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Aspen Flare System Analyzer Reference Manual

Aspen Flare System Analyzer

Reference Manual

Version: V8.2 May 2013

Copyright (c) 1981-2013 by Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.

Aspen Flare System Analyzer, Aspen Flarenet, Aspen Plus, Aspen HYSYS, Aspen Plus Dynamics, and the aspen leaf logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Aspen Technology, Inc., Burlington, MA. All other brand and product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies.

This document is intended as a guide to using AspenTech's software. This documentation contains AspenTech proprietary and confidential information and may not be disclosed, used, or copied without the prior consent of AspenTech or as set forth in the applicable license agreement. Users are solely responsible for the proper use of the software and the application of the results obtained.

Although AspenTech has tested the software and reviewed the documentation, the sole warranty for the software may be found in the applicable license agreement between AspenTech and the user. ASPENTECH MAKES NO WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, WITH RESPECT TO THIS DOCUMENTATION, ITS QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY, OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

Aspen Technology, Inc. 200 Wheeler Road Burlington, MA 01803-5501 USA Phone: (781) 221-6400 Toll free: (888) 996-7001 Website http://www.aspentech.com

Contents

1 Introduction

1

About this document

 

1

Audience

1

Related Documentation

1

Technical Support

1

2 Components

3

Overview

3

Selecting Components

4

Component

Types

4

Component

List

4

Matching the Name String

5

Removing Selected Components

5

Adding/Editing Components

6

Adding Hypothetical Component/Edit Component

6

Identification Tab

6

Critical Tab

7

Other Tab

9

Editing Database Components

9

Estimating Unknown Properties

10

Organizing the Component List

10

Changing the Components

11

Combining Components

11

Binary Interaction Parameters

11

3 Scenarios

15

Overview

15

Scenario Manager

16

Adding/Editing Scenarios

17

General Tab

18

Constraints Tab

18

Sources Tab

20

Estimates Tab

21

Scenario Tools

23

Adding Single Source Scenarios

23

4 Pipe Network

25

Overview

 

25

Pipe Manager

25

Ignoring/Restoring Pipes

26

Connections Tab

27

Dimensions Tab

29

Fittings Tab

30

Heat Transfer Tab

32

Methods Tab

33

Summary Tab

37

Multiple Editing

38

Pipe Class Editor

39

5 Nodes

41

Overview

41

Node Manager

41

Ignoring/Restoring Nodes

42

Connection Nodes

43

Connector

43

Flow Bleed

47

Horizontal Separator

50

Orifice Plate

56

Tee

60

Vertical Separator

65

Boundary Nodes

70

Control Valve

71

Relief Valve

79

Source Tools

92

Flare Tip

93

6 Calculations

98

Starting the Calculations

98

Efficient Modeling Techniques

99

Data Entry

99

Calculation Speed

100

Sizing Calculations

101

7 Databases

105

Overview

105

Database Features

106

Grid Controls

106

Maneuvering Through the Table

107

Printing

107

Adding/Deleting Data

107

Setting The Password

108

Pipe Schedule Database Editor

108

Fittings Database Editor

109

Component Database Editor

110

Importing Component Data

111

8 Automation

113

Overview

113

Objects

113

Object Hierarchy

114

The Aspen Flare System Analyzer Type Library

115

Object Browser

115

Automation Syntax

118

 

Examples: Accessing Aspen Flare System Analyzer Object Properties

120

Aspen Flare System Analyzer Object Reference

124

Application

124

Bleed

125

Bleeds

126

Component

126

Components

127

Connector

128

Connectors

128

ControlValve

129

ControlValves

130

HorizontalSeparator

131

HorizontalSeparators

131

Nodes

132

OrificePlate

132

OrificePlates

133

Pipe

133

Pipes

136

ReliefValve

137

ReliefValves

138

Scenario

139

Scenarios

139

Solver

140

Tee

141

Tees

142

Tip

142

Tips

143

VerticalSeparator

144

VerticalSeparators

145

Example – Automation In Visual Basic

145

Updating Automation Files From Previous Versions

152

9

Theoretical Basis

113

Pressure Drop

154

Pipe Pressure Drop Method

154

Fittings Pressure Change Methods

161

Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium

170

Compressible Gas

170

Vapor Pressure

170

Soave Redlich Kwong

171

Peng Robinson

172

Physical Properties

173

Vapor Density

173

Liquid Density

173

Vapor Viscosity

173

Liquid Viscosity

174

Liquid Phase Mixing Rules for Viscosity

175

Thermal Conductivity

176

Enthalpy

177

Noise

179

A

File Format

183

Import/Export Details

183

Process Descriptions

183

Definition File Formats

186

Recognized Objects and Items

191

Report File Formats

209

B References

215

C Glossary of Terms

217

Adiabatic Flow

217

Choked Flow

217

Critical Pressure

217

Critical Temperature

217

Dongle

217

Equivalent Length

217

Isothermal Flow

218

MABP

218

Mach Number

218

Node

218

Reduced Pressure

218

Reduced Temperature

218

Scenario

218

Schedule

219

Security Device

219

Source

219

Static Pressure

219

Tailpipe

219

Total Pressure

219

Velocity Pressure

219

Index

220

1 Introduction

This section provides information on the following topics:

About this Document

Audience

Related Documentation

Technical Support

About this document

The guide provides a detailed description of all the features and functionality within Aspen Flare System Analyzer (previously called Aspen FLARENET).

Audience

This guide is intended for process and process systems engineers.

Related Documentation

Title

Content

Aspen Flare System Analyzer Getting Started Guide

Tutorials covering the basic use of Aspen Flare System Analyzer

Technical Support

AspenTech customers with a valid license and software maintenance agreement can register to access the online AspenTech Support Center at:

This Web support site allows you to:

Access current product documentation

Search for tech tips, solutions and frequently asked questions (FAQs)

Search for and download application examples

Search for and download service packs and product updates

Submit and track technical issues

Send suggestions

Report product defects

Review lists of known deficiencies and defects

Registered users can also subscribe to our Technical Support e-Bulletins. These e-Bulletins are used to alert users to important technical support information such as:

Technical advisories

Product updates and releases

Customer support is also available by phone, fax, and email. The most up-to- date contact information is available at the AspenTech Support Center at http://support.aspentech.com.

2 Components

This section provides information on the following topics:

Overview

Selecting Components

Adding/Editing Components

Organizing the Component List

Binary Interaction Parameters

Overview

Data for all components that will be used in the simulation must be selected before the sources are defined. These components may be taken from the standard component library, or you may define your own components, known as hypothetical components.

You may select components from Component Manager, which can be accessed by clicking Components in the Build group on the Home tab of the Ribbon.

The Component Manager window will be displayed:

Fig 2.1 This view displays all of the Available Components and Selected Components , and

Fig 2.1

This view displays all of the Available Components and Selected Components, and provides various tools which you can use to add and edit database and hypothetical components.

Selecting Components

Component Types

You may filter the list of available components to include only those belonging to a specific family. All and None turn all of the filters on and off, respectively, Invert toggles the status of each check box individually. As an example, if only Hydrocarbons (HC) and Misc were selected, and you clicked Invert, then these two check boxes would be cleared, while the remaining check boxes would be selected.

Component List

Components can be chosen from the Available Components list, and added to the Selected Components list, using one of the following methods:

1 Arrow Keys – Use the arrow keys to move the highlight up or down one component.

2 PageUp/PageDown - Press these keyboard keys to advance an entire page forward or backward.

3

Home/End - Press Home to move to the start of the list and End to move to the end of the list.

4 Scroll Bar - Use the scroll bar to move up and down through the list.

Note: You can select multiple components by using the SHIFT or CTRL keys as you select components.

5 Enter the component name from keyboard - When you type a letter or number, you will move to the next component in the list which starts with that character. If you repeatedly enter the same character, you will cycle through all of the components which start with that character.

