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General Psychology

Understanding of Psychology
Etymologically "Psychology" comes from the Greek: Psyche and
logos. Psyche means soul and logos means knowledge. In Arabic,
psychology is called "Science an Nafsi". The latter later developed into
a science called "Nafsiologi". In Indonesian, it is known as "Life

In terms of terminology (according to his knowledge) Psychology is

"the study of all things related to the soul, its nature, its origin, the
process of its operation and the consequences it causes.
Psychological Relations with Other Science Disciplines
Human behavior is not only studied by psychology,
but also by Anthropology, Medicine, Sociology,
management and several branches of Linguistics. All of
this is grouped into a large family of "Behavioral
According to the definition of psychology translated into
• The science of mind and behavior
• The mental or behavioral characteristics of an individual or group
• The study of mind and behavior in relation to a particular field of knowledge or
There is a close relationship between
Psychology and Literature

Psychology Literature

Psychology deals with the Literature exhibits how human

study of observable patterns beings behave in dealing with
of human’s behavior. their problems and environment.
Sigismund Schlomo Freud

(1856-1939), was an Austrian

neurologist usually credited
with creating psychoanalytic
theory and, by extension,
psychiatric therapy.

Freud believed that

unconscious sexual drives
were the basis for all human
behavior, and that dreams
were an important indicator
for understanding human
The Freudian Mind

 The conscious mind is the part of the mind that interacts with the
outside world. It is the decisions we make and the actual thinking
we do.

 The unconscious mind is made up of the impulses and instincts that

dictate our behavior without us knowing about it; Freud believed these
impulses were driven by sexuality, Jung believed they were driven by
cultural archetypes, and some other psychologists believe the
unconscious mind to be made of drives for power, for love, or for any
other number of impulses.
The Three Tiers of “Self”
“Schlomo” broke down the unconscious into three components that dictate
conscious human behavior:

 The ID seeks pleasure and avoids pain; we normally associate inborn instincts
(such as the behaviors of an infant or an animal) with the id.

 The EGO seeks to placate the id, but in a way that will ensure long- term
benefits (such as trying to get what the id wants without breaking laws or social
standards). Mediates between the id and reality.
Maintains our “self – how we see our “self” and wish others to see it.

 The SUPER-EGO is a lot like a conscience – it punishes misbehavior with feelings

of guilt. Since the super-ego is concerned with societal norms, it stands in
opposition to the id. The development of an individual’s super-ego replaces a
parent’s discipline.
• Current contents of your mind that you actively think of

• What we call working memory

• Easily accessed all the time

• Contents of the mind you are not currently
aware of

• Thoughts, memories, knowledge, wishes,


• Available for easy access when needed


• Contents kept out of conscious awareness

• Not accessible at all

• Processes that actively keep these thoughts from

Conflicts of Personality Components

• Conflicts between the Id, Superego and Ego arise in

unconscious mind
• Can’t be reached in unconscious
• Come out in various ways
 Slips of tongue (“Freudian slip”)
 Dreams
 Jokes
 Anxiety
 Defense Mechanisms
Psychoanalytic Literary Criticism
 Adopts the methods of "reading" employed by Freud and later theorists
to interpret texts. It argues that literary texts, like dreams, express
the secret unconscious desires and anxieties of the author, that a
literary work is a manifestation of the author's own neuroses. It
approaches an author’s work as a kind of textual “talk therapy”.

 One may psychoanalyze a particular character within a literary work, but

it is usually assumed that all such characters are projections of the
author's psyche.

 Like psychoanalysis itself, this critical endeavor seeks evidence of

unresolved emotions, psychological conflicts, guilt, ambivalences, and so
forth within the author’s literary work. The author's own childhood traumas,
family life, sexual conflicts, fixations, and such will be traceable within
the behavior of the characters in the literary work.
 Despite the importance of the author here, psychoanalytic
criticism is similar to New Criticism in not concerning itself with
"what the author intended." But what the author never intended
(that is, repressed) is sought. The unconscious material has been
distorted by the censoring conscious mind.
Because I could
not stop for
B y Emily D i c k i n s o n
About Emily Dickinson

S h e w a s b o r n o n D e c e m b e r 1 0 th, 1 8 3 0
in Amherst, Massachusetts.
And her closest acquaintance was
h e r y o u n g e r s i s t e r, L a v i n i a . S h e o n l y
published some of her poems during
her lifetime.
After her death in 1886, her
sister found about 597 of her poems
and had them published into a book
“The Complete Poems of Emily
Because I Could Not Stop For Death

Because I could not stop for Death –

He kindly stopped for me –
The Carriage held but just Ourselves –
And Immortality.
Or rather – He passed Us –
We slowly drove – He knew no haste
The Dews drew quivering and Chill –
And I had put away
For only Gossamer, my Gown –
My labor and my leisure too,
My Tippet – only Tulle –
For His Civility –
We paused before a House that seemed
We passed the School, where Children
A Swelling of the Ground –
The Roof was scarcely visible –
At Recess – in the Ring –
The Cornice – in the Ground –
We passed the Fields of Gazing Grain –
We passed the Setting Sun –
Since then – 'tis Centuries – and yet
Feels shorter than the Day
I first surmised the Horses' Heads
Were toward Eternity –
Contextual: Based on poet’s background

• She lived her life separated from outside

world as she matures
• She did not appear to seek social acceptance.
• The deaths of friends & family including her
cousin Sophia, left Emily pondering about
the afterlife
• Emily sent flowers to friends and family
accompanied by a poem. But the poem
was often ignored
Based on Sigmund Freud theory

Death Instinct
Mostly responsible for the aggressive
drive where at times some persons
manifest through their behaviour, an
unconscious wish to die, or to hurt
themselves or to hurt others.
It is shown in the poem:
“ Because I could not stop for death”
Based on Sigmund Freud theory
Unconscious mind : Reality
• The persona feel the danger of external

Ex: “ The Carriage held but just Ourselves” “

We slowly drove – He knew no haste”

• It shows that the persona does not

accept other people in her life.