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Influence of Imperfections on Axial Buckling Load on Composites

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THE 19TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPOSITE MATERIALS

LOAD OF COMPOSITE CYLINDRICAL SHELLS

J. Kepple1,2*, B. G. Prusty1, G. Pearce1, D. Kelly1, R. Thomson2,3, R. Degenhardt4

1

School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of New South Wales,

Sydney, Australia, 2 Cooperative Research Centre for Advanced Composite Structures,

Melbourne, Australia, 3 Advanced Composite Structures Australia Pty Ltd, Melbourne,

Australia, 4 Institute of Composite Structures and Adaptive Systems, German Aerospace Centre

(DLR), Braunschweig, Germany.

* Corresponding author (jendi.kepple@unsw.edu.au)

Approach (SPLA) and the stochastic approach is

There is a strong requirement for more robust,

being developed by the collaborative European 7th

lighter and cheaper launch vehicle structures.

Framework Program project: New Robust Design

Unstiffened composite cylindrical shells, which are

Guideline for Imperfection Sensitive Composite

essential to the fabrication of launch vehicle

Launcher Structures (DESICOS) [6]. The design

airframes, are prone to buckling and are highly

criterion will account for real behavior of composite

sensitive to imperfections which arise during the

materials including imperfections to provide less

manufacturing process. The buckling load is an

conservative and more accurate knockdown factors.

important characteristic in design, and may vary

This paper provides a measure of the Sensitivity and

drastically from the buckling load of the perfect

Influence of initial imperfections on the axial

structure when realistic imperfections are present.

buckling load of 50 nominally identical composite

[1]

cylinders which were numerically generated from

The current design guidelines for imperfection

actual shell measurements [5], as a contribution to

sensitive shells are based on the NASA-SP 8007 [2]

the overall DESICOS project. The effect of initial

which dates from 1965. Typically, the theoretical

geometric, loading, thickness and material

buckling load of a given cylinder design is predicted

imperfections on the axial buckling load of

by performing a linear bifurcation analysis using

unstiffened composite cylindrical shells was

closed-form equations of the geometrically perfect

investigated and compared using probabilistic finite

structure. This theoretical buckling load is then

element (FE) analysis in conjunction with the

reduced by applying an empirical knockdown factor

stochastic approach and metamodels. The

to account for the differences between theory and

magnitudes of the imperfections were plotted against

test.

the axial buckling load and the effect of each

From recent literature [3-5], the NASA-SP 8007

imperfection type on the overall axial buckling load

knockdown factors used in the design of aerospace-

determined. The results displayed may be used for

quality shell structures were found to be overly

the robust optimization of shells which may improve

conservative and inappropriate for shells constructed

the reliability of their knock-down factors.

from modern manufacturing processes and materials

such as composites. Such a conservative approach 2 Influence of Imperfections

means that structures are therefore heavier and more

Preliminary investigations into the influence of

costly than need be.

loading and geometrical imperfections were

Dependable and verified design criteria for thin-

conducted by Zimmermann [7] and further

walled cylindrical shells are required, particularly

developed by Hühne et al. [8]. It was discovered that

for shells constructed from advanced materials and

the effect of the imperfections depend on laminate

manufacturing techniques. A new design criterion

set-up. The results from Hühne et al. [8] can be used

using a new robust optimization methodology in

to define lower limits for knock-down factors of In the lay-up presented in Table 1, the 24º ply is the

composite shells and provide a direction for the innermost ply and all plies have the same thickness

design engineer regarding which manufacturing of 0.125mm.

tolerances to focus on. The results also indicate that

For convergence studies different mesh refinements

the downside of achieving higher buckling loads is

(between 1,500 and 80,000 elements) were used

that the designs are more sensitive to geometrical

from which a benchmarked model of 14,400

imperfections.

elements was selected. In addition, different

Hühne et al. [8] quantified the imperfection loading

boundary conditions were tested resulting in a

energy in terms of the area underneath the peak load

benchmarked clamped bottom edge (in all three

experienced at the circumference of the cylinder.

