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# Example 3

• A boiler is fired using coal containing 84% C, 4.5% H, 4.0% O and rest non-
combustibles. The calorific value of the coal is 33.9 MJ/kg and 85% excess
air is used. The temperatures of ambient air and flue gases are 32.2oC and
315.5oC respectively. Air is made up of 23% O2 and 77% N2 by mass.
Specific heat of flue gases is 1.005 kJ/kg.oC. Determine: i) kg air actually
supplied per kg coal burned, ii) mass of dry flue gases per kg fuel, iii)
percentage of energy of the coal carried away by dry flue gases
• WT = 11.5C + 34.5H + 4.3S – 4.3O
= 11.5 x 0.84 + 34.5 x 0.045 – 4.3 x 0.04 = 11.04 kg/kg coal
• Actual air quantity supplied, WA = 1.85 x 11.04 = 20.42 kg/kg coal
• Mass of flue gases formed (by mass balance) = 1 + WA = 21.42 kg/kg coal
• Mass of dry fuel gases = 1 + WA – WH2O = 21.42 – 9H = 21.02 kg/kg coal
• Energy of 1 kg coal = 33.9 MJ/kg coal
• Energy of dry flue gases = mcpDT = 5.98 MJ/kg = 17.65% of coal energy

## ME6213D - Analysis of Thermal Power Plants

Example 4
• An unknown hydrocarbon fuel CxHy reacts with air. Orsat
analysis of the dry flue gases shows 12.1% CO2, 3.8% O2 and
0.9% CO. Determine: i) the chemical equation of the actual
reaction, ii) the fuel composition, iii) air-fuel ratio and iv)
excess or deficient air supplied.
• The chemical reaction is:
• CxHy + aO2 + 3.76aN2  12.1CO2 + 3.8O2 + 0.9CO + 83.2N2 + bH2O
• Solving:
• C: x = 12.1 + 0.9 = 13
• N : 3.76a = 83.2, from which, a = 22.12
• O : a = 22.12 = 12.1 + 3.8 + 0.9/2 + b/2 , from which, b = 11.5
• H : y = 2b = 23

## ME6213D - Analysis of Thermal Power Plants

Example 4
• Thus the combustion equation becomes:
• C13H23 + 22.12 [O2 + 3.76N2]  12.1CO2 + 3.8O2 + 0.9CO + 83.2N2 + 11.5H2O
• Actual mass of air : WA = 22.12 x [32 + 3.76x28] ≈ 3040 kg/kmol fuel
• Mass of fuel, WF = 12 x 13 + 1 x 23 = 179 kg/kmol
• Actual AFR = WA/WF ≈ 17
• Stoichiometric air : WT = (x + y/4) * [32 + 3.76*28] ≈ 2575 kg/kmol fuel
• Excess air ratio : (WA – WT) / WT x 100 = 18.1%

## ME6213D - Analysis of Thermal Power Plants

Example 5
• A fuel oil is made of 83.7% C, 12.7% H, 0.7% S, 1.7% N and
1.2% O. The combustion air has a DBT of 27oC and WBT of
21oC. With 30% excess air and assuming complete
combustion, find i) the total volume of combustion products
at 200oC and 1.013 bar, and ii) the dry flue gas composition.
• Theoretical air mass, WT = 11.5C + 34.5H + 4.3S – 4.3O = 13.98 kg/kg oil
• Actual air mass, WA = 1.3 x WT = 18.18 kg/kg oil
• From psychrometric chart/table, specific humidity at 27oC DBT and 21oC
WBT = gA = 0.0132 kg/kg dry air
• Mass of water vapour present in supplied air, Wv = gA WA = 0.24 kg/kg oil

## ME6213D - Analysis of Thermal Power Plants

Example 5
• Mass and moles of products per kg oil :
• CO2 : 3.67 C = 3.07 kg/kg coal = 0.0698 kmol/kg oil
• H2O : 9 H + gA WA = 1.38 kg/kg coal = 0.0768 kmol/kg oil
• SO2 : 2 S = 0.014 kg/kg coal = 0.00022 kmol/kg oil
• N2 : N + 0.768*WA = 13.98 kg/kg coal = 0.5 kmol/kg oil
• O2 : 0.232 * (WA – WT) = 0.973 kg/kg coal = 0.0304 kmol/kg oil
• Total number of moles: 0.6766 kmol
• Using ideal gas equation, volume = nRT/p = 26.26 m3
• Number of moles in dry flue gas: n = 0.6 kmol
• Dry gas flue composition (% vol)
• CO2: 0.0698/n = 11.64%
• SO2: 0.00022/n = 0.036%
• O2 : 0.0304/n = 5.07%
• N2 : 0.5/n = 83.3%

## ME6213D - Analysis of Thermal Power Plants

Example 6
• A gaseous fuel comprises 73.6% CH4, 22.6% C2H6, 2.4% CO2 and
1.4% N2. Assuming the air supplied to be dry and 25% excess, find:
i) the molecular mass of the combustion products, ii) flue gas
volume at 260oC, 1.013 bar, and iii) the dry flue gas analysis based
on CO2, O2 and N2.
• Stoichiometric oxygen moles per 100 moles of fuel :
= 73.6 x (1 + 4/4) + 22.6*(2 + 6/4) = 226.3
• Chemical reaction equation:
• 73.6 CH4 + 22.6 C2H6 + 2.4 CO2 + 1.4 N2 + 1.25*226.3*(O2 + 3.76 N2)  121.2
CO2 + 215 H2O + 56.6 O2 + 1064 N2
• Number of product moles = 121.2 + 215 + 56.6 + 1064 = 1456.8
• Molecular mass of combustion products: Total mass of products/ moles
= (121.2 x 44 + 215 x 18 + 56.6 x 32 + 1064 x 28) / 1456.8 = 28.01 kg/kmol
• Volume of product gases = nRT/p = 0.637 m3/mol of fuel = 31.8 m3/kg fuel

## ME6213D - Analysis of Thermal Power Plants

Example 6
• Composition of dry flue gases (% vol):
• CO2 : 121.2/1242 = 0.098 = 9.8%
• O2 : 56.6/1242 = 0.046 = 4.6%
• N2 : 1064/1242 = 85.65%