To add a component, you must first highlight it (by moving through the list until that component is highlighted) and click to select, then transfer it by double-clicking it or clicking Add.

Matching the Name String

The interpretation of your input is limited to the Component Types which are checked.

Another way to add components is through the Selection Filter feature. The Selection Filter box accepts keyboard input, and is used to locate the component(s) in the current list that best matches your input.

You may use wildcard characters as follows:

? - Represents a single character.

* - Represents a group of characters of undefined length.

Any filter string has an implied * character at the end.

Some examples are shown here:

Filter

Result

methan

methanol, methane, etc.

*anol

methanol, ethanol, propanol, etc.

?-propanol

1-propanol, 2-propanol

*ane

methane, ethane, propane, i-butane, etc.

As you are typing into the Selection Filter box, the component list is updated, matching what you have presently typed. You may not have to enter the complete name or formula before it appears in the component list.

Removing Selected Components

You can remove any component from the Selected Components list:

1 Highlight the component(s) you want to delete.

2 Click Remove.

You can select multiple components using Shift-click and Ctrl-click to remove them all. Once the components are removed from the list, any source compositions that used this component will be normalized.

Adding/Editing Components

To create a new component (hypothetical), click Hypothetical. Hypothetical components are set up in the same manner as database components. Previously defined hypothetical components can be changed by selecting them in the Selected Components list and clicking Edit.

Adding Hypothetical Component/Edit Component

Upon clicking either Hypothetical or Edit, the Component Editor opens up.

Identification Tab

The minimum data requirements for creating a component are specified here:

requirements for creating a component are specified here: Fig 2.2 Component Types: • Hydrocarbon (HC) •

Fig 2.2

Component Types:

Hydrocarbon (HC)

Miscellaneous (Misc)

Amine

Alcohol

Ketone

Aldehyde

Ester

Carboxylic Acid (Carbacid)

Halogen

Nitrile

Phenol

Ether

The following fields are available on this tab:

Input Field

Description

Name

An alphanumeric name for the component (e.g. - Hypo -1).

Type

The type of component (or family) can be selected from the list provided. There is a wide selection of families to choose from, which allows better estimation methods to be chosen for that component.

ID

The ID number is provided automatically for new components and cannot be edited.

Mol. Wt.

The molecular weight of the component.

NBP

The normal boiling point of the component.

Std. Density

The density of the component as liquid at 1 atm and 60 F.

Watson K

The Watson characterization factor.

Critical Tab

Critical properties are specified here.

Fig 2.3 The following fields are available on this tab: Input Field Description Critical Pres.

Fig 2.3

The following fields are available on this tab:

Input Field

Description

Critical Pres.

The critical pressure of the component. If the component represents more than a single real component, the pseudo critical pressure should be used.

Critical Temp.

The critical temperature of the component. If the component represents more than a single real component, the pseudo critical temperature should be used.

Critical Volume

The critical volume of the component. If the component represents more than a single real component, the pseudo critical volume should be used.

Char. Volume

The characteristic volume of the component. If the component represents more than a single real component, the pseudo characteristic volume should be used.

Acentric Factor

The acentric factor of the component.

Acent. Fact. (SRK)

The Soave-Redlich-Kwong acentric factor of the component (also called the COSTALD Acentricity).

Other Tab

Coefficients for the polynomial equations for the prediction of Ideal Gas thermodynamic properties and parameters for the viscosity calculations are specified here:

for the viscosity calculations are specified here: Fig 2.4 The following fields are available on this

Fig 2.4

The following fields are available on this tab:

Description

Input Field

Hi A, Hi B, Hi C, Hi D, Hi E, and Hi F

The coefficients for the ideal gas specific enthalpy equation:

H i

=

A

++ BT

CT

2

+

DT

3

+

ET

4

+

FT 5

Entropy Coef.

The coefficient for the entropy equation.

Viscosity A and Viscosity B

Viscosity coefficients used in the NBS Method (Ely and Hanley, 1983).

Editing Database Components

If you want to change the data for one of the database components, e.g. Methane, you will find that opening the Component Editor for this component will display read-only values that cannot be changed.

Fig 2.5 In order to update the data for a database component it must first

Fig 2.5

In order to update the data for a database component it must first be changed to a hypothetical component.

At the very minimum, you need to specify the Molecular Weight. However, it is a good practice to specify at least two of the following properties:

Molecular Weight (Mol. Wt.)

Normal Boiling Point (NBP)

Standard Density (Std. Density)

This is done by clicking Hypothetical in the Component Editor.

Estimating Unknown Properties

If any of the above data is unknown, click Estimate to fill-in the unknown properties. Supply as many properties as are known, so that the estimation can be as accurate as possible.

Organizing the Component List

The Selected Components list can be organized in the following different ways.

Changing the Components

You can switch the components in the Selected Components list with the ones in the Available Components list while maintaining the source mole fractions.

In Component Manager, select the components in both the Selected Components and the Available Components lists. Click Switch to switch the two components.

Combining Components

Multiple components can be combined and represented by a single component to reduce the number of components in the model.

To combine multiple components:

1 Select the components you want to combine by Ctrl-clicking them in the Selected Components list.

2 Click Combine.

The Component Combination window will be displayed, and ask you to select which basis should be used. The highlighted component in the box at the upper part of the window is the target component to combine your selected components into. Once the basis has been selected the combined components will update each source in the model by summing the composition of all of the combined components and assigning it to the target component.

Reducing the number of components in this way is useful since it can greatly speed the calculations. This is especially true where a model contains sources defined with a long list of hypothetical components.

For example, consider a model containing the hypothetical components BP200, BP225, BP250, BP275, BP300 boiling at 200°C, 225°C, 250°C, 275°C and 300°C respectively. Since these components are likely to stay in the liquid phase throughout the flare system, they may be combined into a single component, BP250 without significant loss of accuracy. As another example, in a purely gas phase flare system it is possible to combine isomers such as i- Butane and n-Butane into a single component n-Butane without compromising results.

Binary Interaction Parameters

Binary Interaction Coefficients, often known as K IJ ’s, are factors that are used in equations of state to better fit the interaction between pairs of components and hence improve the accuracy of VLE calculations. You are allowed to specify binary interaction parameters for the Peng Robinson and Soave Redlich Kwong VLE methods or to estimate them through the Binary Coeffs tab of the Component Manager as shown here.

Fig 2.6 To define binary interaction coefficients, first select either the Peng Robinson or Soave

Fig 2.6

To define binary interaction coefficients, first select either the Peng Robinson or Soave Redlich Kwong VLE method from the VLE Method list at the top of the window.

Note: Binary interaction coefficients are not used by either the Compressible Gas or Vapor Pressure VLE methods at present.

Individual binary interaction parameters are set by selecting the required entry in the matrix and typing in the new value.

Note: The matrix is symmetrical i.e. K JI is the same value as K JI , and updating an entry will also update the corresponding entry in the table. E.g. updating the entry in the Methane column, Propane row will also update the entry in the Propane column, Methane row.

Individual binary interaction parameters may be estimated by selecting the required entry in the matrix and clicking Estimate HC. The estimation method is based on the components' boiling point, standard liquid density and critical volume.

It is possible to set several binary interaction parameters at the same time either by Ctrl-clicking the two corners of a rectangular area in the matrix. The selected entries can then be estimated by clicking Estimate HC or set to 0.0 by clicking Zero HC-HC.

Clicking Reset All causes all interaction parameters to be set to their default values. Generally this is 0.0 for hydrocarbon components with non zero values being supplied only for common polar components.

If the Auto Estimate check box is selected, then the interaction parameters for new components are automatically estimated as they are added to the model.

3 Scenarios

This section provides information on the following topics:

Overview

Scenario Manager

Adding/Editing Scenarios

Scenario Tools

Overview

A scenario defines a set of source conditions (flows, compositions, pressures and temperatures) for the entire network. The design of a typical flare header system will be comprised of many scenarios for each of which the header system must have adequate hydraulic capacity. Typical scenarios might correspond to:

Plant wide power failure

Plant wide cooling medium or instrument air failure

Localized control valve failure

Localized fire or Depressurization

The scenario management allows you to simultaneously design and rate the header system for all of the possible relief scenarios.

