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Comparison of fixed speed and doubly-fed induction wind turbines during power system disturbances

L. Holdsworth, X.G. Wu, J.B. Ekanayake and N. Jenkins

Abstract: The dynamic modelling of large (MW) capacity fixed and variable speed induction generator wind turbines is discussed. A reduced order dynamic machine model is derived suitable for modelling both ked speed and douhly-fed asynchronous generator wind turbines, Control schemes for variable speed turbines. using doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG), are described and simulated. Speed control characteristics and converter protection of the DFIG are implemented in the model. The operation of the models during power system disturbances such as network voltage sags and three-phase faults, as well as the possibility of network voltage instability, are investigated. Simulation results are presented using typical turbine and network data for wind farm installations.

Qgrz<,, Q,,,og,

stator and rotor voltage stator, rotor and generated current generated active and reactive power power factor capacitor and transformer reactance generator, point of common coupling, infinite bushars stator, rotor machine resistance synchronous, base and rotor angular frequency flux linkage mutual inductance stator and rotor leakage inductance stator and rotor self-inductance rotor slip

transient or short circuit reactance and open circuit reactance voltage behind transient reactance d-q components transient open circuit time constant inertia constant mechanical, electromagnetic, set point torque optimal power, torque and wind turbine constant

reactive

Dowers grid side, magnetising (no-load) and generated reactive power superscript indicates a per unit quantity

stator

and

rotor

active and

I€€.

2003

IEE Proceeding.?online no.20030251

doi:10.1049/ipgrd2W30?5 I

Wper first rffnved

15th Apd 2W2 and in revixd form 19th December 2W2

L. Holdswonh is with the The Milnchester (MCEEI. UMIST. UK

X.C. Wu and N.Jenkins are with the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research and MCEE. UMIST. UK J.B. Ekanayake is with the Dept. ofElcc1tic;d and Electronic Eng., University of Perddmiya. Si Lanka

Centre for Electtical Encrby

IEE Proc-Gmm Trmsrn Dlltd

Vol. 1.0, A'". 3, Mqv ZWi

1

Introduction

Throughout Europe, plans exist for a considerable increase in power generation from land and offshore wind farms. In the UK alone the Crown Estate has announced IS potential sites offshore, which are each likely to he some 60MW capacity using 2MW induction generator-based wind turbines. Elsewhere in Europe, offshore wind farms of up to IOOOMW capacity are being planned. Initial investiga- tions have shown the importance of electrical stability of both the turbines and the network voltage with the continued increase of the ratio of wind farm generation capacity to the network short circuit level [I, 21. Therefore, suitable models and investigations of dynamic stability of wind farms with the power system are required. The majority of existing land-based UK wind turbines use fixed speed induction generators (FSIG). Investigations with fixed speed turbines have shown that depressed voltage, resulting from short circuits in ]he connec- ting networks, can lead to generator overspeed if the network short circuit level to generating capacity ratio is too low [3, 41. The induction generators may then depress the voltage further, causing instability due to high levels of reactive power being absorbed. Recently, various papers have presented variable speed wind turbine technologies and models, particularly the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) [>IO]. In this paper the performance of the FSIG and DFIG wind turbines during power system disturbances is studied. A reduced order dynamic asynchronous generator model is derived and control strategies are modelled for the DFIG wind turbine with simulations illustrating its operation. Application studies are performed to observe the perfomiance of the FSIG and DFIG wind turbines during voltage sags and faults on the network.

2 System configuration of induction generator based wind turbines

As this paper addresses the electrical interaction of the wind turbine generator to the connecting network, the mechan- ical components of the system are not modelled in detail. The inertia constant for the dynarmc models is a lumped mass representation of the turbine, gearbox and the

343

generator rotor. Multi-mass mechanical models of the wind turbine shaft and gearbox are presented in [9, 1I].

