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V Concrete constituents, concrete technology and concrete engineering

Concrete constituents, concrete technology and concrete 75

First concrete roundabout in Germany (Bad Sobernheim)

VDZ Activity Report 2007 – 2009

Cements with several main Table V-1: Building material profile for cement: potential effects and consumption of primary
energy (from non-renewable energies) for the manufacture of 1 t of cement in Germany (aver-
constituents age)

1996 2006
Historically, raw materials that were avail-
able in the various regions have been used Effect global Greenhouse effect (GWP) 872 670 kg CO2 equiv.
to manufacture efficient cements that en- category
Ozone depletion (ODP) 1) 0 1.6 x 10-5 kg R11 equiv.
sure safe and reliable concrete structures.
regional Acidification (AP) 1.68 0.92 kg SO2 equiv
Consequently, there has been a long tradi-
tion of using cements containing several Overfertilisation (NP) 0.20 0.12 kg PO43- equiv.
main constituents. These days, because of Summer smog (POCP) 2) 0.07 0.10 kg C2H4 equiv.
increasing demands in terms of environ-
Primary energy (not renewable) 4 355 2 713 MJ
mental protection, the manufacture and use
of cements with several main constituents 1)
Indicator was set to zero in 1996
In 1996 the indicator was based on a different calculation method
has taken on a new level of significance
due to their ecological benefits.
tain the application regulations for stand- 1045-2 for exposure classes XC3, XC4,
ard cements in relation to exposure classes. XD1 to XD3, XS1 to XS3, XF1 to XF4,
With reference to conditions in Germany,
When these standards were introduced, ap- XA1 to XA3, XM1 to XM3 as a sup-
the successful use in the building industry
plication restrictions applied to some stand- plement to the exposure classes X0, XC1
has proven the efficiency of CEM II and
ard cements – based mainly on the lack of and XC2 already permitted in DIN 1045-2.
76 CEM III cements for challenging and du-
practical experience with these cements in In all approvals reference is made to use in
rable concrete structures. The technical ap-
Germany. In these cases, proof of suitabil- mortar and concrete according to the old
plication properties of these cements, the
ity for use in specific exposure classes was DIN 1045:1988 and the former pre-stressed
ecological advantages of using them and
provided by a general building authority concrete standard DIN 4227-1. Not permit-
examples of practical applications were
approval (Technical Approval, TA) from ted is use in grout for pre-stressing tendons
described in a customer-oriented manner
in the VDZ brochure “CEM II- und CEM the German Institute for Building Tech- according to DIN EN 447. In the meantime,
III/A-Zemente im Betonbau – Nachhaltige nology (DIBt). uses for the manufacture of bore piles ac-
Lösungen für das Bauen mit Beton”[CEM cording to DIN EN 1536 in conjunction
II- and CEM III/A cements in concrete con- Currently, in Germany the following ce- with DIN Technical Report 129 and for
structions – sustainable solutions for build- ment types may be used in all exposure the manufacture of water-impermeable
ing with concrete] from the German Ce- classes: concrete according to the DAfStb Guide-
ment Works Association (can be purchased line on concrete structures with water-en-
 Portland cement CEM I dangering materials have been included
 Portland-blastfurnace cements CEM II/ in four approvals. From a technical point
Ecological advantages A-S and CEM II/B-S of view, the extension applies to all these
 Portland-burnt shale cements CEM II/ approvals. However, the owner of the ap-
The positive ecological effect gained from
the increasing use of cements with several A-T and CEM II/B-T proval must make a formal request to the
 Portland-limestone cements CEM II/ DIBt. In addition to the above list of appli-
main constituents can be seen in the changes
in the building material profile for a met- A-LL cations, CEM II-M cements with general
ric ton of cement in Germany (Table V-1).  Portland-fly ash cements CEM II/A-V building authority approval may be used in
In 2006, the contribution to the greenhouse and CEM II/B-V all areas where the corresponding regula-
effect and other environmental impacts was  Portland-composite cements CEM II/ tions refer to cement according to DIN EN
determined for an average German cement, A-M with other main constituents S, 197-1, DIN 1164 or include cement gener-
consisting of the average proportions of ce- LL, T, D and V al building authority approval and with no
ment clinker and other main constituents.  Portland-composite cements CEM II/ specific usage restrictions. The following
The environmental impacts of upstream B-M with national technical approval list contains several examples
supply chains, for example the electric- for application
ity used to produce the material, were also  Blastfurnace cements CEM III/A *)  DIN 1053-1 Masonry
considered. Compared to 1996, the contri-  DIN 4158 Filler concrete joists for re-
bution to the greenhouse effect had been re- inforced and pre-stressed concrete floors
Exposure class XF4: CEM III/A in strength
duced by 23 % and consumption of non-re-  DIN EN 12843 Concrete masts and
class ≥ 42,5 N or strength class 32,5 R with up to
newable energies had fallen by 38 %; con- 50 mass % blastfurnace slag poles
tributions to other environmental impacts  DIN 4261-1 Small sewage treatment
were also drastically reduced. These reduc- plants
tions reflect the fact that in Germany more Since 2003, 18 general building authority  DIN 18551 Sprayed concrete
cement is produced with several main con- approvals have been granted for CEM II/  DIN 18148 (DIN 18162) Hollow light-
stituents and that the increased use of sec- B-M (S-LL) and 4 approvals for CEM II/ weight concrete blocks for walls (not
ondary fuels has also had a positive effect B-M (V-LL) in Germany. Apart from the reinforced)
on many key values. approvals for CEM II/B-M (V-LL), 16 ap-  DAfStb Guideline “Manufacture and
provals are currently valid for CEM II/ use of dry concrete and dry mortar” (dry
Application regulations B-M (S-LL). In all the approvals, use is concrete guideline)
in Germany approved for concrete, reinforced con-  DAfStb Guideline “Manufacture and
The current concrete standards DIN EN crete and pre-stressed concrete according to use of cement-based flowable concrete
206-1 and the German DIN 1045-2 con- DIN EN 206-1 in conjunction with DIN and flowable mortar”
V Concrete constituents, concrete technology and concrete engineering

More information on uses of cement ac-

cording to EN 197-1 can be found in Build- 70
ing Rules List A, Part 1, Appendix 1.33 2d 28 d
(2006/1). When engineering structures are 60
built near highways in Germany (ZTV-

Cement strength in N/mm2

ING) the customer must agree to the use of
CEM II-M cements. Despite the restriction,
numerous practical examples have also
proven the suitability of CEM II/B-M ce-
ments with technical approval in this area
of application. In the long term it should be Fig. V-1: Aver-
age standard 20
possible to remove this addendum. compressive
strengths of dif- 10
A working group of CEN/TC 104/SC1 ferent types of
“Concrete” has developed a synopsis of cement based 0
the national application documents (NAD) on the results CEM I CEM II/A CEM II/B CEM II/B CEM III/A
of third-party 32,5 R 32,5 R 32,5 R 42,5 N 42,5 N
for the European concrete standard EN inspection
206-1. It describes some considerable dif-
ferences in the use of cement. Apart from
the traditional differences in market condi-
tions and construction practice, it also re- 1.1
flects the philosophies underlying the im- w/c = 0.50 - 0.60
1.0 c = 300 - 320 kg/m3
position of rules (see VDZ Activity Report
2005-2007). While the German applica- 0.9
Relative compressive strength of concrete

tion standard DIN 1045-2 lays down speci- 0.8

fications for the application of all 27 basic
cement types and for a number of CEM II-M
cements, other NADs only regulate the 0.6
CEM I 32,5 R
application of a few cement types that have 0.5 CEM II/A-S 42,5 N
traditionally played a role in the respective CEM II/A-LL 32,5 R
Fig. V-2: Rela- 0.4 CEM II/B-S 42,5 N
national markets.
tive compres- 0.3 CEM II/B-T 42,5 N
sive strength of CEM II/B-M (S-LL) 32,5 R
Cement properties concretes with 0.2 CEM II/B-M (V-LL) 32,5 R
The properties of CEM II and CEM III/A various CEM II CEM III/A 42,5 N
cements have been continuously improved and CEM III/A CEM III/A 32,5 N
in the course of technical developments in cements com- 0.0
pared to CEM I 0 10 20 30
the manufacturing process. They have also
concrete Age in days
been adapted to suit current requirements,
which has, in turn, considerably increased
the bandwidth of potential applications.
In particular, as regards early strength the
manufacturers have adjusted the CEM II
and CEM III/A cements so that they can
be used in a similar way to the CEM I
cements (Fig. V-1).
CEM II and CEM III/A cements is simi- CEM III/A 32,5 N cement can be classified
Properties of concrete in lar to that of CEM I concretes. To satisfy as a slow strength developer. This classifi-
construction practice practical requirements for early strength cation is important to define the time need-
In addition to the environmentally compat- CEM II/B and CEM III/A cements are ed for after-treatment.
ible manufacture of CEM II and CEM III/A also available in strength class 42,5 N.
cements, because of their composition and Fig. V-2 shows the relative compressive Durability
especially considering the many different strength development of concretes based The durability of the concrete is one of the
technological guidelines for concrete, they on conventional CEM I, CEM II and CEM key requirements for every structure. The
also have several advantages when used in III/A cements with similar concrete com- most important feature is that the concrete
fresh concrete and hardened concrete. For positions and curing conditions. The rela- element used must be resistant to loads and
specific applications – including bridge and tive values result from the relation of the environmental impacts for its intended pe-
tunnel construction and road and building compressive strength of concrete after 2, riod of use, assuming it is maintained and
construction – it is possible to produce op- 7 and 28 days to the 28-day compressive repaired adequately.
timally adjusted concretes. A number of im- strength of the concrete. The test values
portant properties are described below: for a CEM III/A 32,5 N are shown as a Carbonation
comparison. These results allow the in- Investigations of reinforced concrete and
Strength development vestigated concretes to be classified into pre-stressed concrete structures that were
Under practical building conditions, the medium and slow strength development constructed with concretes of different
strength development of concrete with classes. Accordingly, the concrete with the strength classes and with different com-
VDZ Activity Report 2007 – 2009

terion is applied to evaluate the results:

Chloride penetration (migration coefficient) DCI,M in 10-12 m2/s after 28 freeze-thaw cycles, scaling must
20 not exceed 1 500 g/m² for a concrete that is
meant to have adequate freeze-thaw resist-
ance with de-icing salt. This corresponds
15 to a scaling depth of around just 0.6 mm.
Increasing resistance to chloride
penetration This criterion may not be applied to sam-
ples taken from structures.
Application examples
Age of concrete: 35 d
In terms of the workability characteris-
5 c = 320 kg/m3 tics, strength development and durability
w/c = 0.50 of concrete, the CEM II and CEM III/A ce-
Storage in water ments that have been produced in Germa-
0 ny to date have proven their reliability in
CEM I CEM II-LL CEM II-M CEM II-M CEM II-S CEM III practical applications over many decades.
(V-LL) (S-LL)
The current VDZ brochure “CEM II- und
Fig. V-3: Influence of the cement type on the resistance to chloride penetration of concrete
CEM III/A-Zemente im Betonbau – Nach-
using the rapid test method haltige Lösungen für das Bauen mit Beton”
[CEM II- and CEM III/A cements in con-
crete constructions – sustainable solutions
for building with concrete] contains many
1 800 practical examples from different areas of
concrete construction.
1 600 CDF assessment criterium for laboratory test samples ≤ 1 500 g/m2

1 400 Outlook
Minimum Maximum
Scaling in g/m2 (CDF test)

1 200
As an industry that uses a high volume of
energy and raw materials, the cement in-
1 000 dustry is very much affected by demands
800 to conserve resources and reduce the use
of energy and also by the global issue of
climate control. Cement manufacturers
400 are facing these challenges by continu-
200 ously improving their production process-
es in terms of energy and raw materials
(S-LL) (V-LL)
If the industry wishes to continue along
Fig. V-4: Freeze thaw resistance with de-icing salt of air-entrained concretes using the CDF this path consistently, this raises the is-
method, cement content 320 to 365 kg/m3; w/c ratio 0.41 to 0.50; strength classes of the sue of producing cement types that have,
cements: 32,5 R and 42,5 N
in the past, only been produced and used
in small quantities or which are not even
included in the European cement stand-
positions have shown that with construc- no change in the corrosion protection for
ard DIN EN 197-1, even if their composi-
tion components that were weathered out- the reinforcement.
tions are not vastly different from the ce-
doors, the type of cements used in Germany
Freeze-thaw resistance with or ments covered by DIN EN 197-1. A cur-
generally have no effect on the carbonation
without de-icing salt rent research project entitled “Ecological-
behaviour. Although higher carbonation
With the correct composition, process- ly and technically optimised cements with
depths may be found on dry, interior el-
ing and after-treatment according to several main constituents” is involved in
ements, because of the lower moisture con-
DIN 1045, concretes with CEM II and investigating these and similar cement
tent of these elements there is no risk of the
CEM III/A cements have a high freeze- compositions. This project is being car-
reinforcement corroding.
thaw resistance with or without de-icing ried out within the framework of the “kli-
Chloride penetration resistance salt. Consequently, they are very suita- mazwei” research measure which is car-
Due to the finer pore system, in some cases ble for engineering structures and traf- rying out research work into climate con-
the use of cements containing blastfurnace fic areas. Only CEM III/A in strength trol and controlling the effects of climate
slag and fly ash can cause a marked increase class 32,5 N and CEM III/A 32,5 R change ( and is funded
in the concrete’s resistance to the penetra- with more than 50 mass % blastfurnace by the German Federal Ministry for Edu-
tion of chlorides (Fig. V-3). With concretes slag are excluded for exposure class XF4. cation and Research (BMBF).
intended for massive construction com- Fig. V-4 shows some results from freeze-
ponents according to the DAfStb Guide- thaw-test with de-icing salt on concretes The investigations are focussing on Port-
line and when a CEM III/A or CEM III/B containing different cement types us- land-limestone cements with 30 and 35
cement of exposure class XD3 or XS3 is ing the CDF method. If freeze-thaw re- mass % limestone and cements with 10 to
used, the highest permissible water-cement sistance with de-icing salt has to be test- 25 mass % limestone in combination with
ratio of 0.45 may be increased to 0.50 with ed, as a general rule the following cri- blastfurnace slag and siliceous fly ash. The
V Concrete constituents, concrete technology and concrete engineering

Table V-2: Composition of the test cements with several main constituents

Blastfurnace slag Fineness of

Limestone fineness approx. Fly ash fineness ap-
fineness approx. cement Water demand Origin of the
Cement 7 000 cm²/g prox. 4 000 cm²/g
4 000 cm²/g in cm²/g in mass % constituents
(Blaine) (Blaine)
(Blaine) (Blaine)
30 mass % limestone with
30 % LL - - 6 265 31.5 Region 1
70 mass % CaCO3
25 mass % limestone with 10 mass % blast-
10 % S 25 % LL - 6 195 30.5 Region 1
70 mass % CaCO3 furnace slag
20 mass % limestone with 20 mass % blast-
20 % S 20 % LL - 5 150 30.5 Region 2
80 mass % CaCO3 furnace slag
10 mass % limestone with 40 mass % blast-
40 % S 10 % LL - 4 970 30.0 Region 2
80 mass % CaCO3 furnace slag
25 mass % limestone with 10 mass % siliceous
10 % V 25 % LL - 6 325 30.0 Region 1
70 mass % CaCO3 fly ash
20 mass % limestone with 20 mass % siliceous
20 % V 20 % LL - 5 955 29.0 Region 1
70 mass % CaCO3 fly ash


80 80
w/c = 0.50
c = 320 kg/m³
70 70
Concrete compressive strength in MPa
Compressive strength in MPa

60 60

50 50

40 40
30 % LL
30 30 % LL 30 10 % S 25 % LL
10 % S 25 % LL 20 % S 20 % LL
20 20 % S 20 % LL 20
40 % S 10 % LL
40 % S 10 % LL
10 10 % V 25 % LL 10 10 % V 25 % LL
20 % V 20 % LL 20 % V 20 % LL
0 0
0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100
Test age in days Test age in days

Fig. V-5: Compressive strength of cements in relation to test age Fig. V-6: Compressive strength of concrete in relation to test age

cements to be investigated were manufac- tory is shown in Fig. V-5. The results show two exceptions, the concretes at the age of
tured in the laboratory and also by large- that, in general, the strength of the cements 28 days had a similar strength level. Thus, it
scale cement works. During the manufac- produced in the laboratory for the durabil- is generally possible to make a direct com-
turing process granulometric optimisation ity investigations develops in the same way parison of the properties that are relevant
of the main constituents of the cement and as in normal practice. To manufacture the for durability even after this time.
optimisation of the sulphur agents were concretes, aggregate (coarse Rhine sand
carried out with consideration of the ce- from the research facility’s stocks) with a Carbonation
ments’ setting behaviour. Moreover, differ- grain composition A16/B16 according to Fig. V-7 shows examples of the develop-
ent types of main constituents were varied DIN 1045-2, Annex L was used. The com- ment of carbonation depths over time in
(for example, according to origin). The fo- positions of the concrete mixtures are based several concretes that were investigated.
cus of the investigations was placed on the on the limit values for the composition and The concretes were manufactured with a
durability of concretes manufactured using properties of concretes according to DIN cement content of c = 260 kg/m³ and a wa-
these cement types. The results of sever- Technical Report 100 “Concrete”. ter-cement ratio of w/c = 0.65. The carbon-
al selected investigations that provide an ation depths of the concretes containing the
overview of the cements and their com- Fig. V-6 presents examples of the develop- laboratory cements investigated here were
positions are presented below Table V-2. ment of compressive strength in concrete almost all below the values of the CEM III/A
The following results cannot be general- with a water-cement ratio w/c = 0.50 and concrete given as a reference. CEM III/A
ized. They can, however, be used for fur- a cement content c = 320 kg/m³ using se- can be used for all applications (exposure
ther development work. lected cements produced in the laboratory. classes).
As expected, the early strengths of the con-
Compressive strength development cretes with CEM II cements were higher Chloride penetration resistance
The development of compressive strength than concretes manufactured with cements The concrete’s resistance to chloride pen-
in several cements produced in the labora- not included in DIN EN 197-1. Apart from etration was determined with a rapid test
VDZ Activity Report 2007 – 2009