Note: Although the major relief scenarios will normally constrain the size of the main headers, care should be taken in the evaluation of velocities in the individual relief valve tailpipes and sub headers. When looking at relief valves which might operate alone, lower back pressures in the main headers may lead to localized high velocities and consequently choked flow in the tail pipes.

As well as having different source conditions, each scenario can have unique design limitations that will be used either to size the pipes or to highlight problems when an existing flare system is being rated. For example, a Mach number limit of 0.30 might be applied for normal flaring compared to a Mach number limit of 0.50 or greater at the peak flows encountered during plant blowdown.

Scenario Manager

Scenarios can also be selected by selecting the scenario from the list in Run group on the Home tab of the Ribbon.

the list in Run group on the Home tab of the Ribbon. Fig 3.1 Scenarios are

Fig 3.1

Scenarios are managed via the Scenario Manager. This window allows you to add, edit or delete scenarios as well as to select the current scenario for which scenario specific data is displayed. All cases have at least one scenario.

To access the Scenario Manager

On the Home tab, in Build, click Scenarios.

Scenario Manager will be displayed:

Fig 3.2 The Scenario Manager displays all scenarios in the case, and indicates the current

Fig 3.2

The Scenario Manager displays all scenarios in the case, and indicates the current scenario. Several buttons are available:

Button

Description

Clone

Clones the highlighted scenario and adds a new scenario to the Scenarios list.

Edit

Edits the highlighted scenario.

Delete

Removes the currently highlighted scenario. There must always be at least one scenario in the case.

Current

To make a scenario the current one, highlight the appropriate scenario, and then click Current.

Close

Closes the Scenario Manager.

Adding/Editing Scenarios

Aspen Flare System Analyzer has no pre-programmed limits on the number of scenarios which can be defined within a single case.

To add a scenario, highlight a existing scenario in the Scenarios list, and then click Clone in the Scenario Manager.

To edit a scenario, highlight it, and then click Edit.

The Scenario Editor will be displayed.

General Tab

You may provide the following information on the General tab:

may provide the following information on the General tab: Fig 3.3 Data Description Name An alphanumeric

Fig 3.3

Data

Description

Name

An alphanumeric description of the scenario (e.g. Power Failure).

System Back Pres.

The system back pressure at the Flare Tip exit. This will normally be atmospheric pressure, but can be set to represent system design conditions at the exit point. If left empty, the value on the Calculation Options Editor will be used. The minimum value is 0.01 bar (absolute pressure).

Constraints Tab

This tab requires the following information for both headers and tailpipes.

Fig 3.4 Tailpipes are indicated by the Tailpipe field on the Connections box of the

Fig 3.4

Tailpipes are indicated by the Tailpipe field on the Connections box of the Pipe Editor. You may provide different design information (Mach Number, Noise at 1 m, Vapor Velocity, Liquid Velocity) for the Headers and Tailpipes. Any boxes may be left empty, in which case they will be ignored.

Data

Description

Mach Number

The maximum allowable Mach number for all pipe segments. Calculated values that exceed this number will be highlighted in the results.

Vapor Velocity

The maximum allowable vapor velocity. Calculated velocities that exceed this value will be indicated in the results.

Liquid Velocity

The maximum allowable liquid velocity. Calculated velocities that exceed this value will be indicated in the results.

Rho V2

The density times the velocity square. This value is normally used as a limiting factor to prevent erosion.

Noise

The maximum allowable sound pressure level at a distance of 1 meter for all pipe segments. This is an average value over the length of the pipe. Calculated values that exceed this specification will be highlighted in the results.

Data

Description

Check Vel.

Specify either Mixture Velocity or Phase Superficial Velocity is

Constraint

used while checking the velocity constraints for design in a scenario.

Note: Whilst rating the network you may define a Mach number constraint of 1.00, in order to highlight only choked flow conditions. This is not recommended for design calculations where a more reasonable value such as 0.5 or 0.7 will lead to a more rapid solution towards the maximum allowable back pressure constraints.

Sources Tab

If a source is ignored, the MABP constraint is ignored by sizing calculations.

When you select the Sources tab, you will see that all sources are displayed on this tab.

Note: If you are setting up a new case, the Sources tab will not show any sources.

on this tab. Note: If you are setting up a new case, the Sources tab will

Fig 3.5

This tab is useful in that you can easily toggle whether or not individual sources are to be included in the current scenario, without having to either unnecessarily delete sources or set the flow of a source to zero.

Estimates Tab

The Estimates tab allows some control over the selection and initialization of flowrates for pipes which are to be used as tears in the solution of looped systems. The use to which each field is put is dependent upon the Structure Analyzer setting on the Solver tab of Calculation Options Editor.

The check boxes in the No Tear column of the table allow you to prevent pipes from being used as tears - select the check box to prevent a pipe from being used as a tear or clear it to allow it. This setting has no effect if the Simultaneous structural analyzer is used.

When the Convergent structural analyzer is used, the Molar Flow column recommends a tear location and initial value for the flow at the tear location. If the structural analyzer does find that the pipe may be a valid tear location, then this value is ignored.

When the Simultaneous structural analyzer is used, the Molar Flow column is used to seed the analyzer. This value will always impact the initialization as long as the structural analysis succeeds but the pipe will not necessarily be selected as a tear pipe. In the event that the structural analysis fails with any Molar Flow estimates, the model will be initialized by the default values.

Fig 3.6 Since the Simultaneous structural analyzer generally offers better performance than the Convergent analyzer

Fig 3.6

Since the Simultaneous structural analyzer generally offers better performance than the Convergent analyzer it will rarely be necessary to specify information on the Estimates tab other than for the purpose of improving the speed of convergence of the model. In the event that a model proves problematic to converge, a number of additional columns are available to tune the convergence algorithms. These may be exposed by stretching the view horizontally.

The Max. Step column defines the maximum change to the flow in a tear pipe over a single iteration whilst the Max. Flow and Min. Flow columns constrain the flow in a tear pipe. Not all these values are used by all the Loop Solver algorithms.

 

Max. Step

Max. Flow

Min. Flow

Newton-Raphson

3

3

3

Broyden

3

3

3

Force Convergent

Conjugate Gradient Minimisation

Quasi-Newton Minimization

Scenario Tools

The complete analysis of a flare system should ideally include analysis of the system for the scenarios in which each source relieves on its own. For a large network with many sources, it can become tedious to define each of these scenarios. These can automatically be added to your model as follows.

Adding Single Source Scenarios

Click Source Tools from the Tools group on the Home tab of the Ribbon, then select Add Single Source Scenarios or use the hot key combination Alt, H, U, A. Click OK for the message that pops up.

This will analyze your model and add a scenario for each source that has a non-zero flow rate defined in at least one scenario. Source data will be copied from the scenario in which it has the highest flow rate.

4 Pipe Network

This section provides information on the following topics:

Overview

Pipe Manager

Ignoring/Restoring Pipes

Multiple Editing

Overview

The pipe network comprises a series of interconnected pipes. These pipes can be added, edited and deleted from the Pipe Manager.

Pipe Manager

To access the Pipe Manager, click Pipes in the Build group on the Home tab of the Ribbon.

Fig 4.1 The following buttons are available: Button Description Add Adds a new pipe segment.

Fig 4.1

The following buttons are available:

Button

Description

Add

Adds a new pipe segment. This new pipe will be named with a number depending upon the number of pipes already added.

Edit

Edits the currently highlighted pipe segment.

Delete

Removes the currently highlighted pipe segment.

Close

Closes the Pipe Manager.

Ignoring/Restoring Pipes

When you ignore a single pipe, all upstream pipes are automatically ignored.

