Comparison of fixed speed and doublyfed induction wind turbines during power system disturbances
L. Holdsworth, X.G. Wu, J.B. Ekanayake and N. Jenkins
Abstract: The dynamic modelling of large (MW) capacity fixed and variable speed induction generator wind turbines is discussed. A reduced order dynamic machine model is derived suitable for modelling both ked speed and douhlyfed asynchronous generator wind turbines, Control schemes for variable speed turbines. using doublyfed induction generators (DFIG), are described and simulated. Speed control characteristics and converter protection of the DFIG are implemented in the model. The operation of the models during power system disturbances such as network voltage sags and threephase faults, as well as the possibility of network voltage instability, are investigated. Simulation results are presented using typical turbine and network data for wind farm installations.
_{Q}_{g}_{r}_{z}_{<}_{,}_{,} _{Q}_{,}_{,}_{,}_{o}_{g}_{,}
stator and rotor voltage stator, rotor and generated current generated active and reactive power power factor capacitor and transformer reactance generator, point of common coupling, infinite bushars stator, rotor machine resistance synchronous, base and rotor angular frequency flux linkage mutual inductance stator and rotor leakage inductance stator and rotor selfinductance rotor slip
transient or short circuit reactance and open circuit reactance voltage behind transient reactance dq components transient open circuit time constant inertia constant mechanical, electromagnetic, set point torque optimal power, torque and wind turbine constant
reactive
Dowers grid side, magnetising (noload) and generated reactive power superscript indicates a per unit quantity
stator
and
rotor
active and
I€€.
2003
IEE Proceeding.?online no.20030251
doi:10.1049/ipgrd2W30?5 I
Wper first rffnved
15th Apd 2W2 and in revixd form 19th December 2W2
L. Holdswonh is with the The Milnchester (MCEEI. UMIST. UK
X.C. Wu and N.Jenkins are with the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research and MCEE. UMIST. UK J.B. Ekanayake is with the Dept. ofElcc1tic;d and Electronic Eng., University of Perddmiya. Si Lanka
Centre for Electtical Encrby
IEE ProcGmm Trmsrn Dlltd
Vol. 1.0, A'". 3, Mqv ZWi
1
Introduction
Throughout Europe, plans exist for a considerable increase in power generation from land and offshore wind farms. In the UK alone the Crown Estate has announced IS potential sites offshore, which are each likely to he some 60MW capacity using 2MW induction generatorbased wind turbines. Elsewhere in Europe, offshore wind farms of up to IOOOMW capacity are being planned. Initial investiga tions have shown the importance _{o}_{f} electrical stability of both the turbines and the network voltage with the continued increase of the ratio of wind farm generation capacity to the network short circuit level [I, 21. Therefore, suitable models and investigations of dynamic stability of wind farms with the power system are required. The majority of existing landbased UK wind turbines use fixed speed induction generators _{(}_{F}_{S}_{I}_{G}_{)}_{.} Investigations with fixed speed turbines have shown that depressed voltage, resulting from short circuits in ]he connec ting networks, can lead to generator overspeed if the network short circuit level to generating capacity ratio is too low [3, 41. The induction generators may then depress the voltage further, causing instability due to high levels of reactive power being absorbed. Recently, various papers have presented variable speed wind turbine technologies and models, particularly the doublyfed induction generator (DFIG) [>IO]. In this paper the performance of the FSIG and DFIG wind turbines during power system disturbances is studied. A reduced order dynamic asynchronous generator model is derived and control strategies are modelled for the _{D}_{F}_{I}_{G} wind turbine with simulations illustrating its operation. Application studies are performed to observe the perfomiance _{o}_{f} the FSIG and DFIG wind turbines during voltage sags and faults on the network.
2 System configuration of induction generator based wind turbines
As this paper addresses the electrical interaction of the wind turbine generator to the connecting network, the mechan ical components of the system are not modelled in detail. The inertia constant for the dynarmc models is a lumped mass representation of the turbine, gearbox and the