30 % LL w/c = 0.65 30
11 10 % S 25 % LL c = 260 kg/m3 w/c = 0.50
10 20 % S 20 % LL c = 320 kg/m3
40 % S 10 % LL 25
9 10 % V 25 % LL 35 d 98 d
8 20 % V 20 % LL 20
Carbonation depth in mm

CEM III/A Reference

DCI,M in 10-12 m2/s

6 15

3 5
1 0
30 % LL 10 % V 20 % V 10 % S 20 % S 40 % S
0 25 % LL 20 % LL 25 % LL 20 % LL 10 % LL
0 100 200 300 400
Test age in days
Fig. V-7: Carbonation depth of concrete in relation to test age Fig. V-8: Chloride migration coefficients of the concretes in rela-
tion to test age


2.00 120
30 % LL w/c = 0.50 w/c = 0.50
1.75 10 % S 25 % LL c = 320 kg/m3 c = 320 kg/m3
20 % S 20 % LL 100
Relative dynamic elastic modulus in %

1.50 40 % S 10 % LL
10 % V 25 % LL
1.25 20 % V 20 % LL
Scaling in kg/m2

1.00 60

0.75 30 % LL
40 10 % S 25 % LL
0.50 20 % S 20 % LL
40 % S 10 % LL
0.25 10 % V 25 % LL
20 % V 20 % LL
0.00 0
0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63
Number of freeze-thaw cycles Number of freeze-thaw cycles

Fig. V-9: Scaling of concretes in the CF method in relation to the Fig. V-10: Relative dynamic elastic modulus of concretes in the CIF
number of freeze-thaw cycles method in relation to the number of freeze-thaw cycles

method (migration test). The test samples Freeze-thaw resistance with or in the “Freeze-thaw test of concrete” fact
were cured in water for 35 and 98 days without de-icing salt sheet issued by the German Federal Wa-
respectively. Concretes in exposure class Results of the frost resistance tests accord- terways Engineering and Research Insti-
XD2/XS2 were manufactured with a wa- ing to the CF/CIF method and results of the tute (BAW) (Fig. V-9). The BAW assess-
ter-cement ratio of w/c = 0.50 and a ce- tests into frost de-icing salt resistance ac- ment criterion for the CIF method is a rel-
ment content of c = 320 kg/m3. The chlo- cording to the CDF method are presented ative dynamic elastic modulus of 75 %
ride migration coefficients DCl,M (Fig. V-8) and evaluated below. In Germany, asses- after 28 freeze-thaw cycles. As Fig. V-10
that were determined when laboratory ce- ment criterions for scaling (CF/CDF meth- shows, the concretes containing cements
ments containing 30 mass % limestone was od) and assesment criterions for internal with 30 mass % limestone and 10 mass %
used were approximately 28 · 10‑12 m2/s structural damage (CIF method) are defined blastfurnace slag and 25 mass % limestone
after 35 days and approx. 18 · 10‑12 m2/s by the German Federal Waterways Engi- exhibited a relative dynamic elastic modu-
after 98 days, and are thus in the same neering and Research Institute (BAW) in lus of more than 80 % after 28 freeze-thaw
range as concretes made with Portland ce- the “Frost test of concrete” fact sheet. cycles. When cements with a composition
ment. The concretes that were manufac- outside the standard were used, the crite-
tured with cements containing fly ash or In the investigations that were conducted rion was not fulfilled within the scope of
blastfurnace slag exhibited a lower chloride with the CF method, the concretes (cement the investigations conducted by the Re-
migration coefficient DCl,M, which was in content c = 320 kg/m³, water-cement ratio search Institute.
the range of approx. 4 to 24 · 10‑12 m2/s af- w/c = 0.50) exhibited scaling well below
ter 35 days and approx. 3 to 10 · 10‑12 m2/s the assessment criterion of 1.0 kg/m² after The CDF test is used to test resistance to
after 98 days. 28 frost-thawing sequences that is defined freeze-thaw attack with simultaneous de-
V Concrete constituents, concrete technology and concrete engineering

icing agent stress. Generally, a defined de-

icing salt solution is used (3 % NaCl solu- 30 % LL w/c = 0.50
tion). In the test for freeze-thaw resistance 10 % S 25 % LL c = 320 kg/m3
Air content approx.
with de-icing salt (CDF) of air-entrained 20 % S 20 % LL 5.0 Vol. %
concrete surface scaling is dominant and 1.50 40 % S 10 % LL
has priority for the assessment. The CDF- 10 % V 25 % LL
method was tested on concretes with a ce- 1.25 20 % V 20 % LL

Scaling in kg/m2
ment content of c = 320 kg/m³ and a wa-
ter-cement ratio of w/c = 0.50. The results 1.00
are shown in Fig. V-11. Concrete scal-
ing was between 0.35 and 1.25 kg/m² af- 0.75
Fig. V-11:
ter 28 freeze-thaw cycles and was thus be- Scaling of 0.50
low the assessment criterion of 1.5 kg/m² air-entrained
after 28 freeze-thaw cycles which applies concretes in the 0.25
to this method. CDF method in
relation to the
number of 0.00
Figures V-12 and V-13 show compara- 0 7 14 21 28
tive results of further investigations of cycles Number of freeze-thaw cycles
concretes manufactured using cements
produced in the laboratory and in cement
works. A requirement for the large-scale
manufacture of cements in the works was 30
that the manufacturing process had to be 35 d 98 d
adapted to suit constituents that were avail- 25
w/c = 0.50
able locally. As the figures show, the du- c = 320 kg/m3
rability of concretes containing cements 20
DCI,M in 10-12 m2/s

with 30 mass % limestone and 20 mass % fly

ash in combination with 20 mass % lime- 15
stone was improved in some cases. Field
site tests using the works cements under Fig. V-12: Chlo- 10
XF3 conditions will show how the con- ride migration
cretes behave in practice. coefficients of 5
concretes con-
taining labora-
tory and works 0
Cement and admixtures cements in rela- 30 % LL 30 % LL 20 % V 20 % LL 20 % V 20 % LL
tion to test age Laboratory Works Laboratory Works
The use of concrete admixtures to control
the properties of the fresh and hardened
concrete is state of the art in concrete pro-
duction today. Some 90 % of the concrete w/c = 0.50
produced in Germany contains concrete c = 320 kg/m3
admixtures. In 2007, consumption of ad- 100
Relaltive dynamic elastic modulus in %

mixtures in Germany was about 12 kg per

metric tonne of cement. Overall, more than 80
550 concrete admixtures which can be clas- Fig. V-13: Rela-
sified in 15 different functional groups are tive dynamic
elastic modulus 60
presently available in Germany. At approx.
of concretes
75 %, concrete plasticisers and super-plas- containing
ticisers account for the lion’s share. laboratory 40
and works ce- 30 % LL Works
There is still a substantial lack of scientifi- ments in the 30 % LL Laboratory
cally backed understanding of the precise CIF method 20 % V 20 % LL Works
in relation to 20 % V 20 % LL Laboratory
working mechanisms of some concrete ad- the number of
mixtures. The influence that concrete ad- 0
freeze-thaw 0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63
mixtures have on the hydration of cement cycles Number of freeze-thaw cycles
and thus on the properties of fresh and/or
hardened concrete is usually determined
empirically and is the subject of some con-
troversial discussion. This applies espe- Super-plasticisers used today are based on PCE, and the ten-
cially to super-plasticisers based on poly- Synthetic organic polymers with carboxy- dency is rising. PCEs consist of main chain
carboxylate ether, shrinkage reducing ad- lic groups, such as polycarboxylate ethers molecules, such as polyacrylic acid, and
mixtures and new air-entraining concrete (PCE), constitute an advance in the field of side chain molecules, such as polyethylene
admixtures. These have been extensively active ingredients contained in super-plasti- oxide, which are fixed to the main chain.
investigated by the Research Institute. cisers. Some 45 % of the super-plasticisers Via their negatively charged main chain,
VDZ Activity Report 2007 – 2009

0 0
Cement paste with w/c = 0.5
S1 S2
-5 -5
Zeta potential in mV

Zeta potential in mV
-10 -10

BET- Content of Methylene

Surface CaCO3 blue value Cement paste w/c = 0.5
-15 in cm2/g in % in g/100 g -15 without S/LL
LL1 11 881 99.1 0.03 35 mass % LL1
LL2 73 812 83.5 0.33 35 mass % LL2
S1 15 463 – – 35 mass % S1
S2 11 593 – – 65 mass % S1
-20 -20
0 20 40 60 80 100 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50
S or LL in mass % Super-plasticiser in mass % of cement

82 Fig. V-14: Zeta potential of pastes from Portland-composite and Fig.V-15: Zeta potential of pastes from Portland-composite and
blastfurnace cements manufactured in the laboratory with the same blastfurnace cements manufactured in the laboratory with the same
clinker components clinker components in relation to the amount of PCE super-plasti-
ciser that was added

the PCEs adsorb on the positively charged the duration of plasticising of super-plasti- The zeta potential of the cement pastes
surfaces of the cement, its hydration prod- cisers on the basis of the zeta potential. The containing blastfurnace slag shifted in the
ucts and other fine solids particles. The dis- aim is to determine substance parameters same manner from the negative range to-
persing effect is largely attributable to the that must be known to understand the me- wards the isoelectric point (0 mV) as the
steric repulsion of the side chains. Vari- thodical interaction between cement and su- content of S1 and S2 was increased. The
ation of the charge and the length ratio of per-plasticisers e.g. in order to prevent dis- reduction in zeta potential did not corre-
the main chain and the side chains allows colouration of fair-faced concrete surfaces late with the increase in blastfurnace slag.
adjustment of different properties, such as as a result of sedimentation. In water the blastfurnace slags exhibited a
a strong initial plasticising effect and/or ex- zeta potential of approx. -15 mV. LL1 re-
tended workability of fresh concrete. Zeta potential investigations duced the negative zeta potential of the
The zeta potential is an electro-kinetic po- pastes. This course is generally expected
In addition to parameters such as the exact tential in the interface between the mo- in limestone with a very high CaCO3 con-
point when the material is added, the mix- bile and the rigid part of the double lay- tent, which usually exhibits a positive zeta
ing time and the temperature of the fresh er formed at the transition zone between potential in water. On the other hand, LL2
concrete, the effects of the super-plasti- solids and aqueous solutions. The poten- caused an increase in the negative zeta po-
cisers are also affected by the cement that tial indicates the charge conditions on tential of the pastes. Based on initial find-
is used. Practical experience has shown that the particle surface. Changing this poten- ings, this can be attributed to the clay con-
even if the same type and quantity of super- tial by adding super-plasticisers allows stituents in LL2.
plasticiser and the same type of cement are to investigate the adsorption of the su-
used, in unfavourable cases effects such as per-plasticiser molecules on the surfaces The results show that blastfurnace slag and
rapid loss of consistency, segregation, in- of various main constituents of cement. limestone can have a considerable influ-
tensive bleeding and delayed strength de- In the Research Institute the zeta po- ence on the zeta potential of cement pastes.
velopment may occur. While knowledge tential can be determined on suspen- Consequently, the sorption of super-plasti-
of the effects that traditional super-plasti- sions rich in solids with normal w/c ciser molecules can also be affected.
cisers have on Portland cement exists, there ratios using an electro-acoustic meas-
is still need for more research into the inter- uring method. Fig. V-15 presents the course of the ze-
actions between Portland-composite/blast- ta potential in pastes of selected labora-
furnace cements and super-plasticisers Fig. V-14 shows the effect that various pro- tory cements containing blastfurnace slag
based on polycarboxylate ether. portions of blastfurnace slag (S1, S2) and and limestone respectively with increasing
limestone (LL1, LL2) have on the zeta po- quantities of super-plasticiser (PCE). As
The Research Institute is investigating the tential of laboratory cement pastes contain- the quantity of anionic PCE increased, the
effects of the main constituents of cement ing the same Portland cement clinker com- negative zeta potential of the cement paste
(clinker, blastfurnace slag and limestone) ponents. The zeta potential of the cement with no other main constituents shifted to-
on super-plasticiser adsorption. In combi- paste with no main constituents other than wards the isoelectric point. This contradic-
nation with rheological measurements it is clinker was approx. ‑17 mV. tory behaviour is attributed to a shift in the
being determined whether conclusions can measuring level of the zeta potential caused
be drawn as regards initial plasticising and by the adsorbed PCE molecules.
V Concrete constituents, concrete technology and concrete engineering

The zeta potential of the cement paste with

35 mass % S1 and 35 mass % LL1 was al- 0.6
Concrete with
ready reduced considerably in the same CEM I

Total shrinkage in mm/m

way as the cement with no other main con- w/c = 0.50
0.4 Storage
stituents with small quantities of super-
1 d formwork
plasticiser. The zeta potential of the ce- after this 20/65
ment paste with 65 mass % S1 was affected 0.2
slightly by the addition of super-plasticiser. Reference
It is likely that the molecules adsorb main- SRA1
ly on the clinker components and not on the 0.0 SRA2
Fig. V-16: Total 100
blastfurnace slag S1 or limestone LL1.
shrinkage (top)

Shrinkage reduction in %
and shrinkage 80
The zeta potential of the paste with 35 mass % reduction (bot-
LL2 changed only slightly when about tom) of concrete 60
0.3 mass % super-plasticiser was added. with Portland
cement and 40
This is attributed to the large surface area
w/c = 0.50 after
of the clay constituents on to which a cer- dry curing in a 20
tain proportion of the super-plasticiser mol- 20/65 climate;
ecules adsorb non-specifically. When more SRA amount: 0
super-plasticiser was added, this produced 4.5 mass % of 1 10 100 1,000
water Age in d 83
a marked shift of the zeta potential in the
direction of the isoelectric point.

Shrinkage reducing admixtures 0.6

Concrete with
Shrinkage is caused by changes in the 0.5 CEM I
Total shrinkage in mm/m

moisture content in concrete which result w/c = 0.50

in changes in the inner forces in the struc- Storage
0.3 1 d formwork,
ture of the hardened cement paste matrix 6 d under water
due to environmental effects or drying in 0.2 after this 20/65
the concrete. This creates tensile stress that 0.1
causes the hardened cement paste matrix to Fig. V-17: Total 0.0 SRA1
contract. Shrinkage of concrete leads to shrinkage (top) -0.1 SRA2
deformations that may cause stress in struc- and shrinkage 100
tural elements in case of constraint. As a reduction (bot-
Shrinkage reduction in %

tom) of concrete
consequence, cracks can occur that have a
with Portland 60
negative effect on the durability of the con- cement and w/c
crete. The Research Institute of the Cement = 0.50 after cur- 40
Industry is currently investigating whether ing for six days
potentially negative effects can be signifi- under water
cantly reduced through the use of shrink- and then in a 0
20/65 climate;
age reducing admixtures. SRA amount: -20
4.5 mass % of 1 10 100 1,000
To reduce shrinkage of concrete, shrinkage water Age in d
reducing admixtures (SRA) were devel-
oped in Japan at the start of the 1980s and
have also been used in Europe since about
1997. In Germany, SRAs have been used
only in the manufacture of screeds and ce- tigations. Active substances in the SRAs of these findings, the Research Institute is
ment-based mixtures. Since at present no may increase the so-called disjoining pres- currently conducting a subsequent research
general building inspectorate approvals sure effect of the pore solution, the reduc- project funded by AiF. In this project the
have been issued for this type of admix- tion of which is essentially responsible for effect of SRA on shrinkage, the mechani-
ture, SRAs may not be used in load-bear- shrinkage of cement paste. Increased rel- cal properties and the durability of concrete
ing structural elements made from con- ative moisture in hardened cement paste are being investigated.
crete, reinforced concrete or pre-stressed may intensify the disjoining pressure ef-
concrete. fect of the pore solution. However, some Effect of SRA on concrete shrinkage
active substances exhibit no shrinkage re- The first results show that the properties of
The Research Institute of the Cement In- ducing effect. In fact, they increase shrink- fresh concrete are not significantly affect-
dustry conducted investigations into the age of hardened cement paste under sealed ed by SRA, regardless of the water/cement
working mechanisms of shrinkage reduc- conditions and also when the paste is dried ratio or the cement paste content.
ing admixtures as part of an AiF-sponsored at 20 °C and 65 % relative humidity (dry
research project. The results show that the curing). One of the reasons for this could Total shrinkage of concrete containing
shrinkage reducing effect does not corre- be the considerable increase in the gel Portland cement can be reduced by up to
late with the reduction in surface tension pore content compared to hardened ce- about 40 % by SRA depending on the ce-
as assumed in a number of other inves- ment pastes with no SRA. On the basis ment paste content and the form of cur-
VDZ Activity Report 2007 – 2009

