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ENERGY USE PATTERN IN RICE PROCESSING PLANTS

Article · January 2010

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Prog. Agrlc. 10 (2) : 309-311 (2010) Society for Recent Development In Agriculture

ENERGY USE PATTERN IN RICE PROCESSING PLANTS


S. K. Goyal, Samsher and Suresh Chandra
Deptt. of Agril. Engg. & Food Tech., SV Patel Univ. of Agri. & Tech., Meerut-250 110 (U.P.)

ABSTRACT
A study was conducted to find out energy use pattern In two commercial rice mills at Ralpur
District of Chhattisgarh. Raw rice mill consumed 25.83 kWh electrical energy and 5.23 kWh manual
energy whereas, the parboiled rice mill consumed 54.76 kWh electrical energy, 862.50 kWh thermal
energy and 6.66 kWh manual energy for production of one tonne raw and parboiled milled rice.
Parboiled rice mill consumed 38.95 per cent more energy (electrical and manual energy) for milling
of one tonne paddy as compared to raw rice mill.

Key words: Energy, rice processing, parboiled rice.

Energy plays a key role in the socio-economic develop- dryer, bucket elevators etc. The parboiled rice mill was
ment of any country. Developing countries have a primary. having a furnace for burning of husk to produce fuel gases
need to formulate strategies to achieve food self sufficiency which is subsequently used for production of steam.
which are energy efficient. India, with its typical socio- The study was designed in such a way that each unit
economic and not so sound energy situations, currently operation was studied closely and the energy input deter-
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engaged in planned agricultural development, wh~re the mined experimentally. The electrical energy consumption
planners need information on the input requirements.
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was measured with an electrical energy meter. The energy


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Moreover, the bulk of energy consumed in processing of meter was connected in the electric circuit of individual
agricultural products is often being substantial. Hence, it machines. The machines were operated for 30 minutes and
has become essential that effort should be made to con- than observations of electrical energy were taken. There-
serve energy by its efficient utilization in agricultural after, all machines were operated with load for 30 minutes.
production in general and processing of farm produce in In all the above calculations one man-hr was taken 0.544
particular. kWh and one woman-hr 0.436 (3).
The large amount of energy is required to process
Raw rice mill
paddy for production of rice. Looking to the present crisis
of energy and price hike of fuel, electricity and labour, it is The milling section consist of oscillating type paddy
important to know how much energy is used. In the literature cleaner, destoner, a rubber roll sheller, an indented tray
very limited energy requirement data is available on Indian type paddy separator, a cone polisher, a grader and seven
rice industry. bucket elevators. All machines are in series and intercon-
nected by chutes that are fed by bucket elevators. The
Rice contributes around 45 per cent of India's cereals operation of weighing and bagging are done manually.
production and is the main staple food for over 65 per cent
population. Rice cultivated in about 43 million ha with a Parboiled rice mill
total production of 86 million tonnes (4). Rice milling industry Milling section of parboiled rice mill consists of a paddy
is the largest agro-based industry in India. In 1999, India cleaner, a rubber roll sheller, a husk aspirator, a compart-
had approximately 1,38,898 rice milling units. The number ment type paddy separator, three cone polishers, an
of hullers was 91,287, shellers 4,538 huller-cum-shellers indented cylinder rice grader and nine bucket elevators.
8,385 and modern/modernized rice mill 34,688, respectively The operation of weighing and bagging are done manually
(5). also. It may be noted that parboiled rice mill required three
polishers instead of a single polisher required by raw rice
MATERIALS AND METHODS
mill. The parboiling treatment imparts greater hardness to
The study was, undertaken at two rice mills i. e. raw. I
the grains. Therefore, polishing of parboiled paddy requires
rice miU and paFboiled rice mill. Both rice mills employ higher attrition.
modem rice milling machineries and of same capacity (2
The specific energy consumption for milling of raw as
tIh). The parboiled rice mill employed steam boiler, LSU
310 Goyal et .,.

well as parboiled paddy was calculated by taking the ratio kWh at load. Electrical energy consumption at load was
of net energy consumption per unit time and the capacity more 8.50 kWh for 30 minutes operation of hot air blower
handled during that period (1) because the motor used to run the blower was 25 hp,
whereas sieve type grader was consumed less energy 0.53
- N.E.C
S ..
E C - GxT kWh for producing of one tonne parboiled rice. The hignest
specific electrical energy consumption was found by
wheere
polisher-II and 3.67 kWhIt, followed 3.62 kWh/t by polisher-
S. E. C. = specific energy consumption (kWhIt), H, 3.37 kWhit by polisher~1. The minimum specific electrical
N. E. C. = net energy consumption (kWh) energy consumption was 0.27 kWh/t by grader. Electrical
energy utilization index was highest 0.85 of paddy cleaner-II
C = capacity handled (tlh) and minimum was 0.26 of grader.
T = time (h) The total electrical energy consumption was 25.83
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION kWh and total manual energy consumption was 5.23 kWh
for production of one tonne raw rice and for parboiled rice
Raw rice mill 862.50 kWh thermal, 54.76 kWh electrical and 6.66 kWh
It is obvious from table 1 that the highest electrical manual energy was required. About 2/3rd of electrical energy
energy is required by polisher at both load and no load is consumed in generating mechanical power to operate
conditions. For this, friction between emery and grain is conveyers, pumps, compressors and other machineries.
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required, which obviously requires more energy as com- Other appliances as lighting, etc. normally consumed about
pared to the other machines. The electrical energy 15 per cent of total electricity (2). Various types of energy
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consumption at load was recorded as 10.92 kWh for required in raw and parboiled rice mill are given in table
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polisher, followed by 3.55 kWh for rubber roll sheller and 3.


