–77 78.
Teasdale JD, Segal Z, Williams JM. How does cognitive
therapy prevent depressive relapse and why should
attentional control (mindfulness) training help? Behav Res
Ther 1995; 33: 25–39 79. Teasdale JD, Moore RG, Hayhurst H,
et al. Metacognitive awareness and prevention of relapse in
depression: empirical evidence. J Consult Clin Psychol
2002; 70: 275–87 80. Kumar SS, Kaur P, Kaur S.
Effectiveness of shavasana on depression among university
students. Ind J Clin Psychol 1993; 20: 82–7 81.
Janakiramaiah N, Gangadhar BN, Naga Venkatesha Murthy PJ,
et al. Antidepressant efficacy of sudarshan kriya yoga
(SKY) in melancholia: a randomized comparison with
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and imipramine. J Affect
Disord 2000; 57: 255–9 82. Reynolds WM, Coats KI. A
comparison of cognitive-behavioral therapy and relaxation
training for the treatment of depression in adolescents. J
Consult Clin Psychol 1986; 54: 653–60 83. Broota A, Dhir R.
Efficacy of two relaxation techniques in depression. J Pers
Clin Stud 1990; 6: 83–90 84. Murphy GE, Carney RM,
Knesevich MA, et al. Cognitive behavior therapy, relaxation
training, and tricyclic antidepressant medication in the
treatment of depression. Psychol Rec 1995; 77: 403–20 85.
Field T. Massage therapy effects. Am Psychol 1998; 53:
1270–81 86. Field T, Peck M, Krugman S, et al. Burn
injuries benefit from massage therapy. J Burn Care Rehabil
1998; 19: 241–4 87. Field T, Grizzle N, Scafidi F, et al.
Massage and relaxation therapies’ effects on depressed
adolescent mothers. Adolescence 1996; 31: 903–11

88. Field T, Morrow C, Valdeon C, et al. Massage reduces


anxiety in child and adolescent psychiatric patients. J Am
Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1992; 31: 125–31 89. Field T,
Hernandez-Reif M, Quintino O, et al. Elder retired
volunteers benefit from giving massage therapy to infants.
J Appl Gerontol 1997; 17: 229–39
Chronic fatigue syndrome 56

1. Fukuda K, Strauss SE, Hickie I, et al. The Chronic


Fatigue Syndrome: a comprehensive approach to its
definition and study. International Chronic Fatigue
Syndrome Case Definition Study Group. Ann Intern Med 1994;
121: 953–9

2. Teitelbaum J. From Fatigued to Fantastic. New York:


Avery, 2001

3. Baskin HJ, chairman. American Association of Clinical


Endocrinologists Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice
for the Evaluation and Treatment of Hyperthyroidism and
Hypothyroidism, 2004. Available at: www.aace.com/
clin/guidelines/hypo_hyper.pdf

4. Savolainen J, Lammintausta K, Kalimo K, et al. Candida


albicans and atopic dermatitis. Clin Exp Allergy 1993; 23:
332–9

5. Skinner GRB, Holmes D, Ahmad A, et al. Clinical response


to thyroxine sodium in clinically hypothyroid but
biochemically euthyroid patients. J Nutr Environ Med 2000;
10: 115–25

6. Teitelbaum J, Bird B. Effective treatment of severe


chronic fatigue: a report of a series of 64 patients. J
Musculoskel Pain 1995; 3: 91–110

7. McKenzie R, O’Fallon A, Dale J, et al. Low-dose


hydrocortisone for treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome: a
randomized controlled trial. J Am Med Assoc 1998; 280:
1061–6 8. Scott LV, Salahuddin F, Cooney J, et al.
Differences in adrenal steroid profile in chronic fatigue
syndrome, in depression and in health. J Affect Disord
1999; 54: 129–37 9. Mills S, Bone K. Principles and
Practice of Phytotherapy. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone,
2000 10. The Complete German Commission E Monographs, In
Blumenthal M, Busse W, Goldberg A, et al., eds. Therapeutic
Guide to Herbal Medicines. Boston: Integrative Medicine
Communications, 1998 11. Wright J. ‘Beyond Hot Flashes’
Nutrition and Healing, 2002. Available at:
www.tahoma-clinic.com/hotflashes.shtml 12. Neeck G,
Crofford LJ. Neuroendocrine perturbations in fibromyalgia
and chronic fatigue syndrome. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2000;
26: 989–1002 13. Ivker R. Sinus Survival. New York:
Tarcher/Putnam, 2000 14. Arinaga S, Karimine N, Takamaku K,
et al. Enhanced induction of lymphokine activated killer
activity after lentinan administration in patients with
gastric carcinoma. Int J Immunopharmacol 1992; 14: 535–9
15. Kagan C. Lysine therapy for herpes simplex. Lancet
1974; 1: 137 16. Dowson DI, Lewith GT, Machin D. The effect
of acupuncture versus placebo in the treatment of headache.
Pain 1985; 21: 35–42

17. Hicks JT. Treatment of fatigue: a double blind study.


Clin Med 1964; 1: 85–90

18. Hyde B, Goldstein J, Levine P. In Hyde B, Goldstein J,


Levine P, eds. The Clinical and Scientific Basis of Myalgic
Encephalitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Ottawa:
Nightingale Research Foundation, 1992

19. Gaby A. Potassium-magnesium aspartate. Nutr Healing


1995; 10: 3–11

20. Kamikawa T, Kobayashi A, Yamashita T, et al. Effects of


coenzyme Q10 on exercise tolerance in chronic stable angina
pectoris. Am J Cardiol 1985; 56: 247–51 21. Deale A,
Chalder T, Marks I, Wessely S. Cognitive behavioral therapy
for chronic fatigue syndrome: a randomized controlled
trial. Am J Psychiatry 1997; 154: 408–14 22. Moss-Morris R,
Petrie KJ. Cognitive distortions of somatic sxperiences:
revision and validation of a measure. J Psychosom Res 1997;
43: 293–306 23. Moss-Morris R, Petrie KJ, Weinman J.
Functioning in chronic fatigue syndrome: do illness
perceptions play a regulatory role? Br J Health Psychol
1996; 1: 15–25
Fibromyalgia syndrome 57

41. Hanninen O, Kaartinen K, Rauma AL, et al. Antioxidants


in vegan diet and rheumatic disorders. Toxicology 2000;
155: 45–53

42. McCarty DJ, Csuka M, McCarthy G, Trotter D. Treatment


of pain due to fibromyalgia with topical capsaicin: a pilot
study. Semin Arthritis Rheum 1994; 23 (Suppl 3): 41–7

43. Ammer K, Melnizky P. Medicinal baths for treatment of


generalized fibromyalgia [in German]. Forsch
Komplementarmed 1999; 6: 80–5

44. Buskila D, Abu-Shakra M, Neumann L, et al.


Balneotherapy for fibromyalgia at the Dead Sea. Rheumatol
Int 2001; 20: 105–8

45. Bombardier CH, Buchwald D. Chronic fatigue, chronic


fatigue syndrome, and fibromyalgia: disability and
health-care use. Med Care 1996; 34: 924–30

46. Wolfe F. The clinical syndrome of fibrositis. Am J Med


1986; 81: 7–14

47. Barbour C. Use of complementary and alternative


treatments by individuals with fibromyalgia syndrome. J Am
Acad Nurse Pract 2000; 12: 311–16

48. Blunt KL, Rajwani MH, Guerriero RC. The effectiveness


of chiropractic management of fibromyalgia patients: a
pilot study. J Manip Physiol Ther 1997; 20: 389–99

49. Brattberg G. Connective tissue massage in the treatment


of fibromyalgia. Eur J Pain 1999; 3: 235–44

50. Alnigenis MNY, Bradley JD, Wallick J, Emsley CL.


Massage therapy in the management of fibromyalgia: a pilot
study. J Musculoskeletal Pain 2001; 9: 55–67

51. Chesky KS, Russell IJ, Lopez Y, Kondraske GV.


Fibromyalgia tender point pain: a double-blind,
placebo-controlled pilot study of music vibration using the
music vibration table. J Musculoskeletal Pain 1997; 5:
33–52 52. Astin JA, Berman BM, Bausell B, et al. The
efficacy of mindfulness meditation plus Qigong movement
therapy in the treatment of fibromyalgia: a randomized
controlled trial. J Rheumatol 2003; 30: 2257–62 53. Colbert
AP, Markov MS, Banerji M, Pilla AA. Magnetic mattress pad
use in patients with fibromyalgia: a randomized
double-blind pilot study. J Back Musculoskeletal Rehabil
1999; 13: 19–31 54. Alfano AP, Taylor AG, Foresman PA, et
al. Static magnetic fields for treatment of fibromyalgia: a
randomized controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med 2001;
7: 53–64 55. De Smet PA. Herbal remedies. N Engl J Med
2002; 347: 2046–56 56. Ernst E, White A. Life-threatening
adverse reactions after acupuncture? A systematic review.
Pain 1997; 71: 123–6 57. White A, Hayhoe S, Hart A, Ernst
E. Adverse events following acupuncture: prospective survey
of 32,000 consultations with doctors and physiotherapists.
Br Med J 2001; 323: 485–6 58. Ernst E. Manipulation of the
cervical spine: a systematic review of case reports of
serious adverse events, 1995–2001. Med J Aust 2002; 176:
376–80 59. Ernst E. Musculoskeletal conditions and
complementary/alternative medicine. Best Pract Res Clin
Rheumatol 2004; 18: 539–56
Osteoarthritis 58

10. Basleer C, Roviati L, Franchimont P. Stimulation of


proteoglycan production by glucosamine sulphate in
chondrocytes isolated from human osteoarthritic articular
cartilage in vitro, osteoarthritis. Cartilage 1988; 6:
427–34 11. Hua J, Sakamoto K, Nagaoka I. Inhibitory actions
of glucosamine, a therapeutic agent for osteoarthritis, on
the functions of neutrophils. J Leukocyte Biol 2002; 71:
632–40 12. McAlindon TE, LaValley MP, Gulin JP, et al.
Glucosamine and chondroitin fortreatment of osteoarthritis:
a systematic quality assessment and meta-analysis. J Am Med
Assoc 2000; 283: 1469–75 13. Kreder HJ. Glucosamine and
chondroitin were found to improve outcomes in patients with
osteoarthritis. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2000; 82: 1323 14.
Ulbricht, Basch E, Basch C, et al. Systemic review of
glucosamine. J Complement Integrat Med 2005; No. 1, Article
1. Available at: www.bepress .com/jcim/vol2/iss1/1 15.
Reginster JY, Deroisy R, Rovati LC. Long-term effects of
glucosamine sulfate on osteoarthritis progression: a
randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2001; 357:
251–6 16. Bruyere O, Pavelka K, Rovati L, et al.
Glucosamine sulfate reduces osteoarthritis progression in
postmenopausal women with knee osteoarthritis: evidence
from two 3-year studies. Menopause 2004; 11: 138–43 17.
Anonymous. 2002. Joint remedies. Consumer Reports 2002:
18–21

18. Bradley J, Flusser D, Katz B, et al. A randomized,


double blind, placebo controlled trial of intravenous
loading with S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) followed by oral
SAM therapy in patients with knee osteoarthritis. J
Rheumatol 1994; 21: 905–11

19. Glorioso S, Todesco S, Mazzi A, et al. Double-blind,


multicentre study of the activity of S-adenosylmethionine
in hip and knee osteoarthritis. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res
1985; 5: 39–49

20. Henrotin YE, Sanchez C, Deberg MA, et al.


Avocado/soybean unsaponifiables increase aggrecan synthesis
and reduce catabolic and pro-inflammatory mediator
production by human osteoarthritic chondrocytes. J
Rheumatol 2003; 30: 1825–34

21. Maheu E, Mazieres B, Valat JP, et al. Symptomatic


efficacy of avocado/soybean unsaponifiables in the
treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee and hip: a
prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled,
multicenter clinical trial with a six-month treatment
period and a two-month follow-up demonstrating a persistent
effect. Arthritis Rheum 1998; 41: 81–91

22. Stone MB, Merrick MA, Ingersoll CD, et al. Preliminary


comparison of bromelain and ibuprofen for delayed onset
muscle soreness management. Clin J Sport Med 2002; 12:
373–8

23. Hale LP, Greer PK, Sempowski GD. Bromelain treatment


alters leukocyte expression of cell surface molecules
involved in cellular adhesion and activation. Clin Immunol
2002; 104: 183–90

24. Piscoya J, Rodriguez Z, Bustamante SA, et al. Efficacy


and safety of freeze-dried cat’s claw in osteoarthritis of
the knee: mechanisms of action of the species Uncaria
guianensis. Inflamm Res 2001; 50: 442–8

25. Jang MH, Lim S, Han SM, et al. Harpagophytum procumbens


suppresses lipopolysaccharide-stimulated expressions of
cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in
fibroblast cell line L929. J Pharmacol Sci 2003; 93: 367–71

26. Chrubasik S, Thanner J, Kunzel O, et al. Comparison of


outcome measures during treatment with the proprietary
Harpagophytum extract doloteffin in patients with pain in
the lower back, knee or hip. Phytomedicine 2002; 9: 181–94

27. Thomson M, Al-Qattan KK, Al-Sawan SM, et al. The use of


ginger (Zingiber officinale) as a potential
anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic agent. Prostaglandins
Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2002; 67: 475–8

28. Bliddal H, Rosetzsky A, Schlichting P, et al. A


randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study of ginger
extracts and ibuprofen in osteoarthritis. Osteoarth
Cartilage 2000; 8: 9–12

29. Usha PR, Naidu MUR. Randomized, double-blind, parallel,


placebo-controlled study of oral glucosamine,
Methylsulfonylmethane and their combinations. Clin Drug
Invest 2004; 24: 353–63

30. Murav’ev IuV, Venikova MS, Pleskovskaia GN, et al.


Effect of dimethyl sulfoxide and dimethyl sulfone on a
destructive process in the joints of mice with spontaneous
arthritis [in Russian]. Patol Fiziol Eksp Ter 1991; 37–9

31. Fiebich BL, Chrubasik S. Effects of an ethanolic salix


extract on the release of selected inflammatory mediators
in vitro. Phytomedicine 2004; 11: 135–8

32. Biegert C, Wagner I, Ludtke R, et al. Efficacy and


safety of willow bark extract in the treatment of
osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: results of 2
randomized double-blind controlled trials. J Rheumatol
2004; 31: 2121–30

33. Cuende E, Fraguas J, Pena JE, et al. Beekeepers’


arthropathy. J Rheumatol 1999; 26: 2684–90

34. Caldwell JR. Venoms, copper, and zinc in the treatment


of arthritis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1999; 25: 919–28 35.
McAlindon TE, Jacques P, Zhang Y, et al. Do antioxidant
micronutrients protect against the development and
progression of knee osteoarthritis? Arthritis Rheum 1996;
39: 648–56 36. Virtamo J, Pietinen P, Huttunen JK, et al.
Incidence of cancer and mortality following
alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplementation: a post
intervention follow-up. J Am Med Assoc 2003; 290: 476–85
37. Rapola JM, Virtamo J, Ripatti S, et al. Randomized
trial of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements on
incidence of major coronary events in men with previous
myocardial infarction. Lancet 1997; 349: 1715–20 38.
McAlindon TE, Jacques P, Zhang Y, et al. Do antioxidant
micronutrients protect against the development and
progression of knee osteoarthritis? Arthritis Rheum 1996;
39: 648–56 39. Dwyer JH, Merz NB, Shirocre AM, et al.
Progression of early atherosclerosis and intake of vitamin
C and vitamin E from supplements and food. The Los Angeles
Atherosclerosis Study. 41st Annual Conference on
Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology and Prevention –
Abstract P77. Circulation 2001; 103: 1365d 40. Witt C,
Brinkhaus B, Jena S, et al. Acupuncture in patients with
osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized trial. Lancet
2005; 12: 366: 136–43 41. ter Riet G, Kleijnen J,
Knipschild P. Acupuncture and chronic pain: a
criteria-based meta-analysis. J Clin Epidemiol 1990; 43:
1191–9 42. Ernst E, White AR. Acupuncture for back pain: a
meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern
Med 1998; 158: 2235–41 43. Patel M, Gutzwiller F, Paccaud
F, Marazzi A. A meta-analysis of acupuncture for chronic
pain. Int J Epidemiol 1989; 18: 900–6 44. Harlow T, Greaves
C, White A, et al. Randomized controlled trial of magnetic
bracelets for relieving pain in osteoarthritis of the hip
and knee. Br Med J 2004; 329: 1450–4 45. Wolsko P,
Eisenberg D, Simon L, et al. Double-blind placebocontrolled
trial of static magnets for the treatment of osteoarthritis
of the knee: results of a pilot study. Altern Ther Health
Med 2004; 10: 36–43 46. Trock DH, Bollet AJ, Dyer RH Jr, et
al. A double-blind trial of the clinical effects of pulsed
electromagnetic fields in osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol 1993;
20: 456–60 47. Trock DH, Bollet AJ, Markoll R. The effect
of pulsed electromagnetic fields in the treatment of
osteoarthritis of the knee and cervical spine. Report of
randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trials. J
Rheumatol 1994; 21: 1903–11 48. Hulme J, Robinson V, DeBie
R, et al. Electromagnetic fields for the treatment of
osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002; 1:
CD003523 49. Osiri M, Welch V, Brosseau L, et al.
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for knee
osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; 4:
CD002823 50. Yurtkuran M, Kocagil T. TENS,
electroacupuncture and ice massage: comparison of treatment
for osteoarthritis of the knee. Am J Acupunct 1999; 27:
133–40 51. Lewis B, Lewis D, Cumming G. The comparative
analgesic efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve
stimulation and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug for
painful osteoarthritis. Br J Rheumatol 1994; 33: 455–60 52.
Deyle GD, Henderson NE, Matekel RL, et al. Effectiveness of
manual physical therapy and exercise in osteoarthritis of
the knee. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med
2000; 132: 173–81

53. Thomas K, Muir K, Doherty M, et al. Home based exercise


programme for knee pain and knee osteoarthritis: randomized
controlled trial. Br Med J 2002; 325: 752

54. Vickers A, Zollman C. Massage therapies. Br Med J 1999;


319: 1254–7

55. Nguyen N, Revel M, Dougados M. Prolonged effects of 2


week therapy in a spa resort on lumbar spine, knee and hip
osteoarthritis. with follow-up after 6 mos. A randomized
controlled trial. Br J Rheumatol 1997; 36: 77–81

56. Bellometti S, Richelmi P, Tassoni T, Berte F.


Production of matrix metalloproteinase and their inhibitors
in osteoarthritic patients undergoing mud bath therapy. Int
J Clin Pharmacol Res 2005; 25: 77–94

57. Bellometti S, Giannini S, Sartori L, Crepaldi G.


Cytokine levels in osteoarthrosis patients undergoing mud
bath therapy. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1997; 17: 149–53

58. Kim S, Stitik T, Foye P, et al. Critical review of


prolotherapy for osteoarthritis, low back pain, and other
musculoskeletal conditions: a physiatric perspective. Am J
Phys Med Rehabil 2004; 83: 379–89
59. Hartman CA, Manos TM, Winter C, et al. Effects of T’ai
Chi training on function and quality of life indicators in
older adults with osteoarthritis. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000;
48: 1553–9

