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ESSENTIAL & TRACE IONS PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS DIETARY SOURCES & DEFICIENCY & TOXICITY THERAPEUTIC USES

REQUIREMENT
Iron (Fe) Plays a vital role in the transport Dried beans, dried fruits, eggs Deficiency: Iron Deficiency Therapeutic category: Vitamins
and storage of oxygen, in (especially egg yolks), iron- Anemia, fatigue, SOB & Minerals (Pre & Post Natal) /
oxidative metabolism, DNA fortified cereals, liver, lean red Antianemics
synthesis, and in cellular growth meat (especially beef), oysters, Toxicity: Iron Poisoning
and proliferation. poultry, dark red meat. Ferrous Gluconate (Sangobion®)
Ferrous Sulfate (Feosol®)
The recommended dietary Ferrous Fumarate (Slow-Fe®)
allowance for adult males and
for women over 50 is 8
milligrams per day. For women
aged 19-50, the RDA is 18
milligrams per day.
Copper (Cu) Provides the energy formed in Oysters and other shellfish, Deficiency: fatigue, arthritis, Therapeutic category: Minerals
the respiratory chain. Also whole grains, beans, nuts, osteoporosis, paleness, anemia, and Electrolytes
needed for proper synthesis of potatoes, and organ meats brittle bones
hemoglobin, elastin, and (kidneys, liver) are good sources Copper (ParaGard®)
collagen. of copper. Dark leafy greens, Toxicity: Copperiedus Copper Gluconate (Copper®)
dried fruits such as prunes, Copper Sulfate
cocoa, black pepper, and yeast.

The Recommended Dietary


Allowance (RDA) for adult men
and women is 900 μg/day.
Zinc (Zn) An essential cofactor for many Red meat, poultry, beans, nuts, Deficiency: Acrodermatitis Zinc Sulfate (PTE-4®)
enzymes active in metabolism certain types of seafood (such as enteropathica (Inherited), Poor -intravenous nutritional
and signal transduction and in crab and lobster), whole grains, Neurological function, weak products
proteins, such as transcription fortified breakfast cereals, and immunity, diarrhea, allergy,
factors that control gene dairy products. leaky gut, acne. Zinc Oxide (Balmex®)
expression. This ion has - miscellaneous topical agents
important functions in the The DV for zinc is 15 mg for Toxicity: Zinc Poisoning
nervous, reproductive and adults and children age 4 and
immune systems, and a central older.
role in development and
growth.
Chromium (Cr) It enhances the action of insulin, Protein foods: seafood, lean Deficiency: problems in blood Chromium Picolinate
so it's important for the meats and poultry, eggs, sugar metabolism, anxiety, (Chromium GTF®)- minerals and
metabolism and storage of legumes (beans and peas), nuts, fatigue electrolytes
glucose. Chromium also appears seeds, and soy products. Lean
to have a role in fat and protein beef, oysters, eggs, and turkey Toxicity: Chromium Poisoning
metabolism. are sources of chromium.
The daily recommended intake
is between 50 micrograms (mcg)
and 200 mcg for adults and
teenagers. The recommended
dietary allowance of chromium
increases with age.

Manganese (Mn) It aids in the formation of Whole grains, nuts, leafy Deficiency: impaired glucose Therapeutic category: minerals
connective tissue, bones, blood- vegetables, and teas. tolerance, altered carbohydrate and electrolytes
clotting factors, and sex and fat metabolism, skeletal
hormones and plays a role in fat Recommended Dietary abnormalities, bone Manganese Sulfate (Multitrace-
and carbohydrate metabolism, Allowance (RDA) of 2.5 to 3 demineralization and 4 Concentrate®)
calcium absorption, and blood mg/day. malformation, stunted growth, Manganese Chloride
sugar regulation. Manganese is decreased serum cholesterol
also necessary for normal brain levels, skin rash and elevated
and nerve function. blood calcium.