ing. Fig. V-16 shows an example of total ratio of w/c = 0.50 was reduced by up to requirements for the air void parameters
shrinkage (top) and shrinkage reduction 7 % with shrinkage reducing admixtures measured on hardened concrete (spacing
(bottom) when the concrete was cured at SRA1 and SRA2 with curing method L2 factor and micro air void content) are not
20 °C and 65 % relative humidity (20/65). and after 91 days. With curing method L1 achieved. In cases such as this, the accu-
The reduction in shrinkage is the shrink- after 2 days the flexural tensile strength rate adjustment of the micro air void con-
age of concretes containing SRA in rela- was about 12 % (SRA2) and approx. 20 % tent, which prevents frost and de-icing salt
tion to the reference sample without SRA. (SRA1) higher than in the concrete with- damage, is no longer guaranteed. To clarify
During curing (L1), the test samples dry out SRA. In contrast, after 2 days curing the facts, in 2006 the German Committee
directly after demoulding within 24 hours. in water the flexural tensile strength of the for Structural Concrete (DAfStb) formed
After one year, total shrinkage was reduced concretes with SRA was about 15 % lower a working group headed by the Research
by shrinkage reducing admixture SRA1 than the reference sample with no SRA. Af- Institute. Extensive research work was also
and SRA2 respectively by about 20 % ter 91 days the effect of the SRA on flexural commenced.
and 40 % respectively (see Fig. V-16, bot- tensile strength was insignificant.
tom). Fig. V‑17 presents total shrinkage Research at the Institute
(top) and the corresponding shrinkage re- The results of the investigations into the Insufficient information is available about
duction (bottom) of concrete containing effect of SRA on the mechanical proper- the precise interactions between air-en-
Portland cement after being cured for six ties of concrete largely confirm the results training admixtures and super plasti-
days under water, followed by curing in already determined for cement paste (see cisers, especially PCE. Because of this, dur-
a 20/65 climate (L2). In the top picture it VDZ Activity Report 2005-2007). ing the period under review the Research
can be seen that the subsequent curing of Institute started work on an AiF-funded re-
the concretes in water had only a minor Air-entraining admixtures search project. The investigations will pro-
effect on the extent of reduction after one In unset concrete air-entraining admixtures vide fundamental knowledge about the ef-
year. When the sample was cured in wa- are added to create a lot of small, evenly fects and interactions between the air-en-
ter for seven days, the respective reduction distributed air voids with a diameter ≤ 300 training admixtures and super plasticisers
in shrinkage (see Fig. V-17, bottom) was µm. In hardened concrete these voids serve in combination with cement. The aim is
slightly less than with dry curing after one as an expansion space to relieve the pres- to manufacture appropriate air-entrained
year and was approx. 10 % with SRA1 and sure created when the pore solution freezes. concrete containing super plasticisers by
approx. 30 % with SRA2. In the research The air voids also interrupt the capillary identifying “robust” admixture combina-
project it is currently being investigated pore system and reduce water absorption tions that enable the specific formation of
whether this behaviour also occurs in con- in the concrete. Both mechanisms of action air voids.
cretes containing different cements and dif- contribute to the adequacy of the concrete’s
ferent water/cement ratios. The results of resistance to freeze-thaw with de-icing salt. The formation of air voids is being inves-
investigations into the effect of SRA on the Road paving concrete which is covered tigated in cement pastes, mortar and con-
shrinkage of concrete with varying cement with de-icing salt in winter must be man- crete with different combinations of air-
paste contents show that the increased ex- ufactured as air-entrained concrete. Other entraining admixtures, super plasticisers
tent of shrinkage associated with increas- areas of application are bridge caps, scrap- and cement. In cement paste and mortar,
ing cement paste content can be reduced er tracks and concretes used in hydraulic the formation of air voids and foam is be-
with SRA. Hence, easily workable con- engineering (exposure class XF3). ing analysed in relation to the admixture-
cretes rich in cement paste can be manu- cement combination. Sorption of the
factured with low shrinkage. Manufacturing of proper air-entrained con- super plasticiser on cement particles is de-
crete requires a suitability test in which the termined with paste and flotation exper-
Effect of SRA on the mechanical pro- main effects that the composition of the iments. In addition, the formation of air
perties of concretes concrete, the temperature of the unset con- voids on unset and hardened concrete will
Many publications state that the compres- crete and the mixing time have on the for- be determined using selected admixture-
sive strength of concretes can be reduced mation of air voids are determined. Suit- cement combinations. In the course of these
through SRA. The effect of SRA on the able regulations for the composition and experiments, the air entraining parameters
compressive strength of concrete was been manufacture of air-entrained concrete are will be determined for hardened concrete
investigated so far on Portland cement con- defined and have proven their worth in the and the concretes’ de-icing resistance will
cretes with a water/cement ratio of w/c past. Traditional super-plasticisers based be analysed using the CDF method. The re-
= 0.50. The concretes were cured in climates on melamine, naphthalene and lignin sul- search project is being carried out in close
(L1), (L2) and sealed (L3). The concretes phonate have long been used to regulate collaboration with the Institute of Build-
with SRA1 and SRA2 exhibited roughly 20 % consistency for the manufacture of air-en- ing Materials Research (IBAC) at Aachen
(SRA2) less compressive strength than trained concrete. University in Germany. One of the focus-
the respective reference concrete with- es here is research into the interactions be-
out SRA – largely regardless of age and When super-plasticisers based on poly- tween air-entraining admixtures and super
curing method. The concrete with shrink- carboxylate ether (PCE) are used, it has plasticisers when fly ash is used.
age reducing admixture SRA1 exhibited a been determined that the requirements for
higher compressive strength than the con- the formation of the air void system are Formation of foam
crete with shrinkage reducing admixture not always fulfilled. Accordingly, in some Initial research has been carried out on the
SRA2 at all ages and with all three meth- cases the air void structure is not stable, foam formation capacity of air-entraining
ods of curing. which means that the total air content and admixture/super plasticiser combinations
the air void distribution can change. In a in cement suspensions. The maximum per-
The static modulus of elasticity of concrete few cases, despite compliance with the to- missible amount of super plasticiser was
with Portland cement and a water/cement tal air content in the fresh concrete, the added (3 mass % of cement). In a stand-
V Concrete constituents, concrete technology and concrete engineering

ardised experiment water, cement and ad-

mixture were mixed in a plain cylinder, fine
air bubbles were introduced to the suspen- 16
sion and the height of the foam that formed Synthetic surfactant First SP Only AEA
14 First AEA
was measured. Fig. V-18 shows the forma-
12 Only AEA
tion of foam in relation to the amount of (Natural active agent)
active agent in the air-entraining admix- Modified wood resin
Only AEA

Foam, height in cm
10 (Synthetic active agent)
ture and super plasticiser (PCE for ready- Addition of SP
(approx. 8 cm) First AEA
mixed concrete) that was added. The ex- 8 (Natural active agent) then SP
periment was stopped when the foam over- First AEA
6 (Synthetic active agent) then SP
flowed from the cylinder (height of foam >
16 cm). This status is shown by the arrow 4 First SP (Natural active agent)
then AEA
in Figure V-18. First, in a “reference ex-
periment” the formation of foam of a syn- 2 First SP (Synthetic active agent)
then AEA
thetic air-entraining admixture (syn. sur- 0
factant) and a natural air-entraining admix- 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40
ture (modified wood resin) with no added
Amount of active agent of air-entraining admixture in mass % of cement
super plasticiser (only air-entraining ad-
mixture) were determined. Subsequently,
Fig. V-18: Formation of foam in a cement suspension in relation to the type and amount
the effect of the time when the super plas-
of air-entraining admixture (AEA) added and the time when the super plasticiser (SP) 85
ticiser was added was also investigated. In is added.
one case the super plasticiser was added
before the air-entraining admixture (first
SP) and in the second case the air-entrain-
ing admixture was added (height of foam
approx. 8 cm) before the super plasticiser
(first AEA). In the second option the aim
was also to investigate whether the forma- Alkali-silica reaction are generally known simply as the Alka-
tion of foam was affected by the subsequent li Guidelines. The latest version of the Al-
addition of super plasticiser. In an alkali-silica reaction (ASR), all con- kali Guidelines was published in Febru-
stituents in the aggregate containing sili- ary 2007. The guidelines are introduced by
With the same concentration of active ca that is sensitive to alkalis react with the the building authorities with publication in
agents, the synthetic air-entraining admix- alkalis of the pore solution in the cement Version 2008/1 of Construction Products
ture exhibited a much stronger foam for- paste. The reaction product is an alkali sili- List A, Part 1.
mation than the air-entraining admixture ca gel that endeavours to absorb water. The
based on a natural active agent. Apart from associated increase in volume is described The Alkali Guidelines are split into three
this, the sequence in which the admixtures as concrete expansion and can cause cracks parts:
were added also had a major effect on the in the concrete. In many concretes an ASR Part 1: General
formation of foam. If about 8 cm of foam takes place with no damage. The triggers Part 2: Aggregates containing opaline sand-
was produced by adding the air-entraining for and the course of a damaging ASR in stone and flint
admixture first before the super plasticiser concrete depend on the type, reactivity, Part 3: Crushed alkali-reactive aggregates
was added, there was less overall formation quantity and particle size distribution of
of foam. The formation of foam was hardly the alkali-reactive aggregate, the effective Effects on building with concrete
affected at all by the subsequent addition alkali content in the pore solution and on The guidelines offer practical solutions
of the super plasticiser and the foam height sufficient moisture being present. If one of for building with concrete which, how-
of approximately 8 cm fell only slightly. the three requirements is missing, no dam- ever, must be applied. In this connection,
If the super plasticiser was added before aging ASR occurs. If the conditions for a it must be mentioned that there is also the
the air-entraining admixture, much more damaging ASR exist, visible cracks can ap- option of classifying an aggregate as non-
foam formed. A possible reason for this is pear in the concrete. However, it is not al- reactive (E I) on the basis of a petrograph-
the reduced sorption of the air-entraining ways possible to distinguish these cracks ic description with no other test being re-
admixture molecules on the cement parti- from other cracks that are the result of oth- quired. This applies to aggregates that are
cles when the sorption places are already er damage, such as frost attack. If a damag- not listed in the guidelines or which are not
filled by the super plasticiser molecules. ing ASR is suspected, it is imperative that excavated in regions listed in the guide-
The air-entraining admixture molecules an expert carries out a thorough examina- lines. A requirement is that no damag-
can stabilise more air bubbles and more tion to clarify whether a damaging ASR ing ASR has occurred with the aggregate
foam forms. It is possible that in practice has taken place. when used under normal building condi-
the effects that occur during the formation tions (Fig. V-19).
of air voids in concrete can be attributed to Regulations
these differences in the sequence in which In Germany, the German Committee for With the concrete formulations and ce-
the admixtures are added. Generally, when Structural Concrete (DAfStb) issues guide- ment contents generally used these days,
concrete is being manufactured the air- lines – “Preventive measures against a there are also many uses in civil engineer-
entraining admixture is added before the damaging alkali reaction in concrete” ­ – ing and engineering structures (moisture
super plasticiser. to prevent ASR damage, these guidelines classes WO, WF, and WA, Table V-3) for
VDZ Activity Report 2007 – 2009

because of the particular stress that they are

Aggregate is subject to. Therefore, General Circulars on
■ not from a region according to Part 2 of the Alkali Guidelines
Road Constructions issued by the German
■ not crushed aggregate according to Part 3 and is not gravel with
Federal Ministry of Transport, Construc-
more than 10% crushed aggregate according to Part 3
tion and Housing will continue to include
No damage caused by ASR in real concrete structures –
requirements above and beyond the regu-
petrographic description Fig. V-19: Re- lations contained in the Alkali Guidelines.
E I (non-reactive) quirements for
These circulars allow flexible responses to
classifying an
No restrictions aggregate as new developments – such as the recent in-
Cement/cement content non-reactive troduction of exposed aggregate concrete.
aggregate (E I) on the ba- In future, the Alkali Guidelines will thus in-
sis of a petro- clude a description of moisture class WS.
WO, WF, WA, WS 1)
graphic descrip- But the regulations for this moisture class
tion with no
Use of road paving cements

Follow the regulations of TL Beton-StB 07 and ARS other tests will be included in TL Beton (German tech-
nical requirements of delivery for concrete)
(see the section on road construction) and
perhaps also in the General Circulars on
Aggregate is
Road Constructions. Preventive measures
regarding concrete for airfields are not cov-
■ from a region according to Part 2 of the Alkali Guidelines ered by the Alkali Guidelines, but have to
Fig. V-20: ASR be determined by experts because special
Test according to the Alkali Guidelines:
test method according to Part 2 of the Guidelines effects on build- de-icing agents are applied on airfields.
ing with con-
(non-reactive) (medium reactive) (reactive) crete when using Alkali reactivity of concrete
No restrictions No restrictions
aggregates from compositions
No restrictions
Cements / aggregates Cements / aggregates a region ac-
Cements / cement contents cording to Part For aggregates that are classified as medi-
aggregates 2 of the Alkali um reactive (E II-O, E II-OF) or reactive (E
c ≤ 330 kg/m3
WO c ≤ 330 kg/m 3
WO, WF Guidelines (c = III-O, E III-OF, E III-S), the Alkali Guide-
(WA with NA) WO
WF cement content, lines require that measures must be tak-
WO, WF c ≤ 330 kg/m3 (WF with NA)
(WA with NA) WO NA = NA ce- en depending on the moisture class of the
WS 1) (WF, WA w. NA) ment according
Use of road paving cements
1) 2)
Applies also to aggregates that have not to DIN 1164-10)
structural element and the cement content.
Follow the regulations of TL Beton-StB 07 and ARS been assessed In the past, these measures have included
replacing the aggregate or using cements
with a low effective alkali content (NA ce-
ment). So as not to unnecessarily exclude
Aggregate is
aggregates or cements from being used, the
■ crushed aggregate according to Part 3 or is gravel with more than suitability of a concrete composition can be
10% crushed aggregate according to Part 3 investigated in performance tests within the
Fig. V-21: ASR
Test according to Alkali Guidelines scope of expert opinions. The test allows
accelerated mortar bar test/concrete prism test effects on build-
ing with con- a statement to be made as to whether for
E I-S (non-reactive) E III-S 2) (reactive) crete when using a specific concrete composition there is a
aggregates ac- risk of an ASR damaging the concrete in
No restrictions cording to Part
No restrictions
Cements / aggregates
relation to its exposure (moisture class). To
Cements / cement contents
3 of the Alkali simulate impingement with de-icing agents
aggregates c ≤ 300 kg/m3: WO, WF, WA, WS 1) Guidelines (c =
300 < c ≤ 350 kg/m3: WO, WF (WA with NA) cement content, or salts, concretes for moisture classes WA
WO, WF, WA, WS 1) c > 350 kg/m3: WO (WF with NA) NA = NA ce- and WS and for airfields are tested with an
Use of road paving cements
1) 2)
Applies also to aggregates that have not
ment according external alkali supply.
Follow the regulations of TL Beton-StB 07 and ARS been assessed to DIN 1164-10)
In Germany, the accelerated concrete prism
test at 60 °C with and without external alka-
li supply and the alternating climate meth-
od are currently used as performance test
procedures. The procedure may be included
aggregates that are classified as E II (medi- are in use and which are exposed to an ex- in a future Part 4 of the Alkali Guidelines.
um reactive) or E III (reactive). Figures V- ternal alkali supply often or for long pe-
20 and V-21 illustrate the fact that in many riods. Examples of this are structural el- Comparative investigations for the per-
cases even for aggregates classified as E II ements exposed to seawater and elements formance test were conducted at the Re-
or E III according to Parts 2 and 3 of the that are exposed to de-icing salt with no ad- search Institute (accelerated concrete
Alkali Guidelines either no measures at all ditional high dynamic stress, such as paved prism test at 60 °C with and without ex-
are required or that technically reliable and and parking areas in multi-storey car parks ternal alkali supply) and at Bauhaus Uni-
economically feasible solutions are avail- or bridge caps (Table V-3). versity Weimar (climate simulation cham-
able. Moisture class WA applies to concrete ber). As a basis for the performance tests
structural elements that are often moist or Concrete road pavements and airfields re- a practice-oriented concrete formula-
moist for long periods of time while they quire special treatment in the regulations tion with w/c = 0.42, c = 370 kg/m³, air-
V Concrete constituents, concrete technology and concrete engineering

Table V-3: Moisture classes according to the Alkali Guidelines or DIN 1045-2

Examples for allocating exposure classes

Name of class Description of the environment
Concrete, which after normal curing is Interior elements in building construction;
not moist for long periods and which Building elements which are exposed to outdoor air but not, for example,
remains largely dry after it has dried out atmospheric water, surface water or soil moisture and/or which are not
under normal use. constantly exposed to relative humidity of more than 80 %.
Unprotected outdoor building elements that are subject, for example, to at-
mospheric water, surface water or soil moisture;
Interior building elements in building construction for wet rooms, such as in-
door swimming pools, laundries and commercial wet rooms in which relative
Concrete that is moist often or for long humidity is generally higher than 80 %;
periods during normal use. Building elements that are regularly below the dew point, such as chimneys,
heat transfer stations, filter chambers and cattle sheds;
Bulky building elements according to the DAfStb Guideline “Bulky concrete
building elements”, whose smallest dimension is larger than 0.80 m (regard-
less of the presence of moisture).
Building elements exposed to seawater;
Building elements exposed to de-icing salt with no additional high dynamic 87
Concrete which, in addition to stress stress (e.g. spray water areas, driving and parking areas in multi-storey car
according to Class WF is subjected to parks);
an external alkali supply frequently or
for long periods. Building elements in industrial and agricultural buildings (e.g. manure tank)
exposed to alkali salts.
Concrete road surfaces in Class IV -VI 1)
Concrete that is subjected to high dynam- Building elements exposed to de-icing salt with additional high dynamic
ic stress and an external alkali supply. stress (concrete road pavements in Classes SV and I -III) 1)
Building classes according to RStO; according to TL Beton-StB 07