60. Song R, Lee EO, Lam P, Bae SC. Effects of T’ai Chi
exercise on pain, balance, muscle strength, and perceived
difficulties in physical functioning in older women with
osteoarthritis: a randomized clinical trial. J Rheumatol
2003; 30: 2039–44 61. Wu G. Evaluation of the effectiveness
of T’ai Chi for improving balance and preventing falls in
the older population – a review. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002; 50:
746–54 62. Garfinkel MS, Schumacher HR Jr, Husain A, et al.
Evaluation of a yoga based regimen for treatment of
osteoarthritis of the hands. J Rheumatol 1994; 21: 2341–3
63. Raub J. Psychophysiologic effects of Hatha yoga on
musculoskeletal and cardiopulmonary function: a literature
review. J Altern Complement Med 2002; 8: 797–812 64.
Michalsen A, Klotz S, Ludtke R, et al. Effectiveness of
leech therapy in osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized,
controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 2003; 139: 724–30 65.
Pilcher H. Medicinal leeches: stuck on you. Nature 2004;
432: 10–11 66. Astin J. Mind–body therapies for the
management of pain. Clin J Pain 2004; 20: 27–32 67.
McCaffrey R, Freeman E. Effect of music on chronic
osteoarthritis pain in older people. J Adv Nurs 2003; 44:
517–24 68. Baird C, Sands L. A pilot study of the
effectiveness of guided imagery with progressive muscle
relaxation to reduce chronic pain and mobility difficulties
of osteoarthritis. Pain Manag Nurs 2004; 5: 97–104
Natural products and cancer 59

39. Bruss K, ed. American Cancer Society Guide to


Complementary and Alternative Cancer Methods. Atlanta, GA:
American Cancer Society, 2000 40. Sampson W. Contoversies
in cancer and the mind: effects of psychosocial support.
Semin Oncol 2002; 29: 595–600
Chemotherapy-induced nausea and 60
vomiting

1. Kovac AL. Benefits and risks of newer treatments for


chemotherapy-induced and postoperative nausea and vomiting.
Drug Safety 2003; 26: 227–59

2. Schnell FM. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting:


the importance of acute antiemetic control. Oncologist
2003; 8: 187–98

3. Hesketh PJ, Van Belle S, Aapro M, et al. Differential


involvement of neurotransmitters through the time course of
cisplatininduced emesis as revealed by therapy with
specific receptor antagonists. Eur J Cancer 2003; 39:
1074–80

4. Roila F. Prevention of delayed nausea and emesis induced


by chemotherapy. In Donnerer J, ed. Antiemetic Therapy. New
York: J Karger, 2003: 169–78

5. Meyer M. Palliative care and AIDS: 2–Gastrointestinal


symptoms. Int J STD AIDS 1999; 10: 495–505

6. Endo T, Minami M, Monma Y, et al. Emesis-related


biochemical and histopathological changes induced by
cisplatin in the ferret. J Toxicol Sci 1990; 15: 235–44

7. Matsuki N. [Mechanisms of cytotoxic drug-induced emesis


and its prevention.] Yakugaku Zasshi 1996; 116: 710–18

8. Torii Y, Mutoh M, Saito H, Matsuki N. Involvement of


free radicals in cisplatin-induced emesis in Suncus
murinus. Eur J Pharmacol 1993; 248: 131–5

9. Sodhi A, Gupta P. Increased release of hydrogen peroxide


(H 2 O 2 ) and superoxide anion (O 2– ) by murine
macrophages in vitro after cisplatin treatment. Int J
Immunopharmacol 1986; 8: 709–14

10. Fukui H, Yamamoto M, Ando T, et al. Increase in


serotonin levels in the dog ileum and blood by cisplatin as
measured by microdialysis. Neuropharmacology 1993; 32:
959–68

11. Yuan CS, Barber WD. Area postrema: gastric vagal input
from proximal stomach and interactions with nucleus tractus
solitarius in cat. Brain Res Bull 1993; 30: 119–25

12. Andrews PL, Bhandari P. The 5-hydroxytryptamine


receptor antagonists as antiemetics: preclinical evaluation
and mechanism of action. Eur J Cancer 1993; 29: S11–16

13. Gale JD. Serotonergic mediation of vomiting. J Pediatr


Gastroenterol Nutr 1995; 21 (Suppl 1): S22–8

14. Cubeddu LX. Mechanisms by which cancer chemotherapeutic


drugs induce emesis. Semin Oncol 1992; 19: 2–13

15. Watson JW, Gonsalves SF, Fossa AA, et al. The


anti-emetic effects of CP-99,994 in the ferret and the dog:
role of the NK1 receptor. Br J Pharmacol 1995; 115: 84–94
16. Cocquyt V, Van Belle S, Reinhardt RR, et al. Comparison
of L758,298, a prodrug for the selective neurokinin-1
antagonist, L754,030, with ondansetron for the prevention
of cisplatininduced emesis. Eur J Cancer 2001; 37: 835–42
17. Tanihata S, Oda S, Kakuta S, Uchiyama T. Antiemetic
effect of a tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist GR205171 on
cisplatininduced early and delayed emesis in the pigeon.
Eur J Pharmacol 2003; 461: 197–206 18. Holzer P,
Holzer-Petsche U. Tachykinin receptors in the gut:
physiological and pathological implications. Curr Opin
Pharmacol 2001; 1: 583–90 19. Holzer P, Holzer-Petsche U.
Tachykinins in the gut. Part I. Expression, release and
motor function. Pharmacol Ther 1997; 73: 173–217 20.
Hockerfelt U, Franzen L, Forsgren S. Substance P (NK1)
receptor in relation to substance P innervation in rat
duodenum after irradiation. Regul Peptides 2001; 98: 115–26
21. Stahl SM. The ups and downs of novel antiemetic drugs,
part 1: substance P, 5-HT, and the neuropharmacology of
vomiting. J Clin Psychiatry 2003; 64: 498–9 22. Pendergrass
KB. Options in the treatment of chemotherapyinduced emesis.
Cancer Pract 1998; 6: 276–81 23. Tsukada H, Hirose T,
Yokoyama A, Kurita Y. Randomised comparison of ondansetron
plus dexamethasone with dexamethasone alone for the control
of delayed cisplatin-induced emesis. Eur J Cancer 2001; 37:
2398–404 24. Martin AR, Carides AD, Pearson JD, et al.
Functional relevance of antiemetic control. Experience
using the FLIE questionnaire in a randomised study of the
NK-1 antagonist aprepitant. Eur J Cancer 2003; 39: 1395–401
25. Herrstedt J. Risk-benefit of antiemetics in prevention
and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
Expert Opin Drug Saf 2004; 3: 231–48 26. Wu W, Chaudhuri S,
Brickley DR, et al. Microarray analysis reveals
glucocorticoid-regulated survival genes that are associated
with inhibition of apoptosis in breast epithelial cells.
Cancer Res 2004; 64: 1757–64 27. Ernst E. The role of
complementary and alternative medicine in cancer. Lancet
Oncol 2000; 1: 176–80 28. Bernstein BJ, Grasso T.
Prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine use in
cancer patients. Oncology (Huntingt) 2001; 15: 1267–72;
discussion 72–8, 83 Chemotherapy-induced nausea and
vomiting 659

29. Shumay DM, Maskarinec G, Kakai H, Gotay CC. Why some


cancer patients choose complementary and alternative
medicine instead of conventional treatment. J Fam Pract
2001; 50: 1067

30. Schworer H, Racke K, Kilbinger H. Cisplatin increases


the release of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) from the isolated
vascularly perfused small intestine of the guinea-pig:
involvement of 5-HT3 receptors. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch
Pharmacol 1991; 344: 143–9

31. Dumontet C, Drai J, Thieblemont C, et al. The


superoxide dismutase content in erythrocytes predicts
short-term toxicity of high-dose cyclophosphamide. Br J
Haematol 2001; 112: 405–9

32. Berrigan MJ, Struck RF, Gurtoo HL. Lipid peroxidation


induced by cyclophosphamide. Cancer Biochem Biophys 1987;
9: 265–70

33. Yang Y, Kinoshita K, Koyama K, et al. Novel


experimental model using free radical-induced emesis for
surveying antiemetic compounds from natural sources. Planta
Med 1999; 65: 574–6

34. Shao ZH, Li CQ, Vanden Hoek TL, et al. Extract from
Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi attenuates oxidant stress in
cardiomyocytes. J Mol Cell Cardiol 1999; 31: 1885–95

35. Aung HH, Dey L, Mehendale S, et al. Scutellaria


baicalensis extract decreases cisplatin-induced pica in
rats. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2003; 52: 453–8

36. Gillis CN. Panax ginseng pharmacology: a nitric oxide


link? Biochem Pharmacol 1997; 54: 1–8

37. Attele AS, Wu JA, Yuan CS. Ginseng pharmacology:


multiple constituents and multiple actions. Biochem
Pharmacol 1999; 58: 1685–93

38. Mehendale S, Aung H, Wang A, et al. American ginseng


berry extract and ginsenoside Re attenuate
cisplatin-induced kaolin intake in rats. Cancer Chemother
Pharmacol 2005; 56: 63–9

39. Mitchell D, Wells C, Hoch N, et al. Poison induced pica


in rats. Physiol Behav 1976; 17: 691–7

40. Takeda N, Hasegawa S, Morita M, Matsunaga T. Pica in


rats is analogous to emesis: an animal model in emesis
research. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1993; 45: 817–21

41. Takeda N, Hasegawa S, Morita M, et al.


Neuropharmacological mechanisms of emesis. I. Effects of
antiemetic drugs on motionand apomorphine-induced pica in
rats. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 1995; 17: 589–90

42. Takeda N, Hasegawa S, Morita M, et al.


Neuropharmacological mechanisms of emesis. II. Effects of
antiemetic drugs on cisplatin-induced pica in rats. Methods
Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 1995; 17: 647–52

43. Kris MG, Gralla RJ, Clark RA, et al. Incidence, course,
and severity of delayed nausea and vomiting following the
administration of high-dose cisplatin. J Clin Oncol 1985;
3: 1379–84

44. Kris MG, Roila F, De Mulder PH, Marty M. Delayed emesis


following anticancer chemotherapy. Support Care Cancer
1998; 6: 228–32

45. Shao ZH, Xie JT, Vanden Hoek TL, et al. Antioxidant
effects of American ginseng berry extract in cardiomyocytes
exposed to acute oxidant stress. Biochim Biophys Acta 2004;
1670: 165–71

46. Bensky D, Gamble A, Stoger E. Chinese Herbal Medicine:


Materia Medica. Seattle: Eastland Press, 2004

47. Anon. Zingiber officinale (ginger). Monograph. Altern


Med Rev 2003; 8: 331–5 48. Jagetia G, Baliga M, Venkatesh
P. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.), a dietary
supplement, protects mice against radiationinduced
lethality: mechanism of action. Cancer Biother Radiopharm
2004; 19: 422–35 49. Ernst E, Pittler MH. Efficacy of
ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of
randomized clinical trials. Br J Anaesth 2000; 84: 367–71
50. www.clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00065221, accessed July,
2005 51. Lamson DW, Brignall MS. Antioxidants in cancer
therapy; their actions and interactions with oncologic
therapies. Altern Med Rev 1999; 4: 304–29 52. Zamble DB,
Lippard SJ. Cisplatin and DNA repair in cancer
chemotherapy. Trends Biochem Sci 1995; 20: 435–9 53.
Yokozawa T, Liu ZW. The role of ginsenoside-Rd in
cisplatininduced acute renal failure. Renal Fail 2000; 22:
115–27 54. Chang B, Nishikawa M, Sato E, et al.
L-Carnitine inhibits cisplatin-induced injury of the kidney
and small intestine. Arch Biochem Biophys 2002; 405: 55–64
55. Liu SJ, Zhou SW. Panax notoginseng saponins attenuated
cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2000;
21: 257–60 56. Wu YJ, Muldoon LL, Neuwelt EA. The
chemoprotective agent N-acetylcysteine blocks
cisplatin-induced apoptosis through caspase signaling
pathway. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2005; 312: 424–31 57. Park
IH, Piao LZ, Kwon SW, et al. Cytotoxic dammarane glycosides
from processed ginseng. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2002; 50:
538–40 58. Mochizuki M, Yoo YC, Matsuzawa K, et al.
Inhibitory effect of tumor metastasis in mice by saponins,
ginsenoside-Rb2, 20(R)and 20(S)-ginsenoside-Rg3, of red
ginseng. Biol Pharm Bull 1995; 18: 1197–202 59. Nakata H,
Kikuchi Y, Tode T, et al. Inhibitory effects of ginsenoside
Rh2 on tumor growth in nude mice bearing human ovarian
cancer cells. Jpn J Cancer Res 1998; 89: 733–40 60.
Karikura M, Miyase T, Tanizawa H, et al. Studies on
absorption, distribution, excretion and metabolism of
ginseng saponins. VII. Comparison of the decomposition
modes of ginsenoside-Rb1 and -Rb2 in the digestive tract of
rats. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1991; 39: 2357–61 61. Lee SJ,
Ko WG, Kim JH, et al. Induction of apoptosis by a novel
intestinal metabolite of ginseng saponin via cytochrome
c-mediated activation of caspase-3 protease. Biochem
Pharmacol 2000; 60: 677–85 62. Suh SO, Kroh M, Kim NR, et
al. Effects of red ginseng upon postoperative immunity and
survival in patients with stage III gastric cancer. Am J
Chin Med 2002; 30: 483–94 63. Yun TK, Choi SY. Preventive
effect of ginseng intake against various human cancers: a
case-control study on 1987 pairs. Cancer Epidemiol
Biomarkers Prev 1995; 4: 401–8 64. Yun TK. Experimental and
epidemiological evidence of the cancer-preventive effects
of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer. Nutr Rev 1996; 54: S71–81 65.
Ott MJ. Complementary and alternative therapies in cancer
symptom management. Cancer Pract 2002; 10: 162–6
Cachexia associated with cancer and 61
AIDS

42. Singh N, Squier C, Sivek C, et al. Determinants of


nontraditional therapy use in patients with HIV infection.
A prospective study. Arch Intern Med 1996; 156: 197–201

43. Eisenberg DM, Davis RB, Ettner SL, et al. Trends in


alternative medicine use in the United States, 1990–1997:
results of a follow-up national survey. J Am Med Assoc
1998; 280: 1569–75

44. Fairfield KM, Eisenberg DM, Davis RB, et al. Patterns


of use, expenditures, and perceived efficacy of
complementary and alternative therapies in HIV-infected
patients. Arch Intern Med 1998; 158: 2257–64

45. Korver DR, Klasing KC. Dietary fish oil alters specific
and inflammatory immune responses in chicks. J Nutr 1997;
127: 2039–46

46. Zhao Y, Joshi-Barve S, Barve S, Chen LH.


Eicosapentaenoic acid prevents LPS-induced TNF-alpha
expression by preventing NF-kappaB activation. J Am Coll
Nutr 2004; 23: 71–8

47. Wigmore SJ, Fearon KC, Maingay JP, Ross JA.


Down-regulation of the acute-phase response in patients
with pancreatic cancer cachexia receiving oral
eicosapentaenoic acid is mediated via suppression of
interleukin-6. Clin Sci (Lond) 1997; 92: 215–21

48. Wigmore SJ, Ross JA, Falconer JS, et al. The effect of
polyunsaturated fatty acids on the progress of cachexia in
patients with pancreatic cancer. Nutrition 1996; 12
(Suppl): S27–30

49. Barber MD, Ross JA, Voss AC, et al. The effect of an
oral nutritional supplement enriched with fish oil on
weight-loss in patients with pancreatic cancer. Br J Cancer
1999; 81: 80–6

50. Brown TT, Zelnik DL, Dobs AS. Fish oil supplementation
in the treatment of cachexia in pancreatic cancer patients.
Int J Gastrointest Cancer 2003; 34: 143–50

51. Gogos CA, Ginopoulos P, Salsa B, et al. Dietary omega-3


polyunsaturated fatty acids plus vitamin E restore
immunodeficiency and prolong survival for severely ill
patients with generalized malignancy: a randomized control
trial. Cancer 1998; 82: 395–402

52. Fearon KC, Von Meyenfeldt MF, Moses AG, et al. Effect
of a protein and energy dense N-3 fatty acid enriched oral
supplement on loss of weight and lean tissue in cancer
cachexia: a randomised double blind trial. Gut 2003; 52:
1479–86

53. Jatoi A, Rowland K, Loprinzi CL, et al. An


eicosapentaenoic acid supplement versus megestrol acetate
versus both for patients with cancer-associated wasting: a
North Central Cancer Treatment Group and National Cancer
Institute of Canada collaborative effort. J Clin Oncol
2004; 22: 2469–76

54. Burns CP, Halabi S, Clamon GH, et al. Phase I clinical


study of fish oil fatty acid capsules for patients with
cancer cachexia: cancer and leukemia group B study 9473.
Clin Cancer Res 1999; 5: 3942–7

55. Jatoi A. Fish oil, lean tissue, and cancer: is there a


role for eicosapentaenoic acid in treating the cancer
anorexia/ weight loss syndrome? Crit Rev Oncol Hematol
2005; 55: 37–43

56. Jacobs MN, Santillo D, Johnston PA, et al.


Organochlorine residues in fish oil dietary supplements:
comparison with industrial grade oils. Chemosphere 1998;
37: 1709–21

57. Guallar E, Sanz-Gallardo MI, van’t VP, et al. Mercury,


fish oils, and the risk of myocardial infarction. N Engl J
Med 2002; 347: 1747–54

58. Melanson SF, Lewandrowski EL, Flood JG, Lewandrowski


KB. Measurement of organochlorines in commercial
over-thecounter fish oil preparations: implications for
dietary and therapeutic recommendations for omega-3 fatty
acids and a review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med
2005; 129: 74–7 59. Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, Appel LJ.
Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: new
recommendations from the American Heart Association.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2003; 23: 151–2 60. Herljevic
M, Middleton B, Thapan K, Skene DJ. Lightinduced melatonin
suppression: age-related reduction in response to short
wavelength light. Exp Gerontol 2005; 40: 237–42 61. Zeitzer
JM, Dijk DJ, Kronauer R, et al. Sensitivity of the human
circadian pacemaker to nocturnal light: melatonin phase
resetting and suppression. J Physiol 2000; 5263: 695–702
62. Lissoni P. Is there a role for melatonin in supportive
care? Support Care Cancer 2002; 10: 110–16 63. Lissoni P,
Rovelli F, Meregalli S, et al. Melatonin as a new possible
anti-inflammatory agent. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 1997;
11: 157–9 64. Lissoni P, Barni S, Mandala M, et al.
Decreased toxicity and increased efficacy of cancer
chemotherapy using the pineal hormone melatonin in
metastatic solid tumour patients with poor clinical status.
Eur J Cancer 1999; 35: 1688–92 65. Vijayalaxmi, Thomas CR
Jr, Reiter RJ, Herman TS. Melatonin: from basic research to
cancer treatment clinics. J Clin Oncol 2002; 20: 2575–601
66. Persson C, Glimelius B, Ronnelid J, Nygren P. Impact of
fish oil and melatonin on cachexia in patients with
advanced gastrointestinal cancer: a randomized pilot study.
Nutrition 2005; 21: 170–8 67. Di Marzo, V, Matias I.
Endocannabinoid control of food intake and energy balance.
Nat Neurosci 2005; 8: 585–9 68. Watson SJ, Benson JA Jr,
Joy JE. Marijuana and medicine: assessing the science base:
a summary of the 1999 Institute of Medicine report. Arch
Gen Psychiatry 2000; 57: 547–52 69. Woolridge E, Barton S,
Samuel J, et al. Cannabis use in HIV for pain and other
medical symptoms. J Pain Symptom Manage 2005; 29: 358–67
70. Haney M, Rabkin J, Gunderson E, Foltin RW. Dronabinol
and marijuana in HIV+ marijuana smokers: acute effects on
caloric intake and mood. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2005;
181: 170–8 71. Budney AJ, Kandel DB, Cherek DR, et al.
College on problems of drug dependence meeting, Puerto Rico
(June 1996) marijuana use and dependence. Drug Alcohol
Depend 1997; 45: 1–11 72. Polen MR, Sidney S, Tekawa IS, et
al. Health care use by frequent marijuana smokers who do
not smoke tobacco. West J Med 1993; 158: 596–601 73.
Fukutake M, Yokota S, Kawamura H, et al. Inhibitory effect
of Coptidis Rhizoma and Scutellariae Radix on
azoxymethaneinduced aberrant crypt foci formation in rat
colon. Biol Pharm Bull 1998; 21: 814–17 74. Ivanovska N,
Philipov S. Study on the anti-inflammatory action of
Berberis vulgaris root extract, alkaloid fractions and pure
alkaloids. Int J Immunopharmacol 1996; 18: 553–61 75.
Iizuka N, Miyamoto K, Okita K, et al. Inhibitory effect of
Coptidis Rhizoma and berberine on the proliferation of
human esophageal cancer cell lines. Cancer Lett 2000; 148:
19–25 76. Iizuka N, Miyamoto K, Hazama S, et al.
Anticachectic effects of Coptidis rhizoma, an
anti-inflammatory herb, on Textbook of Complementary and
Alternative Medicine670 esophageal cancer cells that
produce interleukin 6. Cancer Lett 2000; 158: 35–41