Toxicity: Manganism (s/sx:


tremors, difficulty walking, and
facial muscle spasms)
Selenium (Se) Making special proteins, called Protein foods: seafood, lean Deficiency: Selenium deficiency Therapeutic category: Vitamins
antioxidant enzymes, which play meats and poultry, eggs, in combination with and Minerals
a role in preventing cell damage. legumes (beans and peas), nuts, Coxsackievirus infection can
seeds, and soy products. lead to Keshan disease, which is Selenium Sulfide (Alfaz®)
Pork, beef, turkey, chicken, fish, potentially fatal. Selenium Selenium Disulfide (Selsun®)
shellfish, and eggs. deficiency also contributes
(along with iodine deficiency) to
The safe upper limit for Kashin-Beck disease. The
selenium is 400 micrograms a primary symptom of Keshan
day in adults. disease is myocardial necrosis,
leading to weakening of the
heart.

Toxicity: nausea; vomiting; nail


discoloration, brittleness, and
loss; hair loss; fatigue;
irritability; and foul breath odor
(often described as “garlic
breath”).
Sulfur (S) Important part of several amino Eggs, meat, poultry and fish. Deficiency: reduced protein Therapeutic category:
acids (the building blocks of synthesis, pain and Miscellaneous topical agents
protein), especially methionine Daily intake is usually 800 to 900 inflammation associated with
and cysteine. It helps the body milligrams of sulfur per day.
resist bacteria, cleanses the various muscle and skeletal Sulfacetamide/Sulfur Cream
blood, and protects the disorders. (Avar®)
protoplasm of cells. Important
in enzyme reactions and protein Toxicity: eye irritation, dermal
synthesis. toxicity and inhalation hazards
Iodine (I2) Responsible for a number of Dairy products, seafood, meat, Deficiency: Lethargy and Therapeutic category:
important functions in the body some breads, eggs, sea tiredness, muscular weakness Antiseptic and germicides,
including growth, metabolism, vegetables, cranberries. and constant fatigue. Topical Disinfection,
reproduction, nerve and muscle Feeling cold (even on warm Supplements
function, regulation of body Recommended daily intake of days), difficulty concentrating,
temperature and blood cell iodine is 150 micrograms (mcg) slowed mental processes and Iodine (Iodine Mild®, Iodine
production. per day for most adults, and poor memory, unusual weight Tincture Decolorized®, Iodine
about twice that for pregnant gain. Tincture®, Strong Iodine®.
and nursing women. Iodoral®)
Toxicity: Acute iodine poisoning
include burning of the mouth, Povidone Iodine (Betadine
throat, and stomach, fever, Ophthalmic Solution®)
nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, a -ophthalmic anti-infectives
weak pulse, cyanosis, and coma.
Cobalt (Co) The primary function of cobalt Green leafy vegetables, meat, Deficiency: Pernicious Anemia, Therapeutic category: Vitamins
in humans is based on its role in liver, milk, oysters and clams. symptoms can include and Minerals
cobalamin or Vitamin B12. The numbness, fatigue and tingling
production of red blood cells, No recommended dosage has in your hand and feet. Cobalt (Converge®, Neurobion®)
and to ensure the health of the been set, but 8 mcg is suggested
nervous system. as the amount that is needed in Toxicity: Cobalt Poisoning,
the diet. Cardiomyopathy (a problem
where your heart becomes big
and floppy and has problems
pumping blood)
Deafness, nerve problems,
ringing in the ears (tinnitus)
Thickening of the blood.
Thyroid problems.
Molybdenum (Mo) Functions as an electron carrier Legumes, such as beans, lentils, Deficiency: The deficiency Therapeutic category:
in those enzymes that catalyze and peas, are the richest caused intellectual disability, Supplement
the reduction of nitrogen and sources of molybdenum. seizures, opisthotonus, and lens
nitrate; also for metabolism. dislocation.
The Recommended Dietary Molybdenum (Renopro®)
Allowance (RDA) for adult men Toxicity: gout-like symptoms
and women is 45 μg/day. The such as pain and swelling of
average dietary intake of joints. Other symptoms of
molybdenum by adult men and molybdenum toxicity include
women is 109 and 76 μg/day, dizziness, tiredness, and rashes.
respectively.