You are on page 1of 30

Education in the Philippines evolved from early settlers to the present.

Education in the
country is in great importance because it is the primary avenue for upward social and
economic mobility. Philippine educational system has a very deep history from the past in
which it has undergone several stage of development going to the present system of

Education from Ancient Early Filipinos

The education of pre-Spanish time in the Philippines was informal and unstructured. The
fathers taught their sons how to look for food and other means of livelihood. The mothers
taught their girls to do the household chores. This education basically prepared their
children to became good husband and wives.

Early Filipino ancestors valued education very much. Filipino men and women knows how to
read and write using their own native alphabet called alibata. The alibata was composed of
17 symbols representing the letters of the alphabet. Among these seventeen symbols were
three vowels and fourteen consonants.

Educational System During Spanish Period

The educational system of the Philippines during the Spanish times was formal. The
Religious congregations paved the way in establishing schools from the primary level to the
tertiary level of education. The schools focused on the Christian Doctrines. There was a
separate school for boys and girls. The wealthy Filipinos or the Ilustrados were
accommodated in the schools. Colonial education brought more non-beneficial effects to the

Educational Decree 1863

The first educational system for students in the country was established by virtue of the
Education Decree of 1863. In furtherance, the decree required the government to provide
school institutions for boys and girls in every town. As a consequence, the Spanish schools
started accepting Filipino students. It was during this time when the intellectual Filipinos
emerged. The Normal School was also established which gave men the opportunity to study
a three-year teacher education for the primary level.

* Education during the Spanish Regime and Its Colonial Effects to the Filipinos

Educational System During American Period

Like the Spaniards, the Americans brought many changes in their 45 years of reign in the
country. Until now, these American influences can still be seen in our lifestyle or way of life.

The Commonwealth provided free education in public schools all over the country, in
accordance with the 1935 constitution. Education also emphasized nationalism so the
students were taught about the life of the Filipino heroes. Vocational education and some
household activities like sewing, cooking, and farming were also given importance. Good
manners and discipline were also taught to the students. The institute of Private Education
was established in order to observe private schools. In 1941, the total number of students
studying in the 400 private schools in the country reached 10,000. There was also the
existence of "Adult Education" in order to give formal education even to adults.

* American government gave importance to Education

Changes in Education During the Japanese Occupation

The government made some changes in the system of education in February, 1942. These
changes were:

• To stop depending on western countries like the U.S., and Great Britain. Promote and
enrich the Filipino culture.
• To recognize that the Philippines is a part of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity
Sphere so that the Philippines and Japan will have good relations.
• To be aware of materialism to raise the morality of the Filipinos.
• To learn and adopt Nippongo and to stop using the English language.
• To spread elementary and vocational education.
• To develop love for work.

Educational System in the Present Period

Philippine education is patterned after the American system, with English as the medium of
instruction. Schools are classified into public (government) or private (non-government). The
general pattern of formal education follows four stages: Pre-primary level (nursery,
kindergarten and preparatory) offered in most private schools; six years of primary
education, followed by four years of secondary education.