77. Iizuka N, Hazama S, Yoshimura K, et al. Anticachectic


effects of the natural herb Coptidis rhizoma and berberine
on mice bearing colon 26/clone 20 adenocarcinoma. Int J
Cancer 2002; 99: 286–91
78. Kiyohara H, Matsumoto T, Yamada H. Combination effects
of herbs in a multi-herbal formula: expression of
Juzen-taiho-to’s immuno-modulatory activity on the
intestinal immune system. Evidence Based Comp Altern Med
2004; 1: 83–91

79. Garcia-de-Lorenzo A, Zarazaga A, Garcia-Luna PP, et al.


Clinical evidence for enteral nutritional support with
glutamine: a systematic review. Nutrition 2003; 19: 805–11

80. Brittenden J, Heys SD, Ross J, et al. Natural


cytotoxicity in breast cancer patients receiving
neoadjuvant chemotherapy: effects of L-arginine
supplementation. Eur J Surg Oncol 1994; 20: 467–72

81. Cohn SH, Vartsky D, Vaswani AN, et al. Changes in body


composition of cancer patients following combined
nutritional support. Nutr Cancer 1982; 4: 107–19

82. Coodley GO, Coodley MK, Nelson HD, Loveless MO.


Micronutrient concentrations in the HIV wasting syndrome.
AIDS 1993; 7: 1595–600

83. Malvy DJ, Richard MJ, Arnaud J, et al. Relationship of


plasma malondialdehyde, vitamin E and antioxidant
micronutrients to human immunodeficiency virus-1
seropositivity. Clin Chim Acta 1994; 224: 89–94

84. Torun M, Yardim S, Gonenc A, et al. Serum


beta-carotene, vitamin E, vitamin C and malondialdehyde
levels in several types of cancer. J Clin Pharm Ther 1995;
20: 259–63

85. Brown BG, Crowley J. Is there any hope for vitamin E? J


Am Med Assoc 2005; 293: 1387–90

86. Strain JJ. Putative role of dietary trace elements in


coronary heart disease and cancer. Br J Biomed Sci 1994;
51: 241–51

87. Helms S. Cancer prevention and therapeutics: Panax


ginseng. Altern Med Rev 2004; 9: 259–74

88. Kim JY, Germolec DR, Luster MI. Panax ginseng as a


potential immunomodulator: studies in mice. Immunopharmacol
Immunotoxicol 1990; 12: 257–76 89. Scaglione F, Ferrara F,
Dugnani S, et al. Immunomodulatory effects of two extracts
of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1990; 16:
537–42 90. Zee-Cheng RK. Shi-quan-da-bu-tang (ten
significant tonic decoction), SQT. A potent Chinese
biological response modifier in cancer immunotherapy,
potentiation and detoxification of anticancer drugs.
Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 1992; 14: 725–36 91. Yoo
HS, Cho CK. Clinical study in 40 cases for patients with
stomach cancer taken Hangammyunyouk 1. J Kor Orient Oncol
1998; 4: 1 92. Lee YH, Kim BS, Oh JH, et al. The anti-tumor
effect of Bojungikkeehapdaechilkitang with doxorubicin in
MKN-45. Kor J Orient Int Med 2004; 25: 1 93. Ulbricht CE,
Basch EM. Natural Standard Herb & Supplement Reference
Evidence-based Clinical Reviews. St Louis: Elsevier Mosby,
2005 94. Langner E, Greifenberg S, Gruenwald J. Ginger:
history and use. Adv Ther 1998; 15: 25–44 95. Willetts KE,
Ekangaki A, Eden JA. Effect of a ginger extract on
pregnancy-induced nausea: a randomised controlled trial.
Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 2003; 43: 139–44 96. Smith C,
Crowther C, Beilby J. Acupuncture to treat nausea and
vomiting in early pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial.
Birth 2002; 29: 1–9 97. Streitberger K, Diefenbacher M,
Bauer A, et al. Acupuncture compared to placebo-acupuncture
for postoperative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis: a
randomised placebo-controlled patient and observer blind
trial. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 142–9 98. Streitberger K,
Friedrich-Rust M, Bardenheuer H, et al. Effect of
acupuncture compared with placebo-acupuncture at P6 as
additional antiemetic prophylaxis in high-dose chemotherapy
and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation:
a randomized controlled single-blind trial. Clin Cancer Res
2003; 9: 2538–44
Boost AIDS patients’ immune systems 62

10. Huang KC. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. Boca


Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1999

11. Luo SD, Chen JJ, Wang HY. Natural compounds with
antiHIV activity. Chin Tradit Herb Drug (Suppl) 1999; 30:
40–3

12. Vlietinck AJ, De Bruyne T, Vanden Berghe DA. Plant


substances as antiviral agents. Curr Org Chem 1997; 1:
307–44

13. Tan GT, Pezzuto JM, Kinghorn AD. Evaluation of natural


products as inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type
1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase. J Nat Prod 1991; 54:
143–54

14. Tan GT, Miller JF, Kinghorn AD, et al. HIV-1 and HIV-2
reverse transcriptases: a comparative study of sensitivity
to inhibition by selected natural products. Biochem Biophys
Res Commun 1992; 185: 370–8

15. Xu RS. Some bioactive natural products from Chinese


medicinal plants. Studies Nat Prod Chem 2000; 21 (Bioactive
Natural Products (Part B)): 729–72

16. Tang XS, Chen HS, Zhang XQ. Inhibition of human


immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase by Chinese
medicines in vitro. Proc CAMS PUMC 1990; 5: 140–4

17. De LS. Study on Anti-AIDS Activity of the Traditional


Chinese Folk Herbs. Kunming: Yunnan Science and Technology
Press, 1998

18. Wang JH, Zheng YT. Natural peptides and proteins with
antiHIV activity. Zhongguo Tianran Yaowu 2004; 2: 321–7

19. Collins RA, Ng TB, Fong WP, et al. A comparison of


human immunodeficiency virus type 1 inhibition by partially
purified aqueous extracts of Chinese medicinal herbs. Life
Sci 1997; 60: 345–51

20. Au TK, Lam TL, Ng TB, et al. A comparison of HIV-1


integrase inhibition by aqueous and methanol extracts of
Chinese medicinal herbs. Life Sci 2001; 68: 1687–94

21. Wu JH, Morris-Natschke SL, Lee KH. Progress in the


recent discovery and development of promising anticancer
and antiHIV agents from natural products in the United
States. J Chin Chem Soc 2003; 50: 11–22

22. Yamamoto T, Takahashi H, Sakai K, et al. Screening of


Thai plants for anti-HIV-1 activity. Nature Med 1997; 51:
541–6

23. Kusmoto IT, Nakabayashi T, Kida H, et al. Screening of


various plant extracts used in Ayurvedic medicine for
inhibitory effects on human immunodeficiency virus type
(HIV-1) protease. Phytother Res 1995; 9: 180–4

24. Xu HX, Wan M, Loh BN, et al. Screening of traditional


medicines for their inhibitory activity against HIV-1
protease. Phytother Res 1996; 10: 207–10

25. Kusumoto IT, Hattori M. Pharmacological Research on


Traditional Herbal Medicines. Amsterdam, Netherlands:
Harwood Academic Publishers, 1999

26. Yamasaki K, Nakano M, Kawahata T, et al. Anti-HIV-1


acitivity of herbs in Labiatae. Biol Pharmaceut Bull 1998;
21: 829–33

27. Ma CM, Nakamura N, Miyashiro H, et al. Screening of


Chinese and Mongolian herbal drugs for anti-human
immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) activity. Phytother
Res 2002; 16 (S1): 186–9

28. Wan M, Bloor S, Foo LY, Loh BN. Screening of New


Zealand plant extracts for inhibitory activity against
HIV-1 protease. Phytother Res 1996; 10: 589–95

29. Zhao J, Ben LH, Wu YL, et al. Anti-HIV agent


trichosanthin enhances the capabilities of chemokines to
stimulate chemotaxis and G protein activation, and this is
mediated through interaction of trichosanthin and chemokine
receptors. J Exp Med 1999; 190: 101–11 30. Wang JH, Nie HL,
Tam SC, et al. Anti-HIV-1 property of trichosanthin
correlates with its ribosome inactivating activity. FEBS
Lett 2002; 531: 295–8 31. Wang JH, Nie HL, Tam SC, et al.
Independency of anti-HIV1 activity from
ribosome-inactivating activity of trichosanthin. Biochem
Biophys Res Comm 2003; 302: 89–94 32. Wang JH, Tam SC,
Huang H, et al. Side-directed PEGylation of trichosanthin
retained its anti-HIV activity with reduced potency in
vitro. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 2004; 317: 965–71 33. Au
TK, Collins RA, Lam TL, et al. The plant ribosome
inactivating proteins luffin and saporin are potent
inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase. FEBS Lett 2000; 471: 169–72
34. Lin JC. Mechanism of action of glycyrrhizic acid in
inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus replication in vitro.
Antivir Res 2003; 59: 41–7 35. Sasaki H, Takei M, Kobayashi
M, et al. Effect of glycyrrhizin, an active component of
licorice roots, on HIV replication in cultures of
peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIVseropositive
patients. Pathobiology 2002–2003; 70: 229–36 36. Xing GX,
Lin N, Wang T, Yao MY. Advances in studies on flavonoids of
licorice. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2003; 28: 593–7 37.
Manfredi KP, Vallurupalli V, Demidova M, et al. Isolation
of an anti-HIV diprenylated bibenzyl from Glycyrrhiza
lepidota. Phytochemistry 2001; 58: 153–7 38. Kassler WJ,
Blanc P, Greenlatt R. The use of medicinal herbs by human
immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Arch Intern Med
1991; 151: 2281–8 39. Phillips LG, Nichols MH, King WD.
Herbs and HIV: the health food industry’s answer. South Med
J 1995; 88: 911–13 40. Leonard B, Huff H, Merryweather B,
et al. Knowledge of safety and herb–drug interactions
amongst HIV+ individuals: a focus group study. Can J Clin
Pharmacol 2004; 11: e227–31 41. Buimovici-Klein E, Mohan V,
Lange M, et al. Inhibition of HIV replication in lymphocyte
cultures of virus-positive subjects in the presence of
Sho-saiko-to, an oriental plant extract. Antivir Res 1990;
14: 279–86 42. Wu XS, Akatsu H, Okada H. Apoptosis of
HIV-infected cells following treatment with Sho-saiko-to
and its components. Jpn J Med Sci Biol 1995; 48: 79–87 43.
Piras G, Makino M, Baba M. Sho-saiko-to, a traditional
kampo medicine, enhances the anti-HIV-1 activity of
Lamivudine (3TC) in vitro. Microbiol Immunol 1997; 41:
835–9 44. Xue YX, Liu CH, Zhang L, Yuan CS. Traditional
Chinese medicine and AIDS. Am J Compreh Med 1999; 1: 542–4
45. Zhang L, Yue ST, Xue YX, et al. Effects of
qian-kun-nin, a Chinese herbal medicine formulation, HIV
positive subjects: a pilot study. Am J Chin Med 2002; 28:
305–12 46.

50. Asiedu W, Asiedu F, Ennin M, et al. Compositions for


treating AIDS and associated conditions from extracts of
tropical herbs. US Patent 2004/0052868 A1

51. Kiem N, Kim RS. Khmer Angkor natural herb treatment for
HIV infected and AIDS disease. US Patent 2003/0013082 A1

52. Wu TS. Herbal pharmaceutical composition for treatment


of HIV/AIDS patients. US Patent 2003/0091658 A1

53. Chu CK, Cutler HG. Natural Products as Antiviral


Agents. New York, NY: Plenum Press, 1992

54. Ng TB, Huang B, Fong WP, Yeung HW. Anti-human


immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV) natural products with
special emphasis on HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
Life Sci 1997; 61: 933–49

55. Cragg GM, Boyd MR, Christini MA, et al. Screening of


natural products of plant, microbial and marine origin: the
NCI experience. Spec Publ R Soc Chem 1997; 200: 1–29

56. Vlietinck AJ, Bruyne TD, Apers S, Pieters LA.


Plant-derived leading compounds for chemotherapy of human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Planta Med 1998;
64: 97–109

57. Lee KH. Antitumor agents.188. Highlights of research on


plant-derived natural products and their analogs with
antitumor, anti-HIV, and antifungal activity. In Cutler SJ,
Cutler HG, eds. Biologically Active Natural Products:
Agrochemicals and Pharmaceuticals. Symposium Series.
Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, 2000: 73–94

58. Hanna L. Herbs for HIV. BETA Bull Exp Treatments AIDS
1998: 36–42

59. Sun IC, Kashiwada Y, Morris-Natschke SL, Lee KH.


Plantderived terpenoids and analogues as anti-HIV agents.
Curr Topics Med Chem 2003; 3: 155–69

60. Wu JH, Morris-Natschke SL, Lee KH. Progress in the


recent discovery and development of promising anticancer
and antiHIV agents from natural products in the United
States. J Chin Chem Soc 2003; 50: 12–22

61. Lee KH. Modern research routes to new medicines from


Chinese Materia Medica. Chin Pharmaceut J 2003; 55: 221–30

62. Wang JH, Zheng YT. Natural peptides and proteins with
antiHIV activity. Zhongguo Tianran Yaowu 2004; 2: 321–7

63. Lee KH. Current development in the discovery and design


of new drug candidates from plant natural product leads. J
Nat Prod 2004; 67: 273–83

64. Cos P, Maes L, Berghe DV, et al. Plant substance as


anti-HIV agents selected according to their putative
mechanism of action. J Nat Prod 2004; 67: 284–93

65. Wang HK, Xie Y, Yang ZY, et al. Recent advances in the
development of flavonoids and their analogues as antitumor
and anti-HIV agents. In Manthey JA, Buslig BS, eds.
Flavonoids in the Living System. New York, NY: Plenum
Press, 1998: 191–225
66. Mahmood N, Pizza C, Aquino R, et al. Inhibition of HIV
by flavonoids. Antivir Res 1993; 22: 189–99

67. Lai GF, Chen JJ, Wang YF, et al. Advance in studies of
flavonoids against HIV. Shangqui Shifan Xueyuan Xuebao
2002; 18: 83–7

68. Nishibe S, Ono K, Nakane H, et al. Studies on


constituents of Plantaginis herba. 9. Inhibitory effects of
flavonoids from Plantago species on HIV recverse
transcriptase activity. Natural Med 1997; 51: 547–9

69. Kitamura K, Honda M, Yoshizaki H, et al. Baicalin, an


inhibitor of HIV-1 production in vitro. Antivir Res 1998;
37: 131–40 70. Wu JA, Attele AS, Zhang L, Yuan CS. Anti-HIV
activity of medicinal herbs: usage and potential
development. Am J Chin Med 2001; 29: 69–81 71. Oho K,
Nakane H, Fukushima M, et al. Inhibition of reverse
transcriptase activity by a flavonoid compound,
5,6,7,-trihydroxyflavone. Biochem Biophy Res Commun 1989;
160: 982–7 72. Lee MJ, Kim M, Lee YS, Shin CG. Baicalein
and baicalin as inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase. Yakhak
Hoechi 2003; 47: 46–51 73. Zhang XQ, Tang XS, Chen HS.
Inhibition of HIV replication by baicalin and S.
baicalensis extract in H9 cell culture. Chin Med Sci J
1991; 6: 230–2 74. Cui L, Yuan J, Wang P. Pharmacological
effect of baicalin. Zhongguo Yiyuan Yaoxue Zazhi 2000; 20:
685–6 75. Li BQ, Fu T, Yan YD, et al. Inhibition of HIV
infection by baicalin – a flavonoid compound purified from
Chinese herbal medicine. Cell Mol Biol Res 1993; 39: 119–24
76. Baylor NW, Fu T, Yan YD, Ruscetti FW. Inhibition of
human T cell leukemia virus by the plant flavonoid baicalin
(7-glucuronic acid, 5,6-dihydroxyflavone). J Infect Dis
1992; 165: 433–7 77. Zhao J, Zhang ZP, Chen HS, et al.
Synthesis of baicalin derivatives and evaluation of their
anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) activity. Acta
Pharmaceut Sin 1998; 33: 22–7 78. Raghavan K, Buolamwini
JK, Fesen MR, et al. Three-dimensional quantitative
structure–activity relationship (QSAR) of HIV integrase
inhibitors: a comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA).
J Med Chem 1995; 38: 890–7 79. Wang Q, Wang YT, Pu SP,
Zheng YT. Zinc coupling potentiates anti-HIV-1 activity of
baicalin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2004; 324: 605–10 80.
Muto R, Motozuka T, Nakano M, et al. The chemical structure
of new substance as the metabolite of baicalin and time
profiles for the plasma concentration after oral
administration of Sho-saiko-to in human. Yakugaku Zasshi
1998; 118: 79–87 81. Ono K, Nakane H. Mechanisms of
inhibition of various cellular DNA and RNA polymerases by
several flavonoids. J Biochem 1990; 108: 609–13 82. Li BQ,
Fu T, Dongyan Y, et al. Flavonoid baicalin inhibits HIV-1
infection at the level of viral entry. Biochem Biophys Res
Commun 2000; 276: 534–8 83. Brinkworth RI, Stoermer MJ,
Fairlie DP. Flavones are inhibitors of HIV-1 proteinase.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1992; 188: 631–7 84. Shimizu I,
Ma YR, Mizobuchi Y, et al. Effects of Sho-saiko-to, a
Japanese herbal medicine, on hepatic fibrosis in rats.
Hepatology (Phil) 1999; 29: 149–60 85. Geerts A, Rogiers V.
Sho-saiko-to: the right blend of traditional oriental
medicine and liver cell biology. Hepatology (Phil) 1999;
29: 282–4 86. Yoshino M, Ito M, Okajima H, et al. Role of
baicalein compounds as antioxidant in the traditional
herbal medicine. Biomed Res 1997; 18: 349–52 87. Tsutsumi
M, Kitada H, Shiraiwa K, et al. Inhibitory effects of
combined administration of antibiotics and
anti-inflammatory drugs on lung tumor development initiated
by N-nitrosobis(2hydroxypropyl)amine in rats.
Carcinogenesis 2000; 21: 251–6 88. Liu W, Kato M, Akhand
AA, et al. The herbal medicine Shosaiko-to inhibits the
growth of malignent melanoma cells by upregulating
Fas-mediated apoptosis and arresting cell cycle through
downregulation of cyclein-depedent kinases. Int J Oncol
1998; 12: 1321–6

89. Kato M, Liu W, Yi H, et al. The herbal medicine


Sho-saiko-to inhibits growth and metastasis of malignant
melanoma primarily developed in ret-transgenic mice. J
Invest Dermatol 1998; 111: 640–4

90. Mizushima Y, Kashii T, Tokimitsu Y, Kobayashi M.


Cytotoxic effect of herbal medicine Sho-saiko-to on human
lung cancer cell lines in vitro. Oncol Rep 1995; 2: 91–4