343
generator rotor. Multimass mechanical models of the wind turbine shaft and gearbox are presented in [9, 1I].
2.1 Fixed speed induction generator (FSIG)
wind turbine
Ths wind turbine uses a squirrel cage induction generator that is coupled to the power system through a connecting transformer. As the stator voltage of most wind turbine electrical generators is 690 V, this transformer is essential for connection to the distribution network and should be considered when modelling the electrical interaction with the power system. Induction machines consume reactive power and so it is conventional to provide power factor correction capacitors at each wind turbine. These are typically rated at around 30% of the wind farm capacity and are used to compensate the induction machine magnetising current. A typical configuration of a FSIG based wind turbine is shown schematically in Fig. 1.
Fig. 1
xpFc T
Bmi<:configuration ofFS1G wind turbine
2.2 Doublyfed induction generator (DFIG)
wind turbine
An induction generator, with a wound rotor using slip rings to take current into or out of the rotating secondary winding, is used for the DFIG based wind turbine. As with the FSIG, the DFIG is connected to the power system through a local transformer. The rotor winding is fed through a backtoback variable frequency power converter. The system is typically two AC/DC IGBT based voltage source converters (VSC), linked by a _{D}_{C} bus. The machine and converters are protected by voltage limits and an overcurrent 'crowbar'. A typical configuration of a DFIG based wind turbine is shown schematically _{i}_{n} Fig. 2. The converter system enables variable speed operation of the wind turbine by decoupling the power system electrical frequency and the rotor mechanical frequency. One control scheme, implemented by a number of manufacturers, and modelled in this paper, is to use converter C1 to provide speed control together with terminal voltage and power factor (PF) control for the overall system. Papers have presented converter C2 as a shunconnected reactive power compensator, which is also used to charge the interconnect ing DC bus [6, 912]. For the control strategy modelled in
Fig. 2
344
&sic
mnfqurufionof DFIG itid turblne
this paper, converter C2 is used to maintain the DC bus voltage and provide a path for rotor power to and from the AC system at a unity power factor. Dependent upon the rotational speed of the DFIG,
power can be delivered to the grid through the stator, and the rotor, while the rotor can also absorb power. If the
DFIG runs at a
subsynchronous speed, the rotor absotbs
power and a fraction of the stator power enters the rotor circuits. In contrast, if the DFIG runs at supersynchronous
speeds, the rotor produces power and power is delivered to
the grid via the stator and rotor circuits [9]. In the model the
generated active power was calculated by:
where P, is the power delivered by the stator, P, is the power to the rotor, Pg is the total power generated and delivered to the grid.
3 Model implementation
3.1 Development of the asynchronous
machine model
The general procedure followed to create the electrical model was similar for both the FSIG and the DFIG. As the
model is primarily to be used for wind turbine applications,
a generator convention was implemented. The stator
currents are positive when flowing towards the network and real power and reactive power are positive when fed into the grid, as shown in Figs. _{1} and 2. The equations describing an asynchronous machine in terms of phase variables were derived to develop the model with all rotor variables referred to the stator. The equations were then transformed into a direct (4 and quadrature (4) axis reference frame with axes rotating at synchronous speed (ws = 2n,fr) using standard transformations [1>14]. When deriving the model, the qaxis was assumed to _{b}_{e} _{9}_{0}_{"} ahead
of the daxis in the direction of rotation and the daxis was
chosen such that it coincides with the maximum of the stator flux [791. Therefore, vq. equals the terminalv,oltage and vd, is equal to zero. Using the defined reference frame, the following per unit fourthorder asynchronous model was derived
Stator voltages:
em = R
vqs = R,
x
Idr 
as x 2,
+ 5i*
x ,i +O,?x Id$ +$iqS I
Rotor voltages:

= R, x Id 3 x W,X Tu.+$Id
I xi, +s x 0,x A+ +&Xc
~
(2)
(3)
The flux linkages in these equations were calculated from:
~~
^{Z}^{d}^{r} ^{=} ^{}^{i}^{,} ^{x} ^{T}^{h} ^{+} ^{i}^{,} ^{x} 
= L, 
x 
id  L, 
x i* 
= E,, 
x 
Zqr  1, x s,? 
(41
For representation of the induction machine in power system stability studies, the fourthorder model was simplified to a secondorder model. This corresponds to
ignoring the DC component in the stator transient current, permitting representation of only fundamental frequency components. By substitution of the flux linkage equations
to eliminate the rotor currents, _{a} relationship for the stator
IEE ProcGener. Trmm. DkIrib., Vol. 150. No. 3, Mop 2W3
and rotor voltages in terms of a voltage behind a transient reactance was obtained. The stator and rotor voltages were derived in the following per unit form:
~ 
ig +2'x Tqs+ ed 

vdr = R, 
x 

uqs = R, 
x 
i, X' x 
& + eq 
(5)
where the components of the voltage behind the transient reactance were defined as:
w,L,
ed = _
~
L,
and
e,

W,L, 
= id,
L,
(7)
The reduced order model transient reactances were defined as:
_{.}
x = w,L,,= x,+ x,
The transient opencircuit time constant was defined as:
when simulating the electrical model and observing the voltages and currents within the machine, it is important to notice that the time derivative in (6) is a per unit quantity. If the, output variables of the simulated model are required in rea! time, that is, the time in seconds, the equations should be multiplied through by the base angular frequency,
u>horp = 2rrf&.<
Equation (5) and (6) provide a second order model suitable for the FSlG or DFIG. For a FSIG (squirrel cage), the rotor windings are shortcircuited and therefore the rotor voltages (Gqr and Ed,) will be wro. The secondorder voltage behind a transient reactance asynchronous machine model equivalent circuit, shown in Fig. _{3}_{,} can be used to represent this [14]. This is not the case for the DFIG (wound rotor), as in a practical implementation a voltage potential difference is created via the slip rings. For modelling purposes, this can be represented by an injected rotor voltiige. Therefore, (5) and (6) represent a general second order asynchronous machine model where the short
Fig. 3
model
Asynchronour
machine
.secondorder
equiwlent
IEE Pruc.Giner. Tranm. Dimib
Vol. 180. No. 3, May 2003
circuit
circuited rotor is a special case. To obtain the complete dynamic model of the induction generator, (5) and (6) were combined with the rotor swing equation _{[}_{1}_{4}_{]}_{:}
3.2 Development of DFIG converters and
control scheme model
For the model, it was assumed that the converters are ideal and that the DC link voltage between the converters is constant. This decouples converter C2 from Cl. The speed, terminal voltage and power factor control of the DFIG model was implemented through converter Cl. A voltage source injecting the required rotor voltage was implemented to represent the operation ofconverter C1 in the model. The per unit rotor voltage components for the control model were expressed by substitution of the rotor fluxes in current component form into (3), as:
The rotor speed was controlled by uqr, with U,+ being used for the terminal voltage and power Factor control. The dq decoupled control procedure described in [IS] was imple mented in the model to decouple the rotor current components.
3.2.1 Modelled power extraction/speed control
strategy: A typical wind turbine characteristic with the optimal power extractionspeed curve plotted to intersect the C,,,,, points for each wind speed is illustrated in Fig. 4. If the control strategy is applied to maintain Po,,,since, the rotor speed w, is proportional to the wind speed U, the
d and w:, and the corresponding
generator torque with U* and
characteristic for the model can be defined for optimal torque by [IO]:
(13)
Top = %pw?
wf [16]. The optimal
power increases with
Fig.4
generator speed
Maximum power ertruction cuntrd struteqy cume
_{3}_{4}_{5}
The complete generator torquespeed characteristic, which was applied for the controller model, is shown in Fig. 5. For optimal power extraction, the torque/speed _{C}_{U}_{N}_{C} was characterised by (13). This is between points B and C. Within this operating range, during lowmedium wind speeds, the maximum possible energy is obtained from the turbine. Owing to power converter ratings, it is not practicable to maintain optimum power extraction from cutin up to the rated speed. Therefore, for very low wind speeds the model operates at almost constant rotational speed (AB). Rotational speed is also limited by aero dynamic noise constraint [16], at which point the controller allows the torque to increase, at essentially constant speed, until rated torque (CD). If the wind speed further increases to exceed the turbine torque rating. the control objective follows &E, where the electromagnetic torque is constant. When the system reaches point E, pitch regulation takes over from the torque control to limit aerodynamic input power. For very high wind speeds, the pitch control will regulate input power until the wind speed shutdown limit is reached. Pitch regulation was not included in the developed model.