'3.42 kWh for seven elevators. The specific electric energy Raw rice mill was consumed 25.83 kWh electrical
consumption of polisher was found to be the highest as energy, 5.23 kWh manual energy and 31.06 kWh total
5.07 kWh/t followed by 1.92 kWh/t of rubber roll sheller, energy for production of one tonne raw rice. Parboiled rice
1.63 kWh/t of cleaner whereas minimum was 0~36 kWhit mill was consumed 54.76 kWh electrical energy, 862.50
of grader. Electrical energy utilization index was 0.86 of kWh thermal energy, 6.66 kWh manual energy and 923.92
destoner which was highest and minimum was 0.38 of bran kWh total energy for production of one tonne parboiled rice.
aspirator. Parboiled rice mill consumed 38.95 per cent more energy
Parboiled rice mill (electrical and manual energy) for milling of one tonne
paddy as compared to raw rice mill.
It is depicted from table 2 that the three stage polishers
consumed major amount of energy 6.94, 6.92 and 6.94

Table 1: Electrical energy consumption to produce one tonne milled raw rice.
---
E.E.C. at no load E.E.C. at load (kWh) N.E.E.C. (kWh) for
Machine Rated kW S.E.E.C. (kWh/t)
~-
,~addy cleaner 5.60 0.40 2.68 2.28
(kWh) for 30 minutes for 30 minutes 30 minutes
1.63
.. _-
iDestoner 2.24 0.15 1.09 0.94 0.68
~Ubber roll sheller 7.46 0.90 3.55 2.65 1.92
Husk blower 1.12 0.30 0.50 0.20 . ----------
>--
Paddy separator 1.12 0.15 0.57 0.42 0.39 ---" ..
Polisher 22.38 5.85 10.92 5.07 5.07 _...
--
Aspirator 1.12 0.30 0.50 0.20 0.69
Sieve with aspirator 2.24 0.25 1.05 0.80 1.07 ---------."-_._-.
Grader 1.12 0.30 0.55 0.25 0.36 . __ .,--_.

Elevators (seven) 1.12 0.3 x 7 = 2.1 3.42 1.32 0.22 ----_.,.


.!otal 10.70 24.83 14.13 _._-_._- ----_._-- -_._'.---.-._-,--.-_ ..
,-- ',

E.E.C.-Electrical energy consumption (kWh), N.E.E.C.-Net electrical energy consumption (kWh),


S.E.E.C-Specific electrical er.ergy consumption (kWhIt)
Energy Use Pattern in Rice Processing Piants 311

Table 2 : Electrical energy consumption to one tonne milled parboiled rice.


E.E.C. at no load E.E.C. at load
Machine Rated kW N.E.E.C.(kWh) for S.E.E.C. (kWhIt)
(kWh) for 30 (kWh) for 30 I
30 minutes
minutes minutes
-
Bucket 3.73 1.20 1.72 0.52 0.29
------ 1-- - -_. __._---- ..._ - - - - - j
Paddy cleaner 3.73 0.30 1.75 1.45 0.97 ,
Hot air blower 18.65 8.50 8.50 0.00 - ---j
Paddy cleaner i.73 0.25 1.69 1.44 ·-0'98------j
.._--..---1
Rubber roll sheller 7.46 0.85 3.59 2.74 1.96
Husk blower 1.12 0.30 0.53 0.23 - --
Paddy separator 3.73 0.35 1.69 1.34 1.22
Polisher-I 14.92 3.40 6.94 3.54 3.37
Polisher-II 14.92 3.30 6.92 3.62 3.62
Polisher-III 14.92 3.45 6.94 3.49 3.67
Aspirator (3 Nos.) 1.12 0.2 x3= 0.60 1.50 0.90 1.50
Grader (Sieve type) 1.12 0.25 0.52 0.27 - --
Grader 2.24 0.70 0.94 0.24 0.27
--
Elevators (11 Nos.) 1.12 0.3 x 11 = 3.30 5.5 2.20 0.28
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Totil 26.75 48.73 21.98


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E.E.C.-Electrical energy consumption (kWh), N.E.E.C.-Net electrical energy consumption (kWh),


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S.E.E.e-Specific electrical energy consumption (kWhIt)

-. Table 3 : Various types of energy consumption In raw rice mill and parboiled rice mill.

Operation 1-
Electrical (kWh)
~
- - - - - - . - -R-a-w- r-lc-e-m-II--' __---___j-----_____.-p-arb-o_lIe-d-rl-ce-m-II-1
Manual (kWh) Thermal (kWh) Electrical (kWh)
.-------J
Manual (kWh)

6.66

Bakhara, C.K., Dash, S.K. and Majumdar, G.C. 1991. Researchx digest on energy requirements in
Energy consumption in commercial rice mills : agricultural sector. PAU, Ludhiana, 159 p.
Selected case studies. Journal of Agricultural 4. Singh, B.N., Rathor, S.N. and Rao, R.N. 2001. Hybrid
Engineering Today, 15(1-6): 32-38. rice staple food to fight hunger to reduce poverty.
De, D. 2002. Energy audit in agro-processing industry. Journal of Indian Farming, 51 (8): 20-22.
Winter school on entrepreneurship development of 5. Singh, G. 2002. Women in agro-processing activities:
rural women through appropriate agro-processing Indian scenario. Course manual for winter school on
technologies. Nov. 12-Dec. 2, at CIAE, Bhopal, pp. entrepreneurship development of rural woman through
4.28-4.45. appropriates agro-processing technologies, Nov. 12
Mlttal, V.K.• Mittal, J.P. and Dhawan, K.C. 1985. -Dec. 2, CIAE, Bhopal, 1.2 p.

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