2.1 Fixed speed induction generator (FSIG)

wind turbine

Ths wind turbine uses a squirrel cage induction generator that is coupled to the power system through a connecting transformer. As the stator voltage of most wind turbine electrical generators is 690 V, this transformer is essential for connection to the distribution network and should be considered when modelling the electrical interaction with the power system. Induction machines consume reactive power and so it is conventional to provide power factor correction capacitors at each wind turbine. These are typically rated at around 30% of the wind farm capacity and are used to compensate the induction machine magnetising current. A typical configuration of a FSIG- based wind turbine is shown schematically in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1

xpFc T

Bmi<:configuration ofFS1G wind turbine

2.2 Doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG)

wind turbine

An induction generator, with a wound rotor using slip rings to take current into or out of the rotating secondary winding, is used for the DFIG based wind turbine. As with the FSIG, the DFIG is connected to the power system through a local transformer. The rotor winding is fed through a back-to-back variable frequency power converter. The system is typically two AC/DC IGBT based voltage source converters (VSC), linked by a DC bus. The machine and converters are protected by voltage limits and an overcurrent 'crowbar'. A typical configuration of a DFIG- based wind turbine is shown schematically in Fig. 2. The converter system enables variable speed operation of the wind turbine by decoupling the power system electrical frequency and the rotor mechanical frequency. One control scheme, implemented by a number of manufacturers, and modelled in this paper, is to use converter C1 to provide speed control together with terminal voltage and power factor (PF) control for the overall system. Papers have presented converter C2 as a shun-connected reactive power compensator, which is also used to charge the interconnect- ing DC bus [6, 9-12]. For the control strategy modelled in

Fig. 2

344

&sic

mnfqurufionof DFIG itid turblne

this paper, converter C2 is used to maintain the DC bus voltage and provide a path for rotor power to and from the AC system at a unity power factor. Dependent upon the rotational speed of the DFIG,

power can be delivered to the grid through the stator, and the rotor, while the rotor can also absorb power. If the

DFIG runs at a

sub-synchronous speed, the rotor absotbs

power and a fraction of the stator power enters the rotor circuits. In contrast, if the DFIG runs at super-synchronous

speeds, the rotor produces power and power is delivered to

the grid via the stator and rotor circuits [9]. In the model the

generated active power was calculated by:

where P, is the power delivered by the stator, P, is the power to the rotor, Pg is the total power generated and delivered to the grid.

3 Model implementation

3.1 Development of the asynchronous

machine model

The general procedure followed to create the electrical model was similar for both the FSIG and the DFIG. As the

model is primarily to be used for wind turbine applications,

a generator convention was implemented. The stator

currents are positive when flowing towards the network and real power and reactive power are positive when fed into the grid, as shown in Figs. 1 and 2. The equations describing an asynchronous machine in terms of phase variables were derived to develop the model with all rotor variables referred to the stator. The equations were then transformed into a direct (4 and quadrature (4) axis reference frame with axes rotating at synchronous speed (ws = 2n,fr) using standard transformations [1>14]. When deriving the model, the q-axis was assumed to be 90" ahead

of the d-axis in the direction of rotation and the d-axis was

chosen such that it coincides with the maximum of the stator flux [7-91. Therefore, vq. equals the terminal-v,oltage and vd, is equal to zero. Using the defined reference frame, the following per unit fourth-order asynchronous model was derived

Stator voltages:

em = -R

vqs = -R,

x

Idr -

as x 2,

+ 5i*

x ,i +O,?x Id$ +$iqS I

Rotor voltages:

--

= R, x Id -3 x W,X Tu.+$Id

I xi, +s x 0,x A+ +&Xc

~

(2)

(3)

The flux linkages in these equations were calculated from:

-~-~-

Zdr = -i, x Th + i, x

= L,

x

id - L,

x i*

= E,,

x

Zqr -

1, x s,?

(41

For representation of the induction machine in power system stability studies, the fourth-order model was simplified to a second-order model. This corresponds to

ignoring the DC component in the stator transient current, permitting representation of only fundamental frequency components. By substitution of the flux linkage equations

to eliminate the rotor currents, a relationship for the stator

IEE Proc-Gener. Trmm. DkIrib., Vol. 150. No. 3, Mop 2W3

and rotor voltages in terms of a voltage behind a transient reactance was obtained. The stator and rotor voltages were derived in the following per unit form:

-~

ig +2'x Tqs+ ed

vdr = -R,

x

uqs = -R,

x

i, -X' x

& + eq

(5)

where the components of the voltage behind the transient reactance were defined as:

w,L,

ed = -_

~

L,

and

e,

-

W,L, -

= -id,

L,

(7)

The reduced order model transient reactances were defined as:

.