Fig. 5
cutin Speed
os
generator speed
Shutdown speed
Torquespeed cliur.acteristic/or turbine control stmrrg~
3.2.2 Electromagnetic
torque/speed
control
scheme: The torquespeed characteristic (Fig. 5) was used as a dynamic reference for generator torque demand as a function or measured generator speed. The speed control scheme operates by modifying the electromechanical torque of the generator to respond to variations in the rotor speed. Given a rotor speed measurement, the torquespeed characteristic was used to obtain a reference torque T,, which after some manipulation was imposed upon the DFIG rotor. This control methodology is known as currentmode control [8]. Maintaining the reference frame
for the machine model, with
where 1 Vsl is the magnitude of the terminal voltage, the per
unit electromagnetic torque was derived as [I:
i.,
= 0 and
= 1K.~/W.~,
The primary stage of the speed control scheme was developed using (14) to calculate a reference value of iq,m,, as shown in Fig. 6. The actual machine current, &, was calculated from (4) with &=O, as shown in (15). Comparing the reference variable to the actual machine current, an error signal
346
Fig. 6
I
WJ
Speed control scheme: primury stuge
required for controllin& the speed of the machine was obtained.
Igr
=
(15)
Although iqr imposes the effect of torque control. the converter CI is a controlled rotor voltage source. Hence, a secondary stage of the speed controller was implemented using the current error resulting from the reference torque T,. To determine the required rotor voltage, a standard PI controller and the summation of the direct rotor current compensation term, derived from _{(}_{1}_{I}_{)}_{,} was implemented. This control scheme is shown in Fig. 7.
Fig. 7
Speed control sclwe: secondury stage
3.2.3 Terminal voltage and power factor (PFI
control scheme: For the developed controller model, a strategy of terminal voltage and _{P}_{F} control using converter Cl was also applied. The controller was developed by maintaining the reference frame with the stator resistance neglected, and considering the total grid (stator) side reactive power given by:
(16)
Hence, Qgrj,, was defined as the total per unit reactive power absorbed by the machine at the stator terminals. Consider ing (16) with Udr assumed to he zero, & was obtained from (4). The stator voltage Uqq was obtained from (2) with the stator resistance and the stator transients neglected, there fore uyr = asx lb. Also, as >" = 0, then U,,$ = 1v.1and the following relationship was obtained between the total grid side reactive power and the rotor current &:
~
Qs = Qg"d
= U,,$
X ?,i7~
U*
X T,,,
The rotor current component Tb was subdivided into a
generator magnetising component
for controlling reactive power flow (or terminal voltage) with the connecting network idr4. The total reactive power was also divided into em<,and e,,,. Equation (17) was then
and a component
I€€
Pm.G".
Tm"
Dislrib., Vu/. 150, hb 3,May 2W3
expressed in the following form:
To compensate for the noload reactive power absorbed by
the machine, value of Tdr,,
&,must equate to zero. To obtain this, the was controlled to equal:
Delivering more, or less, reactive power to the grid will increase, or decrease, the terminal voltage. If the terminal voltage is too low or too high, when compared to a required reference value then ?+, should be adjusted appropriately. The primary stage of the terminal voltage and PF control scheme was developed such that a reference value, _{7}_{*}_{w}_{,} was obtained by the summation of the required control variables, 7+fl +&, and compared to the previous value of ?+,*,providing an error control signal to an integral controller, as shown in Fig. 8. The 7d,m,variabk represents the noload magnetising current and the required compo nent for controlling reactive power flow (or terminal voltage). The actual machine direct axis rotor current was calculated from (20).
Fig. 8
Terminal tioltuye und PF control scheme: prirnury stage
The secondary stage of the controller was again constructed using the primary stage reference current but now compared to the direct component of measured rotor current. As with the speed control model, the machine rotor current was controlled by the injection of a rotor voltage. The required rotor voltage was obtained from a PI controller and the summation of the quadrature rotor current compensation term, derived from (12). This control scheme is shown in Fig. 9.