91. Motoo Y, Sawabu N. Antitumor effects of saikosaponins,


baicalin and baicalein on human hepatoma cell lines. Cancer
Lett 1994; 86: 91–5

92. Inoue T, Jackson EK. Strong antiproliferative effects


of baicalein in cultured rat hepatic stellate cells. Eur J
Pharm 1999; 378: 129–35

93. Ono M, Miyamura M, Kyotani S, et al. Effects of


Sho-saikoto extract on liver fibrosis in relation to the
changes in hydroxyproline and retinoid levels of the liver
in rats. J Pharm Pharmacol 1999; 51: 1079–84

94. Yagura M, Murai S, Kojima H, et al. Changes of liver


fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C patients with no response
to interferonα therapy: including quantitative assessment
by a morphometric method. J Gastroenterol 2000; 35: 105–11

95. Shao ZH, Li CQ, Vanden Hock TL, et al. Extract from
Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi attenuates oxidant stress in
cadiomyocytes. J Mol Cardiol 1999; 31: 1885–95

96. Gao Z, Huang K, Yang, X, Xu H. Free radical scavenging


and antioxidant activities of flavonoids extracted from the
radix of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. BBA-Biomembranes
1999; 1472: 643–50

97. Minematsu S, Takei H, Sudo K, et al. A single oral dose


toxicity study of TSUMURA Sho-saiko-to (TJ-9) in rats. Jpn
Pharmacol Ther 1995; 23: 29–32

98. Inada Y, Watanabe K, Miyamoto K, et al. Regulatory


activities of Sho-saiko-to in immune responses, eicosanoid
pathway and HIV production. In Proceedings of the Tenth
International Conference on AIDS Satellite Symposium.
Yokohama, Japan, 1994

99. Maikeru R, Erena BK, Utopare M, et al. Anti-AIDS virus


effect-enhancing agents containing Shosaikoto [Japanese
patent]. Jpn Koka Tokkyo Koho 1996: 5

100. Fugh-Berman A. Herb–drug interactions. Lancet 2000;


355: 134–8

101. Halliwell B. Traditional Chinese Medicine: problems


and drawbacks. Oxidat Stress Dis 2004; 14: 873–81

102. Williamson EM. Drug interactions between herbal and


prescription medicines. Drug Safety 2003; 26: 1075–92

103. Power R, Gore-Felton C, Vosvick M, et al. HIV:


effectiveness of complementary and alternative medicine.
Prim Care 2002; 29: 361–78

104. Xie L, Takeuchi Y, Cosentino LM, Lee K-H. Anti-AIDS


agents. 37. Synthesis and structure–activity relationships
of (3′R,4′R)-(+)-cis-khellactone derivatives as novel
potent antiHIV agents. J Med Chem 1999; 42: 2662–72

105. Kashiwada Y. Studies on bioactive natural products:


plantderived natural products and analogues as anti-HIV
agents. Nature Med 1999; 53: 153–8

106. Ovesna Z, Vachalkova A, Horvathova K, Tothova D.


Pentacyclic triterpenoic acids: new chemoprotective
compounds. Minireview. Neoplasma 2004; 51: 327–33 107. Yu
D, Suzuki M, Xie L, et al. Recent progress in the
development of coumarin derivatives as potent anti-HIV
agents. Medicin Res Rev 2003; 23: 322–45 108. Wu JH,
Morris-Natschke SL, Lee KH. Progress in the recent
discovery and development of promising anticancer and
antiHIV agents from natural products in the United States.
J Chin Chem Soc 2003; 50: 12–22 109. Zhang Q, Chen Y, Xia
P, et al. Anti-AIDS agents. Part 62: Anti-HIV activity of
2′-substituted 4-methyl-3′,
4′-di-O-(-)camphanoyl-(+)-cis-khellactone(4-methyl DCK)
analogs. Bioorg Medicin Chem Lett 2004; 14: 5855–7 110.
Huang L, Yuan X, Yu D, et al. Mechanism of action and
resistant profile of anti-HIV-1 coumarin derivatives.
Virology 2005; 332: 623–8 111. Yu D, Chen CH, Brossi A, Lee
HK. Anti-AIDS agents. 60. Substituted 3′R,
4′R-DI-O-(-)-camphanoyal-2′, 2′dimethyldihydropyrano[2,3-f
] chromone (DCP) analogues as potent anti-HIV agents. J Med
Chem 2004; 47: 4072–82 112. Oho K, Nakane H, Fukushima M,
et al. Differential inhibitory effects of various
flavonoids on the activities of reverse transcriptase and
cellular DNA and RNA polymerases. Eur J Biochem 1990; 190:
469–76 113. Zhao J, Zhang ZP, Chen HS, et al. Preparation
and anti-HIV activity study of baicalein and its benzylated
derivates. Acta Pharmaceut Sin 1997; 32: 140–3 114. Hu CQ,
Chen K, Shi Q, et al. Anti-AIDS agents 10.
Acacetin7-O-(-d-galactopyranoside, an anti-HIV principle
from Chrysanthemum morifolium and a structure–activity
correlation with some related flavonoids. J Nat Prod 1994;
57: 42–51 115. Cichewicz RH, Kouzi SA. Chemistry,
biological activity, and chemotherapeutic potential of
betulinic acid for the prevention and the treatment of
cancer and HIV infection. Med Res Rev 2004; 24: 90–114 116.
Huang L, Yuan X, Aiken C, Chen CH. Bifunctional antihuman
immunodeficiency virus type 1 small molecules with two
novel mechanisms of action. Antimicrob Agents Chemo 2004:
663–5 117. Sun IC, Chen CH, Kashiwada Y, et al. Anti-AIDS
agents 49. Synthesis, anti-HIV and anti-fusion activities
of IC95564 analogues based on betulinic acid. J Med Chem
2002; 45: 4271–5 118. Buckheit RW Jr, Russel JD, Xu ZQ,
Flavin M. Anti-HIV-1 activity of calanolides used in
combination with other mechanistically diverse inhibitors
of HIV-1 replication. Antivir Chem Chemother 2000; 11:
321–7 119. Huerta-Reyes M, Basualdo MDC, Abe F, et al.
HIV-1 inhibitory compounds from Calophyllum brasiliense
leaves. Biol Pharm Bull 2004; 27: 1471–5 120. Xu ZQ, Barrow
WW, Suling WJ, et al. Anti-HIV natural product
(+)-calanolide A is active against both drug-susceptible
and drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Bioorg Medicin Chem 2004; 12: 1199–207 121. Lee JY, Yoon
KJ, Lee YS. Catechol-substituted L-chicoric acid analogues
as HIV integrase inhibitors. Bioorg Medicin Chem Lett 2003;
13: 4331–4 122. Lee DJ, Robinson WE Jr. Human
immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase: resistance
to diketo acid integrase inhibitors impairs HIV-1
replication and integration and confers cross-resistance to
L-chicoric acid. J Virol 2004; 78: 5835–47 123. Reinke RA,
Lee DJ, McDougall BR, et al. L-Chicoric acid inhibits
human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integration in vivo and
is a noncompetitive but reversible inhibitor of HIV-1
integrase in vitro. Virology 2004; 326: 203–19

124. Johnson AA, Marchand C, Pommier Y. HIV-1 integrase


inhibitors: a decade of research and two drugs in clinical
trial. Curr Top Med Chem 2004; 4: 1059–77

125. Balzarini J, Hatse S, Vermeire K, et al.


Mannose-specific plant lectins from the Amaryllidaceae
family qualify as efficient microbicides for prevention of
human immunodeficiency virus infection. Antimicrob Agents
Chemo 2004: 3858–70 126. Miao B, Geng M, Li J, et al.
Sulfated polymannuroguluronate, a novel anti-acquired
immune deficiency syndrome(AIDS) drug candidate, targeting
CD4 in lymphocytes. Biochem Pharmacol 2004; 68: 641–9
Preventive medicine 63

9. Prochaska JO, Velicer WF, Rossi JS, et al. Stages of


change and decisional balance for 12 problem behaviors.
Health Psychol 1994; 13: 39–46

10. Prochaska JO. Strong and weak principles for


progressing from precontemplation to action on the basis of
twelve problem behaviors. Health Psychol 1994; 13: 47–51

11. Henry RC, Ogle KS, Snellman LA. Preventive medicine:


physician practices, beliefs, and perceived barriers for
implementation. Fam Med 1987; 19: 110–13

12. Hollis JF, Bills R, Whitlock E, et al. Implementing


tobacco intervention in the real world of managed care. Tob
Control 2000; 9 (Suppl 1):i18–i24

13. Krehniel TC. Quality Service and the Taguchi


Philosophy. MAJB 1994; 9: 7–10

14. Hess RG. From bedside to boardroom-nursing shared


governance. Online J Iss Nurs 2004; 9. Available at:
www.nursingworld.org/ojin/topic23/tpc23_1.htm

15. Lazarou J, Pomeranz BH, Corey PN. Incidence of adverse


drug reactions in hospitalized patients: a meta-analysis of
prospective studies. J Am Med Assoc 1998; 279: 1200–5

16. Singh G. Recent considerations in nonsteroidal


anti-inflammatory drug gastropathy. Am J Med 1998; 105
(1B): 31S–38S 17. Richy F, Bruyere O, Ethgen O, et al.
Structural and symptomatic efficacy of glucosamine and
chondroitin in knee osteoarthritis: a comprehensive
meta-analysis. Arch Int Med 2003; 163: 1514–22 18. Graham
DJ, Campen D, Hui R, et al. Risk of acute myocardial
infarction and sudden death in patients treated with
cyclo-oxygenase 2 selective and nonon-selective
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: nested case control
study. Lancet 2003; 365: 475–81 19. Institute of Medicine.
To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System.
Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 1999 20.
White A. A cumulative review of the range and incidence of
significant adverse events associated with acupuncture.
Acupuncture Med 2004; 22: 122–33 21. Ernst E. Complementary
medicine: where is the evidence? J Fam Pract 2003; 52:
630–4 22. Institute of Medicine. Crossing the Quality
Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century.
Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2001 23.
Bar-Yam Y. Making Things Work: Solving complex problems in
a complex world. Cambridge, MA: NECSI-Knowledge Press, 2004
Pediatric population 64

Further reading 1. www.fda.gov/cder/pediatric 2. Sawyer MG,


Gannoni AF, Toogood IR, et al. The use of alternative
therapies by children with cancer. Med J Aust 1994; 160:
320–2 3. Mottonen M, Uhari M. Use of micronutrients and
alternative drugs by children with acute lymphoblastic
leukemia. Med Pediatr Oncol 1997; 28: 205–8 4. Jones RA,
Baillie E. Dosage schedule for intravenous aminophylline in
apnoea of prematurity, based on pharmacokinetic studies.
Arch Dis Child 1979; 54: 190–3 5. Dietrich J, Krauss AN,
Reidenberg M, et al. Alterations in state in apneic
pre-term infants receiving theophylline. Clin Pharmacol
Ther 1978; 24: 474–8

Avery GB, Fletcher MA, MacDonald MG, eds. Neonatology: Patho

physiology and Management of the Newborn, 5th edn.


Philadelphia,

PA: JB Lippincott, 1999

Behrman RE, Kliegman RM, Arvin AM, eds. Nelson Textbook of

Pediatrics, 17th edn. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders, 2004

Carruthers SG, Hoffman BB, Melmon KL, Nierenberg DW, eds.

Melmon and Morrelli’s Clinical Pharmacology, 4th edn. New


York,

NY: McGraw-Hill, 2000

Ernst E, ed. The Desktop Guide to Complementary and


Alternative

Medicine: An Evidence-Based Approach. St Louis, MO: Mosby,


2001 Pizzorno JE Jr, Murray MT, eds. Textbook of Natural
Medicine, 3rd edn. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone,
2005 Radde IC, MacLeod SM, eds. Pediatric Pharmacology and
Therapeutics, 2nd edn. St Louis, MO: Mosby, 1993
Skidmore-Roth L. Mosby’s Handbook of Herbs and Natural
Supplements, 3rd edn. St Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier, 2005
Yaffe SJ, Aranda JV, eds. Pediatric Pharmacology:
Therapeutic Principles in Practice, 3rd edn. Philadelphia,
PA: WB Saunders, 2004

6. Milsap RL, Krauss AN, Auld PA. Oxygen consumption in


apneic premature infants after low-dose theophylline. Clin
Pharmacol Ther 1980; 28: 536–40
7. Myers TF, Milsap RL, Krauss AN, et al. Low-dose
theophylline therapy in idiopathic apnea of prematurity. J
Pediatr 1980; 96: 99–103

8. Agunod M, Yamaguchi N, Lopez R, et al. Correlative study


of hydrochloric acid, pepsin, and intrinsic factor
secretion in newborns and infants. Am J Dig Dis 1969; 14:
400–14

9. Roberts RJ. Drug Therapy in Infants: Pharmacologic


Principles and Clinical Experience. Philadelphia, PA: WB
Saunders, 1984

10. Painter MJ, Pippenger C, MacDonald H, Pitlick W.


Phenobarbital and diphenylhydantoin levels in neonates with
seizures. J Pediatr 1978; 92: 315–19

11. Taburet AM, Schmit B. Pharmacokinetic optimisation of


asthma treatment. Clin Pharmacokinet 1994; 26: 396–418

12. Aranda JV, Sitar DS, Parsons WD, et al. Pharmacokinetic


aspects of theophylline in premature newborns. N Engl J Med
1976; 295: 413–16

13. Park MK, Ludden T, Arom KV, et al. Myocardial vs. serum
digoxin concentrations in infants and adults. Am J Dis
Child 1982; 136: 418–20

14. Wagner JG, Dick M 2nd, Behrendt DM, et al.


Determination of myocardial and serum digoxin
concentrations in children by specific and nonspecific
assay methods. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1983; 33: 577–84

15. Poissonnet CM, Burdi AR, Garn SM. The chronology of


adipose tissue appearance and distribution in the human
fetus. Early Hum Dev 1984; 10: 1–11

16. Arant BS Jr. Developmental patterns of renal functional


maturation compared in the human neonate. J Pediatr 1978;
92: 705–12

17. Coulthard MG. Maturation of glomerular filtration in


preterm and mature babies. Early Hum Dev 1985; 11: 281–92

18. Aperia A, Broberger O, Elinder G, et al. Postnatal


development of renal function in pre-term and full-term
infants. Acta Paediatr Scand 1981; 70: 183–7

19. Strauss J, Daniel SS, James LS. Postnatal adjustment in


renal function. Pediatrics 1981; 68: 802–8

20. Koren G. Special aspects of perinatal and pediatric


pharmacology. In Katzung BG, ed. Basic and Clinical
Pharmacology, 7th edn. Stamford, CT: Appleton and Lange,
1998: 988

21. Simon D, Touati G, Prieur AM, et al. Growth hormone


treatment of short stature and metabolic dysfunction in
juvenile chronic arthritis. Acta Paediatr Suppl 1999; 88:
100–5

22. Allen DB, Julius JR, Breen TJ, Attie KM. Treatment of
glucocorticoid-induced growth suppression with growth
hormone. National Cooperative Growth Study. J Clin
Endocrinol Metab 1998; 83: 2824–9

23. Hokken-Koelega AC, van Zaal MA, van Bergen W, et al.


Final height and its predictive factors after renal
transplantation in childhood. Pediatr Res 1994; 36: 323–8

24. Thomson AB, Wallace WH. Treatment of paediatric


Hodgkin’s disease. A balance of risks. Eur J Cancer 2002;
38: 468–77

25. Gleeson HK, Shalet SM. Endocrine complications of


neoplastic diseases in children and adolescents. Curr Opin
Pediatr 2001; 13: 346–51

26. Leung W, Hudson MM, Strickland DK, et al. Late effects


of treatment in survivors of childhood acute myeloid
leukemia. J Clin Oncol 2000; 18: 3273–9

27. Angell M, Kassirer JP. Alternative medicine – the risks


of untested and unregulated remedies. N Engl J Med 1998;
339: 839–41 28. Ernst E. Harmless herbs? A review of the
recent literature. Am J Med 1998; 104: 170–8 29. Obach RS.
Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by constituents
of St. John’s Wort, an herbal preparation used in the
treatment of depression. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2000; 294:
88–95 30. Wentworth JM, Agostini M, Love J, et al. St.
John’s wort, a herbal antidepressant, activates the steroid
X receptor. J Endocrinol 2000; 166: R11–16 31. Moore LB,
Goodwin B, Jones SA, et al. St John’s wort induces hepatic
drug metabolism through activation of the pregnane X
receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000; 97: 7500–2 32. Wang
Z, Gorski JC, Hamman MA, et al. The effects of St. John’s
wort (Hypericum perforatum) on human cytochrome P450
activity. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2001; 70: 317–26 33. Roby CA,
Anderson GD, Kantor E, et al. St. John’s wort: effect on
CYP3A4 activity. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000; 67: 451–7 34.
Durr D, Stieger B, Kullak-Ublick GA, et al. St. John’s Wort
induces intestinal P-glycoprotein/MDR1 and intestinal and
hepatic CYP3A4. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000; 68: 598–604 35.
Johne A, Brockmoller J, Bauer S, et al. Pharmacokinetic
interaction of digoxin with an herbal extract from St.
John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum). Clin Pharmacol Ther
1999; 66: 338–45 36. Ernst E. St. John’s wort supplements
endanger the success of organ transplantation. Arch Surg
2002; 137: 316–19 37. Sugimoto K, Ohmori M, Tsuruoka S, et
al. Different effects of St. John’s wort on the
pharmacokinetics of simvastatin and pravastatin. Clin
Pharmacol Ther 2001; 70: 518–24 38. Ottolini MC, Hamburger
EK, Loprieato JO, et al. Complementary and alternative
medicine use among children in the Washington, DC area.
Ambul Pediatr 2001; 1: 122–5 39. Gardiner P, Kemper KJ.
Herbs in pediatric and adolescent medicine. Pediatr Rev
2000; 21: 44–57 40. Bone ME, Wilkinson DJ, Young JR, et al.
Ginger root – a new antiemetic. The effect of ginger root
on postoperative nausea and vomiting after major
gynaecological surgery. Anaesthesia 1990; 45: 669–71 41.
Holtmann S, Clarke AH, Scherer H, Hohn M. The anti-motion
sickness mechanism of ginger. A comparative study with
placebo and dimenhydrinate. Acta Otolaryngol 1989; 108:
168–74 42. Phillips S, Ruggier R, Hutchinson SE. Zingiber
officinale (ginger) – an antiemetic for day case surgery.
Anaesthesia 1993; 48: 715–17 43. Heck AM, DeWitt BA, Lukes
AL. Potential interactions between alternative therapies
and warfarin. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2000; 57: 1221–7 44.
Miller LG. Herbal medicinals: selected clinical
considerations focusing on known or potential drug–herb
interactions. Arch Intern Med 1998; 158: 2200–11 45.
Hamilton-Miller JM. Anti-carcinogenic properties of tea
(Camellia sinensis). J Med Microbiol 2001; 50: 299–302 46.
Elmets CA, Singh D, Tubesing K, et al. Cutaneous
photoprotection from ultraviolet injury by green tea
polyphenols. J Am Acad Dermatol 2001; 44: 425–32 47.
Katiyar SK, Elmets CA. Green tea polyphenolic antioxidants
and skin photoprotection. Int J Oncol 2001; 18: 1307–13 48.
Hsu SD, Singh BB, Lewis JB, et al. Chemoprevention of oral
cancer by green tea. Gen Dent 2002; 50: 140–6 49. Masuda M,
Suzui M, Weinstein IB. Effects of epigallocatechin3-gallate
on growth, epidermal growth factor receptor signaling
pathways, gene expression, and chemosensitivity in human
head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Clin
Cancer Res 2001; 7: 4220–9

50. Suganuma M, Ohkura Y, Okabe S, Fujiki H. Combination


cancer chemoprevention with green tea extract and sulindac
shown in intestinal tumor formation in Min mice. J Cancer
Res Clin Oncol 2001; 127: 69–72