x = w,L,,= x,+ x,

The transient open-circuit time constant was defined as:

when simulating the electrical model and observing the voltages and currents within the machine, it is important to notice that the time derivative in (6) is a per unit quantity. If the, output variables of the simulated model are required in rea! time, that is, the time in seconds, the equations should be multiplied through by the base angular frequency,

u>horp = 2rrf&.<

Equation (5) and (6) provide a second order model suitable for the FSlG or DFIG. For a FSIG (squirrel cage), the rotor windings are shortcircuited and therefore the rotor voltages (Gqr and Ed,) will be wro. The second-order voltage behind a transient reactance asynchronous machine model equivalent circuit, shown in Fig. 3, can be used to represent this [14]. This is not the case for the DFIG (wound rotor), as in a practical implementation a voltage potential difference is created via the slip rings. For modelling purposes, this can be represented by an injected rotor voltiige. Therefore, (5) and (6) represent a general second- order asynchronous machine model where the short-

Fig. 3

model

Asynchronour

machine

.second-order

equiwlent

IEE Pruc.-Giner. Tranm. Dimib

Vol. 180. No. 3, May 2003

circuit

circuited rotor is a special case. To obtain the complete dynamic model of the induction generator, (5) and (6) were combined with the rotor swing equation [14]:

3.2 Development of DFIG converters and

control scheme model

For the model, it was assumed that the converters are ideal and that the DC link voltage between the converters is constant. This decouples converter C2 from Cl. The speed, terminal voltage and power factor control of the DFIG model was implemented through converter Cl. A voltage source injecting the required rotor voltage was implemented to represent the operation ofconverter C1 in the model. The per unit rotor voltage components for the control model were expressed by substitution of the rotor fluxes in current component form into (3), as:

The rotor speed was controlled by uqr, with U,+ being used for the terminal voltage and power Factor control. The dq decoupled control procedure described in [IS] was imple- mented in the model to decouple the rotor current components.

3.2.1 Modelled power extraction/speed control

strategy: A typical wind turbine characteristic with the optimal power extractionspeed curve plotted to intersect the C,,,,, points for each wind speed is illustrated in Fig. 4. If the control strategy is applied to maintain Po,,,since, the rotor speed w, is proportional to the wind speed U, the

d and w:, and the corresponding

generator torque with U* and

characteristic for the model can be defined for optimal torque by [IO]:

(13)

Top = %pw?

wf [16]. The optimal

power increases with

Fig.4

generator speed

Maximum power ertruction cuntrd struteqy cume

345

The complete generator torque-speed characteristic, which was applied for the controller model, is shown in Fig. 5. For optimal power extraction, the torque/speed CUNC was characterised by (13). This is between points B and C. Within this operating range, during low-medium wind speeds, the maximum possible energy is obtained from the turbine. Owing to power converter ratings, it is not practicable to maintain optimum power extraction from cut-in up to the rated speed. Therefore, for very low wind speeds the model operates at almost constant rotational speed (A-B). Rotational speed is also limited by aero- dynamic noise constraint [16], at which point the controller allows the torque to increase, at essentially constant speed, until rated torque (C-D). If the wind speed further increases to exceed the turbine torque rating. the control objective follows &E, where the electromagnetic torque is constant. When the system reaches point E, pitch regulation takes over from the torque control to limit aerodynamic input power. For very high wind speeds, the pitch control will regulate input power until the wind speed shutdown limit is reached. Pitch regulation was not included in the developed model.

Fig. 5

cut-in Speed

os

generator speed

Shutdown speed

Torque-speed cliur.acteristic/or turbine control stmrrg~

3.2.2 Electromagnetic

torque/speed

control

scheme: The torque-speed characteristic (Fig. 5) was used as a dynamic reference for generator torque demand as a function or measured generator speed. The speed control scheme operates by modifying the electromechanical torque of the generator to respond to variations in the rotor speed. Given a rotor speed measurement, the torque-speed characteristic was used to obtain a reference torque T,, which after some manipulation was imposed upon the DFIG rotor. This control methodology is known as current-mode control [8]. Maintaining the reference frame

for the machine model, with

where 1 Vsl is the magnitude of the terminal voltage, the per

unit electromagnetic torque was derived as [I:

i.,

= 0 and

= 1K.~/W.~,

The primary stage of the speed control scheme was developed using (14) to calculate a reference value of iq,m,, as shown in Fig. 6. The actual machine current, &, was calculated from (4) with &=O, as shown in (15). Comparing the reference variable to the actual machine current, an error signal

346

Fig. 6

I

WJ

Speed control scheme: primury stuge

required for controllin& the speed of the machine was obtained.