1.5 1.5
Effect of 10 % NaCl solution CEM I 42,5 N (st), Na2O equiv. = 0.67 mass %
Limit value 370 kg/m3, w/c = 0.42 Time slot
31 % Sand 0/2, Safe for assessment
1.0 CEM I 42,5 N (st), Na2O equiv. = 0.67 mass % 1.0 15 % Gravel 2/8, Central Germany
Expansion in mm/m

370 kg/m3, w/c = 0.42 18 % Gravel 8/16, Central Germany

Expansion in mm

31 % Sand 0/2, Safe 36 % Rhyolite 16/22, non-reactive

15 % Gravel 2/8, Central Germany
0.5 18 % Gravel 8/16, Central Germany 0.5
36 % Rhyolite 16/22, non-reactive

0.0 0.0
Effect of 0.6 mol NaCl solution
Limit value with de-icing agent
-0.5 -0.5
0 28 56 84 112 140 168 196 0 21 42 63 84 105 126 147 168 189
Age in days Age in days

Fig. V-22: Expansion of concrete in accelerated concrete prism test Fig. V-23: Expansion of concrete in FIB alternating climate test
with external alkali supply with de-icing effect

entraining admixture (air content 4.5 ± simulation chamber with a 0.6 mole sodium ply, similar results were obtained for 11
0.5 % by volume) was used. chloride solution. To summarise, the inves- concrete compositions with both meth-
tigations produced the following picture: ods; the results differed for only one
As variables, five different alkali-reac- concrete composition
tive aggregates and four Portland cements  A total of 12 concrete compositions for  The same results were obtained when
CEM I (32,5 R and 42,5 N) with Na2O concrete road pavings were tested with 12 concretes were tested for moisture
equivalent values in the range be- FIB alternating climate test (ASR per- class WF (without alkali supply).
tween 0.56 and 0.89 mass % were in- formance test) and the accelerated con-
cluded in the test programme. Figures crete prism test at 60 °C with and with- Test cement
V-22 and V-23 show the expansion out external alkali supply (NaCl). A test cement with a high alkali content
of a concrete during the accelerated  In the examination of concrete com- was used to test the alkali reactivity of ag-
concrete prism test at 60 °C with a 10 % positions in moisture class WS in per- gregates according to Part 3 of the Alka-
sodium chloride solution and in the climate formance tests with external alkali sup- li Guidelines. Cement that fulfils the re-
VDZ Activity Report 2007 – 2009

Table V-4: Cements and alkali contents reproduced the results of the test with the
Cement Cement type Works K2O Na2O Na2O equiv. test cement best of all.
in mass % in mass % in mass %
Accelerated concrete prism tests at 60 °C
Test cement A CEM 32,5 R C 1.52 0.26 1.26
according to Part 3 of the Alkali Guide-
Test cement B CEM 32,5 R D 1.55 0.18 1.20 lines, informative appendix B, were car-
Cement 1 CEM 32,5 R A 1.02 0.20 0.86 ried out with crushed rhyolite (Fig. V-25).
Cement 2 CEM 32,5 R B 1.21 0.13 0.93
In the case of the boosted cements, ex-
pansion after 84 days at 0.47 mm/m, 0.51
Cement 3 CEM 32,5 R C 1.19 0.24 1.02 mm/m and 0.56 mm/m was slightly high-
er than the expansion of 0.45 mm/m in the
event of Test cement A. Cement 3 exhibit-
ed the most expansion. In the accelerated
2.0 concrete prism test at 60 °C using boost-
Cement 1 Crushed greywacke
Cement 2 Na2O equiv. of the cement = 1.20 mass % ed cements and unboosted Test cement A,
Cement 3 the aggregate was identified as being al-
1.5 Test cement B kali reactive.
Expansion in mm/m

Limit value

Fig. V-24: Effect of alkali reactivity of
Expansion of test sands on the assessment
88 mortar bars in
of potentially alkali-reactive
the accelerated
0.5 mortar bar test aggregates
with the refer- To test potentially alkali-reactive aggre-
ence method gates the Alkali Guidelines specify, among
0.0 according to the
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 other things, concrete tests in which the ag-
Storage duration in days Alkali Guide- gregates with a particle size of > 2 mm are
used. As a particle fraction < 2 mm an “in-
ert natural sand” is to be used. Test sam-
ples are made from the concrete which
are investigated in aggregate tests (con-
1.5 crete prism test with fog chamber curing
Accelerated concrete prism Cement 1 Fig. V-25: Ex- (40 °C), accelerated concrete prism test
test at 60 °C Cement 2
CEM I 32,5 R Cement 3 pansion of con- at 60 °C).
Test cement A crete prisms in
Expansion in mm/m

c = 400 kg/m3
Limit value
1.0 Na2O equiv. = 1.26 mass % the accelerated
w/c = 0.45 In a previous test of an aggregate in com-
Sand 0/2 mm Rhine sand concrete prism
test at 60 °C
bination with different sands, different
Rhyolite 2/16 mm
with concrete expansion behaviour was observed in the
0.5 containing dif- concrete, which may be attributable to al-
ferent cements kali reactivity of the quartz sand fraction
and an Na2O in laboratory tests, which should actually
equivalent of
0.0 be inert. According to our current knowl-
1.26 mass % in
0 28 56 84 112 140 168 relation to the edge, there are no adequate criteria that
Age in days could prove the suitability of a test sand
for aggregate tests. Consequently, assess-
ments of coarse aggregates in which an
quirements of a test cement according to Cement pastes were manufactured with unsuitable sand is used could have sys-
Part 3 of the Alkali Guidelines is no long- the boosted cements. The chemical com- tematic errors.
er available in Germany. The Research In- positions of extruded pore solutions and
stitute conducted experiments in order to supernatant solutions according to TGL To quantify the effects of a not completely
make recommendations for future require- 28104/17 were determined. The pH values inert test sand on the results of ASR con-
ments for a test cement according to the Al- of the boosted cements were similar to those crete prism tests, a research project was
kali Guidelines. of Test cement A. The addition of potas- initiated and funded by the German Fed-
sium sulphate is suitable to obtain a simi- eration of Industrial Research Associa-
For this purpose three Portland cements lar pH value in the pore solution to that of tions (AiF).
with an Na2O equivalent of (0.90 ± 0.15) the unboosted cement.
mass % were chosen (Table V-4). The ce- Firstly, natural sands rich in quartz from
ments were boosted with potassium sul- Accelerated mortar bar tests (reference various regions were selected, which dif-
phate to obtain an Na2O equivalent of 1.20 method according to Alkali Guidelines) fered in terms of their mineralogy and par-
and 1.26 mass % (alkali content of earli- were carried out using a crushed greywacke ticle size distribution. In addition, crushed
er delivery batches of the test cement, de- and the boosted cement. In all cases, the aggregates < 2 mm from pure limestone
scribed below as Test cement A and Test investigations would lead to the aggregate were used as an inert sand and crushed ag-
cement B). having the same classification in the alka- gregates from alkali-reactive greywacke
li reactivity class E I-S (Fig. V-24). The with a similar particle size were used as
accelerated mortar bar test with Cement 3 reactive sand. The characterisation of the
V Concrete constituents, concrete technology and concrete engineering

sands (petrography, alkali solubility, cal-

cium-binding capacity) show differenc- 3.5
es in the detail, but it is not possible to 3.0 Quartz sand 1
clearly identify reactive sands. The test Quartz sand 2
Fig. V-26: 2.5 Quartz sand 3
according to ASTM C289 (soluble sili- Quartz sand 4

Expansion in mm/m
Expansion of Quartz sand 5
ca) also showed no differences between 2.0
mortar bars in Quartz sand 6
the sands. In the accelerated mortar bar the accelerated 1.5 Limestone
test the use of sands instead of crushed mortar bar test
aggregate produced different expansion with the refer-
ence method 0.5
behaviour in some cases (Fig. V-26). according to
All quartzitic sands caused increased ex- Part 3 of the Al- 0.0
pansion in the mortar; however, in some kali Guidelines -0.5
types a degressive tendency was exhibited. for different 0 7 14 21 28
sands Storage duration in days
Other sands produced a constant increase
in expansion, so that with an extended test-
ing period even the expansion of the mortar 2.0
with the reactive crushed greywacke sand Limestone sand / coarse limestone CEM I 32,5 R
Greywacke sand / coarse limestone c = 400 kg/m 3
was exceeded. Quartz sand 1 / coarse limestone Na2O equiv. = 1.20 mass %
Quartz sand 2 / coarse limestone
Limestone sand / coarse greywacke w/c = 0.45
Greywacke sand / coarse greywacke 30 % by volume 0/2 mm
These sands were chosen for the accelerat- 1.5 Quartz sand 1 / coarse greywacke 70 % by volume 2/16 mm
Quartz sand 2 / coarse greywacke 89
ed concrete prism test and were combined Limit value
Expansion in mm/m

with inert limestone or reactive coarse ag-

gregate in a ratio of 30 % sand to 70 %
coarse aggregate. The concretes were man- 1.0
ufactured with a test cement according to Fig. V-27: Ex-
the Alkali Guidelines. The concretes were pansion of con-
tested according to the Alkali Guidelines crete prisms in
the accelerated 0.5
with fog chamber storage at 40 °C, with
concrete prism
storage in an outdoor exposure site and test at 60 °C
with the accelerated concrete prism test at for different
60 °C. Regardless of the test method used, combinations of 0.0
the reactivity of the sands suggested in the sand and coarse 0 28 56 84 112 140 168
aggregates Age in days
accelerated mortar bar test had no effect on
the assessment of the aggregate (Fig. V-27).
Concrete expansion was achieved on-
ly with the reactive crushed greywacke
sand in combination with inert limestone, NER project, partially funded by the Euro- solution rather than water. Therefore, it is
which was in the range of the preliminary pean Union, had the overall objective of generally assumed that de-icing salt could
limit value. In some cases, the combina- establishing a unified test procedure for facilitate a damaging ASR in concretes
tion of quartzitic sands with the reactive evaluating the alkali reactivity of aggre- containing reactive aggregate.
aggregates led to less concrete expansion gates. In the project, the suitability of
than when inert crushed limestone sand RILEM test methods and some region- For the field site tests all the concrete
was used. However, in every case the ex- al test procedures have been investigat- cubes were manufactured for every ag-
pansion values were well above the lim- ed with different aggregates and types of gregate combination and every aggre-
it value set for the test method. In oth- aggregates that are excavated throughout gate. These were then transported to the
er words, there is no need to fear incor- Europe. The results of the accelerated laboratories and field sites of the partic-
rect classification of alkali-reactive aggre- laboratory tests were compared with the ipating partners. 13 aggregate combi-
gates as a non-reactive aggregate because behaviour of these aggregates in real con- nations with which concrete was man-
of the reactivity of quartzitic test sand. crete structures and in concrete samples ufactured in 5 laboratories were moni-
To estimate whether the observed minor stored in field test sites. The Research In- tored and investigated in 8 different field
effects have any effect on the perform- stitute was in charge of the field tests. sites from Norway to Spain. (Fig. V-28).
ance test of concrete compositions, more In Sweden, samples were stored in a forest
investigations are currently being car- To take account of different climatic con- in Borås and beside a motorway between
ried out on concrete made with road pav- ditions in Europe, the behaviour of con- Borås and Goteborg to examine the added
ing cement (CEM I with Na2O equivalent crete samples in various field sites was in- effects of external alkali supply.
≤ 0.80 mass %) and CEM II/B-S. vestigated. One of the issues pursued in the
project was whether concrete that is par- For each field site two 300 mm con-
Field site tests tially submerged in water is damaged fast- crete cubes were made for each ag-
As with all laboratory tests on concrete that er and more severely as a result of an ASR gregate combination that was to be in-
are relevant to the durability of the con- than concrete that is only exposed to am- vestigated. The concrete composition
crete, it is important to ensure that the re- bient rainfall. Laboratory tests in the past corresponded to that of the concrete
sults from these tests can be transferred to have also shown that concrete samples con- prisms in the RILEM tests AAR-3 (con-
how the concrete actually behaves in actu- taining reactive aggregates expand more crete prism test at 38 °C) and AAR-4
al construction situations. The EU PART- when they are exposed to a de-icing salt (accelerated concrete prism test at 60 °C).
VDZ Activity Report 2007 – 2009

a maximum width of ≥ 0.20 mm in all field

sites from Norway to Spain, regardless of
how they were stored.

Aggregate mixtures D2, G1, N1 and UK1

expanded more and had larger cracks in
mild (Düsseldorf, Watford) and in warm
Trondheim climates (Milan, Valencia). Fig. V-30 illus-
trates this for aggregate mixture N1, which
showed high expansion in Valencia, Düs-
Brevik seldorf and Watford, but which, to date,
Borås has not expanded in cold climates (Borås,
Trondheim). The increase in expansion was
higher in Southern Europe (Valencia) than
in Central Europe (Düsseldorf, Watford).
Fig. V-31 illustrates the expansion of ag-
Watford Düsseldorf
gregate composition G1, the crushed grav-
el from the Upper Rhine Valley.

The results suggest that a damaging ASR

occurs in a similar manner in North and
Milan Southern Europe, the only difference be-
ing that with the same concrete compo-
sition the reaction can take place quick-
er in Southern Europe – which can prob-
Valencia Fig. V-28: ably be attributed to the higher average
Location of out-
door exposure
It is also noteworthy and surprising that the
samples which were exposed only to am-
bient rainfall expanded more and exhibit-
ed larger cracks than the samples that were
stored partly immersed in water.
0.3 0.3

To date no differences have been detect-

Expansion in %
Expansion in %

0.2 0.2 ed in the behaviour of the concretes stored

in a forest in Borås (without alkali supply)
0.1 0.1 and alongside a motorway between Borås
Valencia Valencia and Goteborg in Sweden (with external al-
0.0 Milan 0.0 Milan kali supply).
Watford Watford
Borås forest Borås forest
Trondheim Trondheim After 4 years outdoor storage, the slow-
-0.1 -0.1
0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 ly reacting aggregates IT2, N2, N4, S1
Storage duration in years Storage duration in years and P1 and the non-reactive aggregates
F1 and F2 are not exhibiting any notice-
Fig. V-29: Average expansion of concrete cubes B1(C+NRF); left: the bottom of the cube is able expansion or cracks.
submerged in water to about 5 cm; right: the cube is exposed only to ambient rainfall
One of the conclusions of the PARTNER
project was that in most cases the RILEM
test procedures were suitable for identify-
ing the alkali reactivity of the investigated
aggregates (see Table V-5). The tests were
The samples were manufactured with a ce- cause a damaging ASR. Because of this, it especially suitable for identifying aggre-
ment content of 440 kg/m³ and a Portland is only possible to draw preliminary con- gate combinations that either react within
cement with a high alkali content (1.26 clusions. Table V-5 shows the current re- a “normal” time scale (i.e. 5 to 20 years)
mass % Na2O equivalent). To record any sults of the field site tests and the laboratory or which are non-reactive. There was less
damage resulting from an ASR, the length experiments together so that a comparison certainty as regards identifying slowly re-
changes on the top side and on two oppo- can be made. The results of the accelerated acting aggregates that react after more
site sides as well as the width of any cracks laboratory tests were taken from other sub- than 20 years. Further tests must be car-
were periodically recorded. projects of the PARTNER project. ried out to see whether these experiences
can be generalised. Generally, in the cases
In 2008, the samples had been stored out- The concrete cubes with aggregate compo- where differences were observed between
doors for about 4 years. For slowly react- sition B1(C+NRF) exhibit a lot of expan- the results from the laboratory tests and
ing aggregates this period is too short to sion > 0.04% (Fig. V-29) and cracks with practical experience, they can be attribut-
V Concrete constituents, concrete technology and concrete engineering

Table V-5: Comparison of results from laboratory tests with behaviour in field sites and structures; the results are taken from other sub-projects
of the PARTNER project
Aggregate Combina- AAR-4/ TI-B51/ Field site
Germany/ Reported reactivi-
tion AAR-1 AAR-2 AAR-3 AAR- Chat- test after 4
Norway ty in structures?
old terji years*
“Normally” reactive aggregate combination
B1 - Silicified C R
limestone C+F R R/R R/R R
UK1 - Greywacke C R Yes
G1 - Crushed Gravel C R R R/-
with siliceous limestone Yes
and chert C+NRF R R/R R/- R
G2 - Gravel with opal-
C R R R/- Yes
ine sandstone and flint
C R R R/R 91
N1 - Cataclasite Yes
D2 - Sea Gravel with
C R R Yes, 10 - 15 years
semi-dense flint
“Slowly” reactive aggregate combination
F R R NR/-
IT2 - Gravel with Yes,
quarzite 50 years
C+F NR R/R n.r.
C R R NR/R Yes,
N2 - Sandstone
C+NRF R -/R n.r.. 15 - 20 years

N4 - Gravel with sand- F R R R/R

stone and cataclastic C R R
20 - 25 years
rocks C+F MR R/- MR/MR n.r.
“Non-reactive” aggregate combination
F1 - Gravel with flint C R NR NR/R No, but known
C+NRF NR NR/NR NR/- n.r. pessimum effect
F2 - Non-reactive
F R R R/R Yes, but
S1 - Gravel with meta-
C R source variable in
rhyolite and greywacke
C+F NR MR/- NR/MR n.r. composition

C R NR NR/- Yes, but the in-

P1 - Silicified limestone formation about
the aggregate is
F = fine aggregate
C = coarse aggregate
NRF = non-reactive fine aggregate (=N3F)
NRC = non-reactive coarse aggregate (=F2C)
R = reactive (according to the limit values for the different test methods)
NR = non-reactive (according to the limit values for the different test methods)
MR = marginally reactive (i.e. expansion was just above the limit value for the different test methods)
n.r. = no rating yet possible
* = The evaluation of preliminary results from the field site tests is based on measuring the maximum width of the crack after 4 years of storage outdoors and
expansion during the last 3 years (measurement of expansion was re-started in 2005 as there were problems with zero measurement in some of the field sites.)
AAR-1 = RILEM method AAR-1: petrographic method
AAR-2 = RILEM method AAR-2: accelerated mortar bar test at 80 °C in 1 mole sodium hydroxide
AAR-3 = RILEM method AAR-3: concrete prism test at 38 °C
AAR-4 = RILEM method AAR-4: accelerated concrete prism test at 60 °C
TI-B51 = Danish accelerated mortar bar test at 50 °C in a saturated sodium chloride solution
Chatterji = Chemical test method according to Chatterji
Germany = Concrete test on concrete bars and cubes with storage in the 40 °C fog chamber according to the Alkali Guidelines
Norway = Norwegian concrete prism test at 38 °C
VDZ Activity Report 2007 – 2009

University of Munich (cbm) and the F. A.