_{F}_{i}_{g}_{.} _{9}
idi
TemTinal oulluge and PF control scheme: secondary sroge
3.3 Protection of the DFlG system
Faults in the power system, machine or converter devices may result in high voltages or currents that damage the
IEE Proc.Gpnrr: Trmsrn. DMnb., Vol. I50 ~VO.3. May 2073
equipment. Suitable protection is therefore provided in wind turbine systems to minimise the effects of possible abnormal operating conditions. The controller model of the DFlG system included rotor voltage and current limits. The
limits set depend on the MW capacity of the machine and the rating of the converters. A voltage limit of 750 V_on the AC side of converter Cl, was implemented in the model. The converter is protected against overcurrent on the rotor circuits by a ‘crowbar’, as shown in Fig. 2. To represent the operation of the crowbar the model deactivates the converters upon the detection of rotor current magnitude above the current protection limit. A rotor current limit of = 1.5~~was implemented in the model. By deactivating the converters, the wound rotor was
shortcircuited, IK.1 = 0 p
4 Simulation results
4.1 Simulation of DFIG control
A 4pole 2 MW doublyfed induction wind turbine and control model was simulated. The control strategy pre sented in Section 3.2 was applied for the model. For observation of the doublyfed system control, the machine terminal bus was modelled as an infinite source busbar. Results are in per unit with the base values, machine and speed control parameters given in the Appendix Section 8. The dynamic performance of the DFIG system was modelled by applying mechanical torque to the generator rotor, representative of step changes in wind velocity. The operation of the system in the optimal power extraction region (EC) was modelled for a step decrease (T,.= 0.3~~ at f= 2.0s) and increase (T,,,=O.8pu at 1=60.0s) in mechanical applied torque. This models the speed control for subsynchronous and supersynchronous operation. The rotor speed and controlled rotor voltages are given in Figs. IO and 11. This illustrates that the large lumped turbine. shaft and generator rotor inertia dominates the dynamic control performance _{o}_{f} the DFIG in current mode speed control. The steadystate optimal operating point for rotor speed and power extraction was obtained satisfiicto rily by the model, with the control variables smoothly approaching the optimal values. The operation of the system around the cutin speed and beyond the speed limit of the generator (i.e. between points AB and CD). was investigated by applying load torque’s
1.3 1
1.2
2
U
1.1
E
b
I e 0.9
1.0
0.8
0.7 subsychronousoperation
0
Fig. 10
10
20
30
40
50
lime, s
60
70
80
90
100
Rotor speed dwunrir conrrol, operuling in region EC
347
0.15
0.101
0.25
0 
10 
20 
30 
40 
50 
EO 
70 
EO 
90 
100 
lime. s 
Fig. 11
Conrrulled mor wlruge, operating in region BC
rotorspeed limit (1800 revimin)
0.5
0
Fig. 12
'
10
'
20
'
30
'
40
50
time, s
'
EO
70
'
EO
'
90
J
100
Rotor speed operutiq up lo control model .speed hiis
of T,,,=0.2pu at /=2.0s and T,,=l.Opu at t=60.0s, respectively. Fig. 12 shows the rotor speed controlled to operate beyond the limits of the optimum characteristic. The rotor voltages for this simulation, given in Fig. 13, are still within their operating limits, due to the modelled torque/speed control characteristic. The electromagnetic torque, given in Fig. 14, illustrates the full range of the
speed control. As the rotor speed approaches its upper limit, the control system enables the rated value of power to be
extracted through the stator (i.e. T,=
the speed of operation and hence the power generated through the rotor circuits. This can be observed in Fig. IS where the total active power increases with stator active power but the active power generated through the rotor
circuits, at supersynchronous speeds above the _{s}_{p}_{e}_{e}_{d} limit,
is maintained constant at a maximum of 0.2~~.
The PF control operation of the model was observed from the rotor currents and the reactive power at the machine terminals, as shown in Fig. 16. With the PF control disabled and an applied mechanical torque of T,,,= l.Opu, the model was simulated to a steady state operating point. At /= 30.0s the PF control was activated and id was controlled to provide both the magnetisation
current (noload reactive power) and leakage current (reactive power absorbed due to generation). This provides
a PF operation of unity as illustrated by the zero reactive power absorbed by the system.
I.Opu), whilst limiting
_{3}_{4}_{8}
0.3
fqaxis rotor voltage
daxis mor voltage
04' 
" 
" 
" 
' 
" 
' 