You can ignore single or multiple pipes within the model. When you ignore a single pipe, all upstream nodes are automatically ignored. This enables you to do what if type calculations, where part of the network can be excluded from the calculation without the need for deletion and reinstallation of the appropriate nodes.

To ignore a pipe:

1 Open the Pipe Editor window of the pipe that you want to ignore.

2 On the Connections tab, select the Ignore check box.

Fig 4.2 To restore a pipe that has previously been ignored: 1 Open the Pipe

Fig 4.2

To restore a pipe that has previously been ignored:

1 Open the Pipe Editor window of the pipe that you want to restore.

2 On the Connections tab, clear the Ignore check box.

Connections Tab

The name of the pipe segment and connectivity information is specified here.

Fig 4.3 The following fields are available on this tab: Input Data Description Name An

Fig 4.3

The following fields are available on this tab:

Input Data

Description

Name

An alphanumeric description of the pipe segment.

Location

An alphanumeric description of the location within the plant for the segment.

Upstream

This is the name of the node upstream of the pipe. The list allows you to select from a list of existing unconnected nodes in the model.

Node

Downstream

This is the name of the node upstream of the pipe. The list allows you to select from a list of existing unconnected nodes in the model.

Node

Tailpipe

This list allows you to select whether the pipe should be treated as a tailpipe. If set to Yes and the Rated Flow for Tailpipes calculation option is selected in the Calculation Options dialog box, the pressure drop for this pipe will be calculated using the rated flow in place of the relieving flow rate.

Ignore

This check box may be selected to remove the pipe from calculations temporarily. When selected the pipe and all upstream nodes and pipes will be ignored during calculations.

Fitting Loss

The fitting loss for the pipe segment. You cannot change the value shown in this box. Instead, calculated value on the Fittings tab can be updated by clicking Link or Paste.

You have the option of modeling a pipe segment as a main header or a tailpipe. The ability to classify a pipe as either a tailpipe or a header allows you to perform calculations in which the pressure drop for tailpipes is determined by the rated flow and that for headers is determined by the nominal flow. This is in accordance with API-RP-521.

In the Scenario Editor, you can set design limits for the Mach Number, Vapor and Liquid Velocities, Rho V2 and Noise separately for the main headers and the tailpipes.

Dimensions Tab

The physical dimensions and characteristics of the pipe segment are specified here.

and characteristics of the pipe segment are specified here. Fig 4.4 The following fields are available

Fig 4.4

The following fields are available on this tab:

Input Data

Description

Length

The physical length of the pipe segment. This length is used in association with the fittings loss coefficients to calculate the equivalent length of the pipe. If you have equivalent length data for your network, enter this data here as the sum of the actual length plus the equivalent length of the fittings and enter zero for the fittings loss coefficients.

Input Data

Description

Elevation Change

A positive elevation indicates that the outlet is higher than the inlet.

Material

The pipe material, either Carbon Steel or Stainless Steel.

Roughness

The surface roughness of the pipe segment. Whenever a material is selected, the absolute roughness is initialized to the default value for the material as defined on the Preferences view.

Thermal

The thermal conductivity of the pipe wall. This is used by the heat transfer calculations when these are enabled.

Conductivity

Nominal

The nominal pipe diameter used to describe the pipe size. For pipes with a nominal diameter of 14 inches or more, this will be the same as the outside diameter of the pipe. If you select "-", you can specify your own data for the Internal Diameter and Wall Thickness; otherwise, it is not necessary to specify these values for the pipe.

Diameter

Schedule

Select a schedule number from the list, you will be able to select a nominal pipe diameter from the pipe databases. It will not be necessary to specify the Internal Diameter or the Wall Thickness for the pipe if you have not specified "-" as the Nominal Diameter.

Internal

The pipe diameter used for the pressure drop calculations.

Diameter

Wall Thickness

The thickness of the pipe wall. Valid values are any positive number or zero.

Use Class

Select Yes to restrict the pipe sizes to those defined by the Pipe Class.

Sizeable

If you wish the pipe segment to be resized by sizing calculations, Yes should be selected. For example, a model of a network containing a representation of the knockout drum, as a pipe segment would normally leave this unchecked such that sizing calculations for the pipes would not change the knockout drum size.

Schedule Numbers:

Carbon Steel: 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, STD, XS, XXS, User

Stainless Steel: 5S, 10S, 40S, 80S

Fittings Tab

A list of pipe fittings may be added to the pipe segment. These fittings will be modeled as an additional equivalent length applied linearly over the physical length of the pipe segment.

Fig 4.5 The following fields are available on this tab: Input Data Description Length The

Fig 4.5

The following fields are available on this tab:

Input Data

Description

Length

The length of the pipe is multiplied by this value to determine the equivalent length used for the pressure drop calculation. If left blank then the value on the Calculation Options Editor is used. This option is useful for making an allowance for bends and other fittings if these are not known.

Multiplier

Fittings Loss

The fittings "K" factor is calculated from the following equation in which Ft is the friction factor for fully developed turbulent flow:

K = A + BFt

From the Database Fittings list, select the appropriate type of fitting, and then click Add to move the selection to the Selected Fittings list. You can select as many fittings as required. The final fitting loss equation, which will be a sum of all the selected fittings, will appear in a display field underneath the Selected Fittings list.

Click Link to transfer the coefficients for this equation into the Fittings Loss field on the Connections tab, while maintaining the list of fittings.

Click Paste to transfer the coefficients for the fitting equation into the Fittings Loss field. The selected list of fittings will not be retained.

To remove the selected fitting individually, select the fitting and click Delete.

Note: The network cannot be sized correctly if you specify equivalent length data to model fittings losses, since the equivalent length of any pipe fitting is a function of the pipe diameter and will therefore be incorrect when the diameters change.

Heat Transfer Tab

The pipe segment may perform calculations taking into account heat transfer with the external air.

taking into account heat transfer with the external air. Fig 4.6 The following fields are available

Fig 4.6

The following fields are available on this tab:

Input Data

Description

External Conditions Group

External Medium

Select the external medium. Two options are currently available: Air or Sea Water.

Temperature

Enter the temperature of the external air. If this field is left blank, the global value set via the Calculation Options Editor is used.

Input Data

Description

External Medium Velocity

Enter the velocity of the external medium. If this field is left blank, the global value set via the Calculation Options Editor is used.

Heat Transfer Enabled

This list selects whether heat transfer calculations are to be performed for the pipe. Furthermore, setting only enables heat transfer calculations if the Enable Heat Transfer option is also selected in the Calculation Options Editor.

External Radiative HTC

This list selects whether or not the external radiative heat transfer coefficient is included within the heat transfer calculations.

Emissivity

Enter the fractional Emissivity to be used for radiative heat transfer calculations.

Multiple Element Calculation

This list selects whether the heat transfer calculation is done using a single element or the same number of elements as the pressure drop calculation. If Yes is selected, the heat transfer calculation sues the same number of elements as the pressure drop calculation

Insulation Group

Description

A brief description to identify the type of pipe insulation.

Thickness

Supply the insulation thickness.

Thermal Conductivity

Enter the insulation thermal conductivity.

Heating Group

Outlet Temp

You can explicitly set an outlet temperature for this segment, or leave it blank. A heater in a flare knockout drum is an example of process equipment that may require a fixed outlet temperature.

Duty

Enter the heating duty and the outlet temperature will be calculated based on the inlet temperature and the defined duty.

Methods Tab

Calculation methods are specified here.

Fig 4.7 The following fields are available on this tab: Input Field Description VLE Method

Fig 4.7

The following fields are available on this tab:

Input Field

Description

VLE Method Group

VLE Method

The options for the Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium calculations are as follows (see Chapter 9 Theoretical Basis for more details):

Compressible Gas - Real Gas relationship. This is only available when the Enthalpy Method on the Calculation Options Editor is Ideal Gas.