College education usually takes four, sometimes five and in some cases as in medical and law
schools, as long as eight years. Graduate schooling is an additional two or more years.
Classes in Philippine schools start in June and end in March. Colleges and universities follow
the semestral calendar from June-October and November-March. There are a number of
foreign schools with study programs similar to those of the mother country. An overall
literacy rate was estimated at 95.9 percent for the total population in 2003, 96 % for males
and 95.8 % for females.
Ms. Alethea M. Florido
Garinger High School
Charlotte Mecklenburg Schools
I. Background Profile of the Philippines and the Filipino Culture
The Philippines is an archipelago of 7,107 islands. It stretches from the south of China to the
northern tip of Borneo. The country has over a hundred ethnic groups and a mixture of
foreign influences which have molded a unique Filipino culture. It is the third largest
English-speaking country in the world. The country is divided into three geographic areas:
Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. It has 14 regions, 73 provinces and 60 cities. The capital is
The Filipino is basically of Malay stock with a sprinkling of Chinese, American,
Spanish, and Arab blood. The Philippines has a population of 76.5 million as of May 2000,
and it is hard to distinguish accurately the lines between stocks. From a long history of
Western colonial rule, interspersed with the visits of merchants and traders, evolved a people
of a unique blend of east and west, both in appearance and culture.
The Filipino character is actually a little bit of all the cultures put together. The
bayanihan or spirit of kinship and camaraderie that Filipinos are famous for is said to be
taken from Malay forefathers. The close family relations are said to have been inherited from
the Chinese. The piousness comes from the Spaniards who introduced Christianity in the 16th
century. Hospitality is a common denominator in the Filipino character and this is what
distinguishes the Filipino. Filipinos are probably one of the few, if not the only, English-
proficient Oriental people today. Pilipino is the official national language, with English
considered as the country's unofficial one.
The Filipinos are divided geographically and culturally into regions, and each
regional group is recognizable by distinct traits and dialects - the sturdy and frugal llocanos
of the north, the industrious Tagalogs of the central plains, the carefree Visayans from the
central islands, and the colorful tribesmen and religious Moslems of Mindanao. Tribal
communities can be found scattered across the archipelago. The Philippines has more than
111 dialects spoken, owing to the subdivisions of these basic regional and cultural groups.
The country is marked by a true blend of cultures; truly in the Philippines, East meets
West. The background of the people is Indonesian and Malay. There are Chinese and Spanish
elements as well. The history of American rule and contact with merchants and traders
culminated in a unique blend of East and West, both in the appearance and culture of the
Filipinos, or people of the Philippines.
Hospitality, a trait displayed by every Filipino, makes these people legendary in
Southeast Asia. Seldom can you find such hospitable people who enjoy the company of their
Western visitors. Perhaps due to their long association with Spain, Filipinos are emotional
and passionate about life in a way that seems more Latin than Asian.
The Spaniards introduced Christianity (the Roman Catholic faith) and succeeded in
converting the overwhelming majority of Filipinos. At least 83% of the total population
belongs to the Roman Catholic faith.
The American occupation was responsible for teaching the Filipino people the
English language. The Philippines is currently the third-largest English speaking country in
the world.
II. History of Philippine Education
Filipinos have a deep regard for education, which they view as a primary avenue for
upward social and economic mobility. From the onset of United States colonial rule, with its
heavy emphasis on mass public education, Filipinos internalized the American ideal of a
democratic society in which individuals could get ahead through attainment of a good
education. Middle-class parents make tremendous sacrifices in order to provide secondary
and higher education for their children.

-education was informal and unstructured
-children were provided with vocational training and less academics by parents and houses of
tribal tutors


- creation of ministry of education
- teaching of Tagalog, Phil. History and Character Education


- DECS (Elementary and High School)
- CHED – Higher Education
- TESDA – Technology Based Education

- free public school system

- assignment of Filipino secretary for department of Instruction

-American teachers
- free and compulsory elementary
- English is the medium of instruction
- 600 teachers from USA taught in Philippines

- education was “religion-centered”
- education for the elite only
- Spanish is compulsory
- Boys and girls school are separated
- Inadequate, suppressed and controlled
III. Educational Profile
Philippine education is patterned after the American system, with English as the
medium of instruction. Schools are classified into public (government) or private (non-
The general pattern of formal education follows four stages: Pre-primary level
(nursery and kindergarten) offered in most private schools; six years of primary education,
followed by four years of secondary education. College education usually takes four,
sometimes five and in some cases as in medical and law schools, as long as eight years.
Graduate schooling is an additional two or more years.
Metro Manila has a high literacy rate of 96 percent with student population of 2,351,944.
Classes in Philippine schools start in June and end in March. Colleges and universities follow
the semestral calendar from June-October and November-March.
• intended to meet basic learning needs
• lays the foundation on which subsequent learning can be based
• encompasses early childhood, elementary, high school…


Subject Area 1). English 2). Science 3). Filipino 4). Edukasyong Pangtahanan at
Pangkabuhayan (Home Economics and Livelihood) 5). Mathematics Lesson Guides for
Mathematics - Mathemetics I - Mathematics II - Mathematics III - Mathematics IV -
Mathemetics V - Mathematics VI 6). Makabayan (PE, Health, Music and Social Studies)
7).Edukasyong Pagpapakatao (Character and Values Education) - PELC - Kapayapaan
(Peace) - PELC - Paggalang (Respect) - PELC - Pagmamahal 1 (Love) - PELC -
Pagmamahal (Disiplina) (Love and Discipline) - PELC - Pagmamalasakit sa Kapwa (Caring
for Others)
- PELC - Pananampalataya (Faith) - PELC - Pinagkukunang Yaman (Pagtitipid) (Frugality) -
PELC - Katotohanan (Honesty) - PELC - Pangkabuhayan (Love of Labor) - PELC -
Kalusugan (Value for Health) - PELC - Saloobin (Self Reflection and Principles)
BASIC SECONDARY EDUCATION, BSE (4 years) First year to Fourth year
• Stage of free formal education following the elementary level below college level
corresponding to four (4) years of high school
• Can be attained through alternative learning system