0 
10 
20 
30 
40 
50 
EO 
70 
80 
90 
100 
Fig. 13
01
0
Fig. 14
1.4
1.2
1.o
0.2
0
Fig. 15
time. 5
Rotor vo/roge.soperating up to control modd speed limrts
'
10
"
20
30
"
40
50
time. s
"
60
70
''
EO
90
Elecrromugneric torque conrrol
10
20
30
total active power
40
50
time. s
60
70
EO
Sprem acrm power output
90
8
100
I
100
4.2 Operation of protection circuits
The operation of rotor side converter voltage limit,
described in Section 3.3, was investigated by the application
(rn= 0.1 pu at f= 2.0 s). The
of a very low wind speed
controller was modified to allow the speed control to operate up to the imposed rotor voltage limits, and so the operation of the converter protection voltage limits could be
seen. Also, the operation of the overcurrent 'crowbar'
IEE Pro.~GenerTromrn. DrFrrih
Vol. 150. No. 3, May ZW3
05 
~ 

04 
 
0.2 
03 
 

0.1 

I 
29.8
29.9
30.0
30.1
30.2
time (5)
30.3
Fig. 16
Reactiw power and rotor current &),
30.4
30.5
with PF control
_{F}_{i}_{g}_{.} _{1}_{8}
I
daxis rotor voltage
\
time. s
crowbar protection
I
Voltage limits and crowbar operutiun on rotor vo1taye.r
protection was investigated by applying a mechanical torque of T,, = 0.8 pu at I = 25.0s and then reducing the
I Vsl = 0 pu at t = 40.0 s for t = I50 ms,
terminal voltage to
to model a threephase fault. The controlled rotor speed and rotor voltages, Figs. 17 and 18, respectively, show the DFIG protection in operation. The crowbar protection _{i}_{n}
turbances, a twobus double circuit power system was modelled. The fixed speed and doublyfed induction wind turbines, connected to the point of common coupling (PCC) busbar of the power system model, were represented as shown in Fig. 19. An infinite source busbar was used to represent a very large power system. Network parameters representing wind turbines con nected to strong and weak power systems were used for the power system model. At the point of connection (B,,,), short circuit levels (SCL) of 40MVA and I6MVA were modelled. An X/R ratio of 5 was selected to represent a distribution network. The connection transformer was rated at 2.5MVA with a leakage reactance of 5.9%. The PF correction capacitor used for the FSIG model was rated at 30% of the wind turbine MW capacity. The developed asynchronous machine model for the FSIG and DFIG was used for a 2MW wind turbine with the parameters _{o}_{f} the Appendix Section 8. All simulations were conducted with
f the generators operating at rated output power. A fixed speed induction wind turbine was simulated with
with a clearance
time of 150ms. at point A on the power system. Network parameters representing turbine connection to a strong distribution network were _{u}_{s}_{e}_{d} (40MVA at _{B}_{,}_{d}_{.} Fig. 20 shows that, postfault, the generator and the network maintain stability after the terminal voltage variations. The stability of the turbine generator connected to a weak power system was investigated by reducing to 16MVA. For normal system conditions, the operation of the wind turbine
is satisfactory. However. during the network fault, due to the rotor being accelerated by the prime mover, the reactive power absorbed by the induction generator increases. With
a significant voltage drop at the machine terminals, the
45
rotor continues to overspeed and, postfault, the busbar voltage fails to recover, as shown in Fig. 21. Maintaining the power system model parameters for a weak network connection, the stability of the DFIG wind turbine was investigated. With converter _{C}_{1} modelled to control speed and PF operation, a threephase fault was applied. The simulated DFIG rotor speed and network voltage at the PCC busbar are given in Fig. 22. The results indicate the potential stability improvementswith the DFIG system connected to a weak power compared to the FSIG. The performance of the asynchronous generator wind turbines during large duration network voltage sags on the power system was also modelled For these investigations,
the model, which deactivates the rotor side converter and
shortcircuits the rotor windings, can be fully
I = 40.0 s, as the rotor voltages now equal zero. As the speed
observed after
controlhas been disabled, the rotor speed starts to increase resultint from the reduced terminal voltage, similar to a fixed speed machine during threephase terminal faults [2]. In a real wind turbine the rotor speed would be restricted by rotor overspeed limits. Mechanical rotor overspeed limits are not included in the developed model.
14
1.3
2 1.2
a
g
1.1
a 2 1.0
2 0.9
0.8
0.7
0
Fig. 17
a threephase balanced fault (I= 40.0 s),
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
time, s
Voltage limits and crowbar uperation on rutor speed
5 Comparison of FSIG and DFIG during power system disturbances
Previous investigations have shown the effect of network parameters, such as the short circuit level (SCL) and the X/R ratio, upon the stability of fixed speed asynchronous generator wind turbines [2].To observe the response of the FSIG and DFIG wind turbines to power system _{d}_{i}_{s}_{}
IEE ProrGmer Trm. DLrIrB., Vol. 150, No. 3, May 2W3
349
point of connection
point 01 connection
infinite busbar
infinite busbar
Fig. 19
Connection of
FSIG and DFIG iurbinw IO douhle circuit power sptem tmdel
$ 0.96
8
0.92
0.90
39.5 40.0
40.5
41.0
1.020
!1,0151b 1.010
b

0
1.010
t+
1
n

,
",,,,,1.015
1.005 1.005
39.5
39.5
40.0 40.0
40.5
40.5
41.0
41.0
1".
Fig. 20
network
Network fault
sruhility
I
of
41.5
41.5
41.5
s
FSIG
42.0
42.0
42.0
42.5
42.5
42.5
43.0
43.0
43.0
connected to .strong
39.5 
40.0 
40.5 
41.0 
41.5 
42.0 
42.5 
43.0 

1.20 
_{r} 

1.15 

5 
1.05 

1.00 

39.5 
40.0 
40.5 
41.0 
41.5 
42.0 
42.5 
43.0 

time. s 

Fig. 21 
Network fuulr 
stability of 
FSIG connected 
to 
weuk 
nefin~~rk
the infinite bus voltage was reduced to 0.6pu for S00ms at 1=40.0s. The DFIG converter C1 was modelled to include the voltage control facility as presented in Section 3.2~).For
350
' 