Igr

=

(15)

Although iqr imposes the effect of torque control. the converter CI is a controlled rotor voltage source. Hence, a secondary stage of the speed controller was implemented using the current error resulting from the reference torque T,. To determine the required rotor voltage, a standard PI controller and the summation of the direct rotor current compensation term, derived from (1I), was implemented. This control scheme is shown in Fig. 7.

Fig. 7

Speed control sclwe: secondury stage

3.2.3 Terminal voltage and power factor (PFI

control scheme: For the developed controller model, a strategy of terminal voltage and PF control using converter Cl was also applied. The controller was developed by maintaining the reference frame with the stator resistance neglected, and considering the total grid (stator) side reactive power given by:

(16)

Hence, Qgrj,, was defined as the total per unit reactive power absorbed by the machine at the stator terminals. Consider- ing (16) with Udr assumed to he zero, & was obtained from (4). The stator voltage Uqq was obtained from (2) with the stator resistance and the stator transients neglected, there- fore uyr = asx lb. Also, as >" = 0, then U,,$ = 1v.1and the following relationship was obtained between the total grid side reactive power and the rotor current &:

~-

Qs = Qg"d

= U,,$

X ?,i7~

U*

X T,,,

The rotor current component Tb was subdivided into a

generator magnetising component

for controlling reactive power flow (or terminal voltage) with the connecting network idr4. The total reactive power was also divided into em<,and e,,,. Equation (17) was then

and a component

I€€

Pm.-G".

Tm"

Dislrib., Vu/. 150, hb 3,May 2W3

expressed in the following form:

To compensate for the no-load reactive power absorbed by

the machine, value of Tdr,,

&,must equate to zero. To obtain this, the was controlled to equal:

Delivering more, or less, reactive power to the grid will increase, or decrease, the terminal voltage. If the terminal voltage is too low or too high, when compared to a required reference value then ?+, should be adjusted appropriately. The primary stage of the terminal voltage and PF control scheme was developed such that a reference value, 7*w, was obtained by the summation of the required control variables, 7+fl +&, and compared to the previous value of ?+,*,providing an error control signal to an integral controller, as shown in Fig. 8. The 7d,m,variabk represents the no-load magnetising current and the required compo- nent for controlling reactive power flow (or terminal voltage). The actual machine direct axis rotor current was calculated from (20).

Fig. 8

Terminal tioltuye und PF control scheme: prirnury stage

The secondary stage of the controller was again constructed using the primary stage reference current but now compared to the direct component of measured rotor current. As with the speed control model, the machine rotor current was controlled by the injection of a rotor voltage. The required rotor voltage was obtained from a PI controller and the summation of the quadrature rotor current compensation term, derived from (12). This control scheme is shown in Fig. 9.

Fig. 9

idi

TemTinal oulluge and PF control scheme: secondary sroge

3.3 Protection of the DFlG system

Faults in the power system, machine or converter devices may result in high voltages or currents that damage the

IEE Proc.-Gpnrr: Trmsrn. DMnb., Vol. I50 ~VO.3. May 2073

equipment. Suitable protection is therefore provided in wind turbine systems to minimise the effects of possible abnormal operating conditions. The controller model of the DFlG system included rotor voltage and current limits. The

limits set depend on the MW capacity of the machine and the rating of the converters. A voltage limit of 750 V_on the AC side of converter Cl, was implemented in the model. The converter is protected against over-current on the rotor circuits by a ‘crowbar’, as shown in Fig. 2. To represent the operation of the crowbar the model deactivates the converters upon the detection of rotor current magnitude above the current protection limit. A rotor current limit of = 1.5~~was implemented in the model. By deactivating the converters, the wound rotor was