• To continue to promote the objectives of elementary education
• To discover and enhance the different aptitudes and interests of the student so as to
equip him with skills for productive endeavor and/or prepare for tertiary education

Republic Act No. 6655

• Free Public Secondary Education Act of 1988
• It is the policy of the State to provide free secondary education to all qualified citizens
and to promote quality education at all levels.

• Enrolment - 6,032,440
o Public 4,791,069 (79%)
o Private 1,241,371 (21%)
• Schools - 7,893
o Public 4,632 (59%)
o Private 3,261 (41%)

• Completion Rate
o From Grade 1 48.10%
o From Year 1 70.62%
• Teacher-Student Ratio 1:36
• Transition Rate
o Elem to secondary 100.02%
• Dropout Rate 8.50%
• Participation Rate 66.06%
• Gross Enrolment Rate (GER) 79.49%
• Conducts studies and formulates, develops and evaluates programs and educational
standards of secondary education
• Formulates guidelines to improve the general management of secondary schools
• Develops curricular designs, prepares instructional materials and prepares and evaluates
programs to upgrade the quality of the teaching and non-teaching staff at the
secondary level


• Filipino: 1 hour 4x a week, 1.2 unit credits
• English: 1 hour daily 1.5 unit credits
• Mathematics: 1 hour daily 1.5 unit credits
• Science: 1 hour 20 min daily, 2 unit credits
o Araling Panlipunan (Social Studies): 40 minutes daily, 1 unit credit
o Technology & Livelihood Education: 1 hour 4x a week, 1.2 unit credits
o Edukasyon sa Pagpapahalaga (Values Education): 1 hour, once a week (Years
1-3), 0.3 unit credit; 1 hour twice a week
o Music, Arts, Physical Education, Health (MAPEH): 1 hour 4 times a week
(Years 1-3), 1.2 unit credits; 1 hour, 5 times a week (+ CAT in Year IV), 1.5
unit credits

• ENGLISH for English, Science, Mathematics,Technology and Home Economics (TLE)
and Music, Arts, PE and Health (MAPEH)
• FILIPINO for Filipino, Araling Panlipunan (Social Studies) and Edukasyon sa
Pagpapahalaga (Values Education)

• First Day of Classes – First Monday of June
• Last Day of Classes – Last Friday of March
• Not less than 200 school days Monday through Friday
• Four Grading Periods of 10 weeks each
Curriculum Development Division
• Strong Republic Schools (SRS) Distance Learning Program
o Training of Teachers on the Use of Multimedia Materials and Proj EASE
• Project EASE
o Materials Development
o Teacher Training
• Intel Teach to the Future Program
o Enhancement.orientation workshops for Math Trainers (MTs)
o Cluster School Based in-service Training for Practicing Teachers (PTs)
o Orientation Workshop for School Heads
o Forum in Best Practices on the use of ICT in Teaching and Learning

• w Preparation of Prototype Lesson Plans
• w Finalization of Learning Competencies
• w Development of Learning Competencies for Special Program in Journalism
• w Revisiting the Curriculum
o Vocational Technical Education (Technology & Livelihood Ed)
o Science & Technology-Oriented Curriculum
• w BEC Congress

• Development of Learning Competencies and Instructional Materials
• Distribution of Materials
• Pilot Implementation

• Training of Teachers and School Heads
• Materials Development
• Population Quiz
• Search for Best Program Implementers
• PopEd Annual Convention

o Video Materials Development
• Citizenship Advancement
o Finalization of Modules
• Regional Science HS
o Testing, Teacher Training
o LCs and Materials Development