0.6 

39.5 
40.0 
40.5 
41.0 
41.5 
42.0 
42.5 
43.0 

1.210 

1.195 

39.5 
40.0 
40.5 
41.0 
41.5 
42.0 
42.5 
43.0 

time. s 

Fig. 22 _{N}_{r}_{t}_{w}_{r}_{k} fiiulr stability of DFIG connected 
IO 
wek 
itetwork
a FSIG connected to a weak power system, voltage sags at the terminal busbar may result in voltage instability, as shown in Fig. 23. The response of the DFIG model (given in Fig. 24) shows that implementing the voltage controller can result in maintaining the PCC busbar voltage througb out the voltage sag, thereby offering possible stability improvements. Preliminary investigations of the steadystate stability margins of the DFIG have shown that PF and speed control can assist in maintaining stability during power system disturbances [17]. The steadystate modelling of the FSIG discussed in [2] shows the effect of the voltage variation on the torqueslip characteristic, A reduction in terminal voltage results in a reduced peak pullout torque. If the applied generating torque is maintained, throughout the reduced voltage, the rotor speed will increase. This may lead to machine instability when the terminal voltage and the pullout torque recovers if the rotor has accelerated past the peak torque. The terminal voltage support, provided by the PFC capacitors in FSIG wind turbines, is reduced with the square of the voltage. In contrast, the DFIG reduces terminal voltage variations during power system disturbances by implementing a PF control strategy independent of the terminal voltage. _{T}_{h}_{i}_{s} is provided that
IEE ProcGetter. Trumrvn Dntrih
Vol. 150, No. 3. Muy 2oU3
1.o 
3'0I 