short-circuited, IK.1 = 0 p

4 Simulation results

4.1 Simulation of DFIG control

A 4-pole 2 MW doubly-fed induction wind turbine and control model was simulated. The control strategy pre- sented in Section 3.2 was applied for the model. For observation of the doubly-fed system control, the machine terminal bus was modelled as an infinite source busbar. Results are in per unit with the base values, machine and speed control parameters given in the Appendix Section 8. The dynamic performance of the DFIG system was modelled by applying mechanical torque to the generator rotor, representative of step changes in wind velocity. The operation of the system in the optimal power extraction region (EC) was modelled for a step decrease (T,.= 0.3~~ at f= 2.0s) and increase (T,,,=O.8pu at 1=60.0s) in mechanical applied torque. This models the speed control for sub-synchronous and super-synchronous operation. The rotor speed and controlled rotor voltages are given in Figs. IO and 11. This illustrates that the large lumped turbine. shaft and generator rotor inertia dominates the dynamic control performance of the DFIG in current mode speed control. The steady-state optimal operating point for rotor speed and power extraction was obtained satisfiicto- rily by the model, with the control variables smoothly approaching the optimal values. The operation of the system around the cut-in speed and beyond the speed limit of the generator (i.e. between points A-B and C-D). was investigated by applying load torque’s

1.3 1

1.2

2

U

1.1

E

b

I e 0.9

1.0

0.8

0.7 sub-sychronousoperation

0

Fig. 10

10

20

30

40

50

lime, s

60

70

80

90

100

Rotor speed dwunrir conrrol, operuling in region EC

347

0.15
0.101

-0.25

0

10

20

30

40

50

EO

70

EO

90

100

 

lime. s

Fig. 11

Conrrulled mor wlruge, operating in region B-C

rotorspeed limit (1800 revimin)

0.5

0

Fig. 12

'

10

'

20

'

30

'

40

50

time, s

'

EO

70

'

EO

'

90

J

100

Rotor speed operutiq up lo control model .speed hiis

of T,,,=0.2pu at /=2.0s and T,,=l.Opu at t=60.0s, respectively. Fig. 12 shows the rotor speed controlled to operate beyond the limits of the optimum characteristic. The rotor voltages for this simulation, given in Fig. 13, are still within their operating limits, due to the modelled torque/speed control characteristic. The electromagnetic torque, given in Fig. 14, illustrates the full range of the

speed control. As the rotor speed approaches its upper limit, the control system enables the rated value of power to be

extracted through the stator (i.e. T,=

the speed of operation and hence the power generated through the rotor circuits. This can be observed in Fig. IS where the total active power increases with stator active power but the active power generated through the rotor

circuits, at super-synchronous speeds above the speed limit,

is maintained constant at a maximum of 0.2~~.

The PF control operation of the model was observed from the rotor currents and the reactive power at the machine terminals, as shown in Fig. 16. With the PF control disabled and an applied mechanical torque of T,,,= l.Opu, the model was simulated to a steady state operating point. At /= 30.0s the PF control was activated and id was controlled to provide both the magnetisation

current (no-load reactive power) and leakage current (reactive power absorbed due to generation). This provides

a PF operation of unity as illustrated by the zero reactive power absorbed by the system.

I.Opu), whilst limiting

348

-0.3

fq-axis rotor voltage

d-axis mor voltage

-04'

"

 

"

"

'

"

'

0

10

20

30

40

50

EO

70

80

90

100

Fig. 13

01

0

Fig. 14

1.4

1.2

1.o

-0.2

0

Fig. 15

time. 5

Rotor vo/roge.soperating up to control modd speed limrts

'

10

"

20

30

"

40

50

time. s

"

60

70

''

EO

90

Elecrromugneric torque conrrol

10

20

30

total active power

40

50

time. s

60

70

EO

Sprem acrm power output

90

8

100

I

100

4.2 Operation of protection circuits

The operation of rotor side converter voltage limit,

described in Section 3.3, was investigated by the application

(rn= 0.1 pu at f= 2.0 s). The

of a very low wind speed

controller was modified to allow the speed control to operate up to the imposed rotor voltage limits, and so the operation of the converter protection voltage limits could be

seen. Also, the operation of the overcurrent 'crowbar'

IEE Pro.~GenerTromrn. DrFrrih

Vol. 150. No. 3, May ZW3

05

~

04

-

0.2

03

-

 

0.1

 

I

29.8

29.9

30.0

30.1

30.2

time (5)

30.3

Fig. 16

Reactiw power and rotor current &),

30.4

30.5

with PF control

Fig. 18

I

d-axis rotor voltage

\

time. s

crowbar protection

I

Voltage limits and crowbar operutiun on rotor vo1taye.r

protection was investigated by applying a mechanical torque of T,, = 0.8 pu at I = 25.0s and then reducing the