translational degrees of freedom) and a displacement

The influence of loading imperfections was then

controlled upper edge as shown in Figure 3. The

compared to that of geometrical imperfections.

boundary conditions were applied to 20mm axial

More recently, Degenhardt et al. [5] investigated the

length on the top and bottom edges to simulate the

imperfection sensitivity of geometrical and non-

epoxy resin potting from [5].

traditional imperfections such as loading, material

and thickness imperfections using probabilistic The Z26 cylinder from Degenhardt et al. [5] was

methods. The work presented here re-evaluates and simulated as the “perfect” benchmark model. Actual

extends that of Hühne et al. [8] and Degenhardt et al. measured initial geometric and thickness

[5] to compare and evaluate imperfection imperfections were then added onto the perfect

sensitivities through a proposed technique to non- cylinder simulation and compared with test results as

dimensionalise the responses as a means of dealing shown in Figure 1. Although variations in thickness

the different fundamental units. Lastly, the reduce the overall buckling load, geometric

sensitivity of the axial buckling load to imperfections reduce the load more significantly.

imperfections is rigorously investigated by adopting When both imperfection types are incorporated into

and enhancing the stochastic methods developed by the simulation, the combined effect further reduces

Lee et al. [9]. the global buckling load to a point just above the test

value. The difference between the simulation with

3 Stochastic Modeling of Imperfection Types

geometric and thickness imperfections and the test

Full scale initial measurements of thickness and value may be caused by loading imperfections which

geometric imperfections of eight nominally identical were not measured in [5]. Deterministic values

CFRP IM6/8557 UD cylinders from a DLR paper cannot be assigned to those imperfections and a

(Degenhardt et al. [5]) were imported into large number of stochastic simulations are needed to

MSC.Patran/Nastran for SOL 106 non-linear static address the influence of the loading imperfection on

analysis. These cylinders are representative of the axial buckling load of monocoque cylinders.

imperfection sensitive design in which the 45

sensitivity of the axial buckling load to each 40

imperfection type is magnified. An overview of the

35

nominal cylinder data is provided in Table 1.

Buckling Load (kN)

30

Table 1. Nominal properties of DLR cylinders.

25

Property Nominal Data 20

Total length (mm) 540 15 Perfect

Free length (mm) 500 10 Thickness Impf.

Geometric Impf.

Thickness and Geometric Impf.

Total Thickness (mm) 0.5 Test

0

Lay up [24/-24/41/-41] 0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6

Cylinder mass (g) 641 Shortening (mm)

curves from simulations and test results with thickness

and geometric imperfections.

INFLUENCE OF IMPERFECTIONS ON AXIAL BUCKLING LOAD OF

COMPOSITE CYLINDRICAL SHELLS

3.1 Geometric Imperfections All variables have their common meanings [10, 11].

An example of an imperfect surface generated using

To accurately model realistic geometric

this approach is shown in Figure 2.

imperfections, ATOS-scanned geometrically

imperfect shells [5, 8] were imported into

MATLAB, treated as random fields and their

evolutionary power spectrum determined. The

evolutionary power spectrum was then used in

conjunction with the spectral representation method

to generate 50 Monte-Carlo computational models

of random imperfect 2D shell surfaces [10, 11].