0.9 

0.8 

a 

ai 

^{0}^{'} 0.7 P 
1.5 

Y 

CI 

0.6 

0.5 
0.5 t 

0.4 1 
01" 
"""'~ 

39.5 
40.0 
40.5 
41.0 
41.5 
42.0 
42.5 
43.0 
39.8 39.9 
40.0 40.1 40.2 40.3 40.4 40.5 40.6 40.7 40.8 
time. s
Fig. 23 
Revponse oJFSIG ro mlluge .sug.snhen connecred IO weak 
network 
1.151
_{F}_{i}_{g}_{.} _{2}_{5}
5.0
1
4.04.5t
time. s
FSIG mmnt dwing remorefiult UI t=40.040.15~
n
0.90 t
0.850.80L
0.5
1
39.5
40.0
40.5
41.0
41.5
time. s
42.0
42.5
43.0
Fig. 24
nelwork
Revpiinre of DFIG to uoltage suqs when connected to weuk
39.8 39.9 40.0 40.1 40.2 40.3 40.4 40.5 40.6 40.7 40.8
Fig. 26
40. I5 s
lime, s
DFIG srami cunw11 during remore fizulr ut I = 40.0
the DC capacitor is large enough to hold its voltage and converter C2 continues to operate correctly. Maintain ing the peak torque reduces the risk of instability as the rotor accelerates but does not go beyond the pullout torque. Controlling7,,, to limit the rotor speed in the DFIG model also assists in postfault stability as the rotor acceleration during the network fault is reduced compared to the FSIG. As the generating capacity of wind farms increases, it will become necessary to maintain connection of the
wind
disturbances.
Simulations of the DFIG wind turbine model have shown that improvements in turbine and network stability can be obtained, compared to the _{F}_{S}_{I}_{G} during network threephase faults. However, the converter's voltage and current ratings, together with the size of the DC capacitor, are critical to ensure good performance during power system disturbances. To investigate the current ratings required,
the crowbar protection overcurrent limit was set for a transient rating of 300% of the normal rated rotor current. Figs. 25 and 26 show the stator currents of the FSIG and DFIG, respectively. for a power system disturbance on a weak power system. Fig. 26 shows the stator current if the machine and network voltage stability is to be improved by the DFlG crowbar set at a high value.
turbines
throughout
power
system
6
Conclusions
The modelling and control strategies of fixed speed and doublyfed asynchronous generator wind turbines have been described and their performance compared during power system disturbances. A generalised per unit machine model was derived for the FSIG and DFIG wind turbines. Both fixed speed (squirrel cage) and doublyfed (wound rotor) machine constructions are represented by one set of equations, differing only by the representation of rotor voltage (i.e. shortcircuited or injected voltage). The electrical machine model was reduced to second order for use in dynamic simulation tools capable of analysing very large power systems.The main assumptions were neglect of stator transients and saturation effects, together with a single rotor equivalent circuit. Modelling of the DFIG converters (Cl and C2) was discussed and a dq decoupled control procedure was implemented in the model. The control was implemented using a voltage source representation of converter CI to provide rotor voltage dq components. A typical industrial control scheme applied through the converters of the DFIG model was described. A full speed control strategy was described, and modelled, for an optimal power extraction scheme, as well as cutin and speed limits for the generator rotor. The quadrature component of injected rotor voltage
IEE ProcGener Tranr,n DLwih., Vol. 150, No. 3, May 2lN3
351
was used to control generator rotor speed. To replace the fixed capacitor, PF correction techniques used in FSlG wind turbines terminal voltage control schemes were implemented for the DFlG model using the direct component of rotor voltage. Simulation results of the normal operation of the complete DFIG model illustrate the control of the wind turbine in low, medium and high wind speeds. The DFIG converter system overvoltage and overcurrent protection was discussed and modelled in the form of rotor voltage and rotor current limits. Operation of the modelled voltage and current (crowbar) protection was shown by simulation results in response to low wind speed and threephase terminal Faults tripping the overcurrent
protection. A twobus double circuit power system was used to investigate the effect of threephase faults and voltage sags on the stability of the turbine generator and network bus voltages. The operation of 2 _{M}_{W} FSlG and DFIG wind turbines was compared for power system disturbances with strong and weak network connections. Observing the FSlG model connected to a weak power system, with either a threephase fault or voltage sag, the limitations of fixed capacitor power factor correction and un controlled acceleration of the generator rotor upon the machine and network voltage stability were identified. "be simulations illustrate that the speed and power factor control modelled within the DFIG system assists in improving stability when the turbine rating to power system short circuit ratio is low. However, the model assumes an ideal voltage source for converter CI, which provides continuous PF and speed control during terminal voltage variations. In a practical DFIG system the converter voltage and current ratings together with the size of the DC link capacitor are all critical to ensure good performance during network disturbances. Simulation of the DFIG model voltage control technique illustrates the improve ments in network busbar voltage profiles. Controlling the terminal voltage at wind farm installations may improve the steadystate stability limit of the network and increase the wind farm capacity that can be connected. Improved stability margins using DFIG wind turbines may prove invahabk if the continued operation of wind
farms
required.
power system conditions is
through
abnormal
7
References
1 JENKINS, N., and STRBAC. G.: 'Impact of embedded generation on distibution system voltage stability'. Presented at the IEE
3
352
lntemational &Terence
_,"
XthlMh
"
on ACDC power transmission, London
Nnv~mluri?MI
AKHMATOV, V
J.K and POULSEN. N.K.: 'A dynamic stability limit of gid connected induction eeneriltom'. Presented at the IASTED Intema
tional Conference ;n Power and energy systems, 191h22nd Septemkr 2M0, Marklla, Spin
KNUDSEN, H
NIELSEN. A.H
PEDERSEN.
New York, 1986)
'
KUNDUR. P.: 'Power system stability and control. (McCrawHill Inc, New York. 1994)
SCHAUDER. C
advanced static VAR compensators', IEE Pror C. Gener Trmm.
and MEHTA, H.: 'Vector analysis _{a}_{n}_{d} control of
Dirlrih. 1993. 140, (4), pp. ?YM06
BURTON, T., SHARPE. D., JENKINS, N., and BOSSANYI, E.:
'Wind energy handbook', (John Wiley, Chichester 2001) HOLDSWORTH, L and WU. X.: 'Dynamic and steadystate modelling of the doublyfed induction machine (DFIM) for wind turbine applications'. lntemal repon for Manchester Centre of Electncal Energy (MCEE) at UMIST, 2002
18 MUUADI, E., PIERCE, K., and MIGLIORE, P.: 'Softstall control for vanablespeed stall regulated wind turbine', J Wind fig. hd Aemfymmies,?WO, 85, (3). pp. 277291
8
Appendix
8.1 Model base values
Vhye= 690 V, She= 2 MW, whe = 2~fhe,
= 50 HZ
8.2 ZMW induction wind turbine model
parameters
Stator
Rotor resistance (R,):0.00549~~
Stator
Rotor reactance _{(}_{&}_{)}_{:}
Magnetising reactance _{(}_{X}_{m}_{)}_{:}_{3}_{.}_{9}_{5}_{2}_{7}_{9}_{~}_{~} Lumped inertia constant (H): 3.5s
resistance (RJ:0.00488 pu
reactance (Xis):0.09241 pu
0.09955pu
8.3 Control model parameters
Cutin speed = IOOOrev/min, speed limit= 1800rpm, shutdown speed = 2000rev/min. KPpt= 0.56, K~L= 0.05, &= 10.0, Kp3=5.0, Kn=32.5.
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