Special high schools for the academically gifted students in science and mathematics are
provided in different regions in the country. Students are scholars of the Department of
Science and Technology. This curriculum has more advance science subjects and research
• Morning Assembly
- Flag Ceremony in the morning before school starts
- Morning Exercise
- Prayer
- School/ City/Nationalistic Songs
• School Uniform (students and Teachers)
- haircut (4x4/3x4 for boys)
- polo shirt with school patch
- skirts with specified length (may differ per school)
• Identification Card
- all faculty, staff and students
- students will have ID number picture, signature, thumbmark, blood type,
emergency contact numbers and schedule at the back of ID
* picture and other information – prevent trespassing, for emergency and
parent contact
* Schedule of student at the back – prevent skipping

* Security guard in all gates ( one gate for entry and exit)
* Late Student– Flag Ceremony, clean grounds, pull weeds in garden
* Violators – Bring Parent, Suspension and Expulsion (cannot enroll in any division city
schools—student is out of school for a year or can enroll in the provinces)
* Transferee – student can move to another school only after the second quarter.
* Seniors cannot transfer schools
* No bell to signify start and end of classes so teachers need to dismiss classes 3 minutes
before time so students can move to the next class.
* Canteen/Cafeteria – Lunch of students is by class depending on schedule
* Feeding Program – Free Lunch for Selected students with low socio-economic status
* Command of responsibility in schools: Principal – department chairs - teachers
1. Classroom Routines
- Students clean classrooms (Cleaners of the day – students are divided
into groups assigned to water plants in classroom, erase the board,
arrange chairs and sweep the floor ( before and after the class) –
develop leadership and teamwork
- Stand and greet teachers, classmates and visitors with respect
- Common prayer to start the day
- Checking of Attendance: student secretary of the class will ask the
different group leaders to report attendance by group. Leaders will
check the members attendance per group. Secretary post the day’s
- Recall for correlation
- Motivation
- Unlocking of Word Difficulties
- Lesson Proper
- Values Integration
- Technology/Application/Integration to other subjects
- Daily Assessment ( 5 multiple choice question)

2. Classroom Rules
- raise hand and stand to answer a question when called
- form lines outside the classrooms and when walking on hallways
- bring parent for any violation or tardy
- excuse letters for absences

3. Practices
- Use of Objective boards
- Use of proficiency chart and attendance chart
- Assignment of Groups – cleaners,experiments, bulletin board
VI. Teaching Strategies
- Hands-on Activities
- SMILES (Simulated Multiple Intelligence Learning Environment Strategy)
- STS – Science Technology and Society
- Technology based
- Values Integration
- Cooperative Learning
- Learning Stations
- Predict, Observe, Explain
- Filipino Culture Based Learning
- Higher Order Thinking Skills Questioning
- Globalizing Classroom
- Computer Aided Instruction
- Modular Instruction
- Research Based Learning ( Introduction of research subjects first to fourth year)
- TOYS ( Use of toys in learning)
- Peer Tutoring
- Peer Assessment
Professional Development that works!
- Demonstration Lessons (best Practices by different selected teachers)
- Content Training (learning the content for each subject)
- Teaching Strategies ( Innovative teaching strategies)
VII. Filipino Teaching Practices that I tried and worked in the US:
- Peer tutoring
- Peer Assessment per group ( Teen-Rubrics!)
- Integrating Values in every lesson in Physics
- SMILES approach
- MI Profiling (determining my students multiple intelligence, dominant
intelligence and recessive intelligence)
- Teaching Filipino Culture for topics of relevance to lesson
- Technology Integration in Lesson (Inquiry on Technology: How things
- Forming line when moving from one classroom to another
- Using music to convey lesson
- Cooperative Learning and learning stations
- Use of TOYS and indigenous instruments to teach concepts
- Explanation of the value of raising hands for Filipinos to get students to
internalize raising hands to get permission
- Assignment of Leaders
- Learning Respectful words in Filipino