51. Li HC, Yashiki S, Sonoda J, et al. Green tea


polyphenols induce apoptosis in vitro in peripheral blood T
lymphocytes of adult Tcell leukemia patients. Jpn J Cancer
Res 2000; 91: 34–40

52. Otsuka T, Ogo T, Eto T, et al. Growth inhibition of


leukemic cells by (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, the main
constituent of green tea. Life Sci 1998; 63: 1397–403

53. Asano Y, Okamura S, Ogo T, et al. Effect of


(-)-epigallocatechin gallate on leukemic blast cells from
patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia. Life Sci 1997;
60: 135–42

54. Kleijnen J, Knipschild P. Ginkgo biloba for cerebral


insufficiency. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1992; 34: 352–8

55. Curtis-Prior P, Vere D, Fray P. Therapeutic value of


Ginkgo biloba in reducing symptoms of decline in mental
function. J Pharm Pharmacol 1999; 51: 535–41

56. Wesnes KA, Ward T, McGinty A, Petrini O. The memory


enhancing effects of a Ginkgo biloba/Panax ginseng
combination in healthy middle-aged volunteers.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2000; 152: 353–61 57. Lyon MR,
Cline JC, Totosy de Zepetnek J, et al. Effect of the herbal
extract combination Panax quinquefolium and Ginkgo biloba
on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a pilot study.
J Psychiatry Neurosci 2001; 26: 221–8 58. Lamant V, Mauco
G, Braquet P, et al. Inhibition of the metabolism of
platelet activating factor (PAF-acether) by three specific
antagonists from Ginkgo biloba. Biochem Pharmacol 1987; 36:
2749–52 59. Percival SS. Use of echinacea in medicine.
Biochem Pharmacol 2000; 60: 155–8 60. Rehman J, Dillow JM,
Carter SM, et al. Increased production of antigen-specific
immunoglobulins G and M following in vivo treatment with
the medicinal plants Echinacea angustifolia and Hydrastis
canadensis. Immunol Lett 1999; 68: 391–5 61. See DM,
Broumand N, Sahl L, Tilles JG. In vitro effects of
echinacea and ginseng on natural killer and
antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity in healthy subjects
and chronic fatigue syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency
syndrome patients. Immunopharmacology 1997; 35: 229–35 62.
Currier NL, Miller SC. Echinacea purpurea and melatonin
augment natural-killer cells in leukemic mice and prolong
life span. J Altern Complement Med 2001; 7: 241–51 63.
Leathwood PD, Chauffard F, Heck E, Munoz-Box R. Aqueous
extract of valerian root (Valeriana officinalis L.)
improves sleep quality in man. Pharmacol Biochem Behav
1982; 17: 65–71
Aging and geriatrics 65

10. Franceschi C, Valensin S, Bonafè M, et al. The network


and the remodeling theories of aging: historical background
and new perspectives. Exp Gerontol 2000; 35: 879–96

11. Finkel T, Holbrook NJ. Oxidants, oxidative stress and


the biology of ageing. Nature 2000; 408: 239–47

12. Balaban RS, Nemoto S, Finkel T. Mitochondria, oxidants,


and aging. Cell 2005; 120: 483–95

13. Inui T. The need for an integrated biopsychosocial


approach to research on successful aging. Ann Intern Med
2003; 139: 391–4

14. Masoro E. Caloric restriction and aging: an update. Exp


Gerontol 2000; 35: 299–305

15. Olshansky SJ, Hayflick L, Carnes BA. Position statement


on human aging. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2002; 57:
B292–7 16. Wick G. ‘Anti-aging’ medicine: does it exist? A
critical discussion of ‘anti-aging health products’. Exp
Gerontol 2002; 37: 1137–40 17. Frampton JE, Easthope SE.
Botulinum toxin A (Botox Cosmetic): a review of its use in
the treatment of glabellar frown lines. Am J Clin Dermatol
2003; 4: 709–25 18. de Groot CP, van den Broek T, van
Staveren W. Energy intake and micronutrient intake in
elderly Europeans: seeking the minimum requirement in the
SENECA study. Age Ageing 1999; 28: 469–74 19. Ness A, Egger
M, Smith GD. Role of antioxidant vitamins in prevention of
cardiovascular diseases. Meta-analysis seems to exclude
benefit of vitamin C supplementation. Br Med J 1999; 319:
577 20. Steinmetz KA, Potter JD. Vegetables, fruit, and
cancer prevention: a review. J Am Diet Assoc 1996; 96:
1027–39 21. Vivekananthan DP, Penn MS, Sapp SK, et al. Use
of antioxidant vitamins for the prevention of
cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis of randomised trials.
Lancet 2003; 361: 2017–23 22. MRC/BHF Heart Protection
Study of antioxidant vitamin supplementation in 20,536
high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo-controlled
trial. Lancet 2002; 360: 23–33 23. A randomized,
placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose
supplementation with vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and
zinc for age-related macular degeneration and vision loss:
AREDS report no. 8. Arch Ophthalmol 2001; 119: 1417–36 24.
Taylor HR, Tikellis G, Robman LD, et al. Vitamin E
supplementation and macular degeneration: randomised
controlled trial. Br Med J 2002; 325: 11 25. Teikari JM,
Laatikainen L, Virtamo J, et al. Six-year supplementation
with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene and agerelated
maculopathy. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 1998; 76: 224–9 26. A
randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose
supplementation with vitamins C and E and beta carotene for
age-related cataract and vision loss: AREDS report no. 9.
Arch Ophthalmol 2001; 119: 1439–52

27. Duthie SJ, Whalley LJ, Collins AR, et al. Homocysteine,


B vitamin status, and cognitive function in the elderly. Am
J Clin Nutr 2002; 75: 908–13

28. Malouf R, Grimley Evans J. The effect of vitamin B6 on


cognition. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003; 4: CD004393

29. Malouf M, Grimley EJ, Areosa SA. Folic acid with or


without vitamin B12 for cognition and dementia. Cochrane
Database Syst Rev 2003; 4: CD004514

30. Malouf R, Areosa Sastre A. Vitamin B12 for cognition.


Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003; 3: CD004326

31. Tabet N, Birks J, Grimley Evans J. Vitamin E for


Alzheimer’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; 4:
CD002854

32. Tabet N, Mantle D, Walker Z, Orrell M. Vitamins, trace


elements, and antioxidant status in dementia disorders. Int
Psychogeriatr 2001; 13: 265–75

33. Corpas E, Harman SM, Blackman MR. Human growth hormone


and human aging. Endocr Rev 1993; 14: 20–39

34. Hughes VA, Frontera WR, Wood M, et al. Longitudinal


muscle strength changes in older adults: influence of
muscle mass, physical activity, and health. J Gerontol A
Biol Sci Med Sci 2001; 56: B209–17

35. Roubenoff R, Hughes VA. Sarcopenia: current concepts. J


Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2000; 55: M716–24

36. Frontera WR, Hughes VA, Fielding RA, et al. Aging of


skeletal muscle: a 12-yr longitudinal study. J Appl Physiol
2000; 88: 1321–6

37. Cefalu WT, Werbel S, Bell-Farrow AD, et al. Insulin


resistance and fat patterning with aging: relationship to
metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease.
Metabolism 1998; 47: 401–8

38. Sih R, Morley JE, Kaiser FE, et al. Testosterone


replacement in older hypogonadal men: a 12-month randomized
controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997; 82: 1661–7

39. Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL, et al. Risks and
benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy
postmenopausal women: principal results From the Women’s
Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. J Am Med
Assoc 2002; 288: 321–33

40. Nelson HD, Humphrey LL, Nygren P, et al. Postmenopausal


hormone replacement therapy: scientific review. J Am Med
Assoc 2002; 288: 872–81

41. Morley JE, Perry HM 3rd. Androgen treatment of male


hypogonadism in older males. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol
2003; 85: 367–73

42. Harman SM, Blackman MR. The effects of growth hormone


and sex steroid on lean body mass, fat mass, muscle
strength, cardiovascular endurance and adverse events in
healthy elderly women and men. Horm Res 2003; 60 (Suppl 1):
121–4

43. Blackman MR, Sorkin JD, Munzer T, et al. Growth hormone


and sex steroid administration in healthy aged women and
men: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Med Assoc 2002;
288: 2282–92

44. Eisenberg D, Kessler R, Foster C. Unconventional


medicine in the United States: prevalence, costs, and
patterns of use. N Engl J Med 1993; 328: 246–52

45. Eisenberg DM, Davis RB, Ettner SL, et al. Trends in


alternative medicine use in the United States, 1990–1997:
results of a follow-up national survey. J Am Med Assoc
1998; 280: 1569–75

46. Ni H, Simile C, Hardy AM. Utilization of complementary


and alternative medicine by United States adults: results
from the 1999 national health interview survey. Med Care
2002; 40: 353–8 47. Tindle H, Davis R, Phillips R,
Eisenberg D. Trends in use of complementary and alternative
medicine by US adults: 1997–2002. Altern Ther Health Med
2005; 11: 42–9 48. Astin JA, Pelletier KR, Marie A, Haskell
WL. Complementary and alternative medicine use among
elderly persons: one-year analysis of a Blue Shield
Medicare supplement. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2000;
55: M4–9 49. Arcury T, Quandt S, Bell R, Vitolins M.
Complementary and Alternative Medicine use among rural
older adults. Comp Health Pract Rev 2002; 7: 167–85 50.
Fulder SJ, Munro RE. Complementary medicine in the United
Kingdom: patients, practitioners, and consultations. Lancet
1985; 2: 542–5 51. Andrews GJ. Placing the consumption of
private complementary medicine: everyday geographies of
older peoples’ use. Health Place 2003; 9: 337–49 52. Foster
DF, Phillips RS, Hamel MB, Eisenberg DM. Alternative
medicine use in older Americans. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000; 48:
1560–5 53. Cherniack EP, Senzel RS, Pan CX. Correlates of
use of alternative medicine by the elderly in an urban
population. J Altern Complement Med 2001; 7: 277–80 54.
Cohen RJ, Ek K, Pan CX. Complementary and alternative
medicine (CAM) use by older adults: a comparison of
selfreport and physician chart documentation. J Gerontol A
Biol Sci Med Sci 2002; 57: M223–7 55. Flaherty JH,
Takahashi R, Teoh J, et al. Use of alternative therapies in
older outpatients in the United States and Japan:
prevalence, reporting patterns, and perceived
effectiveness. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2001; 56:
M650–5 56. Ernst E, White A. The BBC survey of
complementary medicine use in the UK. Complement Ther Med
2000; 8: 32–6 57. Dello Buono M, Urciuoli O, Marietta P, et
al. Alternative medicine in a sample of 655
community-dwelling elderly. J Psychosom Res 2001; 50:
147–54 58. Vincent C, Furnham A. Why do patients turn to
complementary medicine? An empirical study. Br J Clin
Psychol 1996; 35 (Pt 1): 37–48 59. Furnham A, Vincent C,
Wood R. The health beliefs and behaviors of three groups of
complementary medicine and a general practice group of
patients. J Altern Complement Med 1995; 1: 347–59 60.
McGregor KJ, Peay ER. The choice of alternative therapy for
health care: testing some propositions. Soc Sci Med 1996;
43: 1317–27 61. Verhoef MJ, Scott CM, Hilsden RJ. A
multimethod research study on the use of complementary
therapies among patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
Altern Ther Health Med 1998; 4: 68–71 62. Wellman B, Kelner
M, Wigdor B. Older adults’ use of medical and alternative
care. J Appl Gerontol 2001; 20: 3–23 63. Andrews G. Private
complementary medicine and older people: service use and
user empowerment. Ageing Soc 2002; 22: 343–68 64. Kelner M,
Wellman B. The therapeutic relationships of older adults:
comparing medical and alternative patients. Health Can Soc
2001; 6: 87–109 65. Williamson AT, Fletcher PC, Dawson KA.
Complementary and alternative medicine. Use in an older
population. J Gerontol Nurs 2003; 29: 20–8

66. McKenzie J, Keller HH. Vitamin-mineral supplementation


and use of herbal preparations among community-living older
adults. Can J Public Health 2001; 92: 286–90

67. Rao JK, Weinberger M, Anderson LA, Kroenke K.


Predicting reports of unmet expectations among rheumatology
patients. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 51: 215–21

68. Howard PA, Delafontaine P. Nonsteroidal


anti-inflammatory drugs and cardiovascular risk. J Am Coll
Cardiol 2004; 43: 519–25

69. Schmidt H, Woodcock BG, Geisslinger G. Benefit–risk


assessment of rofecoxib in the treatment of osteoarthritis.
Drug Saf 2004; 27: 185–96

70. Laufer S. Osteoarthritis therapy – are there still


unmet needs? Rheumatology (Oxford) 2004; 43 (Suppl 1):
i9–15

71. Ensrud KE, Blackwell T, Mangione CM, et al. Central


nervous system active medications and risk for fractures in
older women. Arch Intern Med 2003; 163: 949–57

72. Shorr RI, Griffin MR, Daugherty JR, Ray WA. Opioid
analgesics and the risk of hip fracture in the elderly:
codeine and propoxyphene. J Gerontol 1992; 47: M111–15

73. Resch KL, Hill S, Ernst E. Use of complementary


therapies by individuals with ‘arthritis’. Clin Rheumatol
1997; 16: 391–5

74. Rao JK, Kroenke K, Mihaliak KA, et al. Rheumatology


patients’ use of complementary therapies: results from a
oneyear longitudinal study. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 49:
619–25

75. Rao JK, Mihaliak K, Kroenke K, et al. Use of


complementary therapies for arthritis among patients of
rheumatologists. Ann Intern Med 1999; 131: 409–16

76. Zochling J, March L, Lapsley H, et al. Use of


complementary medicines for osteoarthritis – a prospective
study. Ann Rheum Dis 2004; 63: 549–54

77. Ramsey SD, Spencer AC, Topolski TD, et al. Use of


alternative therapies by older adults with osteoarthritis.
Arthritis Rheum 2001; 45: 222–7

78. Millar WJ. Use of alternative health care practitioners


by Canadians. Can J Public Health 1997; 88: 154–8

79. Sleath B, Rubin RH, Campbell W, et al. Ethnicity and


physician–older patient communication about alternative
therapies. J Altern Comp Med 2001; 7: 329–35
80. Loera JA, Black SA, Markides KS, et al. The use of
herbal medicine by older Mexican Americans. J Gerontol A
Biol Sci Med Sci 2001; 56: M714–18

81. Canter P, Ernst E. Herbal supplement use by persons


aged over 50 years in Britain: frequently used herbs,
concomitant use of herbs, nutritional supplements and
prescription drugs, rate of informing doctors and potential
for negative interactions. Drugs Aging 2004; 21: 597–605

82. Bruno J, Ellis J. Herbal use among US elderly: 2002


National Health Interview Survey. Ann Pharmacother 2005;
39: 643–8

83. Richy F, Bruyere O, Ethgen O, et al. Structural and


symptomatic efficacy of glucosamine and chondroitin in knee
osteoarthritis: a comprehensive meta-analysis. Arch Intern
Med 2003; 163: 1514–22

84. Miller LG. Herbal medicinals: selected clinical


considerations focusing on known or potential drug–herb
interactions. Arch Intern Med 1998; 158: 2200–11

85. Yale SH, Liu K. Echinacea purpurea therapy for the


treatment of the common cold: a randomized, double-blind,
placebocontrolled clinical trial. Arch Intern Med 2004;
164: 1237–41

86. Sperber SJ, Shah LP, Gilbert RD, et al. Echinacea


purpurea for prevention of experimental rhinovirus colds.
Clin Infect Dis 2004; 38: 1367–71 87. Rahman K. Garlic and
aging: new insights into an old remedy. Ageing Res Rev
2003; 2: 39–56 88. Silagy C, Neil A. A meta-analysis of the
effect of garlic on blood pressure. J Hypertens 1994; 12:
463–8 89. Neil H, Silagy C, Lancaster T. Garlic powder in
the treatment of moderate hyperlipidemia: a controlled
trial and meta-analysis. J R Coll Physician 1996; 30:
329–34 90. Dutta A, Dutta SK. Vitamin E and its role in the
prevention of atherosclerosis and carcinogenesis: a review.
J Am Coll Nutr 2003; 22: 258–68 91. Berman K, Brodaty H.
Tocopherol (vitamin E) in Alzheimer’s disease and other
neurodegenerative disorders. CNS Drugs 2004; 18: 807–25 92.
Miller ER 3rd, Pastor-Barriuso R, Dalal D, et al.
Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E supplementation may
increase allcause mortality. Ann Intern Med 2005; 142:
37–46 93. Bent S, Ko R. Commonly used herbal medicines in
the United States: a review. Am J Med 2004; 116: 478–85 94.
Kabat-Zinn J, Lipworth L, Burney R. The clinical use of
mindfulness meditation for the self-regulation of chronic
pain. J Behav Med 1985; 8: 163–90 95. Garfinkel MS,
Schumacher HR Jr, Husain A, et al. Evaluation of a yoga
based regimen for treatment of osteoarthritis of the hands.
J Rheumatol 1994; 21: 2341–3 96. Wolf SL, Barnhart HX,
Kutner NG, et al. Selected as the best paper in the 1990s:
reducing frailty and falls in older persons: an
investigation of tai chi and computerized balance training.
J Am Geriatr Soc 2003; 51: 1794–803 97. Wolf SL, Sattin RW,
Kutner M, et al. Intense tai chi exercise training and fall
occurrences in older, transitionally frail adults: a
randomized, controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 2003; 51:
1693–701 98. Hurwitz EL. The relative impact of
chiropractic vs. medical management of low back pain on
health status in a multispecialty group practice. J
Manipulative Physiol Ther 1994; 17: 74–82 99. Hurwitz EL,
Morgenstern H, Harber P, et al. A randomized trial of
chiropractic manipulation and mobilization for patients
with neck pain: clinical outcomes from the UCLA neck-pain
study. Am J Public Health 2002; 92: 1634–41 100. Ernst E.
Chiropractic spinal manipulation for neck pain: a
systematic review. J Pain 2003; 4: 417–21 101. Pelletier
KR, Astin JA. Integration and reimbursement of
complementary and alternative medicine by managed care and
insurance providers: 2000 update and cohort analysis.
Altern Ther Health Med 2002; 8: 38–9, 42, 44 passim 102.
Adams LL, Gatchel RJ, Gentry C. Complementary and
alternative medicine: applications and implications for
cognitive functioning in elderly populations. Altern Ther
Health Med 2001; 7: 52–61 103. Diamond B, Johnson S,
Torsney K, et al. Complementary and alternative medicines
in the treatment of dementia: an evidence-based review.
Drugs Aging 2003; 20: 981–98 104. Mills S. Safety awareness
in complementary medicine. Complement Ther Med 1996; 4:
48–51 105. Drew AK, Myers SP. Safety issues in herbal
medicine: implications for the health professions. Med J
Aust 1997; 166: 538–41 106. Smolinske SC. Dietary
supplement–drug interactions. J Am Med Womens Assoc 1999;
54: 191–2, 195 107. Ernst E. Spinal manipulation: its
safety is uncertain. CMAJ 2002; 166: 40–1
RealAge and vitamins 66

1. Roizen MF. RealAge: Are You As Young As You Can Be? New
York, NY: HarperCollins, 1999

2. Roizen MF, LaPuma J. The RealAge Diet: Make Yourself


Younger With What You Eat. New York, NY: HarperCollins,
2001

3. Website www.realage.com (a free website where this is


explained)

4. Holick MF. Vitamin D and bone health. J Nutr 1996; 126S:


1159s–64s

5. Thomas MK, Lloyd-Jones DM, Thadhani RI, et al.


Hypovitaminosis D in medical inpatients N Engl J Med 1998;
338: 777–83

6. Outila TA, Karkkainen MU, Lamberg-Allardt CJ. Vitamin D


status effects serum parathyroid hormone concentration
during winter in female adolescence: associations with
forearm bone mineral density. Am J Clin Nutr 2001; 74:
206–10