0.4 0.4
Valencia Valencia Finger-Institute for Building Material Sci-
Düsseldorf Düsseldorf ence at (FIB) Weimar University.
0.3 Watford 0.3 Watford
Borås motorway Borås motorway
Borås forest Borås forest
Effects of aggregate containing

Expansion in %
Expansion in %

Trondheim Trondheim
0.2 0.2 carbonate/test in synthetic soils
and waters
0.1 0.1 In particular, investigations in the UK
showed that in the event of a sulphate at-
0.0 0.0 tack, carbonate from the binder or from
the aggregate can act as a reaction part-
-0.1 -0.1 ner, leading to damage as a result of thau-
0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
Storage duration in years Storage duration in years masite formation. Since these results were
published, cements and aggregates con-
taining limestone are suspected of having
Fig. V-30: Average expansion of concrete cubes N1; left: the bottom of the cube is submerged a negative effect on the sulphate resistance
in water to about 5 cm; right: the cube is exposed only to ambient rainfall of standard concretes. Since in addition to
that only quartzitic sands and gravels are
used in the normal sulphate resistance tests,
0.4 0.4 there is a lack of experience as regards the
92 Milan Milan effect of aggregates containing carbonate.
Düsseldorf Düsseldorf For this reason, in the Research Institute’s
0.3 0.3
Trondheim Trondheim work package concrete test samples were
Expansion in %

Expansion in %

0.2 0.2 manufactured with quartzitic and carbon-

ate aggregates and subjected to a sulphate
0.1 0.1 attack similar to the attacks that take place
in practice. Table V-6 shows the formula-
0.0 0.0 tions of the concretes used in the research
-0.1 -0.1
0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 The Research Institute carried out the field
Storage duration in years Storage duration in years storage experiments in a gypsum/anhydrite
opencast mine in the state of Lower Sax-
ony, Germany. A total of 60 concrete test
Fig. V-31: Average expansion of concrete cubes G1; left: the bottom of the cube is submerged
in water to about 5 cm; right: the cube is exposed only to ambient rainfall samples were stored in a calcium sulphate
saturated lake near Stadtoldendorf. After
one and two years’ exposure, test samples
were removed from the lake and investigat-
ed. The remaining samples are to be stored
as long as possible in the sulphurous lake
water (10 years storage is planned). On-
ly then will it be possible to make state-
ments about the long-term behaviour of
ed to variability in the aggregate source, vestigation into the sulphate resistance of the concretes.
pessimum behaviour or unreliable infor- concrete”. Funded by the German Con-
mation about the behaviour of the aggre- crete and Construction Engineering Asso- In the second focus of the Research Insti-
gates under practical conditions. In many ciation (DBV), the German Ready-Mixed tute’s investigation, concrete test samples
cases, the accelerated mortar bar test Concrete Industry Association (BTB), were subjected to a defined practice-re-
(RILEM AAR-2) and the accelerated con- VGB Power Tech and VDZ, experiments lated sulphate attack in a synthetic soil. A
crete prism test at 60 °C (RILEM AAR-4) were started to underpin the existing sul- 300-l plastic tank, called a lysimeter, was
mirrored practical experience. One excep- phate resistance regulation when concretes filled with alternate layers of limestone
tion seems to be aggregates with pessimum containing fly ash are used. In particular, chippings, greywacke chippings and meal,
behaviour. Thus, these procedures are suit- the aim was to check the results of labora- quartz sand and potting soil. The concrete
able to assess aggregates with no pessimum tory-based experiments by means of field test samples were then stored in this “syn-
behaviour against the background of lo- storage experiments under natural sul- thetic soil”. The sulphate attack was car-
cal experience where these damage cases phate attack conditions. The series of ex- ried out using a sodium sulphate solution
appear necessary in practice. periments were started at the end of 2006. (1 500 mg sulphate per litre), with which
After a two-year exposure period, the find- the soil material was saturated. At regular
ings obtained up until that point were ag- intervals the sulphate solution was drained
Sulphate resistance gregated in the form of a report at the be- off so that the soil could be dried and then
ginning of 2009. Apart from the Research filled with a fresh solution. This simulat-
In 2006, the German Committee for Struc- Institute of the Cement Industry (FIZ), the ed natural fluctuations in the groundwater.
tural Concrete (DAfStb) initiated a special research programme also involved the Cen- The soil was kept at 8 °C, which is the av-
research project entitled “An in-depth in- tre for Building Materials at the Technical erage soil temperature in Germany.
V Concrete constituents, concrete technology and concrete engineering

Table V-6: Names and formulations of the six concretes; Figures in kg/m³ or mass % of the cement
M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6
Cement content 360 360 360 360 327 327
Fly ash – – – – 82 82
Water 180 180 180 180 180 180
Q 0/02 98 – 97 – – 94
Q 0/2 409 – 407 – – 393
Q 1/2 80 – 79 – – 77
Q 2/8 569 – 566 – – 547
Q 8/16 622 – 619 – – 698
K 0/2 – 591 – 587.5 569 –
K 2/8 – 591 – 587.5 569 –
K 8/16 – 665 – 661 641 –
Q/K total 1  778 1  847 1  768 1  836 1 779 1  709
FM – 1% – 0,75 % 2% – 93
Q: quartzitic aggregate
K: carbonatic aggregate (limestone)

Results Table V-7: Sulphate and cation contents of water samples from the lake and the lysimeter
Water samples were taken and analysed
January July January July March
at the start of the investigation and every Lake
2007 2007 2008 2008 2009
time the samples were assessed. In the lake
water the sulphate concentration fluctuated Sulphate mg/l 1 825 1 744 1 482 1 774 1 477
between about 1 500 and 1 800 mg/l. Apart Calcium mg/l – 610 588 656 564
from about 600 mg/l calcium, roughly Sodium mg/l – 568 527 564 183
500 mg/l of sodium and approximately
50 to 70 mg/l magnesium were discov- Potassium mg/l – 12.3 8.2 9.6 6.5
ered as cations (Table V-7). According to Magnesium mg/l – 70.2 61.3 73.8 49.8
DIN 4030, concentrations above 300 mg/l February July January July January
magnesium are classified as slightly severe Lysimeter
2007 2007 2008 2008 2009
in terms of the level of attack.
Sulphate mg/l 1 449 1 197 1 537 1 514 1 152

At the end of the observation period no Calcium mg/l 235 96 102 115 106
damage was identified on the samples in Sodium mg/l 432 685 788 749 760
the lysimeter or on those stored in the lake
Potassium mg/l 158 62.0 48.7 50.3 37.4
(Fig. V-32). No flaking, cracks or par-
tial surface softening was observed. Par- Magnesium mg/l – – 13.3 12.4 17.9
tial surface discolouration can be attribut-
ed to algae deposits and contact with var-
ious surrounding materials (e.g. the soil).
Fig. V-33 shows the compressive strengths
of the samples. Even in the second year, an
increase in strength was identified in all
six concretes. Although no damage was
identified, investigations were carried out
on hardened concrete structures near the
Fig. V-32: Con-
edge using scanning electron microscopy crete test sam-
(SEM). In all of the concrete samples, un- ples after two
disturbed, dense structures were observed years storage
with no signs of expansion reactions or in the lake of a
structural weakening. gypsum/anhy-
drite opencast
mine and in the
In contrast to the results of the Research lysimeter (syn-
Institute, in the FIB field storage experi- thetic soil)
ments damage was discovered on the con-
cretes manufactured with Portland-lime-
stone cement and fly ash (M6). The con- ited signs of flaking and surface weaken- different observations are to be clarified
crete test samples stored in water in a ing after just one year. Ettringite and thau- in supplementary investigations. These
gypsum cave containing sulphate exhib- masite had formed. The reasons for these investigations are being funded by the
VDZ Activity Report 2007 – 2009

Self-compacting concrete
2 days 30 days
80 400 days lysimeter 400 days lake To assess the workability of self-compact-
760 days lake 730 days lysimeter ing concretes, according to the DAfStb
Compressive strength in N/mm2

Guidelines for “Self-Compacting Con-
60 crete” the slump flow and the V-funnel flow
50 time are to be tested during the initial test,
the manufacturing works’ own production
control and when the concrete is delivered
30 to the building site. According to the DIN
20 EN 12350 series of standards, two separate
test procedures are necessary, namely the
slump-flow test according to Part 8 and the
0 V-funnel test according to Part 9. An alter-
M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6
native to these procedures is the flow-cone
test, in which a cone slump flow and a cone
Fig. V-33: Changes in compressive strength in concrete test samples stored for two years in a flow time can be determined in one exper-
lake and in synthetic soil (lysimeter) iment on a concrete sample.

94 Precise data for the flow cone

194±2 The flow cone (Fig. V-34) was developed
in the Research Institute of the Cement In-
dustry between 2002 and 2006. In earlier
experiments it was shown that there was
no significant difference between cone
slump flow and slump flow according to
DIN EN 12350-8. Cone flow time is pro-

portional to the flow time according to

DIN EN 12350-9. Previously there has
been a lack of precise data that would al-
low the process to be standardised through-
out Europe. This was determined in a round
robin test managed by the Research Insti-
(distance to
base plate)

Fig. V-34: tute. The round robin test was funded by


Diagram of the
63±2 flow cone and
the German Ready-Mixed Concrete Asso-
metal base plate (> 900 x 900) the slump flow ciation, the German Society for Concrete
plate, dimen- and Construction Technology and the Ger-
sions in mm man Cement Works Association.

Table V-8: Precise data for cone slump flow and cone flow time determined with the flow cone Concrete testers from four companies in
in mm or as a % of the average value. Values in brackets calculated from data from a European the ready-mixed concrete industry were
round robin test (slump flow according to EN 12350-8, flow time according to EN 12350-9) invited to the Research Institute. Together
Cone slump flow in mm in % of the average value with a concrete tester from the Institute,
Repeatability r 29 3.9 (approx. 2.5–7.5) over a period of two days they tested sev-
en mixtures of a self-compacting concrete
Reproducibility R 81 10.8 (6.0) with the flow cone. In accordance with
Cone flow time in s DIN EN 12350, the self-compacting con-
Repeatability r 1.1 20.8 (approx. 30–40) crete (powder type) used for the tests had
an average slump flow of 770 mm and
Reproducibility R 1.4 28.4 (39.0)
an average flow time of 5.0 seconds. To
determine the precise data according to
ISO 5725-2, a 5 % error probability was
assumed. The reproducibility R (different
testers) and the repeatability r (one test-
er) was then 2.78 times the standard de-
viation. Accordingly, with a 95 % prob-
German Committee for Structural Concrete In conclusion, it can be said that the core ability the maximum difference between
(DAfStb). The research facilities named statements of the DAfStb status paper “Sul- two individual results is r or R. Table V-
above are again involved in these investi- phate attacks on concrete” from 2003 still 8 shows the precise data that was deter-
gations. The particular focus is on the sim- apply: “Where the standard definitions for mined for testing the cone slump flow and
ultaneous effect of sulphate and magnesi- concrete with a high sulphate resistance the cone flow time with the flow cone.
um. In the mountain cave water (FIB in- have been complied with, no damage has The values in brackets show the results
vestigation) magnesium concentrations of been reported to date.” of a round robin test for corresponding
up to 180 mg/l were measured.
V Concrete constituents, concrete technology and concrete engineering

tests according to DIN EN 12350 Parts 8 Tafel V-9: Investigated concrete compositions (data in kg/m³)
and 9 as a comparison. 1A 1A SAP 1 A SRA 1A HSM
Cement (c) 1) 800 800 800 200
Ultra-high performance Mixing water (w) 168 168 168 176
concrete Silica fume (s) 2)
130 130 130 130
Super plasticiser 24 24 24 13
Due to its very dense structure, ultra-high
performance concrete (UHPC) is extreme- Quartz sand 4) 1 019 1  019 1  000 1 019
ly durable when it is undamaged. How- Quartz meal 5) 220 220 220 220
ever, it has not yet been clarified wheth- SAP 6)
– 2.4 – –
er and under which conditions cracks that 7)
have a negative effect on the durability of SRA – – 7.56 –
the material can occur due to the high autog- GGBS 8)
– – – 600

enous shrinkage of the concrete. Since 1)
CEM I 52,5 R-HS/NA 5)
Particle size 0–0.125 mm
2) 6)
the end of 2005, the Research Institute of 16.2 mass % of cement; proportion of amorphous SiO2 Super-absorbent polymers (0.3 mass % of cement)
approx. 98% Shrinkage-reducing admixture
the Cement Industry has been funded by 3)
Polycarboxylate ether basis (3.0 mass % of cement) (4.5 mass % of cement)
the German Research Foundation (DFG) 4)
Particle size 0.125–0.5 mm 8)
Ground granulated blastfurnace slag
within the scope of the priority programme
“Sustainable building with ultra-high per- 95
formance concrete” to carry out research
work into this aspect, which is very impor-
tant for practical applications.

Free autogenous shrinkage cific concretes and in relation to the tem- have prevented clarification of these con-
Autogenous shrinkage is the main shrink- perature with these conventions is called nections in the past.
age component in concretes that contain time-zero (t0). According to the definition
much less water than they require for the from the Japan Concrete Institute, the start Against this background, a new method
complete reaction of their hydraulically re- of hardening is to be determined with the was developed with the help of the shrink-
active constituents. This applies especial- needle penetration method. However, the age cone from Schleibinger, which is usu-
ly to UHPC. Here the equivalent water-ce- end of hardening is also often used as a cri- ally used to investigate plastic shrinkage.
ment ratio is usually between 0.15 and 0.25. terion. In addition to this, numerous other With a large number of experiments, the
Most autogenous shrinkage takes place in methods have been proposed to determine new shrinkage cone method for determin-
the first 24 to 48 hours. Since it is caused by time-zero, including the rate of shrinkage, ing autogenous shrinkage was optimised
inner drying and as UHPC has a very dense ultrasound time-of-flight and the tempera- and its good repeat and comparison accu-
structure, it is difficult to affect autogenous ture changes. Depending on the criterion racy at a constant temperature of 20 °C was
shrinkage with external after-treatment. If used, there can be vast differences in the proven. The experiments will soon be con-
deformation is prevented, which is often determination of when autogenous shrink- tinued for other temperatures with various
the case in practice, this can cause consid- age starts and, thus, on the results of the European partners.
erable restraint stress and result in a high shrinkage.
cracking tendency. Restrained autogenous shrinkage
Measuring the shrinkage is another difficul- The “ring test” was adapted in order to in-
Start and measurement of ty. Worldwide there are many different test vestigate restraint stress and cracking ten-
autogenous shrinkage procedures in which autogenous shrinkage dency as a result of restrained autogenous
Autogenous shrinkage is part of the chem- is measured linearly or volumetrically, hor- shrinkage. This procedure is especially
ical shrinkage process. The latter starts izontally or vertically and on test samples popular in the USA to investigate crack-
when water and cement come into contact of different shapes and sizes. In combi- ing tendency as a result of restrained dry-
with each other; the reaction products oc- nation with the above-mentioned issue of ing shrinkage. The shrinkage reduction of
curring with hydration have a smaller vol- when to start the evaluation (time-zero), a concrete ring is restrained by an internal
ume than the starting materials. Autog- the different measuring methods have re- steel ring. Strain gauges on the inside of the
enous shrinkage starts as soon as a solid sulted in considerable variances in the past. steel ring allow restraint deformation to be
pore system forms and the relative moisture It was thus necessary to improve the meth- measured, from which it is possible to cal-
in the initially water-saturated pores reduc- odology. A new test procedure was there- culate the maximum tensile stress in con-
es due to continuing hydration. The inner fore needed to provide evidence of good crete. To calculate cracking tendency the
drying of the increasingly solid structure repeatability and reproducibility. It also restraint stress that is determined is con-
causes a macroscopic volume reduction. had to be economical in order to allow as sidered in relation to the tensile strength.
large a number of measurements as possi- A sudden reduction in the deformation of
It is extremely difficult to determine ex- ble. Ideally, the measuring assembly need- the steel ring indicates the formation of a
actly when inner drying starts. Therefore, ed to be a serially produced product that larger crack.
experimental conventions are used to dif- third parties could purchase. To investi-
ferentiate between autogenous chemical gate the effect of temperature on autog- In an extensive test programme, the cracking
shrinkage and the chemical shrinkage that enous shrinkage, it needed to be possible tendency of various ultra-high performance
takes place prior to this. The start of autog- to actively influence the temperature of concretes was investigated (Table V-9).
enous shrinkage to be determined for spe- the concrete. The experimental difficulties On the basis of a reference concrete (1A),
VDZ Activity Report 2007 – 2009

sive vibration-compression process and can

Fig. V-35: then be removed from the mould immedi-
1.0 Autogenous ately, retaining the shape of the mould, due
1A shrinkage of to what is known as green stability. When
Autogenous shrinkage in mm/m

0.8 concretes 1A, the composition is correctly formulated,

1A SAP, 1A
1A HSM the compressed concrete achieves a high
0.6 SRA and 1A
HSM up to 24 level of stability and density as well as a
hours, aver- high resistance to freeze-thaw with de-ic-
0.4 age values of 3 ing salt or chemical attack.
0.2 with the shrink- Modified slab test
age cone meth-
0.0 od, evaluations The regulations for concrete products,
6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 from the start standard series EN 1338, 1339 and 1340,
Age in h of restraint are currently being revised. The modi-
stress in the fied slab test, a method for determining
ring test the resistance to freeze-thaw with de-ic-
ing salt attack, is on the test rig. Essen-
tially, the method differs from the slab
test according to DIN CEN/TS 12390-9
in terms of the size and properties of the
96 1.0
test areas, the preliminary storage of the
specimens, the test age and the number of
freeze-thaw cycles (Table V-10).