Values Integration in Lessons and SMILES approach

Measurement – Honesty in Business
Laws of Motion – Following rules
Inertia – Safety in Driving
Acceleration – Preventing Drag Racing
Free Fall – humility
Density and Specific Gravity – Honesty vs. value for Life and family
Projectile – Love of peace and not of war; respect for life
Circular Motion – Trust
Mirror – Self Reflection
Sound – Respect for others and places that need silence
Electricity- Conservation of Energy
Friction- Safety vs. Frugality
This study has been used by manila public schools in teaching different subjects in different
intelligences. This helps students enhance their dominant skills and improve their weaker
intelligences. Each lesson is designed to make the classroom a simulated learning
environment for different intelligence to learn at the same time. The result is higher
achievement, more engagement, less discipline problems, and improve attendance of
(see study on separate hand out)
VII. Conclusion
There are a lot of practices in the Philippine schools that have worked through the
years. The Philippines, being a third world country is one of those low economic countries
providing low budget for education. A classroom of 50 students may have only one textbook,
may lack chairs, lack technology equipment needed for learning. But the great deprivation of
a lot of things may have been one reason why Filipinos have very high regard for education.
One other reason is the competition in jobs requiring college graduates to get good jobs.
Every country may have their own practices which may work in their countries and may not
work for others. But the beauty of learning from each country’s efforts to educate your minds
and form young hearts in different methods from different cultural backgrounds is the
purpose of this session. It helps us to realize that education is fundamental and essential to
every person and every nation. It provides us a venue to know that what every country it is,
the school brings out the need for teachers who stay and make a difference not only in the
classroom, nor in his or her own country but … makes a difference in the world.
Upload a Document
Search Books, Presentations, Business, Academics...


• Books - Fiction
• Books - Non-fiction
• Health & Medicine
• Brochures/Catalogs
• Government Docs
• How-To Guides/Manuals
• Magazines/Newspapers
• Recipes/Menus
• School Work
• + all categories

• Featured
• Recent


• Authors
• Students
• Researchers
• Publishers
• Government & Nonprofits
• Businesses
• Musicians
• Artists & Designers
• Teachers
• + all categories

• Most Followed
• Popular

• imhegracia


o Home
o My Documents
o My Collections
o My Shelf
o View Public Profile
o Messages
o Notifications
o Settings
o Help
o Log Out

/ 7

Reading should be social! Post a message on your social networks to let others know
what you're reading. Select the sites below and start sharing.

Link account

Link account
Readcast this Document
edit preferences
Download this Document for Free

Redefining Philippine Education for the Filipino Youth:

a Term Paper on Philosophy of Philippine Education

Philippine Education has gone through an evolution year after year as product of the

challenges and circumstances that we are faced with. From the philosophy that education should

make us “civilized” so we can actually lead our own government during the American to

Commonwealth Period, our leaders have seen theimportance of education in nation building,

liberating our countrymen from

poverty and in promoting social justice. They too have recognized that education is everyone’s

rightand thus, it should be provided by the government.

Our history has been a witness to the continuous pursuit of our country to
improve the system of our educationin order to address the demands of the
time, and yet, again and again, we have seen the failure of the several reforms
caused by budget constraints, political sabotage, corruption and moral degradation
of the people handling educational institutions and agencies.

When we look deeper, theanswer to these problems is education itself. When a good

education is provided to the Filipino youth, we can produce future morally upright leaders who

do not entertain corruption and who can manage our resources well and thus, gain respect of the

people and fellow leaders...

My personal philosophy of Philippine Education can be best discussed in

the wordE-D-U-C-A-T-I-O-N.
PDF Creator - PDF4Free v2.0

2 | Redefining Philippine Education for the Filipino Youth:

a Term Paper on Philosophy of Philippine Educat ion
Elydia R. Reyes, July 4, 2010

Education shouldEmpower a Filipino Youth. Based on the concept of Pragmatism that

“what works is what is true,” as early as grade school age, Filipino youth should be provided

learning experiences that will help them understand the importance of acquiring skills in

accordance with their future careers. For example, instead of just asking the children to write for

their theme writing in English and Filipino subjects, teachers should explain that a good writing

skill is needed when you apply for a job someday and that in order for a business to prosper, there

should be a well-written business plan.

Education shouldDevelop the innate potentials of a Filipino Youth. God has given us

respective talents and potentials which should be further developed through education. As what

Existentialism promotes, an individual gives meaning to the world. A student who discovers that

he/she is good say in arts would better appreciate arts subject and its meaning. Because it is not

only through lecture that he/she learns about the subject matter, but it is through making of

outputs like painting, dancing, singing, acting, and the likes.

Education shouldUnite the nation and bridge the disparity of the social classes. In

relevance with Socialism, a man lives with his/her community and thus, education should provide

an avenue for a learner/student to impact change to the community he/she belongs. This is very

evident now with the Civic Welfare Training Service (CWTS) in college. But I guess, social

consciousness should start again in grade school where students should be taught about their roles

in the community.