7. Thys-Jacobs S. Calcium caronate and the premenstrual


syndrome: effects on premenstrual and menstrual symptoms.
Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998; 179: 444–8

8. Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, Dallal GE. Effects


of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in
men and women 65 years of age or older. N Engl J Med 1997;
337: 670–6

9. Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, Dallal GE. Effect


of withdrawal of calcium and vitamin D supplements on bone
mass in elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 72:
745–50

10. Watson KE, Abrolat ML, Malone LI, et al. Active serum
vitamin D levels are inversely correlated with coronary
calcification. Circulation 1997; 96: 1755–60

11. Gloth FM III, Gundbert CM, Hollis BW, et al. Vitamin D


deficiency on homebound elderly persons. J Am Med Assoc
1995; 274: 1683–6

12. McAlindon TE, Jacques P, Zhang Y, et al. Do antioxidant


micronutrients protect against the development and
progression of knee osteoarthritis? Arthritis Rheum 1996;
39: 648–56

13. McAlindon TE, Felson DT, Zhang Y, et al. Relation of


dietary intake and serum levels of vitamin D to progression
of osteoarthritis of the knee among participants in the
Framingham Study. Ann Intern Med 1996; 125: 353–9

14. Pancharumiti N, Lewis CA, Sauberlich HE, et al. Plasma


homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 concentration and risk
for early onset coronary artery disease. Am J Clin Nutr
1994; 59: 940–8

15. Selhub J, Jacques PJ, Bostom AG, et al. Association


between plasma homocysteine concentration and extracranial
carotid artery stenosis. N Engl J Med 1995; 332: 286–91

16. Rimm EB, Willett WC, Hu FB, et al. Folate and vitamin
B6 from diet and supplements in relation to risk of
coronary heart disease among women. J Am Med Assoc 1998;
279: 359–64 17. Welch GN, Loscalzo J. Homocysteine and
atherothromboses. N Engl J Med 1998; 338: 1042–50 18.
Morrison HI, Schaubel O, Desmeules M, Wigle DT. Serum
folate and risk of coronary heart disease. J Am Med Assoc
1996; 275: 1893–6 19. Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Ascherio A,
et al. Alcohol, lowmethionine low-folate diets, and the
risk of colon cancer in men. J Natl Cancer Inst 1995; 87:
265–73 20. Zhang S, Hunter DJ, Hankinson SE, et al. A
prospective study of folate intake and the risk of breast
cancer. J Am Med Assoc 1999; 281: 1632–7 21. Rohan TE, Jain
MG, Howe GR, Miller AB. Dietary folate consumption and
breast cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000; 92: 266–9 22.
Salonen JT, Nyyssonen K, Salonen R, et al. Antioxidant
Supplemention in Atherosclerosis Prevention (ASAP) Study: a
randomized trial of the effects of vitamin E & C on 3 year
progression on carotid atherosclerosis. Ann Intern Med
2000; 248: 377–86 23. Stampfer MJ, Hennekens CH, Manson JE,
et al. Vitamin E consumption and risk of coronary heart
disease in women. N Engl J Med 1993; 328: 1444–9 24.
Stevens NG, Parsons A, Schofield PM, et al. Randomized
control trial of vitamin E in patients with coronary
disease: Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study (CHAOS). Lancet
1996; 347: 781–6 25. Yusuf S, Dagenais G, Pogue J, et al.
Vitamin E supplementation and cardiovascular events in
high-risk patients. The Hearts Outcomes Prevention
Evaluation Study Investigators. N Engl J Med 2000; 342:
154–60 26. Enstrom JE, Kanim LE, Klein MA. Vitamin C intake
and mortality among a sample of the United States
population. Epidemiology 1992; 3: 194–202 27. ATBC
Investigators. The effect of vitamin E and beta-carotene on
the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male
smokers. The Alpha Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer
Prevention Study Group. N Engl J Med 1994; 330: 1029–35 28.
Plotnick GD, Corretti MC, Vogel RA. Effect of antioxidant
vitamins on the transient impairment of
endothelium-dependent brachial artery vasoactivity
following a single high-fat meal. J Am Med Assoc 1997; 278:
1682–6 29. Gann PH, Ma J, Giovannucci E, et al. Lower
prostate cancer risk in men with elevated plasma lycopene
levels results of a prospective analysis. Cancer Res 1999;
59: 1225–30 30. Chan JM, Stampfer MJ, Ma J, et al.
Supplemental vitamin E intake and prostate cancer risk in a
large cohort of men in the United States. Cancer Epidemiol
Biomarkers Prev 1999; 8: 893–9 31. Giovannucci E. Tomatoes,
tomato based products, lycopene, and cancer. Review of the
epidemiology literature. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999; 91:
317–31

32. Kohlmeier L, Kark JD, Gomez-Garcia E, et al. Lycopene


and myocardial infarction risk in the Euramic Study. Am J
Epidemiol 1997; 146: 618–26

33. Clavel-Chapelon F, Niravong M, Joseph RR. Diet and


breast cancer: review of the epidemiologic literature.
Cancer Detect Prev 1997; 21: 426–40

34. Dorgan JF, Sowell A, Swanson CA, et al. Relationships


of serum carotenoids, retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and
selenium with breast cancer risk: results from a
prospective study in Columbia, Missouri (United States).
Cancer Causes Control 1998; 9: 89–97 35. Toniolo P, Van
Kappel AL, Akhmedkhanov A, et al. Serum carotenoids and
breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol 2001; 153: 1142–7
Herbal drug interactions in surgical 67
patients

11. Eisenberg DM. Advising patients who seek alternative


medical therapies. Ann Intern Med 1997; 127: 61–9

12. Elder NC, Gillcrist A, Minz R. Use of alternative


health care by family practice patients. Arch Fam Med 1997;
6: 181–4

13. 103rd Congress. Dietary Supplement Health and Education


Act of 1994. Pub. Law 103–417. 108 Stat. 4325. 1994

14. Marwick C. Growing use of medicinal botanicals forces


assessment by drug regulators. J Am Med Assoc 1995; 273:
607–9

15. Matthews HB, Lucier GW, Fisher KD. Medicinal herbs in


the United States: research needs. Environ Health Perspect
1999; 107: 773–8

16. Winslow LC, Kroll DJ. Herbs as medicines. Arch Intern


Med 1998; 158: 2192–9

17. Miller LG. Herbal medicinals: selected clinical


considerations focusing on known or potential drug–herb
interactions. Arch Intern Med 1998; 158: 2200–11

18. Anon. Herbal roulette. Consumer Reports, November 1995:


698–705

19. Ernst E. Harmless herbs? A review of the recent


literature. Am J Med 1998; 104: 170–8

20. Slifman NR, Obermeyer WR, Aloi BK, et al. Contamination


of botanical dietary supplements by Digitalis lanata. N
Engl J Med 1998; 339: 806–11

21. Kessler DA. Cancer and herbs. N Engl J Med 2000; 342:
1742–3

22. Nortier JL, Martinez MC, Schmeiser HH, et al.


Urothelial carcinoma associated with the use of a Chinese
herb (Aristolochia fangchi). N Engl J Med 2000; 342:
1686–92

23. Ko RJ. Adulterants in Asian patent medicines. N Engl J


Med 1998; 339: 847

24. Vander Stricht BI, Parvais OE, Vanhaelen-Fastre RJ, et


al. Safer use of traditional remedies. Remedies may contain
cocktail of active drugs. Br Med J 1994; 308: 1162

25. Espinoza EO, Bleasdell B. Arsenic and mercury in


traditional Chinese herbal balls. N Engl J Med 1995; 333:
803–4

26. Thompson CA. Herbal quality seems to be growing. Am J


Health Syst Pharm 1998; 55: 2341–2

27. Wagner H. Phytomedicine research in Germany. Enivron


Health Perspect 1999; 107: 779–81

28. Monmaney T. Label’s potency claims often inaccurate,


analysis finds. Los Angeles Times, August 31, 1998: A10

29. Abbot NC, White AR, Ernst E. Complementary medicine.


Nature (London) 1996; 381: 361

30. Windrum P, Hull DR, Morris TCM. Herb–drug interactions.


Lancet 2000; 355: 1019–20

31. Fugh-Berman A. Herb–drug interactions. Lancet 2000;


355: 134–8

32. Edwards R. Monitoring the safety of herbal medicine.


WHO project is under way. Br Med J 1995; 311: 1569–70

33. Anon. Herbal Rx – the promises and pitfalls. Consumer


Reports, March 1999: 44–8

34. Perharic L, Shaw D, Murray V. Toxic effects of herbal


medications and food supplements. Lancet 1993; 342: 180–1

35. Barnes J, Mills SY, Abbot NC, et al. Different


standards for reporting ADRs to herbal remedies and
conventional OTC medicines: face-to-face interviews with
515 users of herbal remedies. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1998; 45:
496–500

36. Melchart D, Linde K, Fischer P, Kaesmayr J. Echinacea


for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane
Database Syst Rev 2000; 2: CD000530 37. Pepping J.
Echinacea. Am J Health Syst Pharm 1999; 56: 121–2 38. See
DM, Broumand N, Sahl L, Tilles JG. In vitro effects of
echinacea and ginseng on natural killer and
antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity in healthy subjects
and chronic fatigue syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency
syndrome patients. Immunopharmacology 1997; 35: 229–35 39.
Rehman J, Dillow JM, Carter SM, et al. Increased production
of antigen-specific immunoglobulins G and M following in
vivo treatment with the medicinal plants Echinacea
angustifolia and Hydrastis canadensis. Immunol Lett 1999;
68: 391–5 40. Anon. Echinacea. In Gruenwald J, Brendler T,
Jaenicke C, eds. PDR for Herbal Medicines, 2nd edn.
Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, 2000: 261–6 41.
Boullata JI, Nace AM. Safety issues with herbal medicine.
Pharmacotherapy 2000; 20: 257–69 42. Mullins RJ.
Echinacea-associated anaphylaxis. Med J Aust 1998; 168:
170–1 43. Gurley BJ, Gardner SF, Hubbard MA. Content versus
label claims in ephedra-containing dietary supplements. Am
J Health Syst Pharm 2000; 57: 963–9 44. Nightingale SL.
From the Food and Drug Administration. J Am Med Assoc 1997;
278: 15 45. Haller CA, Benowitz NL. Adverse cardiovascular
and central nervous system events associated with dietary
supplements containing ephedra alkaloids. N Engl J Med
2000; 343: 1833–8 46. Roizen MF. Anesthetic implications of
concurrent diseases. In Miller RD, ed. Anesthesia, 4th edn.
New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone. 1994: 903–1014 47.
Zaacks SM, Klein L, Tan CD, et al. Hypersensitivity
myocarditis associated with ephedra use. J Toxicol Clin
Toxicol 1999; 37: 485–9 48. Powell T, Hsu FF, Turk J,
Hruska K. Ma-huang strikes again: ephedrine
nephrolithiasis. Am J Kidney Dis 1998; 32: 153–9 49. FDA.
Final rule declaring dietary supplements containing
ephedrine alkaloids adulterated because they present an
unreasonable risk. Federal Register Docket No. 1995N-0304,
11February 2004 50. White LM, Gardner SF, Gurley BJ, et al.
Pharmacokinetics and cardiovascular effects of ma-huang
(Ephedra sinica) in normotensive adults. J Clin Pharmacol
1997; 37: 116–22 51. Gurley BJ, Gardner SF, White LM, Wang
PL. Ephedrine pharmacokinetics after the ingestion of
nutritional supplements containing Ephedra sinica (ma
huang). Ther Drug Monit 1998; 20: 439–45 52. Stevinson C,
Pittler MH, Ernst E. Garlic for treating
hypercholesterolemia: a meta-analysis of randomized
clinical trials. Ann Intern Med 2000; 133: 420–9 53.
Srivastava KC. Evidence for the mechanism by which garlic
inhibits platelet aggregation. Prostaglandins Leukot Med
1986; 22: 313–21 54. Apitz-Castro R, Escalante J, Vargas R,
Jain MK. Ajoene, the antiplatelet principle of garlic,
synergistically potentiates the antiaggregatory action of
prostacyclin, forskolin, indomethacin and dipyridamole on
human platelets. Thromb Res 1986; 42: 303–11 55. Rose KD,
Croissant PD, Parliament CF, Levin MB. Spontaneous spinal
epidural hematoma with associated platelet dysfunction from
excessive garlic ingestion: a case report. Neurosurgery
1990; 26: 880–2

56. Kaye AD, De Witt BJ, Anwar M, et al. Analysis of


responses of garlic derivatives in the pulmonary valscular
bed of the rat. J Appl Physiol 2000; 89: 353–8

57. Ali M, Al-Qattan KK, Al-Enezi F, et al. Effect of


allicin from garlic powder on serum lipids and blood
pressure in rats fed with a high cholesterol diet.
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2000; 62: 253–9

58. Silagy CA, Neil HA. A meta-analysis of the effect of


garlic on blood pressure. J Hypertens 1994; 12: 463–8

59. Le Bars PL, Katz MM, Berman N, et al. A


placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial of an
extract of Ginkgo biloba for dementia. North American Egb
Study Group. J Am Med Assoc 1997; 278: 1327–32

60. Oken BS, Storzbach DM, Kaye JA. The efficacy of Ginkgo
biloba on cognitive function in Alzheimer disease. Arch
Neurol 1998; 55: 1409–15

61. Jung F, Mrowietz C, Kiesewetter H, Wenzel E. Effect of


Ginkgo biloba on fluidity of blood and peripheral
microcirculation in volunteers. Arzneimittelforschung 1990;
40: 589–93

62. Maitra I, Marcocci L, Droy-Lefaix MT, Packer L. Peroxyl


radical scavenging activity of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb
761. Biochem Pharmacol 1995; 49: 1649–55

63. Hoyer S, Lannert H, Noldner M, Chatterjee SS. Damaged


neuronal energy metabolism and behavior are improved by
Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761). J Neural Transm 1999; 106:
1171–88

64. Chung KF, Dent G, McCusker M, et al. Effect of a


ginkgolide mixture (BN 52063) in antagonizing skin and
platelet responses to platelet activating factor in man.
Lancet 1987; 1: 248–51

65. Rowin J, Lewis SL. Spontaneous bilateral subdural


hematomas associated with chronic Ginkgo biloba ingestion.
Neurology 1996; 46: 1775–6

66. Vale S. Subarachnoid haemorrhage associated with Ginkgo


biloba. Lancet 1998; 352: 36

67. Gilbert GJ. Ginkgo biloba. Neurology 1997; 48: 1137

68. Matthews MK Jr. Association of Ginkgo biloba with


intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurology 1998; 50: 1933–4
69. Rosenblatt M, Mindel J. Spontaneous hyphema associated
with ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract. N Engl J Med 1997;
336: 1108

70. Fessenden JM, Wittenborn W, Clarke L. Gingko biloba: a


case report of herbal medicine and bleeding postoperatively
from a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Am Surg 2001; 67: 33–5

71. Watson DG, Oliveira EJ. Solid-phase extraction and gas


chromatography–mass spectrometry determination of
kaempferol and quercetin in human urine after consumption
of Ginkgo biloba tablets. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl
1999; 723: 203–10

72. Anon. Ginkgo. In Mills S, Bone K, eds. Principles and


Practice of Phytotherapy. New York, NY: Churchill
Livingstone, 2000: 404–17

73. Brekham II, Dardymov IV. New substances of plant origin


which increase nonspecific resistance. Annu Rev Pharmacol
1969; 9: 419–30

74. Attele AS, Wu JA, Yuan CS. Ginseng pharmacology:


multiple constituents and multiple actions. Biochem
Pharmacol 1999; 58: 1685–93 75. Vuksan V, Sievenpiper JL,
Koo VY, et al. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L)
reduces postprandial glycemia in nondiabetic subjects and
subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med
2000; 160: 1009–13 76. Kimura Y, Okuda H, Arichi S. Effects
of various ginseng saponins on 5-hydroxytryptamine release
and aggregation in human platelets. J Pharm Pharmacol 1988;
40: 838–43 77. Kuo SC, Teng CM, Lee JC, et al. Antiplatelet
components in Panax ginseng. Planta Med 1990; 56: 164–7 78.
Park HJ, Lee JH, Song YB, Park KH. Effects of dietary
supplementation of lipophilic fraction from Panax ginseng
on cGMP and cAMP in rat platelets and on blood coagulation.
Biol Pharm Bull 1996; 19: 1434–9 79. Teng CM, Kuo SC, Ko
FN, et al. Antiplatelet actions of panaxynol and
ginsenosides isolated from ginseng. Biochim Biophys Acta
1989; 990: 315–20 80. Janetzky K, Morreale AP. Probable
interaction between warfarin and ginseng. Am J Health Syst
Pharm 1997; 54: 692–3 81. Chen SE, Sawchuk RJ, Staba EJ.
American ginseng. III. Pharmacokinetics of ginsenosides in
the rabbit. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 1980; 5: 161–8
82. Pittler MH, Ernst E. Efficacy of kava extract for
treating anxiety: systematic review and meta-analysis. J
Clin Psychopharmacol 2000; 20: 84–9 83. Pepping J. Kava:
Piper methysticum. Am J Health Syst Pharm 1999; 56: 957–60
84. Meyer HJ. Pharmacology of kava – 1. Psychopharmacol
Bull 1967; 4: 10–11 85. Backhauss C, Krieglstein J. Extract
of kava (Piper methysticum) and its methysticin
constituents protect brain tissue against ischemic damage
in rodents. Eur J Pharmacol 1992; 215: 265–9 86. Jamieson
DD, Duffield PH, Cheng D, Duffield AM. Comparison of the
central nervous system activity of the aqueous and lipid
extract of kava (Piper methysticum). Arch Int Pharmacodyn
Ther 1989; 301: 66–80 87. Almeida JC, Grimsley EW. Coma
from the health food store: interaction between kava and
alprazolam. Ann Intern Med 1996; 125: 940–1 88. Norton SA,
Ruze P. Kava dermopathy. J Am Acad Dermatol 1994; 31: 89–97
89. Rasmussen AK, Scheline RR, Solheim E, Hansel R.
Metabolism of some kava pyrones in the rat. Xenobiotica
1979; 9: 1–16 90. Gaster B, Holroyd J. St. John’s wort for
depression: a systematic review. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160:
152–6 91. Shelton RC, Keller MB, Gelenberg A, et al.
Effectiveness of St. John’s wort in major depression. J Am
Med Assoc 2001; 285: 1978–86 92. Muller WE, Singer A,
Wonnemann M, et al. Hyperforin represents the
neurotransmitter reuptake inhibiting constituent of
hypericum extract. Pharmacopsychiatry 1998; 31 (Suppl 1):
16–21 93. Neary JT, Bu Y. Hypericum LI 160 inhibits uptake
of serotonin and norepinephrine in astrocytes. Brain Res
1999; 816: 358–63 94. Franklin M, Chi J, McGavin C, et al.
Neuroendocrine evidence for dopaminergic actions of
hypericum extract (LI 160) in healthy volunteers. Biol
Psychiatry 1999; 46: 581–4 95. Lantz MS, Buchalter E,
Giambanco V. St. John’s wort and antidepressant drug
interactions in the elderly. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol
1999; 12: 7–10

96. Brown TM. Acute St. John’s wort toxicity. Am J Emerg


Med 2000; 18: 231–2

97. Suzuki O, Katsumata Y, Oya M, et al. Inhibition of


monoamine oxidase by hypericin. Planta Med 1984; 50: 272–4

98. Yu PH. Effect of the Hypericum perforatum extract on


serotonin turnover in the mouse brain. Pharmacopsychiatry
2000; 33: 60–5

99. Muller WE, Rolli M, Schafer C, Hafner U. Effects of


hypericum extract (LI 160) in biochemical models of
antidepressant activity. Pharmacopsychiatry 1997; 30 (Suppl
2): 102–7