The evaluation of about 40 tests by VDZ
Cracking tendency

Fig. V-36: member companies using the modified slab

0.4 Cracking
1A test showed scaling of roughly 20 g/m²
tendency as a
0.2 1A SAP ratio between to approx. 850 g/m² after 28 freeze-thaw
1A SRA cycles. In practise no damages have been
1A HSM restraint stress
0.0 and tensile split- recorded for concrete products with such
6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 ting strength, scaling. This would confirm that the maxi-
Age in h dotted area: mum scaling of 1000 g/m² according to the
trend standard is an adequate criterion for dura-
ble concrete products. In addition to the sta-
tistical variation, the main reasons for the
somewhat large range of individual scal-
ing results would appear to be the sampling
procedure itself, the condition of the sam-
through the use of super-absorbent poly- method for testing autogenous shrinkage ples and the number of samples. Because
mers (1A SAP), a blastfurnace slag meal cracking tendency. This relatively simple of this, it is recommended that the number
(1A HSM) and a shrinkage-reducing ad- method also has a lot of potential for fur- of samples be increased from the present
mixture (1A SRA), it was possible to re- ther research. With the fine-particle con- three to at least five and that representative
duce free autogenous shrinkage to various cretes used here it was possible to choose sampling is ensured. Experience and rec-
degrees (Fig. V-35). The cracking tenden- cross-sections so small that quasi-isother- ommendations are being discussed inten-
cy reduced considerably in concretes 1A mal and non-isothermal experiments would sively in the BDB-VDZ Discussion Panel
SAP and 1A SRA (Fig. V-36). In spite of be easily possible. This is an important pre- „Quality of concrete construction compo-
less shrinkage, concrete 1A HSM still ex- condition for answering open questions nents“ and the results of these discussions
hibited a similarly high cracking tendency about the effects of temperature. It will should be considered in the regulations.
to concrete 1A. This was mainly attributed still have to be clarified to what extent the
to the very slow development of strength. cracking tendencies determined here un- Colour deviation in concrete
Very small cracks, irrelevant for durabili- der quasi-isothermal conditions are suit- products
ty, developed in concrete 1A HSM. There able for describing the behaviour of con- The above-mentioned discussion panel also
were no visible cracks in the other con- cretes in the temperatures that are general- examined the possible causes of occasion-
cretes. With all concretes the maximum ly experienced in practice. The shrinkage al colour deviations in concrete products.
cracking tendency occurred in the first 24 cone method and the ring test are suitable At present there is very little known about
hours. Up to about 70 % of the stress that methods for this purpose. the causes for colour deviations in con-
would be expected with purely elastic be- crete products.
haviour of the concrete in this timeframe
was compensated for by creep. With all Earth-dry concrete Currently, the discussion panel is develop-
concretes the level of restraint in the first ing an investigation programme in which
24 hours was in excess of 80 %. Earth-dry concrete is used for products the effects of the concrete composition, the
such as paving slabs, paving blocks, kerb- cement properties and the production tech-
In the investigations that were conducted stones and concrete pipes. The concrete is nology will be examined systematically.
the ring test proved to be a very promising compacted in steel moulds with an inten-
V Concrete constituents, concrete technology and concrete engineering

Table V-10: Comparison between slab test according to DIN CEN/TS 12390-9 and modified slab test according to EN 1338 to 1340, Annex D
Slab Test Modified Slab Test
(DIN CEN/TS 12390-9) (EN 1338 to 1340, Annex D)
7 500 < A < 25 000 mm²,
4 slabs 150 x 150 x 50 mm³
Specimens d < 103 mm, acceptance test:
A = 90 000 mm²
3 blocks
Test area sawn (centre of cube) Surface

Curing 1d mould; 6d water 20 °C 21 d 20/65 –

7 d in 20/65, 3 d H2O,
Preliminary storage 3 d with 3 % NaCl
0.25 to 0.5 h with 3 % NaCl
Test age at preliminary storage 28 d ≥ 28 d, at acceptance test: 35 d
Testing direction one side one side
Tmin/Tmax; adm. ∆T at Tmin -18 °C/+20 °C; to ± 2 K -18 °C/+20 °C; to ± 2 K
rate of cooling/thawing 2.5 K/h / 6.5 K/h 2.5 K/h / 6.5 K/h
Duration /number freeze-thaw cycles 24h / 56 freeze-thaw cycles 24h / 28 freeze-thaw cycles
< 1.0 kg/m² after 28 freeze-thaw cycles
Testing criterion (scaling) < 1.0 kg/m² after 56 freeze-thaw cycles 97
Indiv. value < 1.5 kg/m³

Floor screeds
80 8

Residual moisture after kiln drying in mass %

CEM II/B-S 32,5 R CEM I 32,5 R
Cement-based floor screeds have been used
Compressive strength in MPa

CEM II/B-S 42,5 N 7 CEM II/B-S 32,5 R

in residential, commercial and industri- CEM II/A-LL 32,5 R CEM II/A-LL 32,5 R
Cement screed with CEM II

60 CEM II/B-M (V-LL) 32,5 R 6
al buildings for many years. Compared to CEM II/B-M (S-LL) 32,5 R V2
other mineral bonded screeds they are su- 5
perior in terms of resistance to moisture, 40 4
which makes them ideal for indoor and 3
outdoor use. The manufacture of cement
20 2
screeds is a complicated process in which Test on standard prism V1: w/c = 0.79; V2: w/c = 0.78; V3 w/c = 0.47
the choice of suitable constituents and the Age between 1 d and 56 d 1 c = between 270 kg/m 3 and 310 kg/m 3
Temperature: 10 °C and 20 °C Without admixture
underlying conditions at the building site, 0 0
0 20 40 60 80 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
such as transport, storage, mixing, pump- Compressive strength in MPa
ing and laying at the location all play an Cement screed with CEM I 32,5 R Age in days
important role.
Fig. V-37: Compressive strength of cement- Fig.
V-38: Age-related residual moisture af-
based screeds (c between 270 kg/m³ and ter kiln drying at 105 °C

Occasional problems in the manufacture of
320 kg/m³; w/c between 0.42 and 0.79; with
cement screeds in practice are still respon- and without admixtures)
sible for some reservations in the industry
regarding the use of Portland-composite
and blastfurnace cements in this area. The
German Federal Association for Screeds
and Coverings (BEB), based in Troisdorf, individual results the following properties  Portland-limestone cement CEM II/
invited representatives from the cement were analysed: workability and air con- A-LL 32,5 R
and admixture industries to discuss their tent, strength development (Fig. V-37), fi-  Portland-burnt shale cement CEM II/
experiences as regards the use of CEM II nal strength and surface strength, residual B-T 42,5 N
cements in screeds. From the case studies moisture (Fig. V-38), shrinkage and curl-  Portland slag cement CE M I I /
it was not possible to show that the type ing. No significant effect from the cement A-S 32,5 R
of cement was the sole cause of any prob- type could be identified and the structural  Portland slag cement CE M I I /
lems. Influences from the other constitu- engineering properties of cement screeds B-S 32,5 R
ents, the installation and the conditions at containing CEM I, CEM II and CEM III/  Portland slag cement CE M I I /
the building site must be included in the A cements were similar in the laboratory B-S 42,5 N
analysis. VDZ and its members examined and under practical building conditions.  Portland-composite cement CEM II/
the effects that the type of cement has on In the evaluated investigations any effects B-M (S- LL) 32,5 R.
the properties of screeds. on the test results resulting from tempera-
ture, the shape of the test piece or the test- In practice, screed installers have report-
The Research Institute assessed compara- ing method were independent of the ce- ed occasional problems (such as low sur-
tive studies of cement-based screeds with ment type used. face strength, formation of cavities, slow
various cement compositions but other- drying) when they changed from CEM I
wise with the same constituents and iden- At present, mainly the following CEM II cement to CEM II cement. In some cases
tical manufacturing and testing condi- cements are used to manufacture cement reported from the industry, it appears that
tions. From a database of more than 700 screeds: cements were used that are not subject to
VDZ Activity Report 2007 – 2009

the concrete structures are extremely du-

rable. Because of this, durability has been
one of the focuses of the Research Insti-
tute’s activities.

Alkali-Silica Reaction
During the period under review the new
version of the Alkali Guidelines from the
German Committee for Structural Concrete
(DAfStb) “Preventive measures against
damaging alkali reactions in concrete” was
adopted. Road surfaces made from con-
Fig. V-39: Im- crete in Classes SV and I to III are to be
pregnating the
concrete road classified in moisture class “moist + exter-
surface with nal alkali supply + strong dynamic stress”
linseed oil (WS), road surfaces in Classes IV to VI are
to be classified in the moisture class “moist
+ external alkali supply” (WA). In addi-
tion, TL Beton-StB 07 contains require-
ments for the cements and aggregates for
concrete road surfaces (see article on Al-
third-party inspection by the VDZ quality These measures include choosing a dif- kali-Silica Reaction).
surveillance organisation and which were ferent aggregate (quality, supplier, grad-
manufactured by companies that do not be- ing curve), a different screed admixture The measures taken there should prevent
long to VDZ. In some cases it has been re- (type of admixture, admixture manufactur- the occurrence of a damaging alkali-silica
ported that also “CEM II-M cements” were er, amount of admixture) or a different ce- reaction (ASR) in future.
delivered with no data about the main con- ment (cement type, cement manufacturer,
stituents and without a conformity certifi- cement strength class) or changing the mix- Early measures to maintain road surfac-
cate or the national compliance marks. ing ratio of the mortar and extending the af- es already damaged as a result of an ASR
These products should not be used. ter-treatment and the length of time that the could possibly prolong their service life.
screed must not be walked upon. A working group from the German Feder-
The meetings between the German Ce- al Ministry of Transport with the partici-
ment Works Association (VDZ), the Ger- The results of the collaboration between pation of the Research Institute compiled
man Federal Association for Screeds and VDZ and BEB are contained in instruc- a list of technical options to maintain these
Coverings (BEB) and the Federal Special- tions for the manufacture of cement screed concrete road surfaces. The targeted use of
ist Group for Screeds and Coverings in the mortars. suitable measures should extend the life
Central Association of the German Con- of the affected roads and avoid them hav-
struction Industry (ZDB) in May 2008 re- ing to be renewed prematurely. The meas-
sulted in a joint statement – “Information to Traffic route engineering ures were defined in relation to the degree
manufacture cement-based screeds.” This of damage.
statement paves the way for ensuring and It is expected that the amount of traffic on
disseminating high-quality methods for us- European roads will continue to increase Three damage categories were formed: 1:
ing cement screeds. In line with this, VDZ in the long term; this is especially true for start of crack formation, 2: serious cracking
in collaboration with BEB and representa- heavy transport. Despite the expansion of and 3: very serious cracking and concrete
tives of the cement and admixture industries rail networks throughout Europe, a large breaking off (loss of load-bearing capac-
examined the issues associated with the proportion of the goods will still be moved ity). Road surfaces in damage categories
manufacture of cement screeds in relation by road. It is thus an advantage to have du- 2 and 3 have to be covered with asphalt in
to the different influences. The effects of the rable, low-maintenance construction meth- varying thicknesses to improve their load-
constituents and also of the manufacturing ods that allow traffic to flow smoothly with- bearing capacity. The effectiveness of oth-
process, the installation and the conditions out any hindrances, for example due to road er measures is to be investigated for road
on the building site were all considered. works. Within the scope of the infrastruc- surfaces in Category 1, with only shallow
ture programme from 2009 funding will cracks and where the load-bearing capac-
The basis for manufacturing screeds is the be provided to develop infrastructure fa- ity is not reduced. For this purpose, a test
list of requirements in DIN EN 13813 as cilities. Concrete construction methods are section was set up on the A14 motorway in
regards the construction method and the characterised by high load-bearing capaci- Germany (built in 2000). The road surface
specific building project. Screed installers ties and stability against deformation, low has two layers in which a reactive aggre-
generally check the suitability of the screed maintenance costs and a long service life gate was used in the top course concrete.
composition with the planned constituents and have, in the past, mainly been used to Various test sections were set up in sum-
in the initial test at a working consistency build major roads with a high proportion mer 2008. Two different methods were in-
normally found on building sites. If unde- of heavy goods traffic. Concrete construc- vestigated which are used in road mainte-
sired screed properties (such as inadequate tion methods are also to be extended to nance to e.g. improve grip: a bitumen emul-
workability, inadequate strengths) are iden- cover the area of municipal road building. sion applied as DSK slurry surfacing and an
tified, suitable measures must be taken to An important requirement for the planned epoxy resin coating. DSK slurry or coating
improve the quality of the screed mortar. expansion of the application areas is that was applied to the road surface and then a
V Concrete constituents, concrete technology and concrete engineering

polishing-resistant aggregate was spread

over the surface. Two sections were also
impregnated with linseed oil (Fig. V-39)
and a hydrophobing agent respectively.
With these four variants the moisture ab-
sorption of the concrete was reduced. If the
effect is long term, this removes the con-
ditions for a damaging ASR – swelling of
the gel that occurs as a result of water ab-
sorption. In another variant the surface of
the concrete road was treated with a lithi-
um nitrate solution. Lithium bonds much
better to the alkali-silicate gels than sodi-
Fig. V-40: Con-
um or potassium. The gel that is formed
crete round-
does not swell as much when it comes in- about in Bad
to contact with water. A requirement is that Sobernheim
the lithium can penetrate sufficiently deep
into the roughly 7 cm thick damaged top
course concrete. The fundamentals for lithi-
um treatment were developed in a previous
research project carried out by the Research
Institute for the German Federal Ministry
for Transport, Building and Urban Devel- Regulations between the iteration steps and the actu-
opment (BMVBS). To assess the success To achieve a standard design of the con- al progress of hydration was calculated in
of the measures, the test sections and ad- tractual fundamentals in terms of the spe- VCCTL for every cement via a time con-
ditional reference sections are being moni- cial needs of municipal road construction, version factor, which determines the time
tored by the Federal Highway Research In- it would be advantageous to adapt the reg- comparison with the measured hydration
stitute (BASt). Crack development is deter- ulations (TL and ZTV Beton-StB 07). Suit- heat. To simulate compressive strength af-
mined at various points in time. able codes of practice should be drafted, ter 28 days, as late a time as possible was
for roundabouts for example. Experience chosen for the comparison, the hydration
Concrete in municipal road has shown that this makes implementation heat values after seven days.
construction much easier.
Areas of application for concrete road sur- Fig. V-41 shows the progress of hydration
faces in the municipal area are, for exam- heat for two Portland cements CEM I 32,5 R
ple, roundabouts, bus stops and bus lanes, from different origins. The 7-day compar-
inner-city crossings, heavily used approach Modelling ison of the simulated hydration heat to the
roads in major cities and also whitetop- hydration heat determined by heat flow ca-
ping, where a concrete overlay is applied On the basis of 50 normal cements manu- lorimetry (TAM) produced with some ce-
to an existing asphalt surface. So far, there factured in Germany with different compo- ments (Fig. V-41, left) a good correlation
has been little use of concrete construction sitions, investigations were carried out in with the hydration heat trend while with
methods in these areas, which would sug- the Research Institute within the scope of others (Fig. V-41, right) the correlation
gest that there is a lot of potential. Conse- AiF research project no. 14767 N to iden- was not so good.
quently, pilot projects are to be carried out tify the boundary conditions under which
for the named areas to gather experience it is possible to calculate the standard com- The simulated hydration heat trend devi-
in all phases from planning through to im- pressive strength of 28-day old cement ated from the measured hydration heat in
plementation. The planned equipment engi- based on key cement data with the help of many cements. In many cases the simulat-
neering has to be adapted to suit the respec- the Virtual Cement and Concrete Testing ed development of hydration heat was well
tive local conditions. If necessary, a part- Laboratory (VCCTL) software product. above the measured hydration heat. In these
ner-like cooperation should be established cases the simulated hydration proceeded
with the local concrete suppliers. The con- The input data for the simulation calcu- faster than the actual hydration.
struction work can be carried out by re- lation were chemical-mineralogical and
gional construction companies. The only physical parameters of cement and aggre- In the investigation as to whether groups of
requirement is that these companies have gate as well as key data that was determined cements could be aggregated for the simu-
sufficient experience in concrete construc- by digital image analysis (e.g. clinker phase lation calculations by choosing certain pa-
tion. Upon completion of the pilot projects distribution). The simulation calculations rameters, no direct connection between the
the knowledge gained from them should be were compared with the results from the strength class and the time conversion fac-
documented and published. experimental investigations (e.g. hydration tor was identified.
heat, composition of the pore solution, po-
One example of a successful pilot project rosity, compressive strength). While the simulation calculations for the
is the first concrete roundabout in Germa- effect of the tricalcium silicate content on
ny, which was built in 2008 (Fig. V-40). Simulation of cement hydration compressive strength largely matched the
Concrete roundabouts are now widespread Age-related simulation of cement hydra- experience values, the effect of sulphate
in Austria, Belgium, the Netherlands and tion was carried out through iteration un- agents on hydration heat development did
Switzerland. til a desired end point. The connection not meet expectations.
VDZ Activity Report 2007 – 2009