Peng Robinson - Peng Robinson Equation of State. This is available when the Enthalpy Method on the Calculation Options Editor is NOT Ideal Gas.

Soave Redlich Kwong - Soave Redlich Kwong Equation of State. This is available when the Enthalpy Method on the Calculation Options Editor is NOT Ideal Gas.

Vapor Pressure - Vapor Pressure method as described in API Technical Data Book Volume 113. This is available when the Enthalpy Method on the Calculation Options Editor is NOT Ideal Gas.

Model Default - If this is selected, the Default method for the VLE method (as defined on the Calculation Options Editor) will be used.

Pressure Drop Group

Input Field

Description

Horizontal

and Inclined

Pipes

The Horizontal/Inclined methods apply only when you have selected Two-Phase pressure drop. The options are:

Isothermal Gas - This is a compressible gas method that assumes isothermal expansion of the gas as it passes along the pipe. Aspen Flare System Analyzer uses averaged properties of the fluid over the length of the pipe. The outlet temperature from the pipe is calculated by adiabatic heat balance either with or without heat transfer. Pressure losses due to change in elevation are ignored.

Adiabatic Gas - This is a compressible gas method that assumes adiabatic expansion of the gas as it passes along the pipe. As with the Isothermal Gas method, pressure losses due to changes in elevation are ignored.

Beggs & Brill - The Beggs and Brill method is based on work done with an air-water mixture at many different conditions, and is applicable for inclined flow.

Dukler - Dukler breaks the pressure drop in two-phase systems into three components - friction, elevation and acceleration. Each component is evaluated independently and added algebraically to determine the overall pressure drop.

Lockhart Martinelli – Lockhart Martinelli correlations models the two phase pressure drop in terms of a single phase pressure drop multiplied by a correction factor. Acceleration changes are not included.

Beggs and Brill (No Acc.) – The Beggs and Brill methods without the acceleration term.

Beggs and Brill (Homog.) – The Beggs and Brill methods with a homogeneous acceleration term.

Dukler (AGA Head) - Uses the AGA equation for the calculation of the static head term rather than the Eaton equation which can be poor when you have small quantities of liquid in the system.

Model Default - If this is selected, the Default method for the Horizontal/Inclined method (as defined on the Calculation Options Editor) will be used.

Input Field

Description

Vertical

The Vertical method applies only when you have selected Two-Phase pressure drop. The options are:

Pipes

Isothermal Gas - This is a compressible gas method that assumes isothermal expansion of the gas as it passes along the pipe. Aspen Flare System Analyzer uses averaged properties of the fluid over the length of the pipe. The outlet temperature from the pipe is calculated by adiabatic heat balance either with or without heat transfer. Pressure losses due to change in elevation are ignored.

Adiabatic Gas - This is a compressible gas method that assumes adiabatic expansion of the gas as it passes along the pipe. As with the Isothermal Gas method, pressure losses due to changes in elevation are ignored.

Beggs & Brill - Although the Beggs and Brill method was not originally intended for use with vertical pipes, it is nevertheless commonly used for this purpose, and is therefore included as an option for vertical pressure drop methods. For more details, see Chapter 9 Theoretical Basis.

Dukler - Although the Dukler method is not generally applicable to vertical pipes, it is included here to allow comparison with the other methods.

Orkiszewski - This is a pressure drop correlation for vertical, two-phase flow for four different flow regimes - bubble, slug, annular-slug transition and annular mist. For more details, see Appendix A - Theoretical Basis.

Lockhart Martinelli – Lockhart Martinelli correlations models the two phase pressure drop in terms of a single phase pressure drop multiplied by a correction factor. Acceleration changes are not included.

Beggs and Brill (No Acc.) – The Beggs and Brill methods without the acceleration term.

Beggs and Brill (Homog.) – The Beggs and Brill methods with a homogeneous acceleration term.

Model Default - If this is selected, the Default method for the Vertical method (as defined on the Calculation Options Editor) will be used.

Elements

For two-phase calculations, the pipe segment is divided into a specified number of elements. On each element, energy and material balances are solved along with the pressure drop correlation. In simulations involving high heat transfer rates, many increments may be necessary, due to the non-linearity of the temperature profile. Obviously, as the number of increments increases, so does the calculation time; therefore, you should try to select a number of increments that reflects the required accuracy.

Input Field

Description

Friction

The Friction Factor Method applies only when you have entered a value for friction factor. The options are:

Factor

Method

Round - This method has been maintained primarily for historical purposes in order for older Aspen Flare System Analyzer calculations to be matched. It tends to over predict the friction factor by up to 10% in the fully turbulent region.

Chen - It should always be the method of preference since it gives better predictions at the fully turbulent flow conditions normally found within flare systems.

Model Default - If this is selected, the Default method for the Friction Factor Method (as defined on the Calculation Options Editor) will be used.

Static Head

The following options are available:

Contribution

Include - The static head contribution to total pressure drop in the pipe segments is included.

Ignore Downhill Recovery - The static head recovery term is ignored for downhill sections of pipe.

Ignore - The static head contribution to the pressure drop calculation for all pipe segments is ignored.

Include is applied by default.

Solver Group

Damping

The damping factor used in the iterative solution procedure. If this is left blank, the value in the Calculation Options Editor is used.

Factor

Note: When you are sizing a flare system, the initial pipe diameters may affect the solution when there is a liquid phase and the liquid knockout drum is modeled. You should initially size a network using vapor phase methods.

Summary Tab

The results of the calculation are displayed.

Fig 4.8 Multiple Editing You can edit multiple pipe segments simultaneously by highlighting them in

Fig 4.8

Multiple Editing

You can edit multiple pipe segments simultaneously by highlighting them in the Pipe Manager with the mouse cursor while keeping the Shift key pressed. After you have finished selecting pipe segments, click Edit to open the common Pipe Editor.

The common pipe editor view differs from that of the single pipe editor view in the following respects:

Only fields that can be edited in multiple mode are displayed.

The input fields have an additional entry, *. This entry indicates that the value should remain at the pre edit value.

In the following figure of the Dimensions tab; we enter * for the Length and Elevation Change fields to indicate that these must not be changed. We specify new values for the Roughness and the Thermal Conductivity. We select * for the Use Class and Sizeable boxes to indicate that these must be changed.

Fig 4.9 Pipe Class Editor The Pipe Class Editor allows you to edit the allowable

Fig 4.9

Pipe Class Editor

The Pipe Class Editor allows you to edit the allowable schedules for each nominal diameter, for both Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel, during sizing calculations. It also allows you to restrict the range of pipe sizes that may be selected during design calculations.

To access the Pipe Class Editor, click Pipe Class in Tools, on the Home tab.

Fig 4.10 Note: If you have selected Use Pipe Class in the Preference Editor ,

Fig 4.10

Note: If you have selected Use Pipe Class in the Preference Editor, these are the schedules which will be used.

5 Nodes

This section provides information on the following topics:

Overview

Node Manager

Ignoring/Restoring Nodes

Connection Nodes

Boundary Nodes

Overview

Pipes are connected via nodes, which can be added, edited and deleted from the Node Manager. Sources are also added through the Node Manager.

Node Manager

To access the Node Manager, click Nodes in Build, on the Home tab.

Fig 5.1 The following buttons are available: Button Description Add You will be prompted to

Fig 5.1

The following buttons are available:

Button

Description

Add

You will be prompted to select the type of node. This new node will be named with a number depending upon the number of nodes of that type already added.

Edit

Allows you to edit the currently highlighted node. The form varies, depending on the type of node, as discussed below.

Delete

Allows you to remove the currently highlighted node.

Close

Closes the Node Manager.

Ignoring/Restoring Nodes

When you ignore a single node, all upstream nodes are automatically ignored.

You can ignore single or multiple nodes within the model. When you ignore a single node, all upstream nodes are automatically ignored. This enables you to do what if type calculations, where part of the network can be excluded from the calculation without the need for deletion and reinstallation of the appropriate nodes.