100. Obach RS. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes


by constituents of St. John’s wort, an herbal preparation
used in the treatment of depression. J Pharmacol Exp Ther
2000; 294: 88–95
101. Ernst E. Second thoughts about safety of St. John’s
wort. Lancet 1999; 354: 2014–16

102. Piscitelli SC, Burstein AH, Chaitt D, et al. Indinavir


concentrations and St. John’s wort. Lancet 2000; 355: 547–8

103. Yue QY, Bergquist C, Gerden B. Safety of St. John’s


wort. Lancet 2000; 355: 576–7

104. Breidenbach T, Hoffmann MW, Becker T, et al. Drug


interaction of St. John’s wort with cyclosporin. Lancet
2000; 355: 1912

105. Ruschitzka F, Meier PJ, Turina M, et al. Acute heart


transplant rejection due to Saint John’s wort. Lancet 2000;
355: 548–9

106. Johne A, Brockmoller J, Bauer S, et al.


Pharmacokinetic interaction of digoxin with an herbal
extract from St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum). Clin
Pharmacol Ther 1999; 66: 338–45

107. Kerb R, Brockmoller J, Staffeldt B, et al. Single-dose


and steady-state pharmacokinetics of hypericin and
pseudohypericin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1996; 40:
2087–93

108. Biber A, Fischer H, Romer A, Chatterjee SS. Oral


bioavailability of hyperforin from hypericum extracts in
rats and human volunteers. Pharmacopsychiatry 1998; 31
(Suppl 1): 36–43

109. Houghton PJ. The scientific basis for the reputed


activity of valerian. J Pharm Pharmacol 1999; 51: 505–12

110. Hendriks H, Bos R, Allersma DP, et al. Pharmacological


screening of valerenal and some other components of
essential oil of Valeriana officinalis. Planta Med 1981;
42: 62–8 111. Ortiz JG, Nieves-Natal J, Chavez P. Effects
of Valeriana officinalis extracts on [3H]flunitrazepam
binding, synaptosomal [3H]GABA uptake and hippocampal
[3H]GABA release. Neurochem Res 1999; 24: 1373–8 112.
Santos MS, Ferreira F, Cunha AP, et al. Synaptosomal GABA
release as influenced by valerian root extract –
involvement of the GABA carrier. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther
1994; 327: 220–31 113. Leuschner J, Muller J, Rudmann M.
Characterization of the central nervous depressant activity
of a commercially available valerian root extract.
Arzneimittelforschung 1993; 43: 638–41 114. Garges HP,
Varia I, Doraiswamy PM. Cardiac complications and delirium
associated with valerian root withdrawal. J Am Med Assoc
1998; 280: 1566–7 115. Hensrud DD, Engle DD, Scheitel SM.
Underreporting the use of dietary supplements and
nonprescription medications among patients undergoing a
periodic health examination. Mayo Clin Proc 1999; 74: 443–7
116. Kassler WJ, Blanc P, Greenblatt R. The use of
medicinal herbs by human immunodeficiency virus-infected
patients. Arch Intern Med 1991; 151: 2281–8 117. Cirigliano
M, Sun A. Advising patients about herbal therapies. J Am
Med Assoc 1998; 280: 1565–6 118. Coppes MJ, Anderson RA,
Egeler RM, Wolff JEA. Alternative therapies for the
treatment of childhood cancer. N Engl J Med 1998; 339:
846–7 119. Leak JA. Herbal medicines: what do we need to
know? ASA Newslett 2000; 64: 6–7 120. Anesthesiologists
warn: if you’re taking herbal products, tell your doctor
before surgery. Available at:
www.asahq.org/PublicEduction/herbal.html. Accessed 10 May
2001 121. Kennedy JM, van Rij AM, Spears GF, et al.
Polypharmacy in a general surgical unit and consequences of
drug withdrawal. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2000; 49: 353–62 122.
Tonnesen H, Rosenberg J, Nielsen HJ, et al. Effect of
preoperative abstinence on poor postoperative outcome in
alcohol misusers: randomized controlled trial. Br Med J
1999; 318: 1311–16
Sports medicine 68

1. Annual Report. Nutr Bus J 2001

2. Chanutin A. The fate of creatine when administered to


man. J Biol Chem 1926; 67: 29–41

3. Balsom PD, Harridge SD, Soderlund K, et al. Creatine


supplementation per se does not enhance endurance exercise
performance. Acta Physiol Scand 1993; 149: 521–3

4. Kreider RB, Ferreira M, Wilson M, et al. Effects of


creatine supplementation on body composition, strength, and
sprint performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998; 30: 73–82

5. Vandenberghe K, Goris M, Van Hecke P, et al. Long-term


creatine intake is beneficial to muscle performance during
resistance training. J Appl Physiol 1997; 83: 2055–63

6. Volek JS, Kraemer WJ, Bush JA, et al. Creatine


supplementation enhances muscular performance during
high-intensity resistance exercise. J Am Diet Assoc 1997;
97: 765–70

7. Engelhardt M, Neumann G, Berbalk A, Reuter I. Creatine


supplementation in endurance sports. Med Sci Sports Exerc
1998; 30: 1123–9

8. Vandebuerie F, Vanden Eynde B, Vandenberghe K, Hespel P.


Effect of creatine loading on endurance capacity and sprint
power in cyclists. Int J Sports Med 1998; 19: 490–5

9. Bemben MG, Tuttle TD, Bemben DA, Knehans AW. Effects of


creatine supplementation on isometric force–time curve
characteristics. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001; 33: 1876–81

10. Tarnopolsky M, Martin J. Creatine monohydrate increases


strength in patients with neuromuscular disease. Neurology
1999; 52: 854–7

11. Guerrero-Ontiveros ML, Wallimann T. Creatine


supplementation in health and disease. Effects of chronic
creatine ingestion in vivo: down-regulation of the
expression of creatine transporter isoforms in skeletal
muscle. Mol Cell Biochem 1998; 184: 427–37

12. Koshy KM, Griswold E, Schneeberger EE. Interstitial


nephritis in a patient taking creatine. N Engl J Med 1999;
340: 814–15
13. Oopik V, Paasuke M, Timpmann S, et al. Effect of
creatine supplementation during rapid body mass reduction
on metabolism and isokinetic muscle performance capacity.
Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1998; 78: 83–92

14. Harris RC, Soderlund K, Hultman E. Elevation of


creatine in resting and exercised muscle of normal subjects
by creatine supplementation. Clin Sci (Lond) 1992; 83:
367–74

15. Greenhaff PL, Casey A, Short AH, et al. Influence of


oral creatine supplementation of muscle torque during
repeated bouts of maximal voluntary exercise in man. Clin
Sci (Lond) 1993; 84: 565–71

16. Steenge GR, Lambourne J, Casey A, et al. Stimulatory


effect of insulin on creatine accumulation in human
skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol 1998; 275: E974–9

17. Vandenberghe K, Gillis N, Van Leemputte M, et al.


Caffeine counteracts the ergogenic action of muscle
creatine loading. J Appl Physiol 1996; 80: 452–7

18. Dohm GL, Kasperek GJ, Tapscott EG, Barakat H. Protein


metabolism during endurance exercise. Fed Proc 1985; 44:
348–52

19. Lemon PWR, Nagel FJ. Effects of exercise on protein and


amino acid metabolism. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1981; 13: 141–9
20. Food and Nutrition Board. Recommended Dietary
Allowances, 10th edn. Washington, DC: National Academy of
Sciences, 1989: 30 21. Lemon PWR, Mullin JP. Effect of
initial muscle glycogen levels on protein catabolism during
exercise. J Appl Physiol 1980; 48: 624–9 22. Friedman JE,
Lemon PWR. Effect of protein intake and endurance exercise
on daily protein requirements. Med Sci Sports 1985; 17: 231
23. Tarnopolsky MA, MacDougall JD, Atkinson SA. Influence
of protein intake and training status on nitrogen balance
and lean body mass. J Appl Physiol 1988; 64: 187–93 24.
Tarnopolsky MA, MacDougall JD, Atkinson SA. Evaluation of
protein requirements for trained strength athletes. J Appl
Physiol 1992; 73: 1986–95 25. Tarnopolsky MA, MacDougall
JD, Atkinson SA. Dietary protein requirements for body
builders verses sedentary controls. Med Sci Sports Exerc
1986; 18: S64 26. Lemon PWR, Tarnopolsky MA, MacDougall JD,
Atkinson SA. Protein requirements and muscle mass/strength
changes during intensive training in novice bodybuilders. J
Appl Physiol 1992; 73: 767 27. Esmarck B, Andersen JL,
Olsen S, et al. Timing of postexercise protein intake is
important for muscle hypertrophy with resistance training
in elderly humans. J Physiol 2001; 535: 301–11 28. Smith G.
Whey protein. World Rev Nutr Diet 1976; 24: 88–116 29.
Smithers GW, Ballard FJ, Copeland AD, et al. New
opportunities from the isolation and utilization of whey
proteins. J Dairy Sci 1996; 79: 1454–9 30. Lands LC, Grey
VL, Smountas AA. Effect of supplementation with a cysteine
donor on muscular performance. J Appl Physiol 1999; 87:
1381–5 31. Bounous G, Baruchel S, Falutz J, Gold P. Whey
proteins as a food supplement in HIV-seropositive
individuals. Clin Invest Med 1993; 16: 204–9 32. Kennedy
RS, Konok GP, Bounous G, et al. The use of whey protein
concentrate in the treatment of patients with metastatic
carcinoma: a phase I–II clinical study. Anticancer Res
1995; 5: 2643–50 33. Charlton CP, Buchanan E, Holden CE, et
al. Intensive enteral feeding in advanced cirrhosis:
reversal of malnutrition without precipitation of hepatic
encephalopathy. Arch Dis Child 1992; 67: 603–7 34. Canciani
M, Mastella G. Absorption of a new supplemental diet in
infants with cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr
1985; 4: 735–40 35. Burke DG, Chilibeck PD, Davidson KS, et
al. The effect of whey protein supplementation with and
without creatine monohydrate combined with resistance
training on lean tissue mass and muscle strength. Int J
Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2001; 11: 349–64 36. Newsholme EA,
Leech AR. Biochemistry for the Medical Sciences. New York,
NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1983: 423–5 37. Rowbottom DG, Keast
D, Morton AR. The emerging role of glutamine as an
indicator of exercise stress and overtraining. Sports Med
1996; 21: 80–97

38. Hall JC, Heel K, McCauley R. Glutamine. Br J Surg 1996;


83: 305–12

39. Hankard RG, Haymond MW, Darmaun D. Effect of glutamine


on leucine metabolism in humans. Am J Physiol 1996; 271:
E748–54

40. Welbourne TC. Increased plasma bicarbonate and growth


hormone after an oral glutamine load. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;
61: 1058–61

41. Rosene MF, Finn KJ, Antonio J. Glutamine


supplementation may maintain nitrogen balance in wrestlers
during a weight reduction program. Med Sci Sports Exerc
1999; 31: S123

42. Hammarqvist F, Wernerman J, Von Der Decken A, Vinnars


E. Alanyl-glutamine counteracts the depletion of free
glutamine and the postoperative decline in protein
synthesis in skeletal muscle. Ann Surg 1990; 212: 637–44
43. Peterson B, Von Der Decken A, Vinnars E, Wernerman J.
Long-term effects of postoperative total parenteral
nutrition supplementation with glycylglutamine on
subjective fatigue and muscle protein synthesis. Br J Surg
1994; 81: 1520–3

44. Marks DB, Marks AD, Smith CM. Basic Medical


Biochemistry. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins, 1996

45. Schena F, Guerrini F, Tregnaghi P, Kayser B.


Branched-chain amino acid supplementation during trekking
at high altitude: the effects on loss of body mass, body
composition, and muscle power. Eur J Appl Physiol 1992; 65:
394–8

46. Blomstrand E, Newsholme EA. Effect of branched-chain


amino acid supplementation on the exercise-induced change
in aromatic amino acid concentration in human muscle. Acta
Physiol Scand 1992; 146: 293–8

47. Mourier A, Bigard AX, de Kerviler E, et al. Combined


effects of caloric restriction and branched-chain amino
acid supplementation on body composition and exercise
performance in elite wrestlers. Int J Sports Med 1997; 18:
47–55

48. Colker CM. Effects of supplemental protein on body


compostion and muscular strength in healthy athletic male
adults. Curr Ther Res 2000; 61: 19–28

49. Ziegenfuss TN, Lambert CP, Lowery LM. Oral


administration of testosterone precursors elevates plasma
androgens in men. Presented at The International Conference
on Weight Lifting and Strength Training, Finland, 1998:
abstract

50. Earnest CP, Olson MA, Broeder CE, et al. In vivo


4androstene-3,17-dione and 4-androstene-3 beta,17 beta-diol
supplementation in young men. Eur J Appl Physiol 2000; 81:
229–32

51. King DS, Sharp RL, Vukovich MD, et al. Effect of oral
androstenedione on serum testosterone and adaptations to
resistance training in young men: a randomized controlled
trial. J Am Med Assoc 1999; 281: 2020–8

52. Antonio J, Sanders M. Effects of self-administered


androstenedione on a young male bodybuilder: a
single-subject study. Curr Ther Res 1999; 60: 486–92
53. Antonio J, Sanders MS, Kalman D, et al. The effects of
highdose glutamine ingestion on weightlifting performance.
J Strength Cond Res 2002; 16: 157–60

54. Longcope C. Dehydroepiandrosterone metabolism. J


Endocrinol 1996; 150 (Suppl): S125–7

55. Brown GA, Vukovich MD, Sharp RL, et al. Effect of oral
DHEA on serum testosterone and adaptations to resistance
training in young men. J Appl Physiol 1999; 87: 2274–83

56. Nestler JE, Barlascini CO, Clore JN, Blackard WG.


Dehydroepiandrosterone reduces serum low density
lipoprotein levels and body fat but does not alter insulin
sensitivity in normal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1988;
66: 57–61 57. Welle S, Jozefowicz R, Statt M. Failure of
dehydroepiandrosterone to influence energy and protein
metabolism in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1990; 71:
1259–64 58. Wilson JD. Androgen abuse by athletes. Endocr
Rev 1988; 9: 181–99 59. Kuczmarki RJ, Flegal KM, Campbell
SM, Johnson CL. Increasing prevalence of overweight among
US adults. The National Health and Nutrition Examination
Surveys, 1960 to 1991. J Am Med Assoc 1994; 272: 205–11 60.
Must A, Jacques PF, Dallal GE, et al. Long-term morbidity
and mortality of ovcrweight among adolescents. A follow-up
of the Harvard Growth Study of 1922 to 1935. N Engl J Med
1992; 327: 1350–5 61. Astrup A, Toubro S, Christensen NJ,
Quaade F. Pharmacology of thermogenic drugs. Am J Clin Nutr
1992; 55: 246S–8S 62. Astrup A, Breum L, Toubro S, et al.
The effect of safety of an ephedrine/caffeine compound
compared to ephedrine, caffeine and placebo in obese
subjects on an energy restricted diet: a double blind
trial. Int J Obes 1992; 16: 269–77 63. Daly PA, Krieger DR,
Dulloo AG, et al. Ephedrine, caffeine and aspirin: safety
and efficacy for treatment of human obesity. Int J Obes
1993; 17: S73–8 64. Guy-Grand B, Apfelbaum M, Crepaldi G,
et al. International trial of long-term dexfenfluramine in
obesity. Lancet 1989; 2: 1142–5 65. Breum L, Pedersen JK,
Ahlstrom F, Frimodt-Moller J. Comparison of an
ephedrine/caffeine combination and dexfenfluramine in the
treatment of obesity: a double-blind multicentre trial in
general practice. Int J Obes 1994; 18: 99–103 66. Lukaski
HC, Bolonchuk WW, Siders WA, Milne DB. Chromium
supplementation and resistance training: effects on body
composition, strength, and trace elements status of men. Am
J Clin Nutr 1996; 63: 954–65 67. Evans GW, Bowman TD.
Chromium picolinate increases membrane fluidity and rate of
insulin internalization. J Inorg Biochem 1992; 46: 243–50
68. Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, et al. Elevated
intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and
insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes 1997; 46: 1786–91 69. Hasten DL, Rome EP, Franks
BD, Hegsted M. Effects of chromium picolinate on beginning
weight training students. Int J Sports Nutr 1992; 2: 343–50
70. Clancy SP, Clarkson PM, DeCheke ME, et al. Effects of
chromium picolinate supplementation on body compostion,
strength, and urinary chromium loss in football players.
Int J Sports Nutr 1994; 4: 142–53 71. Trent LK,
Thieding-Cancel D. Effects of chromium picolinate on body
composition. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1995; 35: 273–80 72.
Walker LS, Bemben MG, Bemben DA, Knehans AW. Chromium
picolinate effects on body composition and muscular
performance in wrestlers. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998; 30:
1730–7 73. Grant KE, Chandler RM, Castle AL, Ivy JL.
Chromium and exercise training: effects on obese women. Med
Sci Sports Exerc 1997; 29: 992–8 74. Cerulli J, Grabe DW,
Gauthier I, et al. Chromium picolinate toxicity. Ann
Pharmacother 1998; 32: 428–31

75. Martin WR, Fuller RE. Suspected chromium


picolinateinduced rhabdomyolysis. Pharmacotherapy 1998; 18:
860–2

76. Vincent JB. The potential value and toxicity of


chromium picolinate as a nutritional supplement, weight
loss agent and muscle development agent. Sports Med 2003;
33: 213–30

77. Zimmer H. Philosophies of India. Princeton, NJ:


Princeton University Press, 1951

78. Swami Prabhavananda. The Eternal Companion. Hollywood,


CA: Vedanta Press, 1970

79. Michaels RR, Parra J, McCann DS, Vander AJ. Renin,


cortisol, and aldosterone during transcendental meditation.
Psychosom Med 1979; 41: 50–4

80. Jevning R, Wilson AF, Davidson JM. Adrenocortical


activity during meditation. Horm Behav 1978; 10: 54–60

81. Werner O, Wallace RK, Charles B, et al. Endocrine


Balance and the TM-Sidhi Program. Scientific Research on
the Transcendental Meditation Program: Collected Papers.
Vol. 2. Rheinweiler, Germany: MERU Press, 1993

82. Jevning R, Pirkle HC, Wilson AF. Behavioral alteration


of plasma phenylalanine concentration. Physiol Behav 1977;
19: 611–14
83. Jevning R. Integrated metabolic regulation during acute
rest states in man, similarity to fasting: a biochemical
hypothesis. Physiol Behav 1988; 43: 735–7

84. Banquet JP, Sailhan M. EEG analysis of spontaneous and


induced stress states of consciousness. Rev
Electroencephalogr Neurophysiol Clin 1974; 4: 445–53

85. Badawi K, Wallace RK, Rouzere AM, Orme-Johnson D.


Electrophysiological changes during periods of respiratory
suspension in the transcendental meditation technique.
Psychosom Med 1984; 46: 267–76

86. Herbert R, Lehmann D. Theta bursts: an EEG pattern in


normal subjects practicing the transcendental meditation
technique. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1977; 42:
397–405

87. Bagchi BK, Wenger MA. Electrophysiological correlates


of some yogi exercises. Electroencephalogr Clin
Neurophysiol 1957; 7 (Suppl): 132–49

88. Benson H, Stewart RF, Greenwood MM, et al. Continuous


measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide
elimination during a wakeful hypometabolic state. J Hum
Stress 1975; 1: 37–44