400 400

300 300

Hyd. heat in J/g

Hyd. heat in J/g

200 200

100 Simulation 100 Simulation

0 0
0 24 48 72 96 120 124 168 0 24 48 72 96 120 124 168
Age in h Age in h

Fig. V-41: Hydration heat of two Portland cements CEM I 32,5 R from different origins simulated and determined using heat flow calorimetry
(TAM); left good, right less good correlation of the hydration heat after comparison with the 7-day value (168 h)


With some cements, simulation of the com- pressive strength was calculated using the Consideration of the aggregate
position of the pore solution produced sul- following equations To investigate the deviations between the
phate and calcium ion concentrations in the simulated porosity and the calculated com-
pore solution that were clearly too high. D(t) = D0 · X (t)n1 pressive strength and the corresponding
Even when the sulphate agent was fully and measured value for standard mortar, the
consumed with these cements, the simulat- D(t) = D0 · (1 – P(t))n2)) influence of various parameters were con-
ed sulphate ion concentration in the pore sidered to take account of the aggregate in
solution remained at almost the same level. The measured compressive strengths of ce- simulation calculations.
The programme code needs to be examined ment paste and standard mortar were com-
as regards consideration of the setting regu- pared with the corresponding simulated de- On the whole it became clear that especial-
lator types. velopment of compressive strength. To re- ly the choice of the modulus of elasticity for
flect the measured development of com- the aggregate, the particle size distribution
Porosity pressive strength by means of the simulated of the standard sand and the size and prop-
The porosities for cement paste aged 7 and development of compressive strength, for erties of the contact zone are important fac-
28 days determined with mercury intrusion each cement the variables D0 and n had to tors for the simulation calculation of com-
were up to 10 % by volume above the re- be determined separately on the basis of pressive strength after 28 days.
spective values of the simulation calcula- the measured compressive strengths. Com-
tion. Among other things, this can be at- pared to the values D0 = 203 MPa and n = Summary
tributed to the fact that only “capillary po- 4.67 mentioned by Locher, the compres- To summarise, it can be said that the simu-
rosity” is contained in the VCCTL pro- sive strength of the pore-free cement paste lation of the development of compressive
gramme. In many cases, the pore volume D0 and also the variable n were lower for strength in standard mortar up to 28 days
determined with mercury intrusion po- most of the investigated cements. No gen- old could not be predicted reliably for the
rosimetry was ≥ 0.01 µm of the simulat- eral values for D0 or n to approximate the different cements without using informa-
ed porosity. The measured porosities of development of compressive strength in tion concerning the aggregate.
standard mortar were, as expected, well be- different cement types and strength class-
low the measured porosity of the respec- es could be derived. Apart from the parameters of the cements
tive cement paste. In contrast, the mor- used, the parameters of the aggregate and
tar porosity simulated with VCCTL more Alternatively, with the VCCTL software the transition zone from stone to unaffect-
or less matched the simulated porosity of it is possible to calculate compressive ed cement matrix are also important for
the respective cement paste. This allows strength on the basis of correlations with the result of the simulation. Simply vary-
the conclusion to be drawn that the poros- the modulus of elasticity independently ing these parameters within the normal
ity of mortar has not been simulated cor- from the simulated porosity. The values of fluctuation range can have a serious effect
rectly to date. the modulus of elasticity from the simula- on the result of the simulation.
tion calculations were, on average, about
Compressive strength 2.6 GPa above the measured values. The Basically, the VCCTL model seems suit-
Simulation of cement hydration provid- compressive strengths measured on the able for mapping hydration of cement.
ed the composition of the structure and, basis of the simulated modulus of elastic- However, the software requires further
consequently, data about the space filling ity were below the measured compressive development especially in terms of simu-
behaviour of the hydration products X(t) strengths and correlated with the simu- lating porosity of mortar and the compo-
and about porosity P(t). With the help of lated high porosities of standard mortar sition of the pore solution and also as re-
Powers' approach, which assumes a basic but not with the simulated high modulus- gards the influence of sulphate on the hy-
strength of the structure D0 which is re- es of elasticity. dration process.
duced by porosity, the course of the com-
V Concrete constituents, concrete technology and concrete engineering

Table V-11: Exposure class-related requirements for a planned life of at least 50 years in terms of the minimum and maximum values and the most
frequently used value for minimum concrete cover, the minimum compressive strength class, the maximum permissible water-cement value and
the minimum cement content
Minimum con-
Maximum permissible minimum cement content
Exposure crete cover, Minimum compressive strength class
water-cement value in kg/m³
class mm
min max min max m.f.u.v. min max m.f.u.v. min max m.f.u.v.
XC1 10 20 NS C25/30 C20/25 0.60 NS 0.65 NS 300 260
XC2 15 35 NS C28/35 C25/30 0.55 NS 0.60 150 300 280
XC3 10 35 NS C32/40 NS, C25/30 0.45 NS 0.55 150 340 280
XC4 15 40 NS C32/40 NS 0.45 NS 0.50 150 340 300
XD1 25 40 NS C40/50 C30/37 0.45 0.60 0.55 150 360 300
XD2 25 55 NS C40/50 C30/37 0.40 0.55 150 360 300
XD3 33 55 NS C50/60 C35/45 0.40 0.45 0.45 150 400 320
XS1 25 40 NS C40/50 C30/37 0.45 0.55 150 360 300
XS2 25 45 NS C40/50 C35/45 0.40 0.55 0.45 150 360 320, 360 101

XS3 30 50 NS C50/60 C35/45 0.35 0.45 0.45 150 400 320

XF1 – – NS C32/40 NS 0.55 0.60 0.60 NS 300 300
XF2 – – NS C35/45 NS 0.45 NS 0.55 NS 340 300
XF3 – – NS C40/50 NS 0.45 0.60 0.50 NS 340 300, 320
XF4 NS C40/50 NS 0.40 NS 0.45 NS 400 340
XA1 – – NS C35/45 NS 0.40 0.60 0.55 150 380 300
XA2 – – NS C40/50 C35/45 0.40 0.50 0.50 150 380 320
XA3 – – NS C40/50 NS, C35/45, C40/50 0.35 0.45 0.45 150 400 360
m.f.u.v.: most frequently used value
NS: No specification

Standardisation be almost impossible to further standard- class, the maximum permissible water-
ise definitions that are relevant to durabil- cement value and the minimum cement
The European concrete standard ity. Table V-11 provides an overview of content in all three categories match the
EN 206-1 the requirements in terms of minimum and values recommended in EN 206-1, Ta-
According to the CEN regulations, CEN maximum values and the most frequently ble F.1.
standards have to be routinely reviewed used values as regards minimum concrete  In Denmark, where the lowest minimum
every five years. For European concrete cover, the minimum compressive strength cement contents are prescribed, compli-
standard EN 206-1 this review would class, the maximum permissible water-ce- ance with a minimum powder content
have been due in 2005. However, since ment value and the minimum cement con- is also required. In Denmark, the mini-
at that time the standard had not yet been tent. The most frequently used value is the mum cement content cannot be reduced
applied in some EU countries and in oth- value that has been chosen by more CEN if Type II additions are used.
ers had only recently been adopted, the re- member states than any other; but this
sponsible bodies had little experience with should not immediately be interpreted as At its meeting in Stockholm in June 2007,
the standard. Consequently, it was decid- meaning that this value is actually used by CEN/TC 104/SC1 defined a road map for
ed that there would be little point in CEN/ most CEN member states. The following further revision of the European concrete
TC 104, “Concrete and related products” conclusions were drawn: standard EN 206-1. In June 2008, CEN/TC
reviewing EN 206-1 before 2010. This de- 104/SC1 put the road map into more specif-
cision was confirmed at the CEN meetings  In the majority of cases the values used ic terms. For the revision date in 2010 sta-
in Larnaca in November 2005 in the corre- most frequently for the maximum per- tus papers have been compiled for issues
sponding resolutions. missible water-cement value and the such as the equivalent durability concept,
minimum cement content correspond to the use of concrete additions, conformity
A working group of CEN/TC 104/SC1 the values recommended in EN 206-1, assessment of concrete and alkali-silica re-
“Concrete” has developed a synopsis of the Table F.1. actions (ASR). These papers are the corner-
national application documents (NAD) for  In five cases (XC1, XC2, XC4, XD1 and stones for the subsequent new version of
the European concrete standard EN 206-1. XD3) the most frequently used values the standard.
This synopsis has made it clear that it will for the minimum compressive strength
VDZ Activity Report 2007 – 2009

Principles for revision of European concrete standard EN 206-1 the pozzolanic concrete additions fly ash
according to EN 450-1 and silica fume ac-
 Equivalent durability procedure (EDP)
cording to EN 13263-1 (Type II). Type II
– Regulation for durability-relevant aspects
additions may be counted together with
– Application possible only if put into force nationally (definition of a
the cement content and the water-cement
“reference concrete”)
value if they have been proven to be suit-
able in the concrete composition (k-value
 Type II additions
approach). The suitability of this approach
– The currently standardised additions, fly ash, silica fume and ground-
is deemed to have been proven for fly ash
granulated blastfurnace slag are handled
and silica fume. However, the k-value
– The k-value concept can be used for all Type II additions
approach in the form described in EN 206-1
– Cements with several main constituents should be considered
is not used in many countries – and also not
in Germany. Thus, the aim should be to get
 In principle, the regulations for conformity assessment and production control
a general description and extend this to ce-
for concrete should remain unchanged
ments with several main constituents. The
future EN 206-1 should also contain a ref-
 Alkali-Silica Reaction
erence to the European product standard for
– No general classification of aggregates at an European level
granulated blastfurnace slag, EN 15167-1.
– Preventative measures regulated nationally
Apart from the k-value approach, which
most countries with a national applica-
tion rule have chosen for GGBS as a con-
crete addition, the principle of the equiva-
lent durability concept and the UK combi-
nations concept should also be examined.
The following principles have been defined
Equivalent durability procedure are to be inspected; largely corresponding for the revision:
(EDP) to the inspection prescribed in EN 197-2.  The k-value concept and the equiva-
The concept described in Annex E of EN The “equivalence” of combinations of Port- lent durability concept will remain un-
206-1 has hardly been applied anywhere in land cement together with GGBS, fly ash changed.
Europe to date. The Dutch system of so- or limestone meal with cements of a suit-  General aspects of the combinations
called “Attestbeton” or certified concrete able composition is implied on the basis concept used in the UK should be add-
could be described as an exception. The of the results of a strength test pursuant to ed.
concept according to Annex E can be used EN 196-1. Even if it is accepted that this  A reference to GGBS should be made in
to prove that the performance (essentially procedure can be used only for known combination with the above-mentioned
the durability) of concrete with additions is combinations of Portland cement and ad- concepts.
at least equivalent to a reference composed ditions, in Germany it is inconceivable at  The concepts for using additions should
according to the descriptive rules (min c, the present time that it could be applied be described together with CEM II ce-
max w/c, etc.) of the corresponding nation- without an initial test and the correspond- ments and in a general form. Detailed
al annex. In Germany, this principle can on- ing durability tests. Apart from that, further rules for their use will continue to be
ly be applied within the scope of national national technical approvals would be re- regulated nationally.
technical approvals from the German Insti- quired. The following principles were de-
tute for Building Technology (DIBt). In the fined for the revision: Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR)
course of the revision it is now to be exam- To coordinate further activities in regard
ined to what extent the procedure described  A principle of equivalent durabili- to ASR (see section on Alkali-Silica Re-
in Annex E, which has so far been limited to ty should be included for all exposure action), a joint working group of the CEN
proof for concrete additions, could be used classes. standardisation committees for cement and
in case of deviations from the descriptive  A detailed description will be possible building lime (TC 51), aggregates (TC 154)
approach and, at the same time, how this for exposure classes XC, XD and XS. and concrete (TC 104) has been set up un-
procedure can be put into more specific  The option of specifying performance der the leadership of the Research Institute
terms. This includes defining the reference (= durability) directly on the basis of of the Cement Industry. The working group
situation (“reference concrete”) and the is- limit values should still be available. makes the following recommendations:
sue of which test methods are suitable and EN 206-1 may possibly recommend the
generally acceptable. The aim is to discover test methods but will not specify any  A (complete) specification to prevent
both opportunities (proof of equivalent du- values. damaging ASR is not possible within
rability of new concrete constituents) and  The concept can be used only when a the scope of European concrete stand-
challenges (softening well-tried and proven CEN member state has defined its “ref- ard EN 206-1. Only principles can be
descriptive rules or negative assessments erence concretes”. described.
of solutions that have been proven in prac-  Alkali reactivity of aggregates can be
tice). The principle of equivalent durabil- Concrete additions classified only on a national level.
ity should not be confused with the con- The general suitability of concrete additions  EN 206-1 cannot contain any limit values
cept described in the UK concrete stand- for manufacturing concrete according to for effective alkali contents in concrete,
ard: the combinations principle. In the com- EN 206-1 is proven for stone dusts accord- as this requires a classification of aggre-
binations principle, defined combinations ing to EN 12620, pigments according to EN gate combinations with consideration of
of certain cements and concrete additions 12878 (almost inactive additions Type I), national experience.
V Concrete constituents, concrete technology and concrete engineering

A2 and A3 changes to DIN 1045-2 strictions for CEM II/A-V in expo- provals are required here; for instance,
The European concrete standard EN 206- sure classes XF2 and XF4 or CEM II/ in the same way as steel fibres are to
1 “Concrete – Part 1: Specification, per- B-V in exposure classes XF2, XF3 and be considered in a DAfStb guideline.
formance, production and conformity; Ger- XF4. In addition, CEM II/A-M (S-V) With the A2 change general informa-
man version of EN 206-1:2000” allows and CEM II/A-M (V-T) can now be used tion is provided for handling and add-
as a non-mandated and, thus, non-harmo- in concretes according to DIN EN 206- ing fibres based on the regulations for
nised standard National Application Doc- 1 and DIN 1045-2 with no restrictions. additions. Polymer fibres and steel fi-
uments (NAD) with various sections in For cements CEM II/B-M (D-V) and bres formed into bundles in a metering
order to take account of different climat- CEM II/B-M (P-V) there is no long- package (paper bags) require nation-
ic and geographical conditions, different er any restriction on use for exposure al technical approval proving that they
protection levels and long-established re- class XF3. The application regulation mix evenly throughout the concrete.
gional customs and experience. In Germa- for fly ash as a concrete addition goes
ny, these National Application rules are de- further than the ZTV-ING regulations.  Stating the sulphate content of the
fined in DIN 1045-2. The national stand- In these regulations fly ash can be count- groundwater in exposure class XA when
ards committee on concrete technology ed only for exposure class XF2 and only the concrete is specified and ordered.
has voted on a list of changes to be made for tunnel construction. In the ZTV- Another footnote has been included
to DIN 1045-2. This was necessary due to ING area, the “saturation value“ of the in Table 2 of DIN 1045-2. According-
application experience and the updating of concrete must also be determined with- ly, in exposure class XA and with sul-
other product standards for concrete con- in the scope of an extended initial test phate concentrations above 600 mg/l
stitu-ents and their national application reg- (see ZTV-ING, Part 3 “Massive Con- in the groundwater, the customer must
ulations. The A2 changes were published struction”, Section 1 “Concrete”, Par- state the sulphate content when spec-
in June 2007. agraph 3.2 (7) “Use of additions“). ifying the concrete. The ready-mixed
concrete manufacturer can then choose
Within the scope of the A2 changes the  Consideration of the definitions of the Al- a suitable cement with a high sul-
standard was revised with regard to the kali Guidelines from the German Com- phate resistance (HS-cement), take ac-
following points: mittee for Structural Concrete (DAfStb). count of the regulations for the use of
Integration of the moisture classes fly ash and identify the concretes in
 Adaptation to the new and revised Euro- on the basis of the exposure classes the delivery documents accordingly.
pean standards for concrete constituents The German Committee for Structural
In the meantime, European standards Concrete (DAfStb) has revised and is-  Adapting the procedure to determine
for silica fume (EN 13263) and an sued a new version of the “Alkali Guide- strength development in a concrete
amended version of the standard for lines”. The regulations were integrated in case of a proof age for compres-
fly ash (EN 450) have been published. into the respective points of DIN 1045- sive strength other than 28 days. The
Reference is made to these standards. 2/A2. The so-called moisture class must regulations from the DAfStb guide-
The application regulations from the now be stated in the definition of a con- line for “Massive concrete construc-
drafts of the E DIN V 20000-106/107 crete. The “Exposure Class” table of tion components“ have been adopted
series of standards envisaged for Ger- DIN 1045-2 has been supplemented by If in special applications the compres-
many in terms of the environmental a corresponding section for the moisture sive strength of a concrete is determined
compatibility of fly ash and the appli- classes of the “Alkali Guidelines” (see after more than 28 days, for these con-
cation regulations for silica fume and section on “Alkali-Silica Reaction“). cretes the calculation of strength de-
silica suspensions have been adopted. Since the customer must state the mois- velopment (see DIN 1045-2, Tab. 12,
ture class for every definition of a con- r-value) must be adapted. Strength de-
 K-value concept for fly ash also in expo- crete, consequently, the ready-mixed velopment should then be determined
sure classes XF2 and XF4 for frost at- concrete delivery specification must also from the ratio of average compressive
tack with de-icing agents and the corre- contain the moisture class. In future, strength after two days and the aver-
sponding change to the application reg- every ready-mixed concrete deliv- age compressive strength at the time
ulations for cements containing fly ash ery ticket must include the moisture the compressive strength is determined.
It is now also possible to use the k- classes that are possible for the respec- That means that it is not the strength after
value concept for fly ash for exposure tive concrete (WO, WF, WA or WS). 28 days that is used for the calculation,
classes XF2 and XF4 (frost with de-ic- In the past, this was necessary only in but rather the value after 56 or 91 days.
ing agent) with the known regulations. the “core application area“ of the Al- This procedure corresponds with the
In this connection the use of cements kali Guidelines (e.g. North Germany). regulation that was already introduced
containing fly ash is no longer exclud- in the DAfStb guideline for “Massive
ed in these and other exposure class-  Consideration of fibres according to concrete construction components”.
es. For example, in the past if Port- European standard EN 14889-1/2.
land-fly ash cement CEM II/A-V or Fibres for concrete (steel fibres and poly-  Integration of the A1 changes to
Portland-composite cement CEM II/A-M mer fibres) have now been standardised DIN 1045-2 from 2005.
(P-V) were used in concrete for ex- throughout Europe. Use in concrete ac- The A1 changes already published
posure class XF3, it was not permis- cording to EN 206-1/DIN 1045-2 will in 2005 have been adopted and integrated
sible use the k-value concept with fly be allowed with the A2 change. Fi- into the A2 changes.
ash used as a concrete addition for the bres according to this standard may be
water-cement value or for the mini- added to the concrete; however, their The following points were implemented in
mum cement content. This restriction load-bearing effect may not be con- another change (A3 change):
no longer exists, nor do the usage re- sidered. Further national technical ap-
VDZ Activity Report 2007 – 2009