To ignore a node:

1 Open the node editor of the node that you want to ignore.

2 On the Connections tab, select the Ignore check box. The following figure shows this for a connector node.

Fig 5.2 To restore a node that has previously been ignored: 1 Open the node

Fig 5.2

To restore a node that has previously been ignored:

1 Open the node editor of the node that you want to restore.

2 On the Connections tab, clear the Ignore check box.

Connection Nodes

The following types of connection nodes are available in Aspen Flare System Analyzer. A connection node is one that links two or more pipe segments.

Connector

Flow Bleed

Horizontal Separator

Orifice Plate

Tee

Vertical Separator

Connector

The Connector is used to model the connection of two pipes. The diameters of the pipes may be different.

Connections Tab

The name of the connector and connectivity information is specified here.

Fig 5.3 The location can have an alphanumeric name. This feature is useful for large

Fig 5.3

The location can have an alphanumeric name. This feature is useful for large flowsheets, because you can provide a different “location” name to different sections to make it more comprehensible.

The following fields are available on this tab:

Field

Description

Name

The alphanumeric description of the Connector (e.g. - HP Connect

1).

Location

You may want to specify the location of the node in the plant.

Upstream/

Either type in the name of the pipe segment or select from the list.

Downstream

At

You can specify the end of the pipe segment attached to the connector.

Ignore

Select the Ignore check box to ignore this connector in the calculations. Clear the check box to re-enable it.

Calculations Tab

Calculation methods are specified here.

Fig 5.4 The following fields are available on this tab: Field Description Angle Specify the

Fig 5.4

The following fields are available on this tab:

Field

Description

Angle

Specify the connector expansion angle. If not defined, it will be calculated from Length.

Length

Enter the connector length. If not defined, it will be calculated from Angle.

Fitting Loss

The available options are:

Method

Equal Static Pressure – Pressure drop calculation is ignored and static pressure is balanced.

Calculated – Pressure drop is calculated in accordance with the Swage method.

Isothermal

If this option is set to Yes, the inlet temperatures used for the size change calculations in the connector will not update during iterative calculations for pressure loss i.e. a PT flash will be used to update the inlet properties. If the option is set to No, a more rigorous PH flash will be used to update the inlet properties.

The connector will do one size change calculation between the inlet and outlet diameters selecting expansion or contraction as appropriate.

Pressure Drop

Setting this option to Yes can speed up calculations in some cases at cost of a minor loss of accuracy.

Two Phase

Correction

If this option is set to Yes, the pressure loss coefficient in two phase flow will be calculated using properties corrected for liquid slip. If set to No, the homogenous properties of the fluid will be used in calculating the pressure loss coefficient.

Field

Description

Swage

The following options are available:

Method

Compressible - pressure losses will be calculated assuming compressible flow through the connector at all times.

Incompressible (Crane) - pressure losses will be calculated assuming incompressible flow through the connector at all times. Loss coefficients are calculated using Crane coefficients.

Transition - pressure losses will be calculated initially using the assumption of incompressible flow. If the pressure loss expressed as a percentage of the inlet pressure is greater than the defined compressible transition value then the pressure drop will be recalculated using the compressible flow method.

Incompressible (HTFS) - pressure losses will be calculated assuming incompressible flow through the connector at all times. Loss coefficients are calculated using HTFS correlations

The Incompressible method calculations are faster but will be less accurate at higher pressure drops. The Transition method can cause instabilities in some cases if the calculated pressure drop is close to the transition value.

Balance Total Pressure – Frictional pressure drop is ignored and total pressure is balanced between upstream & downstream.

Compressible

Transition

This entry defines the pressure drop as a percentage of the inlet pressure at which compressible flow pressure drop calculations should be used. It applies only when the Transition method is selected.

Summary Tab

The result of the calculations at each of the pipe connections is displayed.

Fig 5.5 Flow Bleed The Flow Bleed is a simple calculation block that allows you

Fig 5.5

Flow Bleed

The Flow Bleed is a simple calculation block that allows you to:

Specify a fixed pressure drop.

Specify a constrained flow offtake where the flow offtake is calculated from the following equation:

Offtake = Multiplier x Inlet Flow + Offset

The calculated Offtake is constrained to maximum and minimum values.

Connections Tab

The name of the flow bleed and connectivity information is specified here.

Fig 5.6 The following fields are available on this tab: Field Description Name The alphanumeric

Fig 5.6

The following fields are available on this tab:

Field

Description

Name

The alphanumeric description of the Flow Bleed (e.g. - HP Connect XX).

Location

You may want to specify the location of the node in the plant.

Upstream/

Either type in the name of the pipe segment or select from the list.

Downstream

At

You can specify the end of the pipe segment attached to the flow bleed.

Ignore

Select the Ignore check box to ignore this flow bleed in the calculations. Clear the check box to re-enable it.

Calculations Tab

Calculation methods are specified here.

Fig 5.7 The following fields are available on this tab: Field Description Offtake Multiplier Specify

Fig 5.7

The following fields are available on this tab:

Field

Description

Offtake Multiplier

Specify the Offtake multiplier. The default value is 0.

Offtake Offset

Specify the Offset for the Offtake to compensate for the changes in the inlet flow.

Offtake Minimum

Specify the minimum value for the Offtake.

Offtake

Specify the maximum value for the Offtake.

Maximum

Pressure Drop

Enter the pressure drop across the Flow Bleed.

Summary Tab

The result of the calculations at each of the pipe connections is displayed.

Fig 5.8 Horizontal Separator Horizontal separators are used to allow liquid to separate from the

Fig 5.8

Horizontal Separator

Horizontal separators are used to allow liquid to separate from the feed stream so that it can be removed from the flare system. The liquid phase in the horizontal separator feed is removed from the network. In Aspen Flare System Analyzer, the Horizontal Separator has one primary inlet, one secondary inlet/outlet, and one vapor outlet stream.

Connections Tab

The name of the horizontal separator and connectivity information is specified here.

Fig 5.9 You only need to provide 2 of 3 connections to be able to

Fig 5.9

You only need to provide 2 of 3 connections to be able to solve the separator. This allows for solution(s) to partially built networks.

The following fields are available on this tab:

Field

Description

Name

The alphanumeric description of the Horizontal Separator (e.g. - HP KO Drum).

Location

You may want to specify the location of the node in the plant. The location can have an alphanumeric name. This feature is useful for large flowsheets, because you can provide a different “location” name to different sections to make it more comprehensible.

(Primary

Either type in the name of the pipe segment or select from the list.

/Secondary)

Inlet/Outlet

At

You can specify the end of the pipe segment attached to the horizontal separator.

Ignore

Select the Ignore check box to ignore this horizontal separator in the calculations. Clear the check box to re-enable it.

Calculations Tab

Calculation methods are specified here.

Fig 5.10 The following fields are available on this tab: Field Description Dimensions Group Diameter

Fig 5.10

The following fields are available on this tab:

Field

Description

Dimensions Group

Diameter

The internal diameter of the vessel.

Liquid Level

The liquid level in the vessel. Pressure drop is calculated based upon the vapor space above the liquid.

Methods Group

Fitting Loss

The available options are;

Method

Equal Static Pressure – Pressure drop calculation is ignored and static pressure is balanced.

Calculated_Ignore Vena Contracta – Pressure drop is calculated in accordance with the Swage method but ignores the loss due vena contracta.

Calculated – Pressure drop is calculated in accordance with the Swage method including the loss due vena contracta.

Field

Description

Isothermal

If this option is set to Yes, the inlet temperatures used for the size

Pressure Drop

change calculations in the separator will not update during iterative calculations for pressure loss i.e. a PT flash will be used to update the inlet properties. If the option is set to No, a more rigorous PH flash will be used to update the inlet properties.

The horizontal separator does three size change calculations, one between each stream connection and the vessel body. Normally these will be expansion calculations for the primary and secondary inlets and a contraction calculation for the vapor outlet but they will automatically change if flows are reversed.