Under the constraints of the evolutionary power

spectrum, these surfaces fit within the statistical

margins of the initial tested shells. The power

spectrum is described as the Fourier transform of the

auto-correlation function , and may be Fig 2. Bi-dimenional random field generated using the

spectral representation method.

interpreted as the distribution of the mean square of

the random field over the space-frequency The spectral representation method generates new

domain [11]. The evolutionary power spectrum was imperfect surfaces based about a common mean or

decomposed into two unrelated functions for the average value. Having passed the Kolmogorov-

frequency content and the spatial evolution based on Smirnov test (KS-test), which was used to check

the surfaces’ eligibility to utilize the method of whether the distribution of any small statistical

separation. This method allows an accurate series can be approximated by a normal distribution

estimation of the evolutionary power spectrum with [12], measured average radii of the cylinders, among

a reduced data set and is given as [11]: other variables, were confirmed to conform to a

Gaussian normal distribution with the parameters

, (1)

shown in Table 2.

where the estimated homogenous Fourier spectrum Table 2. Gaussian parameters of CFRP cylinders.

is:

1 Parameter Mean (mm) Standard Dev. %

(2) Radius 250.743 0.014

2

Total 0.478 2.699

and the estimated spatial envelope is: Thickness

| | The values in Table 2 were then used to generate 50

. (3) different mean radii and thickness values which

2

were incorporated into the 50 FE simulations.

The Hamming window was used to reduce the 3.2 Thickness Imperfections

window-processing loss energy bias. For a bi-

dimensional random field, the spectral Automated ultrasonic tests on the actual cylinders

representation method is [11]: were conducted by DLR using the water split

coupling echo-technique to detect any defects in the

structure; such as delaminations or air pockets [5].

, √2 Thickness imperfections were also recorded using

(4) this technique and imported into the spectral

representation method to create 50 stochastic models

with various correlated thickness measurements; an

where example of which is shown in Figure 3.

2 , , , ∆ ∆ . (5)

3

Translation <0,0,-0.7> (mm) The material properties displayed in Table 3 were

Rotation <,,,>

incorporated into MATLAB to generate 50 different

material properties for the stochastic simulations.

Variations in material properties are often much

higher in composite shells than those manufactured

from isotropic materials. Such variations are

unavoidable using modern manufacturing techniques

and arise from the intrinsic anisotropy of composite

materials [13]. From the DLR ultrasonic scans and

Figure 3, it is evident that some points with the

lowest thicknesses are situated along the fibre

directions; particularly the outermost -41º ply. These

aligned points can be interpreted as a gap between

plies in that particular direction which was not

adequately closed during fabrication [10]. These

areas therefore possess different localized material

properties.

Translation <0,0,0>

Rotation <,,,> An automated routine [10] was followed in order to

pinpoint aligned areas where inter-ply gaps may

Fig. 3. FE model featuring boundary conditions and

exist. Firstly, all points that were characterized as

thickness imperfections generated from the spectral

representation method. the absolute lowest thickness value were selected as

candidate gap points. If the points were aligned in

In addition to the spectral representation method, the ply directions and exceeded a certain threshold, set

means of the thickness imperfections for each at one-fifth the total number of points in the ply

cylinder were varied according to the Gaussian direction, a missing ply was assigned to these points.

distribution in Table 2. Otherwise, they were modeled by a reduction in the

3.3 Material Imperfections matrix phase only.

literature or provided from the manufacturer in terms Hühne et al. [8] employed the compression test

of their tested mean and standard deviation values. facility shown in Figure 4 and utilized shims to

The probabilistic material properties of the cylinders induce unevenness in the end plates for realistic

were given in [5] following several different studies. loading imperfections.

From benchmarked results, the values chosen for the

stochastic FE models are displayed in Table 3.

Table 3. Material Properties of measured CFRP prepreg Thin metal plate

(0.05-0.4mm)

IM7/8552 UD, Gaussian normal distributed means and

standard deviations [5] t = tension, c = compression, L =

Epoxy concrete

longitudinal direction, and T = transverse direction (0.7mm)

Stiffness Mean value Standard

Properties (GPa) Deviation (%)

157.4 2.39

10.1 4.11

5.3 1.10

Poissońs 0.31 5.55

Ratio

Fig. 4. Load introduction with shim to induce an uneven

loading over the entire upper edge [8].