 The previous standards DIN V 20000- crete compositions for massive construc- sis and application of classified building
100 (application regulations for con- tion components. materials, components and special com-
crete admixtures), DIN V 20000-103 ponents“ and the A1 change to DIN 4102-22
(application regulations for aggregates) “Application standard for DIN 4102-4
and DIN V 20000-104 (application reg- Fire protection based on the design of partial safety fac-
ulations for lightweight aggregates) tors“. Both parts of the standards and a con-
have been adopted; In terms of fire protection, a distinction is solidated version, containing both parts are
 Supplementary definitions from the generally made between preventive and to be published in the second quarter of
Technical Construction Regulations defensive fire protection. Defensive fire 2009 as a “yellow print”.
(e.g. for pigments) and the list of con- protection applies only when a fire has al-
struction rules were integrated into the ready started and essentially covers the fire In addition to a new section dealing with
A3 change; brigade's work in extinguishing the fire. the fire behaviour of construction compo-
 Application regulations for cements ac- In contrast, preventive fire protection is nents made from high strength concrete,
cording to DIN EN 197-1, German ver- used to prevent or limit the start or spread one of the main changes compared to the
sion of EN 197-1:2001+A1:2004+A2 of fires. In addition to technical fire pro- last version of the standard is the revision
(SR cements) +A3 (fly ash) have been tection, which in particular includes fire of a design table for reinforced concrete
adopted. alarm systems and automatic fire extin- columns made with normal-weight con-
guishing systems, structural fire protection crete. The underlying conditions for the
As an application regulation for the SR is one of the crucial pillars for the neces- use of this revised table exclude its appli-
cements the following comment has been sary level of safety in the area of preven- cation for cantilever columns. However,
added at the appropriate places: “Until DIN tive fire protection. Structural fire measures since the fire design of cantilever columns
EN 197-1/A2 is available, the definitions in are permanent and offer the required lev- is very important in practice (e.g. for fac-
DIN 1164-10 must be complied with for HS el of protection without having to be trig- tory buildings), the Institute for Construc-
cements. As soon as E DIN EN 197-1/A2 gered by operational or mechanical pro- tion Materials, Concrete Structures and
can be used, the requirements for HS ce- cesses, which always harbour a risk of fail- Fire Protection at Braunschweig Universi-
ments are deemed to be fulfilled if a cement ure. Defensive fire protection depends on ty in Germany was commissioned to devel-
with high sulphate resistance according to the deployment of the fire brigade, where op a simplified calculation method to verify
E DIN EN 197-1/A2 (CEM I-SR 3 or low- there is also a risk of failure. the fire resistance class F90 for cantilever
er, CEM III/B-SR, CEM III/C-SR) is used.“ columns. This research project, which was
Concrete structural elements are a relative- supported by VDZ, was completed in No-
Cements containing fly ash used to manu- ly simple way of fulfilling fire protection vember 2008 and the method can thus be
facture concrete according to DIN 1045- requirements and usually involve no major included in the revised DIN 4102.
2 may contain only fly ash with up to 5% additional expenditure. The non-flammable
loss on ignition. construction material, concrete, can be used DIN 18230-1 “Structural fire protec-
to build structural elements with a high re- tion in industrial buildings – Part 1:
A consolidated version of DIN 1045-2 was sistance to fire and with a corresponding- Analytically required fire resistance
published in August 2008. This now con- ly stable shielding effect. This means that time“
tains the A2 and A3 changes to DIN 1045- in the event of a fire, concrete structures DIN 18230-1 defines a calculation pro-
2:2001-07 and the requirements from DIN retain their stability for a long time and cess with which the technical fire protection
V 20000-100, DIN V 20000-103, DIN V that fires can be restricted to confined are- design of supporting components in indus-
20000-104, DIN V 20000-106 and DIN as. These fire protection properties of con- trial buildings can be carried out. It is based
V 20000-107. The changes to DIN 1045- crete and concrete building members con- on the proof that the construction compo-
2:2001-07, resulting from DIN 1045-2/ tribute to safety for human life, which has nents meet the required fire resistance time.
A2:2007-06, E DIN 1045-2/A3:2008-01 top priority in statutory fire protection re- The yellow print of a new version of DIN
and the results of the consultations re- quirements. However, saving the building 18230-1 was published in 2008. One im-
garding objections to E DIN 1045-2/A3 itself or the contents of the building are also portant change compared to the 1998 ver-
are marked with vertical lines beside the important in terms of protecting assets. sion is the introduction of the term “lev-
text. In addition, changes were made to the Even if legislation has made protection of el” in industrial buildings: while by defi-
standard references to take account of the property the personal responsibility of the nition floors are separated from each oth-
current status of the reference documents; building owner and users, saving assets is in er in terms of technical fire protection and
however, these are not marked. An updat- the interest of both private individuals and each forms a separate fire compartment,
ed version of DAfStb booklet 526 will be the general public. Furthermore, structural levels can also have open spaces or can be
published some time in 2009. fire protection measures also protect the en- made up from partial sections. The area
vironment if effective fire limitation reduc- of a fire compartment is then calculated
DAfStb Guideline “Massive es smoke and gas emissions as well as the from its floor area and the total area of the
concrete construction amount of extinguishing water that is need- levels above it. According to the new DIN,
components“ ed and when the extinguishing water, which
The reason for the revision of the guide- platforms or scaffolds without the required
is generally contaminated, can be retained. fire resistance time are no longer counted
line was the new issue of DIN 1045, Parts
1 to 3, in August 2008. Use of the k-value as part of the calculated area and the fire
National regulations (Germany) load of these areas is added to the next cal-
concept for fly ash also in exposure class- DIN 4102 “Fire behaviour of building
es XF2 and XF4 for frost attack with de-ic- culable area below. This represents a tight-
materials and building components“
ing agents (see above) as described in DIN ening of the regulations.
VDZ participated in the development of
1045-2:2008-08 was transfered to con- the A2 change to DIN 4102-4 “Synop-
V Concrete constituents, concrete technology and concrete engineering

Other important changes in the new stand- quired fire resistance class. These tables are
ard are the consideration of facility protec- based on standard fires that map a standard-
tion systems (e.g. self-activating fire extin- ised temperature rise over a certain period,
guishing systems) for the reduction of fire such as the temperature-time curve in ac-
loads and new definitions for the consid- cordance with DIN 4102 Part 2. For con-
eration of openings in the calculation of crete construction components, high fire
heat dissipation. resistance times of more than 120 minutes
without cladding or intuprescent coatings
European cooperation must be achieved if the building members
The European associations for precast con- and their concrete cover are properly di-
crete (BIBM, Bureau International du Béton mensioned.
Manufacturé), ready-mixed concrete (ER-
MCO, European Ready Mixed Concrete Fire Safety Engineering (FSE) methods
Organi-sation) and the cement industry with have been developed over the last ten to
the participation of representatives from 14 fifteen years. Their goal is to enable a re-
nations are working together in the Euro- alistic, holistic estimate of the effects of a
pean Concrete Platform working group fire on a building or part of a building. In
“Fire Safety with Concrete” to promote other words, the aim is no longer to base
concrete construction under fire protection assessments simply on individual build-
aspects. Within the scope of this coopera- ing members or standard fires. In a typical
tion, developments in the field of interna- design using fire safety engineering meth- Fig. V-42: Brochure “Comprehensive fire
tional standardisation regarding fire safe- ods, the first thing to do is define protec- protection and safety with concrete”
ty are also being monitored. tion goals. The top priority is to protect hu-
man life and health; but property protection
A brochure developed by the working targets can also be defined. Fires are mod-
group at the start of 2007 entitled “Com- elled with consideration of the actual exist-
prehensive fire protection and safety with ing fire loads and the geometry of the fire
concrete” was also published in 2008 in compartments under consideration, while
German as “Umfassender Brandschutz mit the thermal and mechanical effects on the methods. The ten Eurocodes consist of 58
Beton” (Fig. 42). This brochure is aimed surrounding construction components are parts, all of which were published by the
at architects, building owners, authorities, also determined. For example, the assess- end of 2007. Eurocode 2, consisting of four
insurance companies and the general pub- ments take account of automatic fire detec- parts, regulates the design and construc-
lic. The idea behind it is to show how con- tion and active fire fighting via automat- tion of reinforced and pre-stressed concrete
crete can be used to implement compre- ic fire extinguishing systems or by the fire structures. At present, the participating
hensive fire protection; in other words, brigade. Computer programmes are used to member states are compiling the Nation-
protection of human life, property and the simulate the effects of a fire or the behav- al Annexes, in which national choices for
environment. iour of groups of people trying to escape specific parameters or processes are spec-
from a burning building. In many cases the ified. Guidance Paper L from the Europe-
International developments in the requirements for fire protection in the in- an Commission envisages complete imple-
field of fire protection dividual construction components are re- mentation of the Eurocodes by 2010.
The traditional load-bearing design for fire duced when applying FSE.
cases is carried out using standard tables in Fig. V-43 shows the various different possi-
which the minimum dimensions or protec- The Eurocodes, the harmonised European bilities of fire design according to the Euro-
tive cladding for individual building mem- standards for the design of building struc- codes. Fire Safety Engineering methods
bers are defined so that they achieve the re- tures, also include Fire Safety Engineering are included here under the heading “Ad-

Project design

Prescriptive rules Performance-based code

(Thermal actions given by nominal fire) (physically based thermal actions)

Analysis of part Analysis of Analysis of part Analysis of

Member Member
of the the entire of the the entire
analysis analysis
structure structure structure structure

Simple Advanced Simple Advanced Advanced Simple Advanced Advanced Advanced

calculation calculation calculation calculation calculation calculation calculation calculation calculation
models models models models models models models models models

Fig. V-43: Design procedure (Eurocode-Brandschutzteile, excerpt)

VDZ Activity Report 2007 – 2009

with the nuclear law approvals, since 1994

work has been carried out to decommission
the plant, to defuel the core of the reactor,
dismantle parts of the plant and to set up
a material lock (Fig. V-44). To complete-
ly dismantle the plant AVR plans to fill
the reactor chamber with lightweight con-
crete (LC) in order to fix the internal com-
Fig. V-44: AVR
ponents in the reactor chamber for disman-
reactor with tling. The reactor chamber filled with LC
material lock is to be removed from the reactor building
(left) and con- in one piece so that it can be transported to
struction site an interim storage area on Jülich Research
tent to fill the Centre’s grounds. There the reactor cham-
reactor cham-
ber (right)
ber is to be stored safely until it has been
conditioned suitably for storage in its per-
manent repository.

Requirements for the LC

The concrete engineering development of
the LC was carried out by Schlumberger
vanced Calculation Models”. The decision  Development of repair concepts, Oilfield Services GmbH, Vechta (SLB)
as to whether use of advanced calculation  Clarifying issues related to alkali-silica with the support of the Research Institute.
models is permitted in a member state is reactions and assessing aggregates (see Apart from fixing the internal components
regulated in the National Annexes. Many section on Alkali-Silica Reaction) in the reactor chamber, increased safety to
member states allow use only with restric-  Chemical attacks on concrete. exclude the chance of a major incident was
tions. For example, it is defined that use is absolutely vital and included binding dust-
limited to experts with adequate experi- Experts in all areas of concrete engineering like radioactive graphite. The LC had to
ence. The concrete and cement industries who are represented on the corresponding fulfil the following main requirements:
welcome these restrictions, as improper use national and international committees and
of FSE can easily result in faulty assump- who have extensive experience from labora-  Low bulk density as the most impor-
tions in the calculations, which, in turn, tory and practical work find efficient solu- tant requirement for the LC. To limit the
can lead to requirements being wrong- tions to what are sometimes very complex maximum weight of the reactor cham-
ly defined. problems. The interdisciplinary coopera- ber the LC had to have a bulk density
tion with experts in the fields of mineral- of ρ ≈ 0.7 kg/dm³ in an installed, hard-
Within the scope of the European cooper- ogy, chemistry, physics and applied tech- ened and conserved condition.
ation at the European Concrete Platform nology in the other departments of the Re-  Compressive strength of at least 2 N/mm²
(ECP) level, the European Cement Re- search Institute is a particular advantage in to fix the internal components and to
search Academy (ECRA) has taken over this connection. guarantee safety against a major inci-
an important role and will now active- dent,
ly support further work on the Eurocodes Below we would like to present a project  Workability and pumping capacity over
concerning concrete and fire protection in concerned with developing optimised con- a period of several hours,
the corresponding standardisation com- crete and mortar mixes in which the con-  Ability to fill small cavities,
mittees. In addition, the National Annexes crete engineering support of the Research  Chemically “inert“ behaviour towards
to Euro-code 2, Parts 1-2, which regulates Institute was requested. In particular, the graphite, carbon brick and steel,
fire safety designs of concrete structures, Institute’s extensive experience in research  Fixing powdered graphite,
will be assessed and compared to encour- work and the development of self-compact-  Low hydration heat,
age more harmonisation in Europe. ing concrete as well as experience in the  Radiological resistance,
area of special concretes helped it devel-  Long life
op efficient solution proposals.
Consultancy and expert The fresh and hardened properties of LC
Filling the experimental reactor of were investigated and documented in
advisory services AVR GmbH many laboratory experiments at the Re-
The experimental nuclear power plant of Ar- search Institute and in experiments car-
Demand for concrete technology consul-
beitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor GmbH ried out under practical conditions at
tancy and expert advisory services rendered
(AVR) was designed in the 1950s al- SLB's premises. The bulk density of the
by the Research Institute of the Cement In-
though it only started supplying electric- fresh and hardened concrete at atmos-
dustry has increased considerably over the
ity to the grid at the end of 1967. The pheric pressure was, as planned, approx.
past years. This principally applies to the
plant was decommissioned on 31 De- 0.7 kg/dm³. Under the influence of in-
following key areas:
cember 1988 after 21 years of operation. creased pressure, such as can occur dur-
The experimental nuclear power plant ing pumping or due to the hydrostat-
 Development of optimised concrete and
is a graphite moderated high-tempera- ic pressure head of the reactor cham-
mortar mixes for the respective clients’
ture helium gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) ber, the bulk density increased to a max-
area of application,
with an output of 15 MW. In accordance imum of 0.8 kg/dm³. The compressive
 Structural analyses and assessments,
V Concrete constituents, concrete technology and concrete engineering

strength of the sealed LC was approx.

4 N/mm² after six months. The flowabil-
ity of the LC was assessed on the basis
of rheological investigations. The labora-
tory results showed that the LC flowed suf-
ficiently well and was easily pumped up
to temperatures of 30 °C and for about six
hours. Under practical conditions with tem-
peratures of approximately 20 °C, the LC
flowed and could be pumped for roughly
11 hours. The LC exhibited no corrosion-
promoting effects on steel.

Filling the reactor chamber

To ensure the quality of the LC, the Re-
search Institute drafted a monitoring con-
cept defining measures for third-party in-
spection of the constituents, of the proper-
ties of the fresh concrete while the reactor
chamber was being filled and of the hard- Fig. V-45: View of four of the eight mixing tanks, some of the silos containing constituents
ened concrete properties after the cham- and the mobile crane inside the construction site tent
ber had been filled. Within the scope of
this third-party inspection concept, the Re-
search Institute inspected the quality and
uniformity of the constituents before the
filling process commenced. The suitabil-  pH-value, Besides providing concrete technology
ity of the constituents for manufacturing  Shearing resistance, consultancy and expert advisory services,
LC for the filling was investigated on the  Sedimentation stability. the Research Institute can also carry out
basis of chemical-mineralogical analyses virtually all concrete technology investi-
and performance tests. The portioning of A total of 20 batches of LC each approx. gations and tests under the terms of con-
the constituents before the filling was also 25 m³ were mixed (Fig. V-45). All batches tract investigations. Customary standard-
monitored. During the filling the following fulfilled the requirements defined in the ised testing is accredited according to EN
fresh concrete properties were monitored: third-party inspection concept and the cli- ISO 17025. In order to be braced for any
ent's requirements. The filling of about future questions arising, the pool of testing
 Bulk density of the fresh concrete, 500 m³ LC into the reactor chamber was equipment is continually extended.
 Temperature of the fresh concrete, completed in roughly 10 hours.