PDF Creator - PDF4Free v2.0

3 | Redefining Philippine Education for the Filipino Youth:

a Term Paper on Philosophy of Philippine Educat ion
Elydia R. Reyes, July 4, 2010
For Science, instead of just discussing how plants grow, the children can have a field
trip in a nearby farm for active participation learning.

Education shouldCultivate moral values as education without character is meaningless.

There should be a constant integration of values across all subjects across all levels. Psychology

dictates us that each student has unique learning needs and thus, if a student is equipped with

moral values, he/she can show respect to fellow students which can allow better classroom

discussion and open learning among the students and even with the teacher. There should be a set
of moral values from the central office of the Department of Education which will be cascaded to

the different public schools nationwide. Each school should be guided with its own mission and

vision. There are several private schools which the Dep-Ed can benchmark with like that of

Southville International School and Colleges which is dedicated to equipping their learners with

the 5Cs-Competence, Character, Collaboration, Creativity and Commitment to Achieve. Another

school, University of Perpetual Help is guided with their mission of “Character building is Nation


Education shouldAbolish social injustice. As what mentioned earlier, education should

be made available not only to the rich but to everyone. This can be made possible despite of

budget deficiencies through the government and private sector partnership. Perhaps, the

government can mandate all private sectors to participate in the “Adopt a school Program” of the

Department of Education whereas a private company should adopt at least one school as part of

their corporate social responsibility project. We can also tap Mr. Ilac Daza who recently launched

the use of “bottles and other scraps” in building classrooms. Moreover, the role of mass

PDF Creator - PDF4Free v2.0

4 | Redefining Philippine Education for the Filipino Youth:

a Term Paper on Philosophy of Philippine Educat ion
Elydia R. Reyes, July 4, 2010

media especially the radio should be recognized. Radio dramas can help educate the Filipinos in

far flung provinces. We can use storytelling radio drama style to incorporate lessons in Science,

Math, English and other subjects.

Education shouldTeach lifelong skills. Realism dictates that reality is made up of natural

laws. And it cannot be denied that the reality is that everyday, the industry changes and without

us knowing, what might be the demand today will not be the demand tomorrow. Education

should therefore make a student aholistic

individual. He/she does not only know how to bake but also how to do electronic

works. He/she might not land a job right away after graduation, but he/she can start a business.

This is where elective classes in high school come in. I suggest that NSAT should be given at

least four to three months prior to students taking entrance exams in universities so the result can

guide them in a way. For Grade Six students, we can have a curriculum designed similar to the

R.A. No. 7686 (Dual Training System Act of 1994). We can have an apprentice type of program

whereas grade six students are provided opportunities to do practicum training of their “career

dreams.” Children are very much driven to fulfil their dreams and with proper guidance from the

educational institutions, they will be more inspired to pursue that dream. A student say who wants

to be a journalist can have an apprentice work every Saturday in Manila Bulletin, Philippine Star,

Inquirer or other newspapers. This program of course, requires partnership with the private


Education shouldInitiate change. Idealism tells us that a glass is half full and
not half empty. A student should be provided a training ground for leadership,
PDF Creator - PDF4Free v2.0

Redefining Philippine Education for the

Filipino Youth
Download this Document for FreePrintMobileCollectionsReport Document
This is a private document.

Info and Rating

describe philippine
philippine philosophy
youth problems
values education
(more tags)

Elydia R. Reyes
Ads by Google

Get Your MBA 100% Online

With A Distance Learning MBA From
London School Of Business & Finance

English preschool Rome

From pre-nursery through
kindergarten Education in Rome

Free Curriculum Trial

Try 3 weeks of an award-winning
homeschool curriculum for free!

Sign Up for an Ad-Free Scribd

• Remove all ads.

Never see ads on Scribd again.

No Thanks

Share & Embed

Related Documents



2 p.

3 p.

18 p.


2 p.
33 p.

48 p.


1 p.

38 p.

10 p.

10 p.

13 p.

2 p.


5 p.

15 p.
32 p.

More from this user



3 p.

2 p.

1 p.

2 p.

2 p.

1 p.


4 p.
7 p.

1 p.


2 p.

3 p.

3 p.
Recent Readcasters

Add a Comment


Upload a Document

• About
• Press
• Blog
• Partners
• Branded Reader
• Web Stuff
• Scribd Store

• Support
• Developers / API
• Jobs
• Terms - General
• Copyright
• Privacy

• Follow Us!

scribd. scribd. scribd. scribd. scribd. scribd. scribd. scribd.