INFLUENCE OF IMPERFECTIONS ON AXIAL BUCKLING LOAD OF

COMPOSITE CYLINDRICAL SHELLS

The shim used was a thin metal plate with a and the difference between the magnitude of the

thickness that varied from t = 0.05mm to t = 0.4mm. different imperfection types (input) and their

It was located between the top and the end plate at average values were plotted into metamodels and

32 predefined and equally spaced positions on the their sensitivities defined using the following

circumference and provided the stochastic input into formula [9]:

these simulations.

∑

(6)

To represent the above loading imperfections in ∑

MSC.Patran, an uneven “initial displacement” was

applied over the upper edge of the cylinders, where where β is the “sensitivity” of the output with

the maximum initial displacement corresponded to respect to a given input,

the various thicknesses of the metal shim; an m is the number of stochastic inputs,

example of which is shown in Figure 5. is the output response,

is the input variable; and,

Max the over-bar indicates the mean value.

displacement

(0.05-0.4mm) The values of the sensitivities were scaled and

Shim thickness normalized to remove skew effects originating

from the different fundamental units of the

Min displacement stochastic inputs [15]. The sensitivity points to the

(0mm)

amount of change that the output result experiences

with respect to a change in the input variable. Thus,

a large Sensitivity translates to a large change in

output, as the input is varied. This is shown in

Figure 6 where plots showing various levels of

sensitivity are shown. Note that Sensitivity can also

be interpreted as the gradient of the line of best fit

for any given metamodel.

1 Low Sensitivity 1 High Sensitivity

Fig. 5. Load imperfection simulation in MSC.Patran.

Output Variable/

Output Variable/

Buckling Load

Buckling Load

circumference for additional stochastic variation.

The upper circumferential edge was then displaced

downwards by the boundary conditions shown in

Figure 3 which represent the compression force

induced by the buckling tests. Input Variable/

1

Input Variable/

1

Imperfection Imperfection

4 Effect of Various Imperfection Types on Axial

Buckling Load Fig. 6. Sensitivity is the gradient of the best-fit line

between the input and output.

Two formulations, the Influence and Sensitivity, can

be used to provide insight on the effect that each 4.2 Derivation of Influence

imperfection type (or input variable) has on the axial

A measure of the correlation of the output result

buckling load (or output variable) from metamodels

with respect to the input variable is also necessary to

[9].

determine the overall effect of various imperfections

4.1 Derivation of Sensitivity on the axial buckling load. This correlation is a

Sensitivity can be determined by using the least- measure of the Influence that the input variable has

squares method (Legrende [14]). This is a measure over the behavior of the response. The Spearman

of the gradient of the output results with respect to Correlation [16] was selected as it is neither biased

an input variable. The axial buckling load (output) nor is there a requirement for the variables to be

5

linearly related. The formulation for the Influence ρ

is:

1

∑

2 (7)

1 1

∑ ∑

2 2

is the output response,

is the input variable; and,

is the number of samples in the metamodel.

An Influence factor of unity means that the input is

directly proportional to the output. Alternatively, an

Influence factor of -1 means that the input variable is

8a. 8b.

inversely proportional to the output. An Influence

factor of 0 means the input variable has no influence Fig. 8. Buckling behavior of an imperfect cylinder. Just

on the behavior of the output response as described before the onset of global buckling, deep grooves are

in Figure 7. typically seen near the maximum initial load displacement

(shim placement) as shown by the dark colored patch in

8a. Shortly after, global buckling typically commences at

a location near the initial local buckle at the mid-length of

the cylinder (8b).