I Vsl = 0 pu at t = 40.0 s for t = I50 ms,

terminal voltage to

to model a three-phase fault. The controlled rotor speed and rotor voltages, Figs. 17 and 18, respectively, show the DFIG protection in operation. The crowbar protection in

turbances, a two-bus double circuit power system was modelled. The fixed speed and doubly-fed induction wind turbines, connected to the point of common coupling (PCC) busbar of the power system model, were represented as shown in Fig. 19. An infinite source busbar was used to represent a very large power system. Network parameters representing wind turbines con- nected to strong and weak power systems were used for the power system model. At the point of connection (B,,,), short circuit levels (SCL) of 40MVA and I6MVA were modelled. An X/R ratio of 5 was selected to represent a distribution network. The connection transformer was rated at 2.5MVA with a leakage reactance of 5.9%. The PF correction capacitor used for the FSIG model was rated at 30% of the wind turbine MW capacity. The developed asynchronous machine model for the FSIG and DFIG was used for a 2MW wind turbine with the parameters of the Appendix Section 8. All simulations were conducted with

f the generators operating at rated output power. A fixed speed induction wind turbine was simulated with

with a clearance

time of 150ms. at point A on the power system. Network parameters representing turbine connection to a strong distribution network were used (40MVA at B,d. Fig. 20 shows that, post-fault, the generator and the network maintain stability after the terminal voltage variations. The stability of the turbine generator connected to a weak power system was investigated by reducing to 16MVA. For normal system conditions, the operation of the wind turbine

is satisfactory. However. during the network fault, due to the rotor being accelerated by the prime mover, the reactive power absorbed by the induction generator increases. With

a significant voltage drop at the machine terminals, the

45

rotor continues to overspeed and, post-fault, the busbar voltage fails to recover, as shown in Fig. 21. Maintaining the power system model parameters for a weak network connection, the stability of the DFIG wind turbine was investigated. With converter C1 modelled to control speed and PF operation, a three-phase fault was applied. The simulated DFIG rotor speed and network voltage at the PCC busbar are given in Fig. 22. The results indicate the potential stability improvementswith the DFIG system connected to a weak power compared to the FSIG. The performance of the asynchronous generator wind turbines during large duration network voltage sags on the power system was also modelled For these investigations,

the model, which deactivates the rotor side converter and

short-circuits the rotor windings, can be fully

I = 40.0 s, as the rotor voltages now equal zero. As the speed

observed after

control-has been disabled, the rotor speed starts to increase resultint from the reduced terminal voltage, similar to a fixed speed machine during three-phase terminal faults [2]. In a real wind turbine the rotor speed would be restricted by rotor overspeed limits. Mechanical rotor overspeed limits are not included in the developed model.

14

1.3

2 1.2

a

g

1.1

a 2 1.0

2 0.9

0.8

0.7

0

Fig. 17

a three-phase balanced fault (I= 40.0 s),

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

time, s

Voltage limits and crowbar uperation on rutor speed

5 Comparison of FSIG and DFIG during power system disturbances

Previous investigations have shown the effect of network parameters, such as the short circuit level (SCL) and the X/R ratio, upon the stability of fixed speed asynchronous generator wind turbines [2].To observe the response of the FSIG and DFIG wind turbines to power system dis-

point of connection

point 01 connection

infinite busbar

infinite busbar

Fig. 19

Connection of

FSIG and DFIG iurbinw IO douhle circuit power sptem tmdel

$ 0.96

8

0.92

0.90

39.5 40.0

40.5

41.0

1.020

!1,0151b 1.010

b

-

0

1.010

t-+

1

n

-

,

",,,,,1.015

1.005 1.005

39.5

39.5

40.0 40.0

40.5

40.5

41.0

41.0

1".

Fig. 20

network

Network fault

sruhility

I

of

41.5

41.5

41.5

s

FSIG

42.0

42.0

42.0

42.5

42.5

42.5

43.0

43.0

43.0

connected to .strong

 

39.5

40.0

40.5

41.0

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42.0

42.5

43.0

1.20

r

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1.00

39.5

40.0

40.5

41.0

41.5

42.0

42.5

43.0

 

time. s

 

Fig. 21

Network fuulr

stability of

FSIG connected

to

weuk

nefin~~rk

the infinite bus voltage was reduced to 0.6pu for S00ms at 1=40.0s. The DFIG converter C1 was modelled to include the voltage control facility as presented in Section 3.2~).For

350

'