Setting this option to Yes can speed up calculations in some cases at cost of a minor loss of accuracy.

Size Change Group

Two Phase

If this option is set to Yes, the pressure loss coefficient in two phase flow will be calculated using properties corrected for liquid slip. If set to No, the homogenous properties of the fluid will be used in calculating the pressure loss coefficient.

Correction

Method

The following options are available:

Compressible - Pressure losses will be calculated assuming compressible flow through the connector at all times.

Incompressible (Crane) - Pressure losses will be calculated assuming incompressible flow through the connector at all times. Loss coefficients are calculated using Crane coefficients.

Transition - Pressure losses will be calculated initially using the assumption of incompressible flow. If the pressure loss expressed as a percentage of the inlet pressure is greater than the defined compressible transition value then the pressure drop will be recalculated using the compressible flow method.

Incompressible (HTFS) - Pressure losses will be calculated assuming incompressible flow through the connector at all times. Loss coefficients are calculated using HTFS correlations

The Incompressible method calculations are faster but will be less accurate at higher pressure drops. The Transition method can cause instabilities in some cases if the calculated pressure drop is close to the transition value.

Balance Total Pressure – Frictional pressure drop is ignored and total pressure is balanced between upstream & downstream.

Compressible

This entry defines the pressure drop as a percentage of the inlet pressure at which compressible flow pressure drop calculations should be used. It applies only when the Transition method is selected.

Transition

Field

Description

Body

If this option is set to Full Body Area, the calculation for the primary inlet/vessel and secondary inlet/vessel size change will use the whole vessel area. If Partial Body Area on Flow is selected, the vessel area is reduced in proportion to the appropriate flow, i.e. if the secondary inlet volumetric flow is 20% of the total volumetric flow in the tee then 20% of the body area will be used in the size change calculation. The use of the Partial Body Area on Flow option has the effect of increasing the pressure loss calculated by simple fixed K factors.

Dimension

Composition Tab

If the inlet feed flashes in the separator and as a result of the flash, the mixture is converted into liquid fully and the vapor outlet will have no flow. This can cause instability in the pressure solution of the whole network. To avoid this, Aspen Flare System Analyzer creates an arbitrary vapor phase with very small vapor fraction for the vapor outlet (<0.001%). You can specify the composition of the vapor phase here.

for the vapor outlet (<0.001%). You can specify the composition of the vapor phase here. Fig

Fig 5.11

Design Tab

Design Tab Fig 5.12 Field Description Min Drop Diameter Enter the diameter of the minimum drop

Fig 5.12

Field

Description

Min Drop Diameter

Enter the diameter of the minimum drop size to be removed.

Drain Volume

Enter the drain volume.

Maximum Holdup time

Enter maximum holdup time before the horizontal separator will be drained.

Design Length

Minimum length of the horizontal separator required to satisfy design conditions.

Settling Velocity

Settling velocity of the minimum drop size to be removed.

Summary Tab

The result of the calculations at each of the pipe connections is displayed.

Fig 5.13 Orifice Plate An Orifice Plate is a thin plate, which has a clean-cut

Fig 5.13

Orifice Plate

An Orifice Plate is a thin plate, which has a clean-cut hole with straight walls perpendicular to the flat upstream face of the plate placed crossways in the pipe. Orifice plates are generally used to restrict the flow downstream of a blow down valve or restrict the flow from a high pressure section of a flare system to a low pressure section. They may also be used to allow flow measurement.

Connections Tab

The name of the orifice plate and connectivity information is specified here.

Fig 5.14 The following fields are available on this tab: Field Description Name The alphanumeric

Fig 5.14

The following fields are available on this tab:

Field

Description

Name

The alphanumeric description of the Orifice Plate (e.g. - HP OP).

Location

You may want to specify the location of the node in the plant.

Upstream/Downstream

Either type in the name of the pipe segment or select from the list.

At

You can specify the end of the pipe segment attached to the orifice plate.

Ignore

Select the Ignore check box to ignore this orifice plate in the calculations. Clear the check box to re-enable it.

Calculations Tab

Calculation methods are specified here.

Fig 5.15 Note: You only need to provide 1 of 3 sizing parameters. For Example,

Fig 5.15

Note: You only need to provide 1 of 3 sizing parameters. For Example, if you entered the Diameter, Aspen Flare System Analyzer will then calculate the Upstream Diameter Ratio and the Downstream Diameter Ratio.

The following fields are available on this tab:

Field

Description

Dimensions Group

Diameter

The diameter of the orifice hole.

Upstream

The ratio of the throat diameter to the upstream pipe diameter.

Diameter Ratio

Downstream

The ratio of the throat diameter to the downstream pipe diameter.

Diameter Ratio

Methods Group

Fitting Loss

Method

The following options are available:

Ignored - If this option is selected, the fitting losses for the orifice plate would not be calculated. Static pressure is balanced.

Thin Orifice - The fitting losses for the orifice plate will be calculated using the equations for the thin orifice plate.

Contraction/Expansion - For this method, orifice plates will be modeled as a sudden contraction from the inlet line size to the diameter of the hole followed by a sudden expansion from the diameter of the hole to the outlet line size.

Field

Description

Isothermal

If this option is set to Yes, the inlet temperatures used for the size

Pressure

change calculations in the orifice plate will not update during iterative

Drop

calculations for pressure loss i.e. a PT flash will be used to update the inlet properties. If the option is set to No, a more rigorous PH flash will be used to update the inlet properties.

The orifice plate will do one contraction calculation and one expansion calculation if the Fitting Loss Method is set to Contraction/Expansion. Setting this option to Yes can speed up calculations in some cases at cost of a minor loss of accuracy.

Size Change Group

Two Phase

If this option is set to Yes, the pressure loss coefficient in two phase flow will be calculated using properties corrected for liquid slip. If set to No, the homogeneous properties of the fluid will be used in calculating the pressure loss coefficient.

Correction

Method

The following options are available:

Compressible - Pressure losses will be calculated assuming compressible flow through the connector at all times.

Incompressible (Crane) - Pressure losses will be calculated assuming incompressible flow through the connector at all times. Loss coefficients are calculated using Crane coefficients.

Transition - Pressure losses will be calculated initially using the assumption of incompressible flow. If the pressure loss expressed as a percentage of the inlet pressure is greater than the defined compressible transition value then the pressure drop will be recalculated using the compressible flow method.

Incompressible (HTFS) - Pressure losses will be calculated assuming incompressible flow through the connector at all times. Loss coefficients are calculated using HTFS correlations.

The Incompressible method calculations are faster but will be less accurate at higher pressure drops. The Transition method can cause instabilities in some cases if the calculated pressure drop is close to the transition value.

Balance Total Pressure – Frictional pressure drop is ignored and total pressure is balanced between upstream & downstream.

Compressible

This entry defines the pressure drop as a percentage of the inlet pressure at which compressible flow pressure drop calculations should be used. It applies only when the Transition method is selected.

Transition

Summary Tab

Summary Tab Fig 5.16 The result of the calculations at each of the pipe connections is

Fig 5.16

The result of the calculations at each of the pipe connections is displayed.

Tee

The Tee is used to model the connection of three pipes. The diameters of the pipes may be different.

Connections Tab

The name of the tee and connectivity information is specified here.

Fig 5.17 You only need to provide 2 of 3 connections to be able to

Fig 5.17

You only need to provide 2 of 3 connections to be able to solve the tee. This allows for solution(s) to partially built networks.

The following fields are available on this tab:

Field

Description

Name

The alphanumeric description of the Tee (e.g. - HP Tee 1).

Location

You may want to specify the location of the node in the plant. The location can have an alphanumeric name. This feature is useful for large flowsheets, because you can provide a different “location” name to different sections to make it more comprehensible.

Upstream/Downstream/Branch

Either type in the name of the pipe segment or select from the list.

At

You can specify the end of the pipe segment attached with the tee.