Fig. 7. Influence represents the correlation of the input to Metamodels featuring the results from 50 stochastic

output. FE simulations with various imperfections were

4.3 Formulation for Overall Effect determined from the simulations are plotted in

Figures 9-15. The values of their Sensitivity,

Lee [9] used the Sensitivity and Influence to

Influence and overall effect on the axial buckling

formulate an indicator for robustness. Similarly in

load are shown in Table 4.

this case, the Sensitivity and Influence was used to

formulate an index for the overall effect of each Table 4. Results from stochastic analysis.

imperfection type on the axial buckling load. The Average

indictor was compiled as follows: Value

| | (8) Geometric 250.743

0.961 0.194 0.186

mm

Where is an indicator of the overall effect of Total

the imperfection type on the axial buckling load. 0.478 mm 0.991 0.480 0.476

Thickness

From the derivations, it is evident that higher Loading 0.2 mm -0.940 -0.442 0.416

magnitudes of Sensitivity and Influence lead to 157.4 GPa -0.999 -0.048 0.049

higher overall effect of the imperfection on the axial 10.1 GPa -0.999 -0.238 0.238

buckling load. 5.3 GPa -0.999 -0.036 0.036

The parameters described here can be used in the Poissońs

0.31 -0.939 -0.097 0.091

future to define limits on manufacturing tolerances Ratio

for robust design. The magnitude of the compression and shear moduli

5 Results were scaled to fit within a 0-0.5 value range to elicit

the highest and most conservative normalized

Nonlinear static finite element simulations were sensitivity and to enable comparison with input

performed in which 50 time steps were selected and variables of lower values.

10 iterations allowed to convergence. An example of

the buckling behavior of an imperfect cylinder is

shown in Figure 8.

INFLUENCE OF IMPERFECTIONS ON AXIAL BUCKLING LOAD OF

COMPOSITE CYLINDRICAL SHELLS

30 30

28 28

26 26

24 24

Buckling Load (kN)

22 22

20 20

18 18

16 16

14 Spectral 14

12 Actual 12

Spectral

10 10

-0,1 -0,05 0 0,05 0,1 145 150 155 160 165 170 175

Difference from Average Radius (mm)

Longitudinal Compression Modulus (GPa)

Fig. 9. Effect of geometric imperfections on axial Fig. 12. Effect of longitudinal compression modulus

buckling load. imperfections on axial buckling load.

30

30

28

28

26

26

24

Buckling Load (kN)

24

Buckling Load (kN)

22

22

20

20

18

18

16

16

14 Spectral

14

12 Actual

12

10 Spectral

-0,06 -0,04 -0,02 0 0,02 0,04 0,06 10

Difference from Average Thickness (mm) 8,5 9 9,5 10 10,5 11 11,5

Transverse Compression Modulus (GPa)

Fig. 10. Effect of thickness imperfections on axial

Fig. 13. Effect of transverse compression modulus

buckling load.

imperfections on axial buckling load.

30

30

28 Spectral

28

26

26

24

Buckling Load (kN)

24

Buckling Load (kN)

22

22

20

20

18

18

16

16

14

14

12

12 Spectral

10

0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 10

Shim Thickness (mm) 5,15 5,2 5,25 5,3 5,35 5,4 5,45

Shear Modulus (GPa)

Fig. 11. Effect of loading imperfections on axial buckling

Fig. 14. Effect of shear modulus imperfections on axial

load.

buckling load.

7

30 and boundary conditions had the largest overall

28 influence. Thickness imperfections, the longitudinal

26 Young’s modulus and deviated fibre angles caused a

24 further load reduction. From investigations on

Buckling Load (kN)

20

lay-ups, Hilburger and Starnes [17] suggest that

variations in the thickness can have a significant

18

effect on the buckling load of the shell. Literature

16

[7, 8, 17] also suggests that variations in the

14

laminate set-up, such as ply thickness, stacking

12

Spectral sequence and ply angle variation play a large role in

10 determining the overall buckling load of the shell.