0.6

39.5

40.0

40.5

41.0

41.5

42.0

42.5

43.0

1.210

1.195

39.5

40.0

40.5

41.0

41.5

42.0

42.5

43.0

 

time. s

 

Fig. 22

Nrtwrk fiiulr stability of

DFIG connected

IO

wek

itetwork

a FSIG connected to a weak power system, voltage sags at the terminal busbar may result in voltage instability, as shown in Fig. 23. The response of the DFIG model (given in Fig. 24) shows that implementing the voltage controller can result in maintaining the PCC busbar voltage througb- out the voltage sag, thereby offering possible stability improvements. Preliminary investigations of the steady-state stability margins of the DFIG have shown that PF and speed control can assist in maintaining stability during power system disturbances [17]. The steady-state modelling of the FSIG discussed in [2] shows the effect of the voltage variation on the torque-slip characteristic, A reduction in terminal voltage results in a reduced peak pull-out torque. If the applied generating torque is maintained, throughout the reduced voltage, the rotor speed will increase. This may lead to machine instability when the terminal voltage and the pull-out torque recovers if the rotor has accelerated past the peak torque. The terminal voltage support, provided by the PFC capacitors in FSIG wind turbines, is reduced with the square of the voltage. In contrast, the DFIG reduces terminal voltage variations during power system disturbances by implementing a PF control strategy independent of the terminal voltage. This is provided that

IEE Proc-Getter. Trumrvn Dntrih

Vol. 150, No. 3. Muy 2oU3

1.o

3'0I

0.9

0.8

a

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0.5 t

0.4 1

01"

"""'~

39.5

40.0

40.5

41.0

41.5

42.0

42.5

43.0

39.8 39.9

40.0 40.1 40.2 40.3 40.4 40.5 40.6 40.7 40.8

time. s

Fig. 23

Revponse oJFSIG ro mlluge .sug.snhen connecred IO weak

network

1.151

Fig. 25

5.0

1

4.04.5t

time. s

FSIG mmnt dwing remorefiult UI t=40.0-40.15~

n

0.90 t

0.850.80L

0.5

1

39.5

40.0

40.5

41.0

41.5

time. s

42.0

42.5

43.0

Fig. 24

nelwork

Revpiinre of DFIG to uoltage suqs when connected to weuk

39.8 39.9 40.0 40.1 40.2 40.3 40.4 40.5 40.6 40.7 40.8

Fig. 26

40. I5 s

lime, s

DFIG srami cunw11 during remore fizulr ut I = 40.0-

the DC capacitor is large enough to hold its voltage and converter C2 continues to operate correctly. Maintain- ing the peak torque reduces the risk of instability as the rotor accelerates but does not go beyond the pull-out torque. Controlling7,,, to limit the rotor speed in the DFIG model also assists in post-fault stability as the rotor acceleration during the network fault is reduced compared to the FSIG. As the generating capacity of wind farms increases, it will become necessary to maintain connection of the

wind

disturbances.

Simulations of the DFIG wind turbine model have shown that improvements in turbine and network stability can be obtained, compared to the FSIG during network three-phase faults. However, the converter's voltage and current ratings, together with the size of the DC capacitor, are critical to ensure good performance during power system disturbances. To investigate the current ratings required,

the crowbar protection overcurrent limit was set for a transient rating of 300% of the normal rated rotor current. Figs. 25 and 26 show the stator currents of the FSIG and DFIG, respectively. for a power system disturbance on a weak power system. Fig. 26 shows the stator current if the machine and network voltage stability is to be improved by the DFlG crowbar set at a high value.

turbines

throughout

power

system

6

Conclusions

The modelling and control strategies of fixed speed and doubly-fed asynchronous generator wind turbines have been described and their performance compared during power system disturbances. A generalised per unit machine model was derived for the FSIG and DFIG wind turbines. Both fixed speed (squirrel cage) and doubly-fed (wound rotor) machine constructions are represented by one set of equations, differing only by the representation of rotor voltage (i.e. short-circuited or injected voltage). The electrical machine model was reduced to second order for use in dynamic simulation tools capable of analysing very large power systems.The main assumptions were neglect of stator transients and saturation effects, together with a single rotor equivalent circuit. Modelling of the DFIG converters (Cl and C2) was discussed and a dq decoupled control procedure was implemented in the model. The control was implemented using a voltage source representation of converter CI to provide rotor voltage dq components. A typical industrial control scheme applied through the converters of the DFIG model was described. A full speed control strategy was described, and modelled, for an optimal power extraction scheme, as well as cut-in and speed limits for the generator rotor. The quadrature component of injected rotor voltage