Ignore

Select the Ignore check box to ignore this tee in the calculations. Clear the check box to re-enable it.

Calculations Tab

Calculation methods are specified here.

Fig 5.18 The following fields are available on this tab: Field Description Dimensions Group Theta

Fig 5.18

The following fields are available on this tab:

Field

Description

Dimensions Group

Theta

Specify the angle of the branch to the upstream connection of the tee.

Body

Specify the diameter of the body of the tee. Allowable choices are:

Run - The diameter will be that of the inlet pipe.

Tail - The diameter will be that of the outlet pipe.

Branch - The diameter will be that of the branch pipe.

Auto - Set the body diameter to be larger of the inlet and branch pipe diameters.

Methods Group

Field

Description

Fitting Loss

The available options are:

Method

Equal Static Pressure – Pressure drop calculation is ignored and static pressure is balanced.

Simple - This method uses a constant, flow ration independent K factor for the loss through the branch and run.

Miller - This method uses a K factor which is interpolated using Miller Curves, which are functions of the flow and area ratios of the branch to the total flow as well as the branch angle. Loss coefficients at low values of the branch are to body area are extrapolated from the data presented on the charts.

Miller (Area Ratio Limited) – This method uses a K factor which is interpolated using Miller Curves, which are functions of the flow and area ratios of the branch to the total flow as well as the branch angle. The ratio of the branch area to body area is constrained by the lower limit presented on the charts.

Equal Static Pressure – Pressure drop calculation is ignored and static pressure is balanced.

Gardel – This method calculates the K factor using the analytical equations of Gardel.

Miller Chart

The available options are:

Extrapolation

None – No extrapolation is used. If the data falls outside the Miller chart, a fixed value of K (K=8.0) is used.

Miller Area Ratio Squared – Uses a K factor which is extrapolated using Miller Curves, assuming that the K factors are functions of the flow and area ratio squared, of the branch to the total flow as well as the branch angle.

Gardel – Uses the Gardel method to calculate K factor if the K factor is out of bounds in miller chart.

Connector If

If this option is set to Yes, Aspen Flare System Analyzer will treat the Tee as a straight connector, ignoring the effect of the branch on pressure drop.

The Tee will do three size change calculations between inlet/body, branch/body and body/outlet selecting expansion or contraction calculations as appropriate.

Incomplete

Setting this option to Yes can speed up calculations in some cases at cost of a minor loss of accuracy.

Isothermal

Pressure Drop

If this option is set to Yes, the inlet temperatures used for the size change calculations in the tee will not update during iterative calculations for pressure loss, i.e. a PT flash will be used to update the inlet properties. If the option is set to No, a more rigorous PH flash will be used to update the inlet properties.

Swage Method Group

Two Phase

If this option is set to Yes, the pressure loss coefficient in two phase flow will be calculated using properties corrected for liquid slip. If set to No, the homogenous properties of the fluid will be used in calculating the pressure loss coefficient.

Correction

Field

Description

Method

The following options are available:

Compressible - Pressure losses will be calculated assuming compressible flow through the tee at all times.

Incompressible (Crane) - Pressure losses will be calculated assuming incompressible flow through the tee at all times. Loss coefficients are calculated using Crane coefficients.

Transition - Pressure losses will be calculated initially using the assumption of incompressible flow. If the pressure loss expressed as a percentage of the inlet pressure is greater than the defined compressible transition value then the pressure drop will be recalculated using the compressible flow method.

Incompressible (HTFS) - Pressure losses will be calculated assuming incompressible flow through the tee at all times. Loss coefficients are calculated using HTFS correlations.

The Incompressible method calculations are faster but will be less accurate at higher pressure drops. The Transition method can cause instabilities in some cases if the calculated pressure drop is close to the transition value.

Balance Total Pressure – Frictional pressure drop is ignored and total pressure is balanced between upstream & downstream.

Compressible

This entry defines the pressure drop as a percentage of the inlet pressure at which compressible flow pressure drop calculations should be used. It applies only when the Transition method is selected.

Transition

Body

If this option is set to Full Body Area, the calculation for the inlet/body and branch/body size change will use the whole body area. If Partial Body Area on Flow is selected, the body area is reduced in proportion to the appropriate flow, i.e. if the branch volumetric flow is 20% of the total volumetric flow in the tee then 20% of the body area will be used in the size change calculation. This option is ignored if the fittings loss method is set to Miller. The use of the Partial Body Area on Flow option has the effect of increasing the pressure loss calculated by simple fixed K factors bringing the results closer to those calculated by the ore accurate Miller K factors.

Dimension

Summary Tab

The result of the calculations at each of the pipe connections is displayed.

Fig 5.19 Vertical Separator Vertical separators are used to allow liquid to separate from the

Fig 5.19

Vertical Separator

Vertical separators are used to allow liquid to separate from the feed stream so that it can be removed from the flare system. The liquid phase in the vertical separator feed is removed from the network. In Aspen Flare System Analyzer, the Vertical Separator has only one inlet and one vapor outlet stream.

Connections Tab

The name of the vertical separator and connectivity information is specified here.

Fig 5.20 The location can have an alphanumeric name. This feature is useful for large

Fig 5.20

The location can have an alphanumeric name. This feature is useful for large flowsheets, because you can provide a different “location” name to different sections to make it more comprehensible.

The following fields are available on this tab:

Field

Description

Name

The alphanumeric description of the Vertical Separator (e.g. - HP KO Drum).

Location

You may want to specify the location of the node in the plant.

Inlet/Outlet

Either type in the name of the pipe segment or select from the list.

At

You can specify the end of the pipe segment attached to the vertical separator.

Ignore

Select the Ignore check box to ignore this vertical separator in the calculations. Clear the check box to re-enable it.

Calculations Tab

Calculation methods are specified here.

Fig 5.21 The following fields are available on this tab: Field Description Diameter The internal

Fig 5.21

The following fields are available on this tab:

Field

Description

Diameter

The internal diameter of the vessel.

Methods Group

Fitting Loss

The available options are:

Method

Equal Static Pressure – Pressure drop calculation is ignored and static pressure is balanced.

Calculated Ignore Vena Contracta – Pressure drop is calculated in accordance with the Swage method but ignores the loss due vena contracta.

Calculated – Pressure drop is calculated in accordance with the Swage method including the loss due vena contracta.

Isothermal

Pressure Drop

If this option is set to Yes, the inlet temperatures used for the size change calculations in the separator will not update during iterative calculations for pressure loss i.e. a PT flash will be used to update the inlet properties. If the option is set to No, a more rigorous PH flash will be used to update the inlet properties.

The vertical separator will do one expansion calculation for the inlet stream entering the vessel and one contraction calculation for the flow from the vessel to the outlet. These will automatically change if flows through the vessel are reversed.

Setting this option to Yes can speed up calculations in some cases at cost of a minor loss of accuracy.

Size Change Group

Field

Description

Two Phase

If this option is set to Yes, the pressure loss coefficient in two phase flow will be calculated using properties corrected for liquid slip. If set to No, the homogenous properties of the fluid will be used in calculating the pressure loss coefficient.

Correction

Method

The following options are available:

Compressible - Pressure losses will be calculated assuming compressible flow through the connector at all times.

Incompressible (Crane) - Pressure losses will be calculated assuming incompressible flow through the connector at all times. Loss coefficients are calculated using Crane coefficients.

Transition - Pressure losses will be calculated initially using the assumption of incompressible flow. If the pressure loss expressed as a percentage of the inlet pressure is greater than the defined compressible transition value then the pressure drop will be recalculated using the compressible flow method.

Incompressible (HTFS) - Pressure losses will be calculated assuming incompressible flow through the connector at all times. Loss coefficients are calculated using HTFS correlations.

The Incompressible method calculations are faster but will be less accurate at higher pressure drops. The Transition method can cause instabilities in some cases if the calculated pressure drop is close to the transition value.