89. Solberg EE, Berglund KA, Engen O, et al. The effect of


meditation on shooting performance. Br J Sports Med 1996;
30: 342–6

90. Solberg EE, Ingjer F, Holen A, et al. Stress reactivity


to and recovery from a standardised exercise bout: a study
of 31 runners practising relaxation techniques. Br J Sports
Med 2000; 34: 268–72 91. Jevning R, Wilson AF, Pirkle H, et
al. Metabolic control in a state of decreased activation:
modulation of red cell metabolism. Am J Physiol 1983; 245:
C457–61 92. Iyengar BKS, Menuhin Y. Light on Pranayama the
Yogic Art of Breathing. The Crossword Publishing Company;
1995 93. Vakil RJ. Remarkable feat of endurance by a yogi
priest. Lancet 1950; 2: 871 94. Kothari LK, Bordia A, Gupta
OP. The yogic claim of voluntary control over heart beat:
an unusual demonstration. Am Heart J 1973; 86: 282–4 95.
Madan M, Rai UC, Balavital V, Thombre DP. Cardiorespiratory
changes during savitri pranayam and shavasan. Yoga Rev
1983; 3: 25–34 96. Gopal KS, Bhatnagar OP, Subramanian N,
Nishith SD. Effect of yogasanas and pranayamas on B.P.,
pulse rate and some respiratory functions. Ind J Physiol
Pharmacol 1973; 17: 273–6 97. Ray US, Hegde KS, Selvamurthy
W. Improvement in muscular efficiency as related to a
standard task after yogic exercises in middle aged men. Ind
J Med Res 1986; 83: 343–8 98. Balasubramanian B, Pansare
MS. Effect of yoga on aerobic and anaerobic power of
muscles. Ind J Physiol Pharmacol 1991; 35: 281–2 99. Madan
M, Thombre DP, Balakumar B, et al. Effect of yoga training
on reaction time, respiratory endurance and muscle
strength. Ind J Physiol Pharmacol 1992; 36: 229–33 100.
Dhume RR, Dhume RA. A comparative study of the driving
effects of dextroamphetamine and yogic meditation on muscle
control for the performance of balance on balance board.
Ind J Physiol Pharmacol 1991; 35: 191–4 101. Raghuraj P,
Telles S. Muscle power, dexterity skill and visual
perception in community home girls trained in yoga or
sports and in regular school girls. Ind J Physiol Pharmacol
1997; 41: 409–15 102. Raju PS, Madhavi S, Prasad KV, et al.
Comparison of effects of yoga and physical exercise in
athletes. Ind J Med Res 1994; 100: 81–6 103. Berger BG,
Owen DR. Mood alteration with yoga and swimming: aerobic
exercise may not be necessary. Percept Mot Skills 1992; 75:
1331–43 104. Bandura A. Social Foundations of Thought and
Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Prentice Hall, 1986 105. Liggett DR, Hamada S. Enhancing
the visualization of gymnasts. Am J Clin Hypn 1993; 35:
190–7 106. Krenz EW. Improving competitive performance with
hypnotic suggestion and modified autogenic training: case
reports. Am J Clin Hypn 1984; 27: 58–63
Ethical implications for clinicians 69

1. Sugarman J, Burk L. Physicians’ ethical obligations


regarding alternative medicine. J Am Med Assoc 1998; 280:
1623–5

2. Eisenberg DM. Advising patients who seek alternative


medical therapies. Ann Intern Med 1997; 127: 61–9

3. Zollman C, Vickers A. What is complementary medicine? Br


Med J 1999; 319: 693–6

4. Schneiderman LJ. Alternative medicine or alternatives to


medicine? A physician’s perspective. Camb Q Health Ethics
2000; 9: 83–97

5. Bratman S. Alternative medicine: how well does it live


up to its own ideals? Altern Ther Health Med 1997; 3: 128,
127

6. Callahan D (Project Director). Specifying the goals of


medicine. Hastings Cent Rep 1996; 26 (Suppl): S9–14

7. Brody H, Rygwelski JM, Fetters MD. Ethics at the


interface of conventional and complementary medicine. In
Jonas WB, Levin JS, eds. Essentials of Complementary and
Alternative Medicine. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams &
Wilkins, 1999: 46–56

8. Clark PA. The ethics of alternative medicine therapies.


J Public Health Policy 2000; 21: 447–70

9. Angell M, Kassirer JP. Alternative medicine: the risks


of untested and unregulated remedies. N Engl J Med 1998;
339: 839–41

10. Furnham A. Why do people choose and use complementary


therapies? In Ernst E, ed. Complementary Medicine: An
Objective Appraisal. Oxford: Butterworth–Heinemann, 1996:
71–88

11. Eisenberg DM, Kessler RC, Foster C, et al.


Unconventional medicine in the United States: prevalence,
costs, and patterns of use. N Engl J Med 1993; 328: 246–52

12. Eisenberg DM, Davis RB, Ettner SL, et al. Trends in


alternative medicine use in the United States, 1990–1997:
results of a follow-up national survey. J Am Med Assoc
1998; 280: 1569–75
13. Zollman C, Vickers A. ABC of complementary medicine:
users and practitioners of complementary medicine. Br Med J
1999; 319: 836–8

14. Astin JA. Why patients use alternative medicine:


results of a national study. J Am Med Assoc 1998; 279:
1548–53

15. Druss BG, Rosenheck RA. Association between use of


unconventional therapies and conventional medical services.
J Am Med Assoc 1999; 282: 651–6

16. Ernst E. The role of complementary and alternative


medicine. Br Med J 2000; 321: 1133–5

17. McNaughton C, Eidsness LM. Ethics of alternative


therapies. S D J Med 1995; 48: 209–11 18. Adams KE, Cohen
MH, Eisenberg D, Jonsen AR. Ethical considerations of
complementary and alternative medical therapies in
conventional medical settings. Ann Intern Med 2002; 137:
660–4 19. Fetters MD, Warber SL. Complementary and
alternative medicine in clinical practice: ethical
considerations. Clin Fam Pract 2002; 4: 765–72 20.
Beauchamp TL, Childress JF. Principles of Biomedical
Ethics, 5th edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001 21.
Jonsen AR, Siegler M, Winslade WJ. Clinical Ethics: A
Practical Approach to Ethical Decisions in Clinical
Medicine, 5th edn. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002 22. Sugarman
J. Informed consent, shared decision-making, and
complementary and alternative medicine. J Law Med Ethics
2003; 31: 247–50 23. Ernst E, Cohen MH. Informed consent in
complementary and alternative medicine. Arch Intern Med
2001; 161: 2288–92 24. Monaco GP, Smith G. Informed consent
in complementary and alternative medicine: current status
and future needs. Semin Oncol 2002; 29: 601–8 25. Cohen MH,
Hrbek A, Davis RB, et al. Emerging credentialing practices,
malpractice liability policies, and guidelines governing
complementary and alternative medical practices and dietary
supplement recommendations: a descriptive study of 19
integrative health care centers in the United States. Arch
Intern Med 2005; 165: 289–95 26. Mueller PS, Hook CC,
Fleming KC. Ethical issues in geriatrics: a guide for
clinicians. Mayo Clin Proc 2004; 79: 554–62 27. Lynöe N.
Ethical and professional aspects of the practice of
alternative medicine. Scand J Soc Med 1992; 20: 217–25 28.
ABIM Foundation, ACP-ASIM Foundation, European Federation
of Internal Medicine. Medical professionalism in the new
millennium: a physician charter. Ann Intern Med 2002; 136:
243–6 29. Hensrud DD, Engle DD, Scheitel SM. Underreporting
the use of dietary supplements and nonprescription
medications among patients undergoing a periodic health
examination. Mayo Clin Proc 1999; 74: 443–7 30. Zollman C,
Vickers A. ABC of complementary medicine: complementary
medicine and the doctor. Br Med J 1999; 319: 1558–61 31.
Cohen MH. Legal and ethical issues in complementary
medicine: a United States perspective. Med J Aust 2004;
181: 168–9

32. Quill TE, Cassel CK. Nonabandonment: a central


obligation for physicians. Ann Intern Med 1995; 122: 368–74

33. Saper RB, Kales SN, Paquin J, et al. Heavy metal


content of ayurvedic herbal medicine products. J Am Med
Assoc 2004; 292: 2868–73

34. Komesaroff PA. Use of complementary medicines:


scientific and ethical issues. Med J Aust 1998; 169: 180–1

35. Studdert DM, Eisenberg DM, Miller FH, et al. Medical


malpractice implications of alternative medicine. J Am Med
Assoc 1998; 280: 1610–16

36. Ruhl TS. Spiritual informed consent for CAM. Arch


Intern Med 2002; 162: 943–4

37. Mueller PS, Plevak DJ, Rummans TA. Religious


involvement, spirituality, and medicine: implications for
clinical practice. Mayo Clin Proc 2001; 76: 1225–35

38. Miller FG, Emanuel EJ, Rosenstein DL, Straus SE.


Ethical issues concerning research in complementary and
alternative medicine. J Am Med Assoc 2004; 291: 599–604

39. Kottow MH. Classical medicine v alternative medical


practices. J Med Ethics 1992; 18: 18–22

40. American Medical Association, Council on Ethical and


Judicial Affairs. Code of Medical Ethics: Current Opinions
with Annotations, 2000–2001 edn. Chicago: American Medical
Association, 2000 41. Rosenberg EE, Lussier MT, Beaudoin C.
Lessons for clinicians from physician–patient communication
literature. Arch Fam Med 1997; 6: 279–83 42. Beckman HB,
Frankel RM. The effect of physician behavior on the
collection of data. Ann Intern Med 1984; 101: 692–6 43.
Stewart MA. Effective physician–patient communication and
health outcomes: a review. CMAJ 1995; 152: 1423–33 44.
Roter D. The enduring and evolving nature of the
patient–physician relationship. Patient Educ Couns 2000;
39: 5–15 45. Orr RD, Marshall PA, Osborn J. Cross-cultural
considerations in clinical ethics consultations. Arch Fam
Med 1995; 4: 159–64 46. Barrier PA, Li JT, Jensen NM. Two
words to improve physician–patient communication: what
else? Mayo Clin Proc 2003; 78: 211–14 47. Wirth S, ed.
Integrative Medicine: A Balanced Account of the Data, 2nd
edn. Ukiah, CA: Boitumelo Publishing, 1999: 8–11 48.
Perlman AI, Eisenberg DM, Panush RS. Talking with patients
about alternative and complementary medicine. Rheum Dis
Clin North Am 1999; 25: 815–22
Information from the Internet: 70
challenges for patients and physicians

1. The Harris Poll #21, Cyberchondriacs Update, 1 May 2002

2. Fox S, Rainie L. The online health care revolution: how


the Web helps Americans take better care of themselves.
Washington, DC: The Pew Internet and American Life Project,
2000. www.pewinternet.org/report_display.asp/r=26

3. Berland G, Elliott M, Morales L. Health information on


the internet: accessibility, quality, and readability in
English and Spanish. J Am Med Assoc 2001; 285: 2612–21

4. Rogers R, Reardon J. Barriers to a Global Information


Society for Health: Recommendations for International
Action. Report from the Project G8-ENABLE. IOS Press, 1999

5. Desai NS, Dole EJ, Yeatman ST, Troutman WG. Evaluation


of drug information in an Internet newsgroup. J Am Pharm
Assoc (Wash) 1997; NS37: 391–4

6. Croft DR, Peterson MW. An evaluation of the quality and


contents of asthma education on the World Wide Web. Chest
2002; 121: 1301–7

7. Beredjiklian PK, Bozentka DJ, Steinberg DR, Bernstein J.


Evaluating the source and content of orthopaedic
information on the Internet. The case of carpal tunnel
syndrome. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2000; 82-A(11): 1540–3

8. Griffiths KM, Christensen H. Quality of web based


information on treatment of depression: cross sectional
survey. Br Med J 2000; 321: 1511–15

9. Meric F, Bernstam EV, Mirza NQ, et al. Breast cancer on


the world wide web: cross sectional survey of quality of
information and popularity of websites. Br Med J 2002; 324:
577–81 10. Sagaram S, Walji M, Bernstam E. Evaluating the
prevalence, content, and readability of complementary and
alternative medicine (CAM) web pages on the internet. AMIA
Annual Symposium Proceedings, 2002: 672–6 11. Streiff L.
Can clients understand instruction? Image J Nurs
Scholarship1986; 18: 48–52 12. Morris K. A doctor’s guide
to keeping your head above the hogwash. Lancet 1999; 353:
679 13. Bauer BA, Lee MC, Wahner-Roedler DL, et al. A
controlled trial of physician’s and patients’ abilities to
distinguish authoritative from misleading complementary and
alternative medicine web sites. J Cancer Integr Med 2003;
1: 48–54 14. Schmidt A, Ernst E. Assessing web sites on
complementary and alternative medicine for cancer. Ann
Oncol 2004; 15: 733–42 15. Risk A, Dzenowagis J. Review of
internet health information quality initiatives. J Med
Internet Res 2001; 3: E28 16. www.hon.ch/Project/ 17.
Winker MA, Flanagin A, Chi-Lum B, et al. Guidelines for
medical and health information sites on the internet:
principles governing AMA web sites. American Medical
Association. J Am Med Assoc 2000; 283: 1600–6 18. Walji M,
Sagaram S, Sagaram D, et al. Efficacy of quality criteria
to identify potentially harmful information: a
cross-sectional survey of complementary and alternative
medicine web sites. J Med Internet Res 2004; 6: E21 19.
Bonakdar R. Herbal cancer cures on the web: noncompliance
with the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act. Fam
Med 2002; 34: 522–7

APPENDIX 1

HON Code of Conduct (HONcode) for Medical

and Health Web sites Principles

(http://www.hon.ch/HONcode/Conduct.html\)

(1) Authority: Any medical or health advice provided and


hosted on this site will only be given by medically trained
and qualified professionals unless a clear statement is
made that a piece of advice offered is from a non-medically
qualified individual or organization.

(2) Complementarity: The information provided on this site


is designed to support, not replace, the relationship that
exists between a patient/site visitor and his/her existing
physician.

(3) Confidentiality: Confidentiality of data relating to


individual patients and visitors to a medical/health Web
site, including their identity, is respected by this Web
site. The Web site owners undertake to honour or exceed the
legal requirements of medical/health information privacy
that apply in the country and state where the Web site and
mirror sites are located.

(5) Justifiability: Any claims relating to the


benefits/performance of a specific treatment, commercial
product or service will be supported by appropriate,
balanced evidence in the manner outlined above in Principle
4.

(6) Transparency of authorship: The designers of this Web


site will seek to provide information in the clearest
possible manner and provide contact addresses for visitors
that seek further information or support. The Webmaster
will display his/her Email address clearly throughout the
Web site.

(7) Transparency of sponsorship: Support for this Web site


will be clearly identified, including the identities of
commercial and non-commercial organisations that have
contributed funding, services or material for the site.

(8) Honesty in advertising and editorial policy: If


advertising is a source of funding it will be clearly
stated. A brief description of the advertising policy
adopted by the Web site owners will be displayed on the
site. Advertising and other promotional material will be
presented to viewers in a manner and context that
facilitates differentiation between it and the original
material created by the institution operating the site.
APPENDIX 2 Guidelines for Medical and Health Information
Sites on the Internet
(http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/1905.html#ONE)
Margaret A Winker et al. PRINCIPLES FOR CONTENT The AMA is
committed to providing medical and health information of
high quality via its Web sites. Visitors to AMA Web sites
will be given information, navigational direction, and
tools needed to judge the quality, reliability,
objectivity, sources, and funding of content and to make
effective use of content. Definition of Content Content is
defined as all material (including text, graphics, tables,
equations, audio, and video) and menu/ directional icons,
bars, indicators, listings, and indexes. These principles
also address functions that support content (e.g. links,
navigation, searches, calculations). Site Ownership Web
site ownership, including affiliations, strategic
alliances, and significant investors, should be clearly
indicated on the home screen or directly accessible from a
link on the home screen. Copyright ownership of specific
content should be clearly indicated on screen and on items
printed from the site. Site Viewing The site should
provide information about the platform(s) and browser(s)
that permit optimal viewing in a location that is easy to
find.

Viewer Access, Payment, and Privacy

Information about restrictions on access to content,

required registration, and password protection (if appli


cable) should be provided and easy to find. Information
about payment (i.e. subscriptions, docu

ment delivery, pay per view, etc) should be provided and

easy to find. See ‘Principles for E-commerce’ herein.


Information about privacy should be provided and

easy to find. See ‘Principles for Privacy and Confiden

tiality’ herein.

Funding and Sponsorship

Funding or other sponsorship for any specific content

should be clearly indicated and should comply with the

‘Principles for Advertising and Sponsorship’ herein.


Content should be easily distinguished from advertis

ing as described in ‘Principles for Advertising and Spon

sorship.’

Quality of Editorial Content

Guidelines for editorial content review, posting dates,

and sources were developed based on experience with the

AMA Scientific Publications’ sites. All scientific publica

tions and consumer site information adhere to these

guidelines. As of publication of these guidelines, content

posted on the AMA corporate site will adhere to these

guidelines as well.

Review

Content should be reviewed for quality (including orig

inality, accuracy, and reliability) before posting. Clinical

editorial content should be reviewed by content experts

not involved in creation of the content, and the content


should be revised appropriately in response to such

review. The method of review will be determined by

individual sites. (For example, Scientific Publications

sites include peer review. Other sites rely on review by

editorial boards.) The language complexity of the content


should be

appropriate for the site’s audience. Content should be

reviewed for grammar, spelling, and composition before

posting. A description of the editorial process and method


of

content review should be posted on the site. A list of


staff members and other individuals (e.g. edi

torial board) responsible for content quality, other than

anonymous peer reviewers, should be posted on the site.


Date of Posting, Revising, and Updating and Timeliness of
Editorial Content The dates that content is posted,
revised, and updated should be clearly indicated.
Procedures for updating and removing time-sensitive content
should be developed, implemented, and periodically reviewed
to ensure that the updating and review schedule is
appropriate. (For example, content can be sorted by date
posted and all content older than 6 months reviewed for
timeliness and accuracy.) An indication of significant
revisions to any specific content should be posted and may
include instructions to discard copies of versions
previously printed or downloaded. Sources of Editorial
Content Source for specific content should be clearly
identified (ie, author byline or names of individual,
organizational, departmental, institutional, agency, or
commercial provider/producer). Affiliations and relevant
financial disclosures for authors and content producers
should be clearly indicated. Individuals who post content
in online discussions, chat rooms, and e-lists should be
instructed to disclose financial interests and commercial
funding or affiliations related to the subject of the
posted content discussion, chat, or list. Reference
material used to develop content should be cited in a
manner appropriate for the site’s audience. Linking
Intrasite content links should be reviewed before posting
and maintained and monitored. If links are not functional,
links should be repaired in a timely manner. External site
links should be reviewed before posting and maintained and
monitored. If links are not functional, these links should
be repaired in a timely manner. External links to
commercial sites must comply with the ‘Principles for
Advertising and Sponsorship’. Intersite Navigation Sites
should not prevent viewers from returning to a previous
site. Sites should not redirect the viewer to a site the
viewer did not intend to visit. Sites should not frame
other sites without permission.

Downloading Files

If content can be downloaded in a portable docu

ment file (PDF) format, instructions regarding how to

download the PDF file and how to obtain the necessary

software should be provided and easy to find. A link to

such software should be provided.

Navigation of Content

Features that facilitate use of the site should be provided

and easy to find, and should include a site map or other

site organizational guide, a help function or frequently

asked-questions page, a feedback mechanism, and cus

tomer service information (if available). Each distinct


site should provide a search engine or appropriate
navigation tool to facilitate use. If the site provides a
search engine, instructions specifying how to use the
search function and how to conduct different types of
searches may be provided. Graphics files should include a
‘mouse over’ indication of the graphical content. For large
files, the space where the file resides should include the
size of the file. As a courtesy to the viewer, when
possible, when a large file can be downloaded by clicking,
the viewer may be informed of the size of the file before
the file begins downloading and should have the opportunity
to cancel the download.

Das könnte Ihnen auch gefallen