was used to control generator rotor speed. To replace the fixed capacitor, PF correction techniques used in FSlG wind turbines terminal voltage control schemes were implemented for the DFlG model using the direct component of rotor voltage. Simulation results of the normal operation of the complete DFIG model illustrate the control of the wind turbine in low, medium and high wind speeds. The DFIG converter system overvoltage and overcurrent protection was discussed and modelled in the form of rotor voltage and rotor current limits. Operation of the modelled voltage and current (crowbar) protection was shown by simulation results in response to low wind speed and three-phase terminal Faults tripping the overcurrent

protection. A two-bus double circuit power system was used to investigate the effect of three-phase faults and voltage sags on the stability of the turbine generator and network bus voltages. The operation of 2 MW FSlG and DFIG wind turbines was compared for power system disturbances with strong and weak network connections. Observing the FSlG model connected to a weak power system, with either a three-phase fault or voltage sag, the limitations of fixed capacitor power factor correction and un- controlled acceleration of the generator rotor upon the machine and network voltage stability were identified. "be simulations illustrate that the speed and power factor control modelled within the DFIG system assists in improving stability when the turbine rating to power system short circuit ratio is low. However, the model assumes an ideal voltage source for converter CI, which provides continuous PF and speed control during terminal voltage variations. In a practical DFIG system the converter voltage and current ratings together with the size of the DC link capacitor are all critical to ensure good performance during network disturbances. Simulation of the DFIG model voltage control technique illustrates the improve- ments in network busbar voltage profiles. Controlling the terminal voltage at wind farm installations may improve the steady-state stability limit of the network and increase the wind farm capacity that can be connected. Improved stability margins using DFIG wind turbines may prove invahabk if the continued operation of wind

farms

required.

power system conditions is

through

abnormal

7

References

1 JENKINS, N., and STRBAC. G.: 'Impact of embedded generation on distibution system voltage stability'. Presented at the IEE

3

352

lntemational &Terence

_,"

Xth-lMh

"

on AC-DC power transmission, London

Nnv~mluri?MI

AKHMATOV, V

J.K and POULSEN. N.K.: 'A dynamic stability limit of gid- connected induction eeneriltom'. Presented at the IASTED Intema-

tional Conference ;n Power and energy systems, 191h-22nd Septemkr 2M0, Marklla, Spin

KNUDSEN, H

NIELSEN. A.H

PEDERSEN.

New York, 1986)

'

KUNDUR. P.: 'Power system stability and control. (McCraw-Hill Inc, New York. 1994)

SCHAUDER. C

advanced static VAR compensators', IEE Pror C. Gener Trmm.

and MEHTA, H.: 'Vector analysis and control of

Dirlrih. 1993. 140, (4), pp. ?YM06

BURTON, T., SHARPE. D., JENKINS, N., and BOSSANYI, E.:

'Wind energy handbook', (John Wiley, Chichester 2001) HOLDSWORTH, L and WU. X.: 'Dynamic and steady-state modelling of the doubly-fed induction machine (DFIM) for wind turbine applications'. lntemal repon for Manchester Centre of Electncal Energy (MCEE) at UMIST, 2002

18 MUUADI, E., PIERCE, K., and MIGLIORE, P.: 'Soft-stall control for vanable-speed stall regulated wind turbine', J Wind fig. hd Aemfymmies,?WO, 85, (3). pp. 277-291

8

Appendix

8.1 Model base values

Vhye= 690 V, She= 2 MW, whe = 2~fhe,

= 50 HZ

8.2 ZMW induction wind turbine model

parameters

Stator

Rotor resistance (R,):0.00549~~

Stator

Rotor reactance (&):

Magnetising reactance (Xm):3.95279~~ Lumped inertia constant (H): 3.5s

resistance (RJ:0.00488 pu

reactance (Xis):0.09241 pu

0.09955pu

8.3 Control model parameters

Cut-in speed = IOOOrev/min, speed limit= 1800rpm, shutdown speed = 2000rev/min. KPpt= 0.56, K~L= 0.05, &= 10.0, Kp3=5.0, Kn=32.5.