0,25 0,27 0,29 0,31 0,33 0,35 0,37

Poissońs Ratio Surprisingly, from the results of this stochastic

analysis, geometric imperfections rank fourth in its

Fig. 15. Effect of Poissońs ratio imperfections on axial

buckling load. overall effect on the axial buckling load. This

particular imperfection type, from literature [18-20],

6 Discussion was initially suggested to be the main cause of the

The metamodels agree with intuitive understanding large knockdown factors needed to design robust

of the variability in the overall buckling load with cylinders.

respect to changes in the cylinder geometry, material Also unexpectedly, the transverse compression

and boundary conditions. For instance, it is well modulus ranks third in its overall effect on the axial

understood that as the average radius of the cylinder buckling load. From previous literature [5], it was

increases, the overall buckling load should increase, suggested that material imperfections, such as the

as is the case with upward trend line in the Young’s modulus perpendicular to the fibre

metamodel in Figure 9. Likewise, as the average direction and the shear modulus, play a negligible

thickness increases, the general buckling load role in its effect on the axial buckling load.

increases and as the loading imperfection or shim

thickness increases, the buckling loads decreases. 7 Future Work

The same can be said of general material variability The results of this approach to quantifying the

except the longitudinal compression modulus, which sensitivity of various imperfection types on the

seems to have little effect on the global buckling overall axial buckling load are far from conclusive.

load. Many more stochastic simulations are needed to

Based on the values of confirm the validity of this approach for robust

in Table 4, there is a strong indication that design. Monocoque composite cylinders of various

lengths, radii, thicknesses and lay-ups are required to

imperfections in the overall thickness play the

validate this approach for unstiffened shells. It is

largest role in determining the overall axial buckling

important to determine if thickness imperfections are

load of imperfection sensitive unstiffened cylinders,

the governing imperfection type across a range of

followed closely by loading imperfections. For these

shell geometries or if these results only apply to the

imperfection types, the axial buckling load is highly

particular shell tested in this paper. This will enable

correlated to any slight change in its average value.

manufacturers to tighten tolerances on the thickness

Hardly affecting the axial buckling load are general

while loosening tolerances on other fabrication

material imperfections such as the longitudinal

parameters to save cost whilst obtaining an

compression modulus, the shear modulus and the

optimized robust cylinder design.

Poissońs ratio. These findings agree with results

from literature [5, 17]. By investigating the Furthermore, stochastic results from stiffened,

correlation of the axial buckling load to various isogrid and sandwich shells of different material and

imperfection types through probabilistic analyses, shapes (conical structures) and physical buckling

Degenhardt et al. [5] found that geometrical, loading tests on all structural samples are required to ensure

INFLUENCE OF IMPERFECTIONS ON AXIAL BUCKLING LOAD OF

COMPOSITE CYLINDRICAL SHELLS

the validity of this approach across a range of [8] C. Hühne, R. Zimmerman, R. Rolfes, B. Geier.

different important structural designs. The “Sensitivities to geometrical and loading

correlation of the imperfections to the torsional imperfections on buckling of composite cylindrical

buckling load may also emerge as an important shells”. Rep. Germany: German Aerospace Centre,

Braunschweig, Institute of Structural Mechanics,

research topic

2002.

Furthermore, variations in fibre angle were not [9] M. Lee. “Stochastic analysis and robust design of

accounted for in this paper and should be an area for stiffened composite structures”. Diss. The University

future research. of New South Wales, 2009. Sydney: UNSWorks,

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8 Conclusion [10] M. Broggi, G. Schuëller. “Accurate prediction of the

Methods have been developed to accurately compare statistical deviations of the buckling load of imperfect

CFRP cylindrical shells”. In: IV European

the overall effect of the axial buckling load to

Conference on Computational Mechanics. Paris,

different imperfection types. The results indicate that France, EU, 2010.

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the axial buckling load than others and must be of evolutionary power spectra for strongly narrow-

accounted for in the design process. Many more band random fields”. Computer Methods In Applied

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validate this approach. Such results may be used to 947-960, 2010.

aid the design of more robust, lightweight and cost- [12] I.M. Chakravarti, R.G. Laha, J. Roy. Handbook of

effective shells if used in collaboration with the methods of applied statistics. John Wiley and Sons;

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work [9, 21]. [13] M. Chryssanthopoulos, V. Giavotto and C